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Avrupa Birliği-Türkiye İlişkilerinde Geri Kabul Süreçleri: Kuramsal Yaklaşım ve Uygulamalar

Abstract

Düzensiz göç ve geri kabul süreçlerine ilişkin uygulamaların AB tarafından üçüncü ülkelere dışsallaştırmasında ve bu ilişkinin kuramsal analizinde Türkiye oldukça önemli bir örnek oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, AB’nin düzensiz göçmenleri kaynak ve geçiş ülkelerine geri gönderme ve sınır dışı uygulamalarına ilişkin yaklaşımı, Türkiye örneği üzerinden kuramsal tartışmalar ve alanda gerçekleşen uygulamalar çerçevesinde ele alınmaktadır. Türkiye’nin sınır yönetim kapasitesinin ve sınır kontrollerine ilişkin teknolojik altyapısının güçlendirilmesi, Türkiye’de yeni geri gönderme merkezlerini inşası gibi konular AB’nin sağladığı mali ve teknik destekler, işbirliğindeki temel noktaları oluşturmaktadır. AB geri kabul anlaşmaları, göçün güvenlikleştirilmesi ve üçüncü ülkelere dışsallaştırılmasının temel politika araçlarından biri olarak bir dış politika konusudur, ancak bu konu AB-Türkiye ilişkilerinde tam üyelik müzakereleri ve vize muafiyeti süreçleri bağlamında bir koşulluluk ilişkisinde gelişmiş ve kimi zaman da iç siyasette araçsallaştırılmıştır. 18 Mart AB-Türkiye Mutabakatı ve AB-Türkiye Geri Kabul Anlaşması AB’nin düzensiz göçle mücadelesini üçüncü ülkelere güvenlik odaklı bir yaklaşımla dışşallaştırdığının somut göstergeleridir. Bu çalışma, AB’nin geri gönderme ve sınır dışı uygulamalarına ilişkin yaklaşımını Türkiye örneği üzerinden nasıl dışşsallaştırdığını, politika transferinin AB açısından başarılı ve başarısız olduğu noktaları kuramsal tartışmalar ve alanda gerçekleşen uygulamalar çerçevesinde irdelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmanın temel araştırma sorusu, “tam üyelik koşulluluğu”nun “göç alanında işbirliği koşulluluğu”na evrildiği AB-Türkiye ilişkilerinde, geri kabul süreçlerinin işleyişi, AB’nin beklentileri doğrultusunda politika dönüşümünün Türkiye’de nasıl geliştiği ve hangi işbirliği alanlarında neden ilerleme sağlamadığına ilişkindir. Araştırma, ağırlıklı olarak ikincil kaynakları kullanarak AB, Türkiye ve göç alanındaki ulusal ve uluslararası resmi kuruluşların belge, rapor ve istatistiklerinden, konu hakkında yayınlanmış bilimsel kitap, araştırma ve makalelerden faydalanmaktadır.
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