Article

The urgent need for more research on influencer marketing

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... As companies shift from traditional advertising channels to new means of advertising, 'macro' influencers -influencers with a large number of social media followers gained directly, with no institutional support by the entertainment or sports industry (Dhanik 2016;McQuarrie, Miller, and Phillips 2013) -offer a potentially impactful, authentic communication channel for reaching a target audience (e.g. Casaló, Flavián, and Ibáñez-Sánchez 2018;Taylor 2020;De Veirman, Cauberghe, and Hudders 2017). According to a 2020 market report, 80% of surveyed firms (N ≈ 4,000 ad agencies and brands) intend to invest in influencer marketing in the future, and 91% of respondents believe that influencer marketing is an effective form of advertising (Influencer Marketing Hub 2020). ...
... According to a 2020 market report, 80% of surveyed firms (N ≈ 4,000 ad agencies and brands) intend to invest in influencer marketing in the future, and 91% of respondents believe that influencer marketing is an effective form of advertising (Influencer Marketing Hub 2020). However, research on influencer marketing for advertising practice is still in its nascent days, and the current COVID-19 pandemic has not only increased social media usage among all age groups (Insider Intelligence 2020) but has also underscored the need to better understand the dynamics of influencer marketing as a key advertising tool (Hudders, De Jans, and De Veirman 2020;Taylor 2020). ...
... Tamtambeauty 5 ) promoting products to a broad audience. 6 Third, research on influencer marketing remains a field in development (Hudders, De Jans, and De Veirman 2020;Taylor 2020). Today, a substantial amount of research investigates influencers' endorsement effectiveness by studying (a) factors that promote opinion leadership, (b) antecedents to influencer success, or (c) the effect of sponsorship disclosures. ...
Conference Paper
The growing popularity of social media networks enables individuals to acquire large audiences of up to several million people on these platforms. Companies are starting to recognize this potential especially for young target groups, and to hire these so-called 'influencers' as endorsers in social media; these individual influences sometimes even take the place of traditional celebrities in corporate advertising. The question arises whether there is a difference in perception between these two types of endorsers and if so, which moderators influence these perceptions. In this study we explore consumers' general perception of social media influencers compared to traditional celebrities. We conduct an online survey with 590 respondents who were asked to rate 14 influencers and traditional celebrities in pairwise comparisons regarding their similarity. We apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and find substantial differences in perceptions between the two groups. Additionally, we apply property fitting with evaluations regarding six different characteristics determining endorser effectiveness. While in total traditional celebrities are evaluated more favorably, this difference diminishes for high levels of familiarity and even reverses for perceived trustworthiness and similarity to oneself. The results indicate that marketers should carefully distinguish between influencers and traditional celebrities for endorsements, as systematic differences in perceptions between the groups are likely to have an impact on endorser effectiveness. Further research is needed to investigate which moderators (e.g. advertising type, product category) influence the perception and subsequently the endorsement effectiveness of the two types of endorsers.
... Research on influencers and influencer marketing has been highlighted recently by scholars as an important research area to study further (Taylor, 2020). Market research also points at influencer marketing as an important and growing phenomenon. ...
... Specifically, we need a better understanding of what practices that actually create this trust and credibility. As pointed out by Taylor (2020): academic research on measurement accuracy, effectiveness of various measures, impact of influencers taking on multiple sponsors, and impact on disclosures can clearly be helpful and the time is ripe for a focus on these issues. Addressing these issues will be an important driver of the growth of influencer marketing post-pandemic. ...
... In addition, we must bear in mind the lack of any legal control over advertising in these spaces. It is a new phenomenon which requires a much more in-depth study due to its constantly changing nature (Taylor, 2020). ...
... Influencer marketing is a type of marketing that generally refers to individuals deemed as opinion leaders with a significant audience size on social media platforms, who can influence others' thinking and decisions through their communication network (Lee et al., 2021;Tuten, 2020). Influencer marketing as a concept has received increasing attention in business research (Taylor, 2020). However, despite the growing use of influencer marketing to promote tourism destinations and hospitality businesses, the level of attention on this phenomenon in the tourism literature has only occurred in recent years (e.g. ...
... Although influencer marketing does not represent an unethical practice per se, the lack of an ethical framework and a professional organisation that influencers are accountable to complicates the task of discerning the ethics of influencer marketing (Wellman et al., 2020). Examples of unethical practices include 'fake followers' making it difficult for audience to effectively measure and verify (Taylor, 2020) and covert advertising formats that complicate consumers' ability to distinguish commercial content from non-commercial one (Evans et al., 2017). Evidence of the use of unscrupulous social media influencer advertising was highlighted by the 'Fyre Festival', a music event scheduled to take place in 2017 in the Bahamas that turned out to be infamous con job. ...
... Social media influencers have proven particularly popular among younger audiences, and COVID-19 has accentuated this trend even further (Taylor, 2020). As children are more susceptible to influencer marketing than adults, Given children's relatively immature cognitive abilities and literacy towards advertisement, they are more likely to be influenced by influencer marketing compared to adults (Ye et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Although influencer marketing is deemed as the panacea to marketing issues and the solution to success for many tourism businesses, this research highlights some of the challenges and threats associated with its practice. Based on the literature available on the topic and some of the latest evidence from a variety of locations, we examine the phenomenon from a range of perspectives including audiences; policy and regulatory; influencers; destination management organisations as well as tourism organisations. This study highlights that more attention should be paid to vulnerable groups such as young audiences and local communities. This study concluds with implications for theory and practices and future research avenues for influencer marketing in tourism.
... As companies shift from traditional advertising channels to new means of advertising, 'macro' influencers -influencers with a large number of social media followers gained directly, with no institutional support by the entertainment or sports industry (Dhanik 2016;McQuarrie, Miller, and Phillips 2013) -offer a potentially impactful, authentic communication channel for reaching a target audience (e.g. Casaló, Flavián, and Ibáñez-Sánchez 2018;Taylor 2020;De Veirman, Cauberghe, and Hudders 2017). According to a 2020 market report, 80% of surveyed firms (N ≈ 4,000 ad agencies and brands) intend to invest in influencer marketing in the future, and 91% of respondents believe that influencer marketing is an effective form of advertising (Influencer Marketing Hub 2020). ...
... According to a 2020 market report, 80% of surveyed firms (N ≈ 4,000 ad agencies and brands) intend to invest in influencer marketing in the future, and 91% of respondents believe that influencer marketing is an effective form of advertising (Influencer Marketing Hub 2020). However, research on influencer marketing for advertising practice is still in its nascent days, and the current COVID-19 pandemic has not only increased social media usage among all age groups (Insider Intelligence 2020) but has also underscored the need to better understand the dynamics of influencer marketing as a key advertising tool (Hudders, De Jans, and De Veirman 2020;Taylor 2020). ...
... Tamtambeauty 5 ) promoting products to a broad audience. 6 Third, research on influencer marketing remains a field in development (Hudders, De Jans, and De Veirman 2020;Taylor 2020). Today, a substantial amount of research investigates influencers' endorsement effectiveness by studying (a) factors that promote opinion leadership, (b) antecedents to influencer success, or (c) the effect of sponsorship disclosures. ...
Article
Full-text available
A series of three studies explore the endorsement effectiveness of ‘macro’ influencers compared with ‘regular’ celebrities. Using multidimensional scaling, we provide evidence of perceptual differences between celebrities and influencers beyond endorser attractiveness, credibility, expertise, and familiarity. We further study conditions in which endorser type is more or less effective in evoking favorable ad-related responses via consumers’ inferences of an ad’s manipulative intent. The results show that influencer endorsements in social media need to be subtle to achieve greater effectiveness than celebrity endorsements. In contrast, intrusive advertising in social media is more efficient when done in collaboration with celebrities. No significant differences emerge for endorsements in regular ad formats, though endorsements may benefit from higher awareness levels of celebrities. The findings help marketers make better informed choices between celebrity and influencer advertising collaborations.
