Book

On Collective Memory

Authors:
... Agriculture and practices related to the procurement and preparation of food hold strong links with the territory and shape the basis of biocultural memory (Toledo andBarrera-Bassols 2008, Nazarea et al. 2013). Biocultural memory refers to the human reliance on intergenerational relationships, not only to one another but within territories, where the physicality of agroecosystems, material and symbolic meanings, as well as institutions join to constitute biocultural memory (Halbwachs 1992, Nazarea 1998, Toledo and Barrera-Bassols 2008, Barthel et al. 2010, Barthel et al. 2013a, Barthel et al. 2013b. In campesino and Indigenous agriculture, biocultural memory includes symbolic and material realms, which are maintained and transmitted through generations by imitation, verbal interactions, and collective ceremonies and practices. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food feeds knowledge and practices through generations, sustaining biocultural memories. However, prevailing economic models and state policies have driven processes of accumulation by dispossession, defined as incremental social-ecological processes by which people lose their means of production and social reproduction. We conducted a cross-hemispherical study exploring food systems of Indigenous communities inhabiting forested landscapes in Latin America. We used mixed methods that included passive and participant observation, focus groups, free lists, food diaries, oral histories, and calendars in Mapuche communities from the Chilean Andes, and Tzotzil communities from Chiapas, Mexico. Food items and their preparations have changed in both locations. Both food systems show patterns of accumulation by dispossession associated with processes of colonial history, state policies, land privatization, soil depletion, and shifts in local food preferences. Despite these distant but comparable accumulation by dispossession processes, we advocate that biocultural memory remains linked to food-related experiences and sets the basis for dynamic and resilient local food systems going forward.
Article
Full-text available
The island has been impacted by volcanic eruptions which led to tsunami in a different scale, where in 1883 claimed 36000 lives, subsequently in 2018 took one victim. Some island communities succeed in pertaining memory of tsunami through oral tradition, namely Simeulue, differently Sebesi communities fail to maintain its memory on tsunami. The gap of 138 years seems to bury the memory of tsunami in Sebesi island. This paper aims to explore why the Sebesi communities fail to maintain the disaster memory. To build an understanding the way in which the Sebesi forgetting their past disaster, this paper uses longue durée approach, oral history framework and archival studies to analyses the structures—both environmental structures and socio-politic and cultural structures—that play roles in the disappearance of disaster memory. The study revealed that none of survivor during its catastrophic tsunami in 1883 and repopulation of this island occurred only after 1940s. This resulted to the formation of community without disaster memory. Only after the 2018 tsunami, the community of Sebesi Island began to aware that there are hazards among their environments. Uncovering the fading of disaster memory in Pulau Sebesi elucidates lessons to pursue resilient development trajectory on the island.
Article
This paper aims to identify how the members of historical memory associations of Biscay (Spain) constructed their ‘community images’ through their social representations of the recent past. We analysed the discourse of 12 in-depth interviews with various members of six historical memory associations. The findings show that the interviewees conceptualize the community from a postmodern perspective, characterizing it in terms of diversity, mobility and interdependence. The identities that were constructed through the narratives were articulated according to ideological orientation and power differences. Power differences most strongly determine the distance between collectives and groups that appear in the narratives. These findings indicate the consequences of obscuring the debate of the recent past with political subjects without giving voice to the citizens themselves and open the way to future reflections on the psychosocial effects resulting from the lack of a shared narrative within communities.
Article
An individual’s fear of hate crime victimization might be partially explained by direct experiences that influence their assessment of victimization risk. In some cases, though, fear of hate crime victimization is driven not by direct, personal experiences, but by historical and contemporary trauma suffered by those holding the targeted status. Using data from the 2019 nationally representative Experiences with Religious Discrimination Study (ERDS) survey, we show that part of Jewish and Muslim adults’ greater fears of victimization is explained by their past personal victimization experiences, their knowledge of close friends and family who have been victimized, and their greater religious visibility. Still, even after accounting for these factors, Jewish and Muslim adults report greater fears of religious hate crime victimization compared to Christian adults. We attribute this residual fear to the culture of anti-Semitism and Islamophobia within the United States and violence attributable to that culture, as well as the collective memory of historical religion-based victimization of Muslim and Jewish communities. These findings suggest the collective memory and knowledge of contemporary religious victimization may continue to affect Jewish and Muslim adults via a mechanism of fear, which has implications for scholarly and policy efforts to decrease religious victimization and its impact.
Article
Iconic buildings are important meaning generators in cities. This study explores the role that iconic buildings in-the-making have in the discursive construction of city identity in public debate. Through the examination of the Locarno PalaCinema case (Switzerland), our study proposes that iconic buildings – during their planning – can serve as aspirational identity artefacts: objects that are mobilised in discourse to inform productive idealisations of city identity by powerful urban actors. Findings identify the mechanisms through which the aspirational artefact and city identity interact in discourse, showing that iconic building projects orient city identity claims, while at the same time city identity meanings taken from collective memory, present understandings and future aspirations are used by actors to infuse the evolving project with meaning. This study aims to contribute to debates in urban planning and city identity by discussing the identity anticipation role of the planning of iconic buildings and how they can be a productive ground to reflect, re-orient and re-claim the unique features of a city’s identity while aspiring to achieve a different future.
Chapter
Henri Bergson (1859–1941) contributed major philosophical works on time, consciousness, evolution, and morality. His thinking remains central to debates on fundamental issues within philosophy and social science, particular around “process ontology.” Bergson’s work was of enormous influence to early-twentieth-century social science, and has seen a resurgence in the twenty-first century. This is in part due to the reception of Gilles Deleuze’s work, which engaged extensively with Bergson. In this entry, we focus on Bergson’s treatment of the relationship between “the possible” and “the real.” Bergson inverts the Platonic organization of these terms, where the real is constituted by the selection of ideal forms of possible. Bergson argues that this makes it impossible to understand how “unforseeable novelty” might emerge in the world. The possible is instead a “mirage” retrospectively posited as prior to the real. This treatment is part of a broader project of overcoming metaphysical mistakes which consist in seeing one philosophical term as adding fullness and positivity to another. In its place, Bersgson offers an account of life as dynamic, autopoietic emergence. In the final part of the entry we describe how an engagement with Bergson can afford social science approaches to memory, imagination, and lived experience as emergent patternings of life responding to life.
