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Bioactive monolaurin as an antimicrobial and its potential to improve the immune system and against COVID-19: a review

Authors:

Abstract

Monolaurin is monoacylglycerol which is a bioactive lipid since it can affect the human biological systems. This review discusses the bioactive properties of monolaurin, especially its role as an antibacterial, immune system enhancement, and its ability as an antiviral so that it has the potential to fight against various viral attacks. Monolaurin can act as an antibacterial in inhibiting the growth of several pathogenic bacteria, especially gram-positive bacteria. Monolaurin is known to be able to enhance the immune system through modulation of various immune systems, controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines, activating and attracting leukocytes to the site of infection. Monolaurin can also act as an antiviral, especially against enveloped viruses, such as Maedi-visna virus, vesicular stomatitis, herpes simplex-1, measles, HIV, cytomegalovirus, influenza, and corona. Monolaurin inhibits the virus through the mechanism of the disintegration of the viral membrane, prevents binding of the viral protein to the host-cell membrane, inhibits the process of assembling the viral RNA, and the process of virus maturation in the replication cycle. Therefore monolaurin has the potential for human consumption to boost the immune system and ward off various virus attacks, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the cause of COVID-19 which became a pandemic in the world.
*Corresponding author.
Email: edy.subroto@unpad.ac.id
eISSN: 2550-2166 / © 2020 The Authors. Published by Rynnye Lyan Resources
MINI REVIEW
Food Research 4 (6) : 2355 - 2365 (December 2020)
Journal homepage: http://www.myfoodresearch.com
Bioactive monolaurin as an antimicrobial and its potential to improve the
immune system and against COVID-19: a review
*Subroto, E. and Indiarto, R.
Department of Food Industrial Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industrial Technology, Universitas
Padjadjaran, Jl.Raya Bandung-Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang 40600, Indonesia
Article history:
Received: 3 July 2020
Received in revised form: 2
August 2020
Accepted: 2 September 2020
Available Online: 8
November 2020
Keywords:
Monolaurin,
Antimicrobial,
Immune system,
Antiviral,
COVID-19
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.4(6).324
Abstract
Monolaurin is monoacylglycerol which is a bioactive lipid since it can affect the human
biological systems. This review discusses the bioactive properties of monolaurin,
especially its role as an antibacterial, immune system enhancement, and its ability as an
antiviral so that it has the potential to fight against various viral attacks. Monolaurin can
act as an antibacterial in inhibiting the growth of several pathogenic bacteria, especially
gram-positive bacteria. Monolaurin is known to be able to enhance the immune system
through modulation of various immune systems, controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines,
activating and attracting leukocytes to the site of infection. Monolaurin can also act as an
antiviral, especially against enveloped viruses, such as Maedi-visna virus, vesicular
stomatitis, herpes simplex-1, measles, HIV, cytomegalovirus, influenza, and corona.
Monolaurin inhibits the virus through the mechanism of the disintegration of the viral
membrane, prevents binding of the viral protein to the host-cell membrane, inhibits the
process of assembling the viral RNA, and the process of virus maturation in the
replication cycle. Therefore monolaurin has the potential for human consumption to boost
the immune system and ward off various virus attacks, including severe acute respiratory
syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the cause of COVID-19 which became
a pandemic in the world.
1. Introduction
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) or known as
monolaurin is an ester of glycerol and a lauric acid that
acts as an emulsifier or non-ionic surfactant with
important applications in the food and pharmaceutical
industries. Monolaurin like other monoacylglycerols
(MAGs), is known to have no irritating effect and it can
be used as a food additive classified as generally
recognized as safe (GRAS) for human consumption
(Feltes et al., 2013; Subroto, 2020). Besides, monolaurin
can affect the biological system so that it is known as
bioactive lipids. Medium-chain fatty acids, including
monolaurin, can reduce serum cholesterol and prevent
cardiovascular disease (Eyres et al., 2016). It increases
the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (German and Dillard,
2004). It also shows the most easily oxidized by the
metabolic system and does not cause obesity or fat
accumulation (DeLany et. al., 2000).
Monolaurin has anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and
anti-diabetic properties by in vitro and in vivo testing in
cells (Lieberman et al., 2006; Masmeijer et al., 2020).
Monolaurin can inhibit the increase in blood TAG after
eating. Monolaurin and other MAGs can regulate the
increase in insulin levels, so that blood sugar is
controlled, thus preventing diabetes and obesity due to
hyperglycemia (Cho et al., 2010; Feltes et al., 2013).
Monolaurin prevents obesity mainly through the
mechanism of regulating the metabolism of
glycerophospholipids and modulating the gut microbiota
(Zhao et al., 2020).
Monolaurin is known to be able to inhibit various
pathogenic bacteria, even in the form of vegetative cells