... This research focuses specifically on disposable surgical masks and the effect of wearing such masks by social media influencers, an understudied group of marketers (Taylor, 2020). Consumers often view influencers as relatively incompetent (Bratu, 2019;Cooley & Parks-Yancy, 2019) because of factors such as the lack of formal education requirement for influencers and low credibility of social media platforms (Alrubaian et al., 2019;Kim & Ahmad, 2013). ...
... While different types of face masks exist, in this research I focus specifically on disposable surgical masks and their role in an understudied context of influencer marketing (Taylor, 2020). Namely, I investigate how wearing (vs. ...
... Answering calls for more academic work on influencer marketing (Taylor, 2020), this research establishes several important findings related to social media influencers. First, unlike the literature that provides evidence of influencers' perceived incompetence through the use of surveys (Bratu, 2019;Cooley & Parks-Yancy, 2019), this research employed an experimental approach that allowed for direct comparison of competence inferences across occupations. ...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid spread of COVID‐19 brought about an increased use of face masks among the general public. Focusing on disposable surgical masks in particular, this article examines consumer perceptions of and intentions toward social media influencers who wear such masks amid the pandemic. Drawing on the theory of product symbolism, this research experimentally demonstrates that masked (vs. unmasked) influencers remind consumers of highly competent healthcare professionals, leading in turn to greater competence inferences about and more favorable behavioral intentions toward these influencers. Additional analysis demonstrates that this effect might not hold for other groups of professionals who are considered relatively competent at the outset and/or whose profession is less reliant on external cues. Overall, this research suggests that apart from curtailing the spread of the pandemic, mask wearing might prove beneficial to certain groups of professionals, such as social media influencers, who have traditionally struggled to establish credibility. In a broader context, this research establishes mask wearing as a new form of nonverbal communication that warrants further examination.
... Because of the platform's deep engagement, Instagram's native projected advertising revenue was $13.86 billion in 2020 (Guttmann 2020). Although many brands are currently investing into influencer marketing on Instagram, there is still a lack of relevant research examining fundamental mechanisms that facilitate the unique effectiveness of influencer marketing on Instagram and similar platforms (Evans et al. 2017;Phua, Jin, and Kim 2017;Taylor 2020). ...
... Lee and Watkins 2016). A small-but-growing academic literature (Taylor 2020) suggests that influencers have more significant impacts than traditional celebrities on persuasive outcomes such as attitudes and intentions (Schouten, Janssen, and Verspaget 2020). A review by Hudders, De Jans, and De Veirman (2021) highlights the centrality of authenticity in influence marketing. ...
... Findings have implications for the growing literature on influencer marketing (Taylor 2020). It is clear that message sidedness is consequential for social media posts by microcelebrities, building on the pioneering studies of Braatz (2017) and De Veirman and Hudders (2020) as well as the classic research into message sidedness in advertising (Eisend 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of social media for advertising and marketing has brought growing interest and investment into sponsored influencers. However, much is unknown about the effectiveness of influencers, including the mechanisms by which these online personalities build and maintain authentic image. This study examines two important elements, influencers’ self-disclosures (present vs. not present) and message sidedness (one-sided vs. two-sided), to explain the effectiveness of influencer marketing. Findings revealed that Instagram product reviews with two-sided messages yielded higher influencer authenticity, influencer credibility, ad attitudes, and eWOM intentions than Instagram product reviews with one-sided messages. Results also revealed that the perceived authenticity and credibility of influencers with two-sided messages mediated effects on ad attitude, brand attitudes, purchase intention, and eWOM intention. Self-disclosure was not impactful, nor did product involvement moderate effects of influencer posts. Theoretical, practical, and managerial implications are considered, indicating that two-sided messages are advantageous for influencers and the brands who sponsor them, while self-disclosure may be relatively inconsequential.
... Research on influencers and influencer marketing has been highlighted recently by scholars as an important research area to study further (Taylor, 2020). Market research also points at influencer marketing as an important and growing phenomenon. ...
... Specifically, we need a better understanding of what practices that actually create this trust and credibility. As pointed out by Taylor (2020): academic research on measurement accuracy, effectiveness of various measures, impact of influencers taking on multiple sponsors, and impact on disclosures can clearly be helpful and the time is ripe for a focus on these issues. Addressing these issues will be an important driver of the growth of influencer marketing post-pandemic. ...
... In addition, we must bear in mind the lack of any legal control over advertising in these spaces. It is a new phenomenon which requires a much more in-depth study due to its constantly changing nature (Taylor, 2020). ...
Book
Full-text available
YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Vimeo, Twitter, and so on, have their own logics, dynamics and different audiences. This book analyses how the users of these social networks, especially those of YouTube and Instagram, become content prescribers, opinion leaders and, by extension, people of influence. What influence capacity do they have? Why are intimate or personal aspects shared with unknown people? Who are the big beneficiaries? How much is vanity and how much altruism? What business is behind these social networks? What dangers do they contain? What volume of business can we estimate they generate? How are they transforming cultural industries? What legislation is applied? How does the legislation affect these communications when they are sponsored? Is the privacy of users violated with the data obtained? Who is the owner of the content? Are they to blame for “fake news”? In this changing, challenging and intriguing environment, The Dynamics of Influencer Marketing discusses all of these questions and more. Considering this complexity from different perspectives: technological, economic, sociological, psychological and legal, the book combines the visions of several experts from the academic world and provides a structured framework with a wide approach to understand the new era of influencing, including the dark sides of it. It will be of direct interest to marketing scholars and researchers while also relevant to many other areas affected by the phenomenon of social media influence.
... Despite the growth in influencer marketing, there have been conflicting views about the effectiveness of influencers for advertising and promotions. The Association of National Advertisers (ANA) found that even though 75% of national advertisers engaged in influencer marketing in 2018, only 36% believed it was effective (Taylor, 2020). In contrast, Mediakix's (2019) survey showed that influencer marketing was effective for 80% of marketers. ...
... Responding to the call for additional urgent research in the area of influencer marketing to meet the industry needs and academic interest (Taylor, 2020), the motive of this research is threefold. First, we try to determine the key antecedents of consumers' attitude toward HWIs. ...
Article
Purpose Instagram health and wellbeing influencers (HWIs) have been increasingly considered as important sources of information and advice for their followers. This study aims to investigate the key antecedents of followers' attitude towards HWIs as well as their influence on their followers' intent to purchase organic products. The moderating effect of gender is also taken into account. Design/methodology/approach Based on data collected from 251 Instagram HWIs followers, the authors empirically tested the conceptual model using structural equation modeling. Findings First, the authors demonstrate that attitude towards HWIs positively impacts followers' attitude towards the promoted brands as well as their intention to purchase organic food brands. Second, followers' attitude towards HWIs is mainly influenced by perceived congruence, influencer credibility, and physical attractiveness. Finally, gender acts as a moderator, e.g. attitude towards HWIs is more likely to be influenced by perceived congruence and physical attractiveness among female followers. Practical implications The findings allow organic brands' managers to understand the key antecedents of followers' attitudes toward HWIs, and therefore, better select talented influencers who are able to create purchase intentions among both existing and potential customers. Originality/value This original research bridges a gap pertaining to the potential use of HWIs to shape consumer intention to purchase organic products. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to investigate the impact of attitudes toward influencers on both brand attitude and purchase intention in the organic food industry.
... Social media influencers with greater authenticity are perceived as genuinely and intrinsically motivated by their activity (Kernis and Goldman, 2006;Kowalczyk and Pounders, 2016;Moulard et al., 2015). Despite the importance of authenticity, the concept still lacks academic understanding in a context of social media influence (Taylor, 2020). ...