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview of supporters’ groups in Eastern part of Europe. One of the most important heritage influencing football as well as supporters in Eastern Europe is the era of communism. Fans from many Western European countries could develop their passion, sense of belonging and ultras style much earlier than supporters from, for example, Poland, Russia or Czech Republic. Most of such groups started to develop only from the 1990s when the system transformations was just launched. Due to communist legacy, most groups are reluctant to progressive, leftist ideas and driving forward nationalism and right-wing attitudes. There is also visible division between ultras fans and hooligan crews in many Eastern European groups. This chapter is based on the following axes: history of fandom in particular regions, the most important local groups, the main political ideas and engagement, ultras and hooligan activities. The data used to evaluate the proposed topic derive from desk research of fan zines, websites, books, articles and qualitative research (interviews and ethnography).KeywordsEastern European supportersFootball historyPolitical influences and hooligans
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we review and synthesize the growing sociology-informed literature on organizational memory studies, which focuses on collective memory as a social construction of the past. To organize this literature, we present an ecological view of collective memory. Organizations, from this perspective, are conceived of as both constituted by a variety of mnemonic communities and, simultaneously, part of a broader ecology of mnemonic communities. We use this framework to guide our review of the various forms of memory work within and between mnemonic communities. Our review shows that much of the sociologically informed research has focused on memory work within communities. We also identify an emerging interest in the study of memory work between communities. In conclusion, we discuss possible future directions and outline a three-point agenda for future research that calls for a better understanding of the relational dynamics of memory with a focus on the organizing of memory, the embeddedness of memory work, and the construction of experiences of the past.
Article
This study sheds light on competitive lieux de memoire in the south-east of Slovenia that are directly related to significant social changes of the twentieth century. The aim is to evaluate the perceptions of influential domestic stakeholders, including experts and media, representing (different) perspectives of the transformation of sites of memory into national and transnational spaces of memory in the dark tourism context. We carried out 10 interviews and a qualitative inductive content analysis, and a subsequent qualitative deductive content analysis of 16 news media articles. Creating an Euler diagram, we compared real social and media-created reality and found inconsistencies: only three main categories are common. We found that development issues are highlighted within social reality, while the media mainly report on what was observed on the ground, at sites or events. Despite the polarised Slovenian post-socialist atmosphere, competitive memories gradually become multidirectional with the potential for the commodification of lieux de memoire within international dark tourism.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to critically discuss theoretical perspectives on sustainability, providing a conceptual anchor for the chapters in the book. Bessell and Kjørholt map the challenges facing small coastal communities in the context of economic and social transformations that are closely associated with globalisation and challenges such as the out-migration of young people. Moreover, small coastal communities are confronted with tensions arising from efforts to ensure economic sustainability as the environment is degraded and ecological sustainability is threatened. Although highly important, questions related to the social and cultural sustainability of coastal communities receive less attention in discussions around sustainability. This chapter contributes to the nascent literature on social and cultural sustainability. Bessell and Kjørholt argue for an intergenerational approach to sustainability that encompasses four pillars: environmental, social, cultural, and economic. They explore the ways in which cultural sustainability can be conceptualised and map associated concepts of cultural heritage and collective social memory, local knowledge transmission, and justice as they relate to sustainability.KeywordsSocial sustainabilityCultural sustainabilityLocal knowledge
Article
Research on African-Americans' relationship with science, while relatively sparse, in general suggests higher levels of alienation than among their White counterparts, whether in the form of less positive attitudes to science, or lower scientific literacy. In this article, we leverage social identity theory to examine the role of racial social identity and ingroup evaluation as putative mechanisms that produce these disparities. We use data from the General Social Survey, pooled over three waves, as the basis for our investigation. The results of the analysis indicate that, when controlling for other covariates, there is no statistically significant difference in the effect of racial self-identification on science knowledge among African-Americans and Whites. However, we provide evidence that the effect of favourable ingroup evaluation on science knowledge differs in these two groups, being more positive for African-Americans compared to Whites.
Article
Full-text available
Korumanın nesnesi ve kapsamı Venedik Tüzüğü'nden günümüze daha kapsayıcı bir hal alarak genişlemiş. Nesne ve kapsam genişlerken, korumaya değer görülen nesneye atfedilen değerler setinin de değiştiği görülmektedir. Bu değerler seti, önceleri salt fiziksel ve tarihsel özelliklerden temel alırken, süreç içerisinde mekânın, yaşanmışlıklar ve sosyal olgular ile örüldüğü kabul edilmiş ve değerler seti, fiziksel özelliklerin yanı sıra sosyal özellikleri de içerir hale gelmiştir. Yeni anlayış çerçevesinde mekân, salt tarihi, bilimsel ve sanatsal değerinden ötürü değil, toplum tarafından kendisine atfedilen sembolik değerleri de içerisinde barındırmaktadır. Günümüzde kent belleğinin bir parçası haline gelen ve toplumun bir kısmında ortak hisler uyandıran, anıları canlandıran bellek mekânları, toplum tarafından atfedilen değerlerden ötürü güncel koruma tartışmaları içerisinde yer almaya başlamıştır. Çalışmanın temel savı, mekânın birikimli bir şekilde toplumsal belleği sakladığı ve bir süre sonra bellek mekânına dönüştüğüdür. Çalışma, korumada değişen değerler anlayışı bağlamda bellek mekânlarının da kültürel miras öğesi olarak korunması gerektiğini ileri sürerek, bellek ve mekân ilişkisini anlamaya çalışmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında mekânın belleğinin nasıl oluştuğu ve bu birikimin nasıl bellek mekânlarına dönüştüğü incelenmiş; korumadaki yeni değerler seti bağlamında bellek mekânlarının neden önemli olduğuna ve neden korumanın nesnesi haline gelmesi gerektiğine değinilmiştir. Sonuç kısmında ise bellek mekânlarının korunması gerekliliği, unutma – unutturma pratikleri üzerinden tartışılmıştır.
