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From monitoring to sharing of attention in dyadic interaction: The affordances of gaze data to better understand social aspects of remote collaborative problem solving

Abstract

This paper aims to better understand the social aspects of collaborative problem solving (CPS) through studying joint attention behaviour (JAB) in an online game–like environment. To capture these behaviours and exemplify how ‘jointness’ is achieved in CPS in remote dyadic interaction, event-related measures are utilised based on the following multiple interaction data: (1) individuals’ gaze data from CPS task completion and (2) automatically generated log files (i.e. chats and actions) from dyadic interactions. The results give empirical evidence of the detached, individualistic attention experiences (i.e. monitoring and common attention) and of bidirectional relations (i.e. mutual and shared attention) in which partners adopt an engaged approach towards one another to solve the task together. It is also observed how lower level attention in CPS can be a precursor to a higher level; that is, during interaction, there is a move from monitoring the partner’s actions towards common attention experience. In addition, it is noticed that richer second-person relations may come in degrees. In methodological terms, the gaze data can provide access to better uncover dyadic processes during remote CPS, but without the information embedded in the log data, they would not provide sufficient contextual details of the real interaction to fully understand social connotations related to CPS.
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118
... automatic, reflective shifts of attention to a salient stimulus) or top-down processes (i.e. in an active, goal-oriented manner; see also Kaplan & Hafner, 2006). In the current (see also Pöysä-Tarhonen et al., 2020) and previous studies (see Pöysä-Tarhonen et al., 2017, equivalent, contrasting 'strategies' in the CPS processes have been observed. Typically, a salient stimulus can generate shifts on the scale of jointness (Siposova & Carpenter, 2019). ...
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The current article describes an exploratory study that focussed on joint attention behaviour—the basis of interaction predicting productive collaboration—to better understand collaborative problem solving, particularly its social aspects during remote dyadic interaction. The study considered joint attention behaviour as a socio-linguistic phenomenon and relied on detailed qualitative interaction analysis on event-related measures of multiple observational data (i.e. log files, eye-tracking data). The aim was to illustrate and exemplify how the diverse attentional levels of joint attention behaviour (i.e. monitoring, common, mutual and shared attention) delineated by Siposova and Carpenter (Cognition 89:260–274, 2019) were achieved in remote collaborative problem solving in dyads, including the underlying basis of joint attention behaviour (i.e. individual attention experience). The results made visible the complex functioning of the social aspects of remote collaborative problem solving and provided preliminary insights into how the hierarchical and nested levels of ‘jointness’ and common knowledge were achieved in this context. The analysis reproduced all the theorised attentional levels as both isolated and parallel individualistic attention experiences whilst acknowledging the restrictions of the remote interaction environment and the specific task structures.
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Already before the pandemic, digitally mediated collaborative work and communication were perceived as challenging. We investigate the attitudes towards emerging technologies and for transforming practises in workplaces. The focus lies on understanding the readiness for appropriating emotional tracking on presence and support for collaboration. The research-based design framework allowed to combine the various perspectives of the transdisciplinary team. Methods included participatory design, design thinking, contextual inquiry and prototype testing for enhancing presence while working with shared objects in video conferencing to explore the appropriation of tools. The findings revealed four indications: 1) awareness of interlocutors’ presence during synchronous communication is crucial. 2) Emotion and behaviour tracking raises concerns about privacy and personal control over what is displayed to others, and technology could be simpler non-distracting the work at hand. 3) The prototype was found to enhance the feeling of presence without disturbing work at hand, and 4) appropriation requires a step-by-step approach.
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