... Advertising effectiveness depends on the extent to which a message reaches many prospects and consumers. There is a growing enthusiasm for influencer marketing among practitioners (Taylor, 2020). Influencer marketing helps to spread commercial messages through more trusted sources (Uzunoğlu and Kip, 2014 These social media platforms should, therefore, encourage social media influencers to disclose their sponsorships themselves systematically versus using a message from the platform, with the aim to increase influencers' perceived authenticity. ...
... The perception that influencers promote too many brands can explain this result; thus, influencers lose their credibility, weakening the impact of sponsored posts [1,65]. Furthermore, when the COVID-19 message was not included in the post, the congruent post led to lower credibility than the incongruent one. ...
... Regarding the direct effects on the attitudes towards the post, results indicated that the brand presence negatively affected the attitudes towards the post, regardless of the influencerbrand fit. Again, the increasing distrust in sponsored posts due to the proliferation of sponsored messages in social media provides a suitable explanation [1,65]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the dissemination potential of a COVID-19 message embedded in a sponsored social media post. The moderating role of prior parasocial interaction and influen-cer-brand fit were considered. 365 respondents participated in the study. A 3 (control, congruent , incongruent brand) × 2 (control, COVID-19 message) between-subject online experiment was designed and executed. Data were analyzed using a mediated moderation model. Results indicated that the three-way interaction of the COVID-19 message, brand presence and prior parasocial interaction affected the perceived influencer credibility, attitudes towards the social media post, and the behavioral engagement with the post. When the COVID-19 message was included in the post, increased prior parasocial interaction intensified the positive effect of influencer-brand fit on influencer credibility, which in turn resulted in a more positive attitude towards the post, and a higher behavioral engagement. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
... The use of a community's reactions to stimulate engagement can be considered as a conflict of interest. The increased influence of content creators on their audience, combined with controversial topics is a dangerous cocktail (Taylor, 2020), as was shown by the #icrecreamchallenge public health hazard. This viral challenge led to multiple arrests in the US after youngsters embraced a social media challenge consisting of recording themselves licking ice cream from a tub and putting it back on a supermarket's freezer shelf (BBC 2019). ...
Article
This short discussion paper addresses how controversy is monetized online by reflecting on a new iteration of the shock value in media production, identified on social media as the ‘clout chasing’ phenomenon. We first exemplify controversial behavior, and subsequently proceed to defining clout chasing, which we discuss this concept in relation to existing frameworks for the understanding of controversy on social media. We then outline what clout chasing entails as a content monetization strategy, and address the risks associated with this approach. In doing so, we introduce the concept of ‘content self-moderation,’ which encompasses how creators use content moderation as a way to hedge monetization risks arising out of their reliance on controversy for economic growth. This concept is discussed in the context of the automated content governance entailed by algorithmic platform architectures, to contribute to existing scholarship on platform governance.
... Based on predictions pre-COVID-19, the overall influencer marketing industry is set to grow to approximately $7.9 billion in 2020 (Edelman 2020). While pre-pandemic there were concerns that the market was set to shrink, as only 36% of consumers were convinced of its effectiveness, influencer marketing in fact seems to have had a resurgence of sorts (Taylor 2020). Youth marketing firm YPulse reports (2020) that amongst young consumers, influencers are 'as influential as ever' . ...
Article
Despite the ubiquity of social media influencers (SMIs) and the clear value they hold for marketers, little is understood about the sociopsychological motives that drive consumers to follow them. The current research identified unique consumer motivations for following SMIs on Instagram and examined its association with important consumer behaviour outcomes (i.e. trust towards SMIs’ brand-related posts and frequency of purchasing SMI-recommended brands) as well as materialism. Based on survey data, findings revealed four motivations for following influencers on Instagram – authenticity, consumerism, creative inspiration, and envy – which had varying effects on trust and purchase frequency. Additionally, materialism was a significant individual difference variable that was strongly associated with the four motives, some of which served as key mediators underlying materialism’s impact on purchase behaviour. Managerial and theoretical implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed as well as suggestions for future research in this burgeoning area.
... The use of a community's reactions to stimulate engagement can be considered as a conflict of interest. The increased influence of content creators on their audience, combined with controversial topics is a dangerous cocktail (Taylor, 2020), as was shown by the #icrecreamchallenge public health hazard. This viral challenge led to multiple arrests in the US after youngsters embraced a social media challenge consisting of recording themselves licking ice cream from a tub and putting it back on a supermarket's freezer shelf (BBC 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This short discussion paper addresses how controversy is monetized online by reflecting on a new iteration of the shock value in media production, identified on social media as the ‘clout chasing’ phenomenon. We first exemplify controversial behavior, and subsequently proceed to defining clout chasing, which we discuss this concept in relation to existing frameworks for the understanding of controversy on social media. We then outline what clout chasing entails as a content monetization strategy, and address the risks associated with this approach. In doing so, we introduce the concept of ‘content self-moderation,’ which encompasses how creators use content moderation as a way to hedge monetization risks arising out of their reliance on controversy for economic growth. This concept is discussed in the context of the automated content governance entailed by algorithmic platform architectures, to contribute to existing scholarship on platform governance.
... The growing presence of product placements on Instagram and their enthusiasm have led to specific laws to allow Instagram users to be informed when content is used for promotional purposes (Taylor 2020). Instagrammers are now, in some countries, required to state whether their posts are sponsored. ...
Book
The COVID-19 pandemic has been a very strong reminder that the future economic development of any country is more than ever influenced by its ability to ramp-up digital competitiveness. Consequently, enterprises were pushed to assess and develop the possibilities offered by e-commerce and online marketing tools. In this book, experts outline the prerequisites for such online marketing competitiveness and compare the current level of digital marketing competitiveness in Europe by using publicly available macro and micro-level data. The authors present their analyses and recommendations including interviews with over 125 online marketers and e-commerce specialists and present the lessons from digitalization of over 600 SMEs.