Article
Memory researchers and theorists have long advanced the idea that the manner in which information is retrieved is critical. The way retrieval unfolds provides critical insights into how memories are organized and accessed—an important aspect of memory missed by focusing only on quantity. Cognitive studies of memory in social contexts, deploying the collaborative memory paradigm, have also noted the importance of such retrieval organization. Such memory studies often focus on how relative to “groups” that never collaborated, former members of collaborating groups recall more of the same material (collective memory) and they do so in a more synchronized fashion (collective retrieval organization). In this review, we leverage the diverse methodological and quantitative toolkits that have traditionally targeted individual retrieval to highlight the ways in which this social memory research has examined collective memory and collective retrieval organization. To that end, we consider how the collaborative memory paradigm has integrated methods, such as free recall, that afford rich assessments of retrieval organization. Likewise, we consider the application of metrics that characterize organization patterns in different contexts. With this background in mind, we discuss the important theoretical and broader implications of research on collective memory and collective retrieval organization. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Memory An example collaborative memory experiment, with indicators where collaborative inhibition, collective memory, and collective retrieval organization would be assessed.
Article
In the wake of media hype about artificial intelligence (AI)/human collaboration, organizations are investing considerable resources into developing and using AI. In this paper, we draw on theories of technology in organizations to frame new directions for the study of what it means to work “with” AI. Drawing on prior literature, we consider how interactions between users and AI might unfold through theoretical lenses which cast technology as a tool and as a medium. Reflecting on how AI technologies diverge from technologies studied in the past, we propose a new perspective, which considers technology as a counterpart in a system of work that includes its design, implementation, and use. This perspective encourages developing a grounded understanding of how AI intersects with work, and therefore ethnography, building on thick descriptions, is an apt approach. We argue that relational ethnographic approaches can assist organization theorists in navigating the methodological challenges of taking a counterpart perspective and propose several strategies for future research.
Article
An analysis of twenty pairs of Taiwanese and mainland Chinese timelines of cross‐Strait relations demonstrates a highly dynamic way in which the two societies' conflict memories have evolved over two decades. These timelines were developed in the context of twenty weeklong Interactive Conflict Resolution (ICR) dialogues that the author facilitated. A cohort of civil society delegates from both sides of the Strait, each with five persons, participated in each of the dialogues and produced the timelines. A longitudinal content analysis of the timelines reveals that the participants' experiences of cross‐Strait relations have continuously altered their mental frames of the conflict. It also reveals distinct patterns of their recollections. These findings challenge the prevailing practices of conflict mapping and analysis that uncritically presume a static nature of conflict parties' goals. Broader implications of the study include the usefulness of action research and applied practice for methodological innovations and theory building. 经分析, 二十对海峡两岸关系时间线呈现了两个社会的冲突记忆在二十年间发生了高度动态的演变。这些时间线是在作者主持的二十个为期一周的互动冲突化解(ICR)对谈中形成的。每场对谈皆由来自海峡两岸各五位的民间社会代表参加,并由他们生产时间线。本研究对时间线的纵向内容分析显示,参与者对两岸关系的经历不断地改变他们对冲突的心理框架,并揭示他们回忆的独特规律。这些发现将挑战目前常规的冲突绘制和分析方法,因为这些方法欠缺批判性地假定了冲突各方目标的静态性质。该研究更广泛的影响包括展现行动研究和实践对方法论创新和理论建设的价值。 經分析,二十對海峽兩岸關系時間線呈現了兩個社會的沖突記憶在二十年間發生了高度動態的演變。這些時間線是在作者主持的二十個為期一周的互動沖突化解(ICR)對談中形成的。每場對談皆由來自海峽兩岸各五位的民間社會代表參加,並由他們產出時間線。本研究對時間線的縱向內容分析顯示,參與者對兩岸關系的經歷不斷地改變他們對沖突的心理框架,並揭示他們回憶的獨特規律。這些發現將挑戰目前常規的沖突繪製和分析方法,因為這些方法欠缺批判性地假定了沖突各方目標的靜態性質。該研究更廣泛的影響包括展現行動研究和實踐對方法論創新和理論建設的價值。
Article
Disasters achieve an enduring place or status in the history of a society by becoming part of the collective memory of its people. Using literary-cultural production and survey research data from 1997–1998, this paper explores the place of the great September 19 and September 20, 1985 Mexico City earthquakes in the collective memory of the Mexican people. The principal finding is that, of all the traumas that affected Mexico in the latter half of the 20’ century, the earthquakes of 1985 rank—and are almost twinned in importance—with the 1968 student protests and resulting Massacre at Tlatelolco. Both events turn out to be historical markers in Mexican collective memory.
Article
Business history provides multiple examples of similar managerial crises occurring over an extended period. Despite the growing need for improved management decision-making, managers continue to demonstrate a lack of reflexivity and revert to formulaic practices that have contributed to previous events. In response, we employ the institutional logics perspective to explain causes of managers’ nonreflexive decision-making, and as a basis for a new historical focus within business schools. Specifically, we extend the model of collective memory-making to develop a pedagogical model that outlines how management educators can develop students’ historical sensibility—that is, their sensitivity to and appreciation of possible pasts and the impact of managerial actions on history—to overcome the constraining influence of dominant logics on managers’ decision-making. To this end, we advocate that management educators develop students’ abilities to procure and evaluate historical documents with reference to context; critically analyze retrieved documents and synthesize narratives; and communicate those narratives. The harnessing of historical sensibility is assisted by articulation of specific action foci. By focusing on both the development and harnessing of historical sensibility, we go beyond the presumption that more history will (and should) ensure better management practice.