and bacterial spores, including Clostridium botulinum
and Bacillus cereus (Dayrit, 2014; Schlievert et al.,
2018). Monolaurin also has a wide spectrum of activities
against various fungi and viruses. Monolaurin can
increase the organism's defense against virus attacks,
which has the potential to produce immunological
reactions initiated by antigens (Pereira et al., 2004). The
role of monolaurin, especially in the pharmaceutical and
food fields continues to be developed considering
various studies have shown that monolaurin is good for
health, especially in inhibiting the pathogenic bacteria,
Subroto and Indiarto / Food Research 4 (6) (2020) 2355 - 2365
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MINI REVIEW
enhancing the immune system, and fighting various viral
attacks. COVID-19, which attacks humans almost all
over the world caused by SARS-CoV-2 demands various
studies to overcome it. Therefore this review provides
some insight into the characteristics of monolaurin,
which could potentially be an alternative against COVID
-19.
2. General characteristics of monolaurin
Monolaurin is a type of monoacylglycerol (MAG)
from lauric acid. Monolaurin can be produced from oils
that contain lots of lauric acid such as palm kernel oil
and coconut oil. These oils contain about 50% of lauric
acid, so they are known as lauric oil (OBrien, 2009;
Dayrit, 2014; Boateng et al., 2016). Lauric acid is also
found in some foods that are produced with the addition
of lauric oils such as shortening and cocoa butter
substitute. Synthesis and production of monolaurin are
the same as other monoacylglycerols, namely through
partial esterification of lauric acid with glycerol, partial
hydrolysis of lauric oil, and glycerolysis of lauric oil
with glycerol both chemically and enzymatically (Nandi
et al., 2004; Subroto et al., 2020). The synthesis methods
of monolaurin can be seen in Table 1. Glycerolysis is the
most effective method because of the abundance and
cheapness of glycerin which is a derivative of biodiesel
production that can be used as a substrate after
purification (Feltes et al., 2013; Subroto et al., 2019).
Monolaurin can be consumed directly or applied to a
variety of food and pharmaceutical products since it
provides beneficial effects and is safe for consumption
(Lieberman et al., 2006; Marten et al., 2006).
Monolaurin is a non-ionic molecule that has
hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. With these
characteristics, MAG shows great emulsifying
properties, can be widely applied to food, cosmetics,
chemicals, and the pharmaceutical industries (Chen et
al., 2014; Subroto, 2020). Monolaurin is a
multifunctional compound with properties as an
emulsifier, improves physicochemical, bioactive
properties, and can act as an antimicrobial (Lieberman et
al., 2006). Monolaurin can be used in a variety of food
and pharmaceutical industries because it has quite high
antimicrobial activity. Monolaurin has been reported to
increase shelf life in various foods. Yu et al. (2017)
reported that monolaurin can extend the shelf life of
grass carp fillets through a coating process with chitosan
and monolaurin, which monolaurin was able to hamper
the bacterial growth and maintain sensory properties.
Monolaurin applications also showed improvements in
the quality of physicochemical and functional properties
of the products (Dayrit, 2014; Zhao et al., 2019).
3. Monolaurin is an antimicrobial
Monolaurin and lauric acid are very active against
pathogenic bacteria (gram-positive and gram-negative),
various fungi, and viruses (Silalahi et al., 2014; Nasir et
al., 2018). Monolaurin and its derivatives act as
antimicrobials through several mechanisms, namely (i)
destruction of lipid-coated bacterial and viral cell
membranes by physicochemical processes, (ii)
disturbances the signal transduction and transcription in
cellular, and (iii) stabilization of the host-cells membrane
(human cells). The availability of some of these
mechanisms might be one reason why bacteria cannot
develop resistance to the action of monolaurin (Dayrit,
2014). However, the studies that measure how much
monolaurin is metabolized from certain amounts of
certain types of oil are still limited. The role of
monolaurin as an antimicrobial for various types of
bacteria can be seen in Table 2.
Monolaurin is proven to effectively block and inhibit
exotoxin production by various gram-positive pathogenic
bacteria (Projan et al., 2012). Monolaurin inhibits
effectively against vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus.
The studies have also shown that monolaurin can inhibit
the activity of Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus
stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis (Cotton and
Marshall, 1997). The mechanism of monolaurin in
inhibiting the synthesis of Staphylococcus and other
exoprotein poisons is proven to occur at the transcription
stage. Furthermore, monolaurin can interfere with signal
transduction in its activity to inhibit the induction of β-
lactamase. Monolaurin is effectively able to inhibit
Synthesis methods Materials and catalysts References
Esterification
Glycerol and lauric acid, using p-toluenesulfonic acid (pTSA) Nitbani et al. (2018)
Glycerol and lauric acid, using sulfated zirconia Abdullah et al. (2016)
Glycerol and lauric acid, using Lipozyme (IM-20) Pereira et al. (2004)
Hydrolysis and esterification Coconut acid oil using Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizomucor miehei
lipase Nandi et al. (2004)
Hydrolysis Virgin coconut oil, using lipozyme and NaOH Silalahi et al. (2014)
Coconut oil, using KOH Sangadah et al. (2018)
Glycerolysis