... Genellikle teknik özelliklerin tanımlanmasına yardımcı olarak ve alternatifleri değerlendirmek için bilgi sağlayarak satın alma kararını etkileyen kişiler etkileyenler/etkileyiciler olarak adlandırılırken çevrimiçi toplulukların özellikle etkileyicilerin görüşlerinin alınmasında ve etkileyicilerin hareketleri doğrultusunda satın alım yapılmasında öne çıktığı söylenebilir. Dolayısıyla pazarlama alanında çalışanlar için de etkileyicilerin tüketicileri yönlendirmesinin çalışılması gereken bir alan ortaya çıkarmaktadır (Taylor, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
ÖZET Özellikle internetin ve akıllı teknolojilerin yaygınlaşması ile birlikte ekran karşısında geçirilen zaman artmakta ve tüketiciler geçirdikleri bu zaman boyunca pek çok reklama maruz kalmaktadır. Bu yoğun reklam akışı içerisinde tüketicilerin ilgisinin giderek kaybolduğunu fark eden işletmeler doğal reklamcılığa yönelmekte ve reklamlarını hayatın doğal akışının yansımaları şeklinde adeta tüketicinin gönüllü izlemesini sağlayarak sunmaya çalışmaktadır. Bununla birlikte tüketicilerin hayranı oldukları kültür ve sanat alanında çalışan kişilerden esinlendikleri, kendilerine yakın gördükleri bu kişilerin kullandıkları ve referans oldukları ürünlere karşı olumlu tutum geliştirdikleri düşünülmektedir. Bu kapsamda giderek yaygınlaşan etkileyici pazarlamanın doğal reklamları kullanmasından ve etkileyicilerin günlük hayatlarında kullandıkları ürünlerin tüketicileri yönlendirdiği görüşünden yola çıkarak, bu çalışma doğal reklamların etkileyici pazarlamada nasıl kullanıldığını ortak kullanım alanı olarak sosyal medyayı ele alarak değerlendirmektir. Bu doğrultuda etkileyici pazarlamanın en etkin kullanıldığı platform olan Instagram’da kültür ve sanat kategorisinde en çok takip edilen kişilerin paylaşımları doğal reklam içerikleri açısından incelenmiştir. Nitel bir çalışma olarak yürütülen uygulamada benzeşik örneklem yoluyla seçilen kültür ve sanat kategorisinde 30 en çok takip edilen kişinin 04.02.2020 ile 04.02.2021 tarihleri arasındaki 1 yıllık paylaşımları doğal reklam içerip içermediğine göre irdelenmiş ve doğal reklam içerikleri kişisel bakım ve kozmetik, giyim, takı-aksesuar-ayakkabı-çanta, TV programı - TV kanalı - yapım şirketi, dergi, diğer, kişi ve makyöz-stilist-fotoğrafçı-menajer olacak şekilde 8 farklı kategoride ele alınmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda kadınların erkeklerden daha fazla paylaşım yaptıkları, en fazla paylaşımın makyöz-stilist-fotoğrafçı-menajer kategorisinde, en az paylaşımın takı-aksesuarayakkabı-çanta kategorisinde yapıldığı ve bütün kategorilerde kadınların erkeklerden daha fazla paylaşım yaptığı sonuçlarına ulaşılmıştır. Çalışmanın etkileyici pazarlama ve doğal reklamcılığa karşı giderek fazla uygulama alanı bulunan sosyal medya reklamlarına yönelik gelecek çalışmalara yol göstereceği düşünülmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: doğal reklamcılık, etkileyici pazarlama, Instagram, sosyal medya ABSTRACT Especially with proliferation of internet and smart technologies, time spent in front of the screen increases, and consumers are exposed to many advertisements during this time. Realizing that interest of consumers is gradually disappearing in this intense advertising flow, businesses turn to native advertising and try to present their ads as reflections of natural flow of life in a way that allows consumer to watch almost voluntarily. Besides, it is thought that consumers are inspired by people working in the field of culture and art, which they admire, and have positive attitude towards products that are used and referred by those people they feel close to themselves. In this context, based on the view that increasingly widespread influencer marketing uses native advertisements and that products used by influencers in their daily lives direct consumers, this study is evaluating how influencer marketing and native advertising practices use social media as their common use. In this direction, shares of Turkish culture and art people who are most followed on Instagram, which is the most effective platform for influencer marketing, have been examined in terms of native advertising content. In practice carried out as qualitative study, 1-year posts between 04.02.2020 and 04.02.2021 of 30 mostfollowed people in culture and art category selected through analogous sampling were examined according to whether they contained native advertising and the content of native advertisements are handled in 8 different categories: personal care and cosmetics, clothing, jewelry-accessories-shoes-bags, TV program - TV channel - production company, magazine, other, person and make-up artist-stylist-photographer-manager. As a result of the study, it was found that women shared more than men, the most shares were made in the make-up-stylist-photographer-manager category, least was in jewelry-accessories-shoes-bag category, and in all categories, women shared more than men. It is thought that the study will guide future studies for social media advertisements, which have an increasing application area against influencer marketing and native advertising. Key words: native advertising, influencer marketing, Instagram, social media
... A survey of marketers in germany, the united States and the united Kingdom that was conducted by Takumi -an influencer marketing company -shows that more than 70% of marketers are planning to spend more on influencer marketing compared to the year before (WARC 2020). Despite general cuts in global ad spending due to COvID-19, influencer marketing is still on the rise (Taylor 2020). This is not surprising as many empirical studies show that influencer marketing can be a highly effective advertising tactic (for a review, see Hudders et al. 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
While social media influencers have been enjoying increasing accolades from followers and brands, they also suffer from criticisms or harassments from some followers. Extant research has not yet examined the efficacy of response strategies adopted by influencers when addressing negative comments. This study is to fill the research gap. An online experiment has been conducted among followers of an actual influencer to examine how influencers’ response strategies (i.e. defensive vs. accommodative) to followers’ negative comments (i.e. an objective complaint of product failure vs. a subjective dislike) affect the persuasiveness of influencer-sponsored content. The results of this study reveal that a defensive response harms influencer trustworthiness more than an accommodative response when it concerns a subjective disliking of the endorsed product. This lowered trustworthiness further leads to followers’ decreased perceived product quality and less favourable brand attitudes. When it concerns an objective comment on product failure, an influencer’s defensive response does not differ from accommodative response in affecting influencer trustworthiness. These findings indicate that an accommodative strategy may be an efficient way to cope with a negative follower comment, especially in case of a subjective product disliking.
... Thus, the study bridges a significant gap in extant influencer marketing literature (Taylor, 2020;Campbell and Rapp Farrell, 2020;Mart ınez-L opez et al., 2020;Lou and Yuan, 2019) and tourism marketing studies revolving around blogs and social media (Mariani et al., 2016(Mariani et al., , 2018(Mariani et al., , 2021Xu et al., 2021;Gretzel, 2018;Xu and Pratt, 2018;Torabian and Rai, 2016;Chen et al., 2014) by proposing both a conceptual and an empirical contribution. From a conceptual point of view, this study aims at providing additional knowledge on the effect of blog engagement on post-reading behaviours on the part of the blog's followers by investigating, on the one hand, the antecedents of blog engagement, and on the other hand, the potential influence exerted by blog engagement on food tasting and food tourism experiences, thus also addressing the potential connection between the food blog and food tourist destinations. ...
Article
Purpose The present study investigates the impact of perceived enjoyment, blogger credibility and homophily on readers' engagement. Moreover, the study investigates the role exerted by blog engagement on intentions to follow blogger's recommendations. Despite the growing relevance of these issues, past studies have neglected the relevance of a joint analysis of such dimensions within the context of food blogs. Design/methodology/approach The empirical research builds on an online survey with a sample of 821 blog readers (353 Italian and 468 American). The proposed model was tested through structural equation modelling. Findings Results from a survey on Italian and American consumers show that perceived enjoyment and homophily have a significant effect on blog engagement, which, in turn, positively influences both intention to taste and visit. Moreover, blogger credibility does not show a significant influence on blog engagement for Italian and American followers. Originality/value The study contributes to a better understanding of the influence exerted by blog engagement on intention to follow blogger's recommendations. The study also examines perceived enjoyment, credibility and homophily as antecedents of engagement, which have not been extensively researched in the past with respect to food blogs.