Chapter
Full-text available
La documentazione della prima campagna di scavo del 2006 a opera della Soprintendenza Archeologica delle Marche e delle successive cinque dal 2011 al 2015 condotte dalla Sapienza Università di Roma nel sito di Portonovo è stata eseguita con metodi tradizionali. La documentazione grafica, piante e sezioni, e i resoconti di scavo sono stati realizzati in modo manuale su supporto cartaceo. Questo tipo di supporti, come è noto, può risentire di numerosi problemi legati allo spazio fisico occupato, al rischio di smarrimento in archivi non ben organizzati e al naturale deterioramento progressivo del materiale cartaceo. Per ovviare a questi inconvenienti, si è deciso di convertire tutti i dati raccolti nel corso della ricerca dal formato cartaceo a quello digitale attraverso l’utilizzo di metodi e strumenti alcuni dei quali ancora in fase di sperimentazione.
Article
Full-text available
La novela Patria, de Fernando Aramburu (2016), sobre el terrorismo en el País Vasco, ha trascendido la ficción y se ha introducido en la opinión pública, entreverándose en la conversación sobre la actualidad política y social española. Partiendo de los estudios que relacionan periodismo y memoria, nuestro objetivo es ofrecer un mapa de la recepción de la novela en la prensa nacional y regional vasca, examinar en qué medida hay relación entre la cobertura, tratamiento y valoración en prensa y el ámbito territorial e ideológico de las cabeceras, para, de ese modo, observar la contribución de la prensa a la memoria colectiva sobre el terrorismo en España. El estudio se ha realizado sobre 167 piezas periodísticas mediante un análisis de contenido.
Chapter
Using discourse methodology, the chapter examines the discursive construction of national identity in prescribed history textbooks. Data analysis consisted of interviews of secondary history teachers. The respondents offered detailed statements on the link between national identity, ideology, and Russian history textbooks. The interviews demonstrated that some respondents felt that certain key and controversial events were either ignored or not discussed critically in current Russian history textbooks. New research data was provided for the relationship between national identity and history education. Most respondents agreed that the national identity was formed through the study of historical narratives, depicting significant events in the history of Russia. Finally, most respondents agreed, which was indicative of the political climate in the RF, that the primary value of history education in schools was education for national identity, patriotism, and citizenship education.
Chapter
In this chapter I identify, demonstrate, explain, and critique two narratives used, traditionally, in the writing of the past of international humanitarian law (IHL). One tells of IHL’s ineluctable progress, the other of its timeless, culture-less, universal immanence. These appear at odds: one narrates the dynamic process of restraining—and humanising—war through law; the other emphasises a constant and immutable idea of humanitarian restraint that inheres in any human civilisation. Culturally, nonetheless, these two narratives share the same function: both are used to affirm, to exogenous and endogenous audiences, faith in the project to humanise war. Deconstructing these narratives as forms of social memory suggests, however, that both types express and deal with epistemic anxieties about the present achievements of that project; both, in fact, allow IHL practitioners to come to terms with the present state of the project to humanise war by deferring the fulfilment of its promise to the indefinite future.
Article
Full-text available
This article for Global Studies Quarterly 2(4), 2022 confronts a puzzle regarding revisionist powers: How to make sense of states whose behavior combines "post-colonial" critique of Western hegemony with "post-imperial" projects at home and in near abroads? Answers to this question are often informed by realist notions of great power competition that tend to read revisionist critique of the West as either epiphenomenal or due to intrinsic enmity. This article proposes an alternative-the "capitulations syndrome"-which is developed via the Ottoman/Turkish experience and the literature on ontological insecurity. The syndrome combines "moral injury" at subordination to the West with attempts to elevate a state's status within Western-dominated international society. Anxieties produced by this paradox are managed via state narratives that celebrate select glories and traumas. This results in an exceptionalist sense of national "Self" that-when confronted-can lead to outrage at "Others" of the state story. The syndrome, I argue, both shapes broad imaginaries and is instrumentalized by policymakers. Thus, calls for global justice vis-à-vis Western hegemony can coexist with hegemonic projects nearer home. Identifying a series of family resemblances with China and Iran, I conclude by underscoring the article's main contributions: (1) its empirical study of the (post-)Ottoman experience as a case of revisionist former empires, (2) its analytical tool-the capitulations syndrome-with which to read comparative patterns, and (3) its epistemological corrective to international relations' blindspot regarding actors with both "post-colonial" and "post-imperial" features. This hybrid condition enables revisionist former empires to invoke post-colonial solidarities in pursuit of post-imperial projects.
Article
Full-text available
Antígona González es una obra de teatro o poema dramático compuesta por un conjunto de textos. El libro funciona como una memoria colectiva que es creada y recreada constantemente. La libertad de adaptación de sus puestas en escena (en danza moderna y teatro) puede interpretarse en sí misma como lazos de memoria en perpetua construcción. La obra está escrita como un pastiche —una acumulación de textos— que incluyen los testimonios de diversas personas afectadas por la violencia, noticias publicadas en diarios y blogs de internet. Todos suman retazos a esta innovadora obra de teatro que se va componiendo y recomponiendo como si fuera un collage vivo. Antígona González es una obra distinta por cómo construye la memoria colectiva a través de reactualizaciones y mediaciones que incorporan las voces de los silenciados e invocan a la acción del lector o espectador. Su objetivo es empoderar al ciudadano de a pie y hacer que la matanza y desaparición de personas en México no se olvide.
