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Schlussbericht zum Projekt BIMLog–BIM-basierte Logistikplanung und -steuerung im Großanlagenbau

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Abstract

Die Bereitstellung digitaler Logistikmodelle zur Planung und Steuerung der Baustellenlogistik für die Vor-Ort-Montage von Großanlagen durch kleine und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) ist für eine effiziente Projektdurchführung zwingend erforderlich, findet aber bisher nur bedingt statt. Gründe sind fehlende informationstechnische Unterstützung und hoher manueller Aufwand zur Erstellung von digitalen Logistikmodellen. Ziel des Projektvorhabens ist daher, die Logistikplanung und -steuerung auf der Baustelle mittels digitaler Methoden unter Berücksichtigung projektspezifischer Randbedingungen für den durch KMU geprägten Anlagenbau zu unterstützen. Dadurch können den ausführenden KMU neuartige Hilfsmittel zur effizienten Baustellenorganisation an die Hand gegeben werden, um einen qualitativ hochwertigen Bau von Großanlagen vor Ort sicherzustellen. Vorhandene Modelle auf Basis von Building Information Modeling (BIM) können unter Nutzung der entwickelten Methodik so aufbereitet werden, dass diese zur Planung der logistischen Prozesse verwendet werden können. Die Herausforderung besteht darin, die BIM-Modelle um Logistikbeschreibungen zu erweitern und unter den jeweiligen Umgebungsbedingungen in konkrete Logistikmodelle zu überführen. Basis der Methodik bilden ein Wissensmodell zur Formalisierung von Logistik- und Montageprozessen, Referenzprozesse zur Beschreibung der Prozesse auf der Baustelle, ein Verknüpfungskonzept von Logistikinformationen und Anlagenmodell, ein Konzept zur semi-automatischen Generierung von Bauanleitungen und Logistikmodellen für die Analyse und Planung der Baustellenlogistik, ein simulationsgestütztes Validierungskonzept sowie Visualisierungs- und Adaptionskonzepte zur Verwendung der Modelle auf der Baustelle. Die planungsrelevanten logistischen Informationen und Anforderungen werden formal in einer Ontologie repräsentiert, diese bildet die Grundlage zur Erweiterung der BIM-Modelle. Ein Konzept beschreibt die Methodik zur unternehmensspezifischen Adaption, um das Logistikmodells in einem Unternehmen individuell zu generieren und zu nutzen. Zur Evaluation der Methodik stehen ein Demonstrator und ein simulationsgestütztes Validierungskonzept zur Verfügung. Die entwickelte Methodik ermöglicht es, mittels digitaler Logistikmodelle die Planung und Steuerung der Baustellenlogistik zu unterstützen. Die Innovation liegt in den für KMU einsetzbaren digitalen projekt- und produktspezifischen Logistikmodellen für den Anlagenbau, mit deren Hilfe die KMU durch hohe Qualität, effiziente Prozesse und bestmögliche Zusammenarbeit aller Akteure auf der Baustelle ihre Wettbewerbsfähigkeit stärken können. Die Methodik wurde von den Unternehmen im Projektbegleitenden Ausschuss (PA) evaluiert und hinsichtlich ihrer Praxistauglichkeit positiv bewertet.
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Thesis
A MILP optimization model for supporting the digital planning and control of construction site logistics in large-scale plant construction // Die Baustellenplanung im Großanlagenbau spielt eine bedeutende Rolle für den Projekterfolg, weswegen es notwendig ist, über projektrelevante Daten und qualifizierten Personal für die Logistikplanung zu verfügen. Dennoch werden die Planung und Steuerung der Baustellenlogistik bisher nicht ausreichend durch digitale Modelle und Werkzeuge unterstützt. Bei der Planung der Baustellenlogistik müssen nicht nur der Ablauf des Bauprojektes, die Bauprozesse und die logistischen Aktivitäten, sondern auch die verfügbaren Ressourcen, die spezifischen Transport- und Lagerungsbedingungen für die Bauelemente sowie der Materialfluss und die Lagerkapazitäten auf der Baustelle berücksichtigt werden. Momentan existieren noch keine geeigneten mathematischen Modelle mit der Berücksichtigung der oben genannten Eigenschaften eines Bauprojektes (wie Montagereihenfolgen, Lagerkapazitäten und Transportmengen), um die Baustellenlogistik im Großanlagenbau optimal zu planen und zu steuern. Als Ergebnis dieser Arbeit wird ein mathematisches Optimierungsmodell entwickelt, das alle relevanten Parameter des Bauprojektes enthält und das in der Lage ist, sowohl die baulichen als auch die logistischen Prozesse auf der Baustelle zu planen. Dieses Modell wird problemlos in der Software CPLEX implementiert und durch ein Anwendungsbeispiel validiert. Dieses Optimierungsmodell wird ebenfalls mithilfe eines Simulationsmodells verifiziert, in dem seine Nebenbedingungen dynamisch getestet werden und in dem die gleichen Ergebnisse in Bezug auf Ressourcenauslastung und Gesamtdauer des Bauprojektes erzielt werden. Damit ist es der vorliegenden Arbeit gelungen, alle für die digitale Planung und Steuerung der Baustellenlogistik im Großanlagenbau vorgeschlagenen Ziele vollständig zu erfüllen.
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BIMLOG -Projekt zur digitalen Planung und Steuerung der Baustellenlogistik im Großanlagenbau. Lehrstuhl für Informatik im Bauwesen
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Digitale Planung der Baustellenlogistik im Großanlagenbau. Ontologie zur Nutzung digitaler Modelle für die Logistikplanung auf der Baustelle
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Simulation-supported validation of BIM-based planning of logistics processes on construction site, geplant für 2021
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Wenzel, S.; Stolipin, J.; Weber, J.; König, M.: Simulation-supported validation of BIM-based planning of logistics processes on construction site, geplant für 2021. In: Journal LOGISTICS RESEARCH.
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