... Buna göre, bazı çalışmalar kadınların sosyal medya fenomenleriyle daha derin ilişki kurduklarını bildirirken (Cohen, 2003), diğerleri erkeklerin sosyal medya fenomenleriyle kurulan ilişkiye daha çok değer verdiği sonucuna ulaşmıştır (McCutcheon, Lange, & Houran, 2002). Bu durum fenomen pazarlamayla ilgili daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç olduğunun altını çizmektedir (Taylor, 2020). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Parasosyal etkileşim teorisi ortaya atıldığı 1950’lerden bu yana tüketicilerin medyada gösterilen karakterlerle tüketicilerin kurdukları bağ ve kurulan bu bağ sonucu tüketici davranışlarında meydana gelen değişimle ilgilenmektedir. Günümüzde geleneksel medya araçlarından sosyal medya platformlarına doğru yaşanan hızlı kayma ile sosyal medya fenomenleri, bu yeni ve kendine has eşsiz mecranın yeni ünlüleri haline gelmiştir. Bu durum, markaların iletişim çabalarında eskiden beri yararlanılan ünlü etkisi açısından sosyal medya fenomenlerinin tıpkı ünlüler gibi, ürün ve marka yerleştirme uygulamalarına dahil edilmesiyle yoluyla reklamlarda yer almalarına neden olmuştur. Fenomenlerle pazarlama sosyal medya platformlarında çok sayıda takipçisi olan etkili fikir liderlerinin (fenomenlerin), takipçileri (tüketiciler) üzerinde, yaptıkları paylaşımlar aracılığıyla, markaların çıkarlarına ilişkin olumlu tutum ve davranışsal tepkilerin oluşmasına yönelik çabalar olarak tanımlanabilmektedir. Günümüz dünyasında tüketiciler, sosyal medyada, özellikle fenomenlerin ürün önerilerini, gönderilerini/paylaşımlarını arayarak ürünlerle ilgili bilgilere ulaşmaktadırlar. Bu çalışma ile sosyal medyada sosyal medya fenomenlerinin ürün ve marka odaklı paylaşımlarına ilişkin tüketici satın alma niyetinin parasosyal etkileşim teorisiyle araştırılmasına odaklanmaktadır. Ayrıca, katılımcılara takip ettikleri fenomenlerin paylaştıkları linklere tıklama, yorum ve beğeni yapma sıklıkları, yorumları okuma durumları, sosyal medya uygulamalarında geçirdikleri süre ve en çok takip ettikleri fenomen gibi sorular yöneltilerek daha detaylı bir anlayış sağlamak amaçlanmıştır. Bu bağlamda hazırlanan çevrim içi anketle 174 üniversite öğrencisinin katılımıyla veriler toplanmıştır. Analiz aşamasından değişkenlere uygulanan faktör analizi sonrası regresyon analizi ile hipotez testine geçilmiştir. Çalışmadan elde edilen bulgular ışığında, parasosyal ilişkinin ve fenomen güvenilirliğinin tüketicilerin (takipçilerin) satın alma niyetini istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ve olumlu yönde etkilemekte olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bulgular tüketiciler, işletmeler ve teori açısından yorumlanmıştır. Since the 1950s, when the theory of parasocial interaction was introduced, it has been concerned with the connection between consumers and the characters shown in the media, and the change in consumer behavior as a result. Today, there is a rapid shift from traditional media tools to social media platforms. Social media influencers have become the new celebrities of this new and unique medium. This situation has led to the inclusion of social media influencers in product and brand placement practices, just like celebrities, in terms of celebrity influence, which has been used in the communication efforts of brands for a long time. Influencer marketing can be defined as the efforts of influential opinion leaders (influencers) who have a large number of followers on social media platforms, to create positive attitudes and behavioral reactions regarding the interests of brands, on their followers (consumers). In today's world, consumers reach information about products by searching for product suggestions, posts/shares of influencers, especially on social media. This study focuses on the research of consumer purchase intention regarding product and brand-oriented shares of social media influencers that are exposed to 7/24 on social media with parasocial interaction theory. In addition, it is aimed to provide a more detailed understanding by asking the participants questions such as the frequency of clicking on the links shared by the influencer they follow, the frequency of comments and likes, the status of reading the comments, the time they spend in social media applications, and the influencer they follow most. In this context, data were collected with the participation of 174 university students through an online questionnaire. After the factor analysis applied to the variables from the analysis stage, the hypothesis test was started with the regression analysis. In the light of the findings obtained from the study, it was determined that the parasocial relationship and the reliability of the influencer affect the purchase intention of consumers (followers) positively and significantly. The findings were interpreted in terms of consumers, businesses and theory.
... This research makes important contributions in the following aspects: (1) it responds to the increasing demand for research inquiries in the commercialization of influencers (Hudders, de Jans, and de veirman 2020;Taylor 2020) and expands the literature in the effects of Instagram influencer advertising through factoring in the impact of LGBTQcentric CSR advertising; (2) it explores the strategies and mechanism that can potentially leverage or diminish the symbiotic outcomes of influencer identity and comment valence in consumer psychology; (3) it provides evidence-based insights into the best practice in influencer advertising and CSR in the realm of LGBTQ social causes for both advertising partitioners and influencers; (4) it investigates actual Instagram users' psychological responses to influencer advertising, comparing real-life Instagram users from the general cisgender heterosexual population and the LGBTQ population; and (5) it arguably offers psychological explanations on how consumers hold brands and influencer accountable, which can serve as guidance on how brands and companies can constructively build meaningful relationships with consumers through social advocacy. ...
Article
Brands have increasingly collaborated with influencers on their social advocacy efforts through social media influencer advertising. This study explores the effects of influencer identity and comment section in Instagram-based corporate social responsibility advertising within the context of Pride collection supporting the LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer) community. Through an experiment sampling both non-LGBTQ and LGBTQ Instagram users (N = 645), the present study investigates how the featured Instagram influencer’s intergroup identity (non-LGBTQ, LGBTQ) interacts with comment valence (positive, negative) to influence consumers’ responses to the Pride collection advertisements contributing to the LGBTQ cause. Moreover, it explores whether perceived influencer credibility, brand hypocrisy, and brand motive mediate the effects of influencer identity and comment valence. The findings demonstrated that the LGBTQ-identified influencer elicited more perceived credibility and less brand hypocrisy, particularly among the LGBTQ participants. However, the non-LGBTQ influencer elicited more positive ad attitudes and behavioural tendencies among the cisgender heterosexual non-LGBTQ participants. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... This forces companies to spend more resources in order to make the suitable choices. As a result, the effectiveness of influencer marketing is questioned [6]. In addition, with the emergence of these fake influencers, the credibility of influencer marketing is damaged [7]. ...
... The growing presence of product placements on Instagram and their enthusiasm have led to specific laws to allow Instagram users to be informed when content is used for promotional purposes (Taylor 2020). Instagrammers are now, in some countries, required to state whether their posts are sponsored. ...
Chapter
To stand out and face the growing demand from customers to obtain products and services online, several SMEs are implementing digital transformation strategies. It became evident that many factors other than technology are required to ensure the digital transformation’s completion and success. However, the global pandemic of Covid-19 showed that many SMEs struggle significantly to implement Internet and online platforms into their strategies to achieve a decent level of e-commerce competitiveness. In this chapter, we combine secondary information, opinions of experts in online marketing, and the experience of SMEs to identify which factors affect the capacity of businesses to embrace the digital environment. Based on these findings, we propose an evaluative framework allowing business to assess their current level of e-commerce readiness.
... In fact, many SMIs saw an increase in the number of likes and comments since COVID-19. 42 This suggests that, in many ways, our findings could have been impacted by the unique COVID-19 situation such that the negative association between envy and mood may have been more magnified due to the overall increase in ill-being of users. Also, being inspired by SMIs may have had a more enthralling effect because it could rejuvenate users by taking their attention away from COVID-19. ...
Article
This study examines how being envious toward social media influencers (SMIs) relates to users' affective well-being. An online survey was conducted in which 305 U.S. participants viewed to 20 posts of an SMI and subsequently measured their affective well-being, envy, and inspiration toward the SMI, and self-esteem levels. The results revealed a direct negative relationship between envy and affective well-being, but a positive indirect effect through inspiration. Furthermore, individuals' self-esteem moderates the relationship such that the positive relationship between envy and affective well-being through inspiration is stronger among those with high levels of self-esteem. Moreover, inspiration varies between different influencer categories, that is, participants who viewed fitness influencers reported the greatest amount of inspiration, followed by fashion, beauty, and entertainment influencers.
... The growing presence of product placements on Instagram and their enthusiasm have led to specific laws to allow Instagram users to be informed when content is used for promotional purposes (Taylor 2020). Instagrammers are now, in some countries, required to state whether their posts are sponsored. ...