Article
Full-text available
We describe three areas of inquiry that we foresee as being important in future studies of collective memory, mind, and media. The first is the power of narratives, usually provided by collectives, which can be explicit and conscious or implicit and unconscious. A second important theme during this period of populism and nationalism is the study of the self-centredness (or egocentricity) of groups, especially nations believing their past is special. Such egocentricity can feed conflict among nations as well as groups within nations. The third important direction for research is future thinking, or studies of how people anticipate events they expect to unroll in their future and whether these events are mostly positive or negative. A puzzle of future thinking relative to collective memory is why people readily argue about and even fight over events from the past, but find it much more difficult to mobilise groups about life-threatening future events such as global warming or nuclear war. We look forward to studies in these crucial topics and others as they appear in Memory, Mind & Media .
Article
What are the long-term effects of authoritarian repression on political trust in a post-democratization context? Using the Gwangju Massacre in South Korea as a case study, this article finds that indirect and direct experience of state-perpetrated violence of the critical-period cohort—who were aged 17–25 during the incident—can have long-term negative effects on trust levels towards the government. Difference-in-difference analysis of national survey data collected in 2008 and 2012 reveals that experience with violence has long-term negative consequences on government trust. Results are robust even when including significant covariates of institutional theories and cultural theories, such as interpersonal trust, evaluation of government performance, as well as satisfaction with the economy. Drawing from memory studies, this article argues that the effects are due to collective memory formed during the critical period.
Article
Digital technologies have transformed the conventions of preserving, recalling, and forgetting the past as they provide new digital tools and platforms to remember, to forget and to collect data for individuals, societies, and corporations. With the convergence of new media, memory gains a global aspect along with its personal and local characteristics and turns into the digitally mediated memory. These technologies enable digital memory to be indexed, archived, circulated, and processed infinitely in cyberspace. Therefore, the advancements in the Web and cloud computing technologies yield new dimensions for memory studies to be discussed from a political economy perspective since digitally mediated memory has some economic, political, societal, and cultural impacts on societies. This study conceptually scrutinizes the commodification processes of digital memory and analyzes its material and immaterial bases from a political economy perspective, and claims that they are fundamentally interwoven. The rare earths which are used to produce technological devices are considered as the material basis. Additionally, major technology corporations using these rare earths, and their data centers are taken as the extensions of its materiality. Digitally archived, managed, and retrieved memory is considered as data, which represent immaterial basis of digital memory. The materiality and immateriality of digital memory are not regarded as independent from the inherent power relations and ideologies of the current data economy. Thus, this study aims to discuss digital memory from a political economy perspective to reveal the flow between its materiality and immateriality and the inherent power relations in the data economy. It also poses the potential challenges, risks, and outcomes we may encounter in such an economic system.
Article
Grandparents’ World War Two (WWII) stories are emotionally powerful, intimate accounts of firsthand experience that can shape grandchildren's ideas of state history, nation, and identity. This effect, I argue, manifests most intensively in critical times when national history and identity are threatened. Such was the case when former Macedonian Prime Minister Zoran Zaev relayed a controversial version of Macedonian national history and identity in a TV interview. In reaction, many Macedonian citizens shared fragments of their grandparents’ WWII stories. This study analyzes several more detailed versions of these grandparents’ narratives in order to ascertain the formative power of family WWII stories over one's personal sense of national identity. To do so, it will examine the positioning practices of the present‐day narrators, the grandchildren of WWII participants, focusing on the manners in which they interactively reproduce their own sense of national identity vis‐a‐vis‐these stories.
Article
Full-text available
Starting from Comprehensive or Interpretive Sociology and the Sociology of skyscrapers, this article proposes as basic objectives to verify how the North American economic culture is showed in the symbolism of the skyscrapers of Chicago and New York and to verify the parallelism between the formal evolution of these buildings and the main economic transformations that have occurred in North American society in recent decades. In short, we will try to highlight the following symbolic questions: if the skyscrapers of Chicago and New York represent the defense of an American business culture marked by strong competitiveness and individualism; if they express the aesthetic transition from a capitalist rationalist architecture to another aesthetic where fiction, fantasy and spectacularity prevail; if this process is in tune with the transformation from an industrial capitalism to another of consumption and if it manifests itself through the decline of rationalist structural architectural elements towards others marked by glass, lightness, fluidity, liquidity and commodification; if the individualism that characterizes North American capitalism has also mutated in recent decades, that is, if from a primitive exaltation of autonomy as a core value of society, it drifts towards the cult of an individualized, privatized self disconnected from public space. Ultimately, it is about confirming the sociological utility of skyscrapers, understood as symbolic, economic, social and cultural objects.
Article
Full-text available
Public memories of significant events shared within societies and groups have been conceptualized and studied as collective memory since the 1920s. Thanks to the recent advancement in digitization of public-domain knowledge and online user behaviors, collective memory has now become a subject of rigorous quantitative investigation using large-scale empirical data. Earlier studies, however, typically considered only one dynamical process applied to data obtained in just one specific event category. Here we propose a two-phase mathematical model of collective memory decay that combines exponential and power-law phases, which represent fast (linear) and slow (nonlinear) decay dynamics, respectively. We applied the proposed model to the Wikipedia page view data for articles on significant events in five categories: earthquakes, deaths of notable persons, aviation accidents, mass murder incidents, and terrorist attacks. Results showed that the proposed two-phase model compared favorably with other existing models of collective memory decay in most of the event categories. The estimated model parameters were found to be similar across all the event categories. The proposed model also allowed for detection of a dynamical switching point when the dominant decay dynamics exhibit a phase shift from exponential to power-law. Such decay phase shifts typically occurred about 10 to 11 days after the peak in all of the five event categories.
Article
This study seeks to examine how the Palestinian national ethos was formed based on both primordialism and territorial perceptions. It is based on primary sources—memoirs, public statements, and Palestinian media releases—dating back to the British Mandate for Palestine and examines the use of the basic elements of the ethos: victimhood, victory at all costs, and universal justice. The paper discerns two stages in the process of ethos formation: the first started in the 1910s and ended when the British Mandate was over. The second began after the civil war of 1947–1949 in Palestine. The loss of the Arab-Palestinian side and the consequences of the Nakba has not terminated yet. While the first stage focuses on injustice, the second phase includes all three features of the national ethos.