Chapter
Consumers make their purchasing decisions based on information that is also related to emotions. Customers prefer transparent information that allows them to trust companies and then show interest in their services or products. Corporate social responsibility is one of the critical factors influencing the image. Because the concept of CSR significantly affects the perception of the company among customers and society. Strengthening the image is one of the fundamental goals of marketing. The CSR concept is thus one of the possible aspects of strengthening the image and thus having the edge over the competition. This chapter examines the relationships between CSR communication, brand reputation, and customer shopping intentions.
... Nowadays, consumers appreciate being informed without necessarily having the impression of being overwhelmed by intrusive and repetitive communication (Amarnath and Jaidev 2020). Companies need to adapt to this new world by changing their marketing strategies to stay in touch with consumers (Taylor 2020). An ideal solution then is influencer marketing, an inexpensive and very effective method of reaching a large number of individuals in a personal manner with which they are comfortable (Yoo et al. 2015). ...
Chapter
Consumers need to be constantly reassured in these times of the global Covid-19 pandemic. For this reason, brand marketing strategies must be well thought out to keep consumers closer. Influencers have become essential players in creating and strengthening this link between the brand and consumers. This paper, therefore, focuses on the effect of influencer marketing on consumers in relation to brand notoriety and the perception of the influencer. Regarding the literary review, we focus on influencer and brand marketing (notoriety and attitude) and the relationships that link these to other intermediate concepts (influencer credibility, consistency between source and product) leading to purchase intentions. We formulate the conceptual framework of influencers’ marketing power based on these findings.
... In this sense, the trustworthiness followers place on social media influencers and the perceived credibility of the message are considered vital aspects of influencer marketing success. However, to date, these mediators have not been integrated into studies of influencer marketing (Taylor, 2020;Vrontis et al., 2021). Grounded in the improved version of the S-O-R paradigm as proposed by Jacoby (2002), the study addresses this gap and contributes to emerging research streams on influencer marketing by explaining the mechanisms by which the content created by social media influencers affects customers' pre-purchasing behaviour. ...
Article
Purpose-Despite the increasing popularity of influencer marketing, there exists a lack of understanding of how content created by social media influencers stimulates the pre-purchase behaviour of followers. Based on the stimulus-organism-response framework, this paper aims to address this lacuna by examining how influencer-created content affects the willingness of followers to search for more information related to the posted product. Design/methodology/approach-A cross-sectional research design uses a web-based questionnaire among Instagram users in Sri Lanka. Structural equation modelling with analysis of moment structures 27 and SPSS PROCESS macro are used for hypothesis testing. Findings-Findings indicate that the commercial orientation of influencer-created content reduces follower trustworthiness towards them and the perceived credibility of the content. Mediation results demonstrate that the commercial orientation of influencer-created content negatively affects follower willingness to search for more information related to the posted product through trustworthiness and perceived credibility. Practical implications-When adopting influencer marketing to stimulate information search behaviour, marketing practitioners should carefully examine the commercial orientation of the content of the messages posted by social media influencers to maintain high levels of follower trustworthiness towards the influencer and positive follower credibility perceptions of the message. Originality/value-This paper adds to influencer marketing literature by demonstrating the underlying process through which the commercial orientation of influencer-created content impacts follower willingness to search for product-related information.
... Influencers Consumers or third parties who shape brand perceptions based on content they create (e.g., reviews). (Taylor 2020;). ...
Article
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The goal of this article is to help advertising scholars, students, and practitioners understand and anticipate the effects of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) on advertising and, more generally, marketing communications (Marcom). While many discussions of AI center on algorithms and models, we argue that to understand AI in Marcom, one must consider the broader ecosystem in which these algorithms operate. This article develops a framework that shows the Marcom-AI ecosystem and its outcomes, consisting of the following mutually reinforcing components: (1) algorithms and models, (2) customer data (3) digital environments (e.g., mobile devices, digital signage), (4) digital content assets (e.g., images, videos, copy) and (5) information technology infrastructure. We briefly sketch the uses of AI within Marcom. Most or all components of the ecosystem are usually necessary for AI to address Marcom opportunities and challenges. In conjunction with these components, the ecosystem comprises a broad set of stakeholders: consumers, influencers, brands/advertisers, media and messaging platforms, data platforms, publishers and content creators, MarTech/AdTech vendors, AI/ML service providers, device manufacturers and regulators. The combination of these components and stakeholders enables marketers to optimize touchpoints through targeting and choice architectures, create platforms for testing, derive insights from data, and support marketing processes and workflows. Building from the framework, we close by identifying future research directions for advertising scholars, including understanding consumer response to AI touchpoints, privacy, interactions between stakeholders, and how the ecosystem will evolve.
... Bár az influencer marketing már eddig is egyfajta forró téma (hot topic) volt a tudományos kutatásokban, a COVID-19 járvány és a fiatalok médiafogyasztási szokásaiban megfigyelhető trendek még nagyobb befolyást gyakoroltak rá. [6] Kétségtelen, hogy az influencer marketing minden iparágra hatással van, beleértve az utazást és a turizmust is. Az online személyiségek befolyását számos desztinációmenedzsment szervezet (Destination Management Organization, DMO) használja fel különböző célokra. ...
Article
Az influencer marketing az elmúlt évek egyik marketing „hot topic”-ja lett, külföldön és itthon egyaránt. Nem véletlen, hogy a turizmusmarketingben, illetve a városmarketingben is egyre gyakrabban élnek ezzel az eszközzel. Jelen cikk bemutatja a terület hátterét, majd javaslatokat tesz Kecskemét városa számára a konkrét esetek, nemzetközi jó gyakorlatok alapján.
... Buna göre, bazı çalışmalar kadınların sosyal medya fenomenleriyle daha derin ilişki kurduklarını bildirirken (Cohen, 2003), diğerleri erkeklerin sosyal medya fenomenleriyle kurulan ilişkiye daha çok değer verdiği sonucuna ulaşmıştır (McCutcheon, Lange, & Houran, 2002). Bu durum fenomen pazarlamayla ilgili daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç olduğunun altını çizmektedir (Taylor, 2020). ...
Book
Full-text available
ASC2021/FALL II. International Academician Studies Congress 22-24 Ekim/October 2021 Bildiriler/Proceedings
... Initial research on influencer marketing has offered at how influencers compare to traditional celebrities (Jin et al., 2019), advertising practitioners' perceptions of influencer marketing (Childers et al., 2019), determinants for being a successful influencer on different platforms (e.g., TikTok, Instagram; Haenlein et al., 2020), and factors affecting influencer credibility (Lou & Yuan, 2019;Xiao et al., 2018), and consumer responses to posts (Martínez-López, Anaya-Sánchez, Fernández Giordano, & Lopez-Lopez, 2020), among other topics. While some have offered an initial look at possible negative outcomes related to exposure to influencer marketing (e.g., Coates et al., 2019;De Veirman et al., 2019), there is an urgent need for more research on influencers (Taylor, 2020). ...
Chapter
Scholars have noted that consumer processing of ads leads to a number of unintended effects, such as irrationality, depression and lower self-esteem, and marginalization. The call for more research on how advertising hinders well-being is ever prevalent (Stafford & Pounders, 2019). Influencers have become particularly important for marketers given that they hold a level of trust akin to that of close friends (Swant, 2016), which makes their content more persuasive than other strategies (Lou & Yuan, 2019). As social media users are cutting back social media consumption because of negative outcomes such as problematic social media use (Marino et al., 2016), fatigue (Dhir, Yossatorn, Kaur, & Chen, 2018), addiction (Su; Han, Yu, Wu & Potenza, 2020), and life dissatisfaction (Chu, Windels, & Kamal, 2016), a question remains: what are the unintended effects of exposure to influencer marketing?
... In practice, when firms recruited social influencers to promote their products or services, the compensation is largely determined by the size of each influencer's follower base as this metric can reflect an influencers' status and potential consumer reach (Burns 2020). Nonetheless, a larger follower base may not necessarily represent true influence (De Veirman et al. 2017), and the presence of fake followers jeopardizes the firm's valuation of influencers (Taylor 2020). Hence, businesses need to have a deeper understanding of the differential impact of influencers' endorsements depending on their follower base. ...
Preprint
The increasing popularity of social media has reshaped how people interact with each other and form relationships on online platforms. Consequently, employing influencers, whom consumers increasingly rely upon for opinions and information, has emerged as an effective operations strategy in engaging consumers. Despite the nascent trend, firms have only recently directed their attention towards the effectiveness of influencer promotion and its economic impact. In this study, we employ a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian framework using a unique panel dataset comprising both clickstream and purchase data of consumers on an online influencer marketing platform. We conduct a field experiment to reinforce the validity of our results. The results show that the role of influencer promotions differs according to the influencers' follower bases. The endorsements by influencers with a larger (smaller) number of followers enhance consumers' product awareness (engagement). We also provide different suggestions regarding firm operations strategies related to influencer promotions and how the effectiveness relate to different sources of crowd-generated information. For instance, influencers should post product endorsements differently according to their follower base, and we also show that the endorsements of influencers with larger follower bases could increase product engagement when coupled with consumer reviews. We provide implications for the implementation of influencer promotions in facilitating firms' operations strategies.
... Buna göre, bazı çalışmalar kadınların sosyal medya fenomenleriyle daha derin ilişki kurduklarını bildirirken (Cohen, 2003), diğerleri erkeklerin sosyal medya fenomenleriyle kurulan ilişkiye daha çok değer verdiği sonucuna ulaşmıştır (McCutcheon, Lange, & Houran, 2002). Bu durum fenomen pazarlamayla ilgili daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç olduğunun altını çizmektedir (Taylor, 2020). ...
Book
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ASC2021/FALL II. International Academician Studies Congress 22-24 Ekim/October 2021 Bildiriler/Proceedings
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Al inicio de la pandemia ocasionada por el Covid-19, durante el primer semestre de 2020, fueron muchas las voces que auguraron el fin del reinado de los influencers como piezas clave en la comunicación de las marcas. Un año después, en marzo de 2021, podemos afirmar que aquellas predicciones no se han cumplido y que esta herramienta de comunicación sigue viva y generando beneficios. En este artículo se realizará una revisión documental tratando, por un lado, de definir y profundizar en el concepto influencer marketing, y describir su funcionamiento; y, por otro, de recopilar información que permita determinar si sigue teniendo la misma importancia como técnica de relación
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Purpose Despite the increasing popularity of influencer marketing, there exists a lack of understanding of how content created by social media influencers stimulates the pre-purchase behaviour of followers. Based on the stimulus-organism-response framework, this paper aims to address this lacuna by examining how influencer-created content affects the willingness of followers to search for more information related to the posted product. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional research design uses a web-based questionnaire among Instagram users in Sri Lanka. Structural equation modelling with analysis of moment structures 27 and SPSS PROCESS macro are used for hypothesis testing. Findings Findings indicate that the commercial orientation of influencer-created content reduces follower trustworthiness towards them and the perceived credibility of the content. Mediation results demonstrate that the commercial orientation of influencer-created content negatively affects follower willingness to search for more information related to the posted product through trustworthiness and perceived credibility. Practical implications When adopting influencer marketing to stimulate information search behaviour, marketing practitioners should carefully examine the commercial orientation of the content of the messages posted by social media influencers to maintain high levels of follower trustworthiness towards the influencer and positive follower credibility perceptions of the message. Originality/value This paper adds to influencer marketing literature by demonstrating the underlying process through which the commercial orientation of influencer-created content impacts follower willingness to search for product-related information.
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Social media influencers (SMIs) are increasingly involving in influencer marketing to promote products. However, there are both opportunities and issues with influencer marketing. SMIs’ narrative strategies can be of great value as high-quality eWOM content is vital to maintain influencer marketing effectiveness. This paper adopts the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework to explore the value of SMIs’ narrative strategies to overcome potential influencer marketing issues within the context of China’s luxury market. A qualitative approach is applied to explore Chinese consumer perceptions toward capabilities of three SMIs’ narrative strategies (brand attribute evaluation, brand love inspiration, self-identity construction) to deal with the issues of cultural barriers, commercial–personal tension, and sponsorship disclosure in SMIs’ eWOM. Based on the research findings, this paper develops a conceptual model to illustrate how SMIs’ narrative strategies benefit the cultivation of influencer marketing on social media.
Chapter
Influencer marketing on Instagram is a marketing communication tool used more and more frequently by all brands. Most companies are now turning to social networks to promote their products and get closer to their potential consumers. Marketing influence via product placements seems to have positive repercussions on company sales. Nevertheless, it seems that the continued presence of brands on social networks, via influencers, causes consumer fatigue, even annoyance, who feel invaded by advertising messages. Therefore, the main objective of this chapter is to analyze how product placements on Instagram influence consumers’ purchase intention and to what extent this new type of marketing communication could lead to the development of negative attitudes and annoyance.
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Banks distribute intangible services, so that traditional marketing instruments are often limited concerning their effectiveness to reach new clients, especially teenagers and young adults. With respect to this relevant practical problem, we used survey data for the relevant group (n = 302) in Austria to investigate whether influencer marketing could be a banking strategy to reach the young generation. Due to the particular complexity of a financial product, we assume that the credibility and trustworthiness of an influencer can lead to respondents being more willing to engage with financial products. Based on our survey results, we can provide first evidence that influencer marketing also has untapped potential for banks. Although our respondents revealed a certain skepticism towards this form of marketing, the results indicate a weak positive correlation between influencer marketing, customer engagement with the subject of financial products and ultimately the purchase of financial products. In this respect, our results are of particular interest to decision-makers in banks. However, they are also relevant for the whole of society. If influencer marketing works for financial products, then other topics that are particularly sensitive, e.g., health care, could be addressed accordingly.
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Identifying the right influencers for brands is often the starting point for a successful influencer campaign. However, influencer identification is understudied, and most previous studies have only discussed visible characteristics of influencers and their social networks, overlooking content-based metrics. Combining interdisciplinary theories and techniques from marketing, linguistics, and computer science, we propose a data-driven automated text analysis framework to identify characteristics of effective influencers using influencer posts. Specifically, we propose a model that incorporates influencer personality traits captured by natural language processing, accounting for traditional covariates, such as network structure and follower engagement. In addition, we use a dataset that attributes influencer social media activities to customer purchases to address fake engagement and showcase our automated textual analysis. The proposed framework can help marketers develop influencer profiles and predict optimal influencers for their campaigns.
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Social media have gained traction in advertising campaigns for luxury and fashion clothes using influencers, who shape trends of photography. To remain competitive, however, influencers depend on how they convey authenticity, which largely relies on the key visual elements of the photographs they post in social media. The purpose of this study is to explore the visual elements of photography used by social media influencers and to compare the main photography trends in digital media. Specifically, it aims to shed light on how new photography trends such as urban background style and fashion models with large body sizes produce effects on consumers.
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EN: In keeping with the trend of the attention economy, social media influencer marketing is a growth market that runs across the lifestyle themes of beauty, luxury, fashion, travel, and food. This article explores the status quo of this phenomenon and highlights current trends and the resulting challenges for marketers and influencers. DE: Social-Media-Influencer-Marketing ist ganz im Trend der Aufmerksamkeitsökonomie ein Wachstumsmarkt, der über die Lifestyle-Themen Beauty, Luxury, Fashion, Travel und Food hinweg verläuft. Dieser Beitrag erforscht den Status quo dieses Phänomens und zeigt aktuelle Trends sowie die daraus resultierenden Herausforderungen für Marketers sowie Influencerinnen und Influencer auf.