Thesis
This study explores how family memory relates to children's history learning in conflict-ridden societies. It focuses on how survivors of the traumatic events of 1974, make meaning of 1974 while negotiating their role in their children’s history learning about sensitive issues in Cyprus. Additionally, it provides insights on students’ and their teachers’ approaches towards the recent past in their schools. Memory and narrative permeate this research as concepts for understanding how the past influences the memories and beliefs of people and how they remember the past, construct self-narratives, and mediate these to their youngsters. This study adopts a qualitative research approach. Research data were collected via one-on-one semi-structured interviews with 5 history educators, 23 parents or grandparents and 10 joint interviews with (grand) parents and their children, through the methods of document analysis on the history textbook and observing classes about recent Cypriot history. Content analysis was applied to textual data. Narratives were explored as an experience and a construct, drawing on Labovian structural narrative analysis. (Grand) parents narrate personal and vicarious experiences conveying their memories and attitudes about 1974. They make meaning of this past in six ways namely survival, loss, pursuit, rivalry, victimization and truth and seem resilient in processing 1974. They regard the history textbook and teachers as vehicles transferring the State’s approach to 1974 and claim their own share when talking about the past. They attend funerals of missing persons or visit places with certain meanings for their family histories, initiatives enabling them to link their past to their children’s present. These memory-sites stage adults’ stories and enable youngsters to inherit the family history and values while acknowledging their positionality in society. These findings indicate the need to enhance our knowledge about family-intergenerational memory and emotional issues in history learning in Cyprus and other conflict-ridden societies.
Article
Full-text available
Cultural and political alterity in China is levelled by disrupting local communities and networks, both necessary to keep memories and sense of identity alive through sharing and socialising. By taking Suzhou’s mosques as focal lens, the author assesses an experiential void which is politically and socially created, and shows the consequences of rewriting history. The broken nexus between buildings, communities and memories impacts the historical centrality and socialization of Islam in Suzhou, where communities are dispersed and shared memories are lost. Mosques’ positionality in the urban fabric is assessed through interviews and interaction with local Muslims, and the identification of past surrounding communities and networks. The assessment of the heterotopic dimension and contested memories of Suzhou’s mosques in a contemporary context — performed by collecting historical, intellectual, topographical and architectural fragments — allows us to grasp the highly symbolic dimensions of a past diversity in identity spaces. The role of communities in relation with the city’s rich intellectual past — including its tradition of literati translating Islamic classics from Persian to Chinese — is understood as central, together with a spiritual geography made of connections and relations among places.
Article
As the cliché has it, nostalgia ain’t what it used to be. Except this cliché is true: nostalgia hasn’t always been the relatively benign, comforting longing for a lost time which we know today; it used to be a dangerous disease, a deadly form of homesickness. This article traces the surprising history of nostalgia from its origins in the late Seventeenth Century to the present. It both sketches the different ways in which nostalgia has been experienced over the past three centuries, and reviews existing literature that has sought to grasp this protean emotion across the disciplines. As the article shows, contrary to our presentist common sense, when it comes to our affective lives, history matters.
Article
Full-text available
During the war in the northern part of Sri Lanka, theatre committees functioned on a monthly allowance basis. This activity has been going on continuously for many years. These theatre groups have travelled relying on people. The people have fed them. Here the salary allowance was not paid according to the quality of the actor in the theatre group, but according to the number of his family members. Instead of 'qualified wages', the allowance of 'wages as per requirement' has been given. A group of equal numbers of women and men have cycled and staged plays. The play has been staged in at least three places every day, travelling day and night continuously for 22 days in a month. The actors, who went on bicycles professionally and staged plays, performed real life on stage. They saw the reality of the stage in life. There are no differences between fiction and reality in this theatre journey. The real story becomes a drama. A drama story becomes a reality. Here the dramaturgy fits in with many true stories and becomes visions of realities. At the same time, after a play is over, more plays are created. Moreover, more and more have evolved. Here, the play has helped the affected people reach the stage of 'despair'. It leads to a state of repentance, collective empathy, gaining confidence, and a desire to live. This study is based on the stage definition of liberation, on the basis of the ethnographic point of view, on the basis of which the researcher himself lived at a given time, and on the basis of witnessing the plays. But there are gaps in this study. To further enrich the study, the fonts of the plays produced by the theatre groups recorded sound, and cinematography is also required. Observation studies are also required. They are limited in the context of a military crisis.
Chapter
This chapter establishes how collective commemorative events can come to be thought of as a resource of law, or as quasi-legal institutions. It underscores how the relationship between memory and law can be considered on the basis of law as a product of memory, rather than memory as an effect or object of law. The argument that this chapter makes is that understandings of and receptiveness to state laws is substantiated in behaviours which are grounded in a reliance on particular mnemohistorical narratives of a collective past. In order to make this argument, this chapter considers both the social significance of collective memory and how law can be thought of as a product of a plurality of distributed institutions, actors, and ideologies. In this context, memory’s social significance can be established on the basis that it is one among many contributors to a plural conception of law. This chapter sets this out by identifying how memory informs juridically significant notions of belonging and recognition. Equally, it identifies memory as being involved in situational legal meaning-making and in legal socialization processes.KeywordsCollective memoryLegal consciousnessLegal pluralismLegal socializationNational identity
Article
Looking at the fragmented documents of Muslim community life at mosques, bringing together different types of materials and creating mosque archives is a challenging endeavour, as shown by the contributions in this volume. This contribution asks for the implication the archives, once collected and considered as parts of a larger picture, can have for the formation of a Muslim collective memory. Connecting different archives – with their singular experiences – into collective forms of memory, similar experiences and ruptures come to the surface and a new perspective on a shared German history is articulated. As the collective memory is a reservoir to understand the past, giving meaning to the present, and a source for the future, this process has a social and political dimension. The process of creating a Muslim collective memory will fill blanks within German history and add new chapters, but will at the same time change Muslim self-perception and self-positioning by recentring their sometimes ambiguous experiences within a larger setting.