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Influencer advertising is a rapidly emerging strategy that is revolutionizing the way brands leverage influencers to promote products and engage customers. However, extant research has not fully addressed the impact of influencer advertising on luxury brands. In this research, we examine whether influencer advertising can have an impact on purchase decisions for luxury consumers, based on the different types of influencers (mega vs. micro). Using three experimental studies, we explore the impact of influencer advertising on purchase decisions involving luxury consumers. Our research examines how the congruity between the influencer type and the degree of conspicuity in the advertisement contributes to the purchase decision, and demonstrates evidence that luxury brand consumers are heterogeneous in their needs, wants, and desires. In doing so, we provide actionable long-term strategies to managers and practitioners, along with future research directions to academicians.
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The paper aimed to examine the factors that influenced international students' perception of social media influencer marketing, emphasizing the effectiveness of the source credibility model and how its independent variables in perceived attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness can influence its dependent variable in purchase intention. The study employs a quantitative research method in a survey questionnaire. The population of this study is the international students enrolled at Akdeniz University. Participants of the study were selected using a snowball sampling method. Snowball sampling is a nonprobability sampling method that employs a few participants to help identify other participants to participate in the research, thus enlarging the sample size. The results showed that perceived attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness did not positively affect purchase intention. The study was conducted on an international sample of students has revealed that international students do not accept the practice of influencer marketing, and the source credibility of social media influencers has an insignificant effect on purchase intention. Keywords: Influencer Marketing, International Students, Social Media, Source Credibility Model, Akdeniz University
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The crisis arising from the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire tourism system, including communication and marketing practices. Of these practices, in recent years influencer marketing has been one of the more successful strategies for both destinations and tourism businesses. This research investigates the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on travel content creators, their communicative practices, and their engagement with audiences, brands and health authorities. The study uses netnography based on immersion, interviews and social media content analysis. The results obtained show that the pandemic has transformed influencer marketing and has driven influencers to change their business strategies, content creation tactics and engagement mechanisms. The findings contribute to the crisis communication literature by illustrating that influencers constitute important allies for organisations when communicating during a crisis and have played a critical role in tourism recovery.
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Purpose Influencer marketing is a newer interactive marketing model that has attracted the attention of scholars and marketers. The study aimed to examine the mediation role of influencer credibility (IC) and the moderation role of self-esteem in the effects of individuals' parasocial relationships (PSR) with YouTube influencers on their product attitudes (PATs) and purchase intentions (PIs). Design/methodology/approach The researchers used an online survey to test a sequential mediation model and moderation mediation models using Hayes PROCESS modeling. Findings The researchers revealed a sequential mediation model that IC and PAT mediate the association between PSR and PI. Individuals who perceived IC to be low were more likely to buy an endorsed product when their self-esteem got lower. When their self-esteem is low, individuals tend to purchase the endorsed products if they have stronger PSR with the influencers. However, they are less likely to buy the endorsed products when their self-esteem gets higher. Originality/value The study expands the dimensions of IC. The persuasive power of IC and influencer-user relationship was affected by individual differences, namely, self-esteem. Brands should pay attention to customers' personalities, motivations and preferences when designing strategies to market their products via social media.
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Regulation prescribes that sponsored social media posts should clearly disclose their material connection with brands. However, research on the impact of such disclosures is limited. This study used an experimental 4 × 2 between-subjects design (N = 414), reflecting different types of material connections between the influencer and the brand and two kinds of message sidedness, to investigate how the sponsorship disclosure affects consumers' responses to sponsored Instagram posts. Findings show that including a sponsorship disclosure (compared to no disclosure) negatively affects brand attitude through enhanced ad recognition, which activates ad skepticism, which, in turn, negatively affects the influencer's credibility. Further, results show a significant moderated mediation effect in that source's credibility and, consequently, brand attitude was only negatively affected when the influencer used a one-sided message and not when the message was two-sided. Also, influencers who post genuine product recommendations and thus have no commercial relationship with the brand, do well by explicitly mentioning this. Iincluding a statement that a post is not sponsored, rather than leaving thisit unclear whether their post is sponsored, may generate more positive brand responses through lowered ad recognition and skepticism.
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In the past few years, expenditure on influencer marketing has grown exponentially. The present study involves preliminary research to understand the mechanism by which influencer marketing affects consumers via social media. It proposes an integrated model – social media influencer value model – to account for the roles of advertising value and source credibility. In order to test this model, we administered an online survey among social media users who followed at least one influencer. Partial least squares path modeling results show that the informative value of influencer-generated content, influencer’s trustworthiness, attractiveness, and similarity to the followers positively affect followers’ trust in influencers’ branded posts, which subsequently influence brand awareness and purchase intentions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Social media influencers are on a daily basis conveying their opinion regarding products and brands through social media postings. Many of these posts are sponsored by a brand, while others are in the form of genuine advice. Influencers might choose to add a disclosure (“this is not sponsored content”) in non-sponsored product posts that highlight their impartiality. This information ought to affect how consumers respond to the post. In two experiments, we examine how emphasizing impartiality in influencer product posts affect consumers' response by applying a 3 (disclosure type: impartial vs. explicit sponsorship vs. no disclosure) factorial-design. In the second experiment, we further examine how disclosure type and landing page type (e-commerce product page vs. start page) from brand hyperlinks in the influencer post, interact to form consumer brand attitudes and purchase intentions. The findings reveal that impartiality product posts are less likely to be perceived as advertising compared to sponsored product posts or posts without sponsorship information, and therefore generate higher source and message credibility. Additionally, participants’ brand attitude and purchase intention are reduced when they are directed to a product page instead of a start page when being simultaneously exposed to an impartiality disclosure.
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The Children's Advertising Review Unit's recent press releases involving child influencer unboxing videos expressed concern that they did not appropriately disclose sponsorship. Placement of pre-roll advertising was also cited as contributing to the blurring between content and advertising. This study investigated parents’ understanding of and responses to sponsored child influencer unboxing videos. We conducted a 2 × 3 online experiment among 418 parents that examined the influence of sponsorship text disclosure (present or absent) and sponsor pre-roll (sponsor pre-roll, nonsponsor pre-roll, and no pre-roll) on conceptual persuasion knowledge, perceptions of sponsorship transparency, and several outcome measures. We also tested the potential moderating variable of parental mediation. We found that sponsor pre-roll advertising positively impacted parents’ perceptions of sponsorship transparency, which in turn mediated attitudinal and perceptual outcomes. In addition, high levels of parental mediation conditionally impacted the indirect effect of a sponsor pre-roll advertisement via sponsorship transparency on perceptions of the unboxing video and attitudes toward the sponsor. Based on the findings, we discuss theoretical, managerial, and public policy implications.
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Findings of two experimental studies show that Instagram influencers with high numbers of followers are found more likeable, partly because they are considered more popular. Important, only in limited cases, perceptions of popularity induced by the influencer's number of followers increase the influencer's perceived opinion leadership. However, if the influencer follows very few accounts him-/herself, this can negatively impact popular influencers’ likeability. Also, cooperating with influencers with high numbers of followers might not be the best marketing choice for promoting divergent products, as this decreases the brand's perceived uniqueness and consequently brand attitudes.
Three influencer marketing problems that brands themselves can be created
  • J Tobin
Tobin, J. 2019. Three influencer marketing problems that brands themselves can be created. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesagencycouncil/2019/10/14/three-influencer-marketing-problems-that-brands-themselves-have-created/#284463bb6a3e (accessed September 1, 2020).
Is Covid making marketing influencers more influential? s
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Taylor, C.R. 2020. Is Covid making marketing influencers more influential? Forbes (July 30), https://www.forbes.com/sites/charlesrtaylor/2020/07/30/is-covid-making-marketing-influencers-more-influential/ #237d789f4200 (accessed August 31, 2020).