Article
Although Lebanon and South Africa are often treated as exceptional cases, the use of geographic analogies like 'bantustans' and 'Lebanonization' signals their relevance to many other places. These analogies point to the recognition of a spatial mode of mnemonic war in which struggles over the past are also struggles over land. Such analogies signal recognition but also require forgetting: as narrative chronotopes, they are limiting. To look beyond these limits, we name this shared condition 'mnemonic land war' and trace its workings through territorialization, property regimes and planning in South Africa and Lebanon. Understanding these processes as memory-work allows us to see what the places analogized to Lebanon and South Africa share in their mnemonic land wars, and link them into a transnational memory constellation. Understanding this constellation can guide a comparative understanding of mnemonic war 'on the ground'. Keywords bantustans, Lebanon, memory-work, territory, urban planning Memory travels. People migrate with stories and keepsakes in tow; discourses about the past and how it should be remembered circulate globally. As these practices, discourses, objects, and narratives settle into new places, they challenge existing memory constructions. The effects of such additions can be profound. On one hand, the new arrival is inevitably taken up by existing coalitions , oppositions and arrangements for using and contesting the past in 'mnemonic war'. On the other hand, the new arrival's entry can change existing arrangements-just as adding a star to a constellation might merely fill in existing lines or suggest an entirely new picture.
Chapter
The ambivalent moral standards of alcohol production and consumption in Egypt have haunting effects on those who are seen selling or buying it. Unlike other insightful chapters, articles, and books that address sectarian violence against Copts, I do not open this chapter with a vignette about the infamous massacres that many ordinary Copts, human rights activists, and policymakers remember, circulate, and extensively analyse and write about. While I will grapple with these major events in the chapter, I intentionally began with the murder of two liquor stores owners in Alexandria and Giza governorates in order to refer to unresolved dilemmas that accompany the killing of Copts. These dilemmas have to do with what can and cannot be included when we, researchers, and, more importantly, relatives of the deceased persons, decide to tell and build our memories about their lives. Building on the previous two chapters, I ask how illicit careers, sexualities, and theologies invite us to open up different meanings of, and responses to, violence committed by state and non-state forces.
Chapter
Leandro Katz’s documentary study (1997) of the final images of Che Guevara’s corpse offers an emblematic illustration of the memorial aesthetic in photography and film which flourished in Latin America between 1997 and 2016. Katz’s intermedial film thus serves as a point of departure for presenting the concepts and lines of inquiry encountered throughout the book: the migration of the visual politics of the street protest to memory art, the reframing of the archive, the “interruption” of the frame, the social agency of images, and the tension between index and photographic poetics. Ultimately, the Che Cristo photograph serves as a substitute for an unmourned body and, by extension, as a master trope for the region’s disappeared from the era of the Cold War dictatorships. Similarly, Eugenio Dittborn’s dictatorship-era artworks illustrate the subversion (“interruption”) of the ideological framing of the standardised mugshot in a manner which anticipates the “resuscitation” of such repressive portraits into cyphers of heterogeneous temporalities in post-dictatorship cultural production. Finally, the book’s concern with the ethics of spectatorship is introduced with stress being placed upon how the viewer’s empathic identification with memorial artworks functions as a premise to a critical politics of perception and historical inquiry.
Article
Steel has become the de facto material to memorialize 9/11. In this article, we show how the vast majority of steel from the World Trade Center (200,000 tons) was recycled abroad but what remained was sacralized and made into local memorials. Using newspaper reports and materials obtained from a freedom of information request, the article analyzes how dispersed memorialization honored first responders across the United States (and abroad) enlarging both the geography of trauma and responsibility to remember. We connect the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey's curation, gifting, and transportation of 9/11 steel to a form of mourning with military antecedents as well as the deliberate focus on strength, masculinity, and participation in the War on Terror. Finally, we show how local memorialization democratized the process of ‘sacred steel' distribution while also tightly controlling what could be done with salvaged metal in order to make sure that relics remained communal, rather than personalized, objects.
Article
Full-text available
Among the founders of sociology, it was Georg Simmel who provided the most thorough analysis and theory of space. This paper aims to reconstruct Simmel’s spatial theory and his observations of spatial relations. The German sociologist engaged with spatiality in a threefold way. First, he tried to provide a systematic social theory of space; second, analyzing spatial relations was important for his diagnosis of modernity; third, he dealt with the subjective constitutions of space in his shorter, essayistic writings. This paper argues that the importance of the third strand for a sociological understanding of space has seldom been recognized in sociology. In addition, it also shows that despite the diversity in perspectives, there is an underlying coherence to Simmel’s theory of space. As a result, it becomes evident that Simmel was not only ground-breaking in conceptualizing space from a sociological point of view, but that his theory of space continues to be inspirational and relevant to this day for interpreting the entanglement of social and spatial relations.
Article
How do personal networks emerge from social contexts? How do these evolve during the course of a lifetime? How are relationships established, maintained, connected, disrupted? How does the structure of a network evolve as people face transitions and events? Based on a classic text originally published in France and that has become the standard on the empirical study of social networks there, for the first time, a network analysis perspective is extended from contexts and social circles to relationships and life events through empirical studies. Following in the tradition of personal network studies, this contribution to the field of structural analysis in Sociology offers both a synthesis of knowledge and original results from two immense surveys carried out in France. This volume proposes an original theory grounded in relational dynamics, offering novel perspectives on individual social relations over the course of a lifetime through the context of personal networks, access to social resources, and inequalities.
Article
Full-text available
National identity can be traced in almost all the spheres of human habitat – cultural, institutional, political, literary, pshychological, daily routine and many others, that is both in the verbal and non verbal activities of all and each person, respectively. In this research we look upon the British identity manifestations in the post-modern multifaceted literary frame based on the English short story contexts. Given the popular approach of the marked British conventionalism, concepts and cultural artefacts, as it were, we elucidate the stories of three contemporary women writers — A.S. Byatt; J.Gardam and D.Moggach, as a field to reveal literary reproductions of identity paradigm and its social-cultural component in view of the city of London and certain niches of its subcultures. The analysis produces challenging ideas when considering social and spatial distinctions of London’s image according to the writers’ subjective attitudes, as well as the moral of the past and present, which are portrayed by three main topics: intellectuality and erudition (the London library); arts and theatre (the National Theatre and Shakespeare); Post-colonial reality (Pakistani shopkeeper’s British dream-home), all of them as inseparable components of British national identity.
Article
Full-text available
The researcher investigated how the teachers at the preschool integrated the vision of the preschool, educational goals, and community resources to develop and implement the local culture curriculum as well as what problems they encountered in the process. Thereafter, the researcher developed strategies that can be used to solve such problems. The researcher discovered that the most important aspects of the local culture curriculum were (1) its ability to pique the children’s interest in history and the humanities through the lens of the children’s experiences at the market, and (2) its integration of local culture and the community, specifically through interactions between young children and adults at a vegetable market. The implementation of the local culture curriculum involved the following steps: (1) establishing a thematic network; (2) planning the activities, including exploring the children’s previous experiences and adjusting the curriculum and teaching methods accordingly; (3) conducting the activities, including visiting and participating in work at the market; (4) evaluating the activities; and (5) creating thank you cards and formulating plans for store renovation. Some of the obstacles the teachers encountered in the development and implementation of the vegetable-market-themed local culture curriculum were (1) shortages of preschool teachers willing to teach outdoor courses, (2) concerns about young children’s safety, and (3) young children’s lack of experience. Finally, on the basis of my conclusion, the researcher developed the following culturally responsive education strategies: (1) integrating aspects of local culture and the community into courses, (2) situating local culture courses in learning areas, (3) developing local culture curriculum that are rich in humanities, and (4) developing local culture curriculum based on parent–teacher cooperation to overcome teacher shortages at preschools. The results of this study may serve as a reference in the development of a local culture curriculum and other strategies to cultivate young children’s cultural identities.
Article
Niq Mhlongo’s Paradise in Gaza (2020) uses images related to soil to emphasize the novel’s concern with the transmission of indigenous knowledge and the relationship between a sense of humanity and land ownership. Mhlongo’s novel not only explores the quotidian and practical relationship between its characters and the land they occupy and cultivate, but also suggests a transcendental and spiritual relationship between them. With reference to work by Maurice Halbwachs, James E. Young, and Viet Thanh Nguyen, I argue that Mhlongo’s inscription of soil reflects an authorial concern with the entanglements amongst collected memories, just memories, the transmission of culture, land ownership and human dignity. I present a close reading of key passages from the novel using Sarah Nuttall’s notion of entanglement to demonstrate these relationships. Ultimately, I argue that Paradise in Gaza is not only an exploration of African life in a historical setting, but that it also presents an argument for the need for some form of land restitution in contemporary South Africa while recognizing the complexities inherent in any such process.
Article
This paper probes the process of heritage production in documentary films with a specific focus on the documentary film Taq Kasra Wonder of Architecture (Akbarzadeh, Pejman. 2018. Taq Kasra Wonder of Architecture. Amsterdam: Persian Dutch Network. www.taqkasra.com.), which tells the story of the pre-Islamic Persian/Iranian historical site of Taq Kasra (the Arch of Ctesiphon), presently located in Iraq. The paper situates the film within a broader context of documentaries about Persian edifices in the region and draws on primary interview material with the documentary maker Pejman Akbarzadeh. Through its analyses, the paper shows how, especially in the Iranian setting, a documentary film can engage and (re)produce heritage, and how, when compared to that setting, Taq Kasra exposes persistent aspects of cultural politics within the Islamic Republic since its establishment after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 and Saddam Hussein’s policies. In doing so, it is argued that the film provides a mode of critical enquiry into heritage in current historical and political circumstances in Iran. The paper addresses a lacuna in both critical heritage and film studies, namely, the analysis and interpretation of the making of heritage in film and as film.
Article
Full-text available
Flashbulb memory (FBM) is viewed as a special type of autobiographical memory due to its richness of individuals’ self-related details when hearing the news and the long duration. It also helps shape people’s impression of public events to some extent. Given that personal involvement is one of the important antecedent variables of FBM, this study proposed to investigate it from spatiotemporal involvement (spatiotemporal distance) and empathic involvement (empathy level) to explore the impact of personal involvement on the formation of FBM during the Covid-19 pandemic. In particular, digital media dependency was considered in the influence of involvement on the FBM since it is a crucial information source for individuals and a path to spread information about their lives and work during the pandemic. In this study, a total of 546 valid questionnaires (from May 1, 2022, to May 7, 2022) and 349 valid questionnaires (from May 10, 2022, to May 17, 2022) were collected through a two-stage online survey in Shanghai, China towards the epidemic wave at the end of March 2022. The mediating mode of digital media dependency was also examined on personal involvement in FBM performance, which consists of FBM specificity, confidence, and consistency. Results showed that empathic involvement had a significant negative influence on FBM specificity, namely the higher the empathy level was, the worse the FBM specificity would be, in which digital media dependency played a suppressing effect. Individuals’ spatiotemporal involvement was proved to have a significant positive influence on FBM specificity and consistency. It was one of the first to investigate the FBM formation process around “small peak” events in the context of the ongoing pandemic. Innovatively, empathy was adopted as the index of memory arousal for empathic involvement, and digital media dependency was considered an important mediator variable in the memory study. The research results have practical significance for promoting the process of epidemic recovery integrated with digital media and can provide a social reference for the shaping process of disaster memory from the perspective of digital information and emotional transmission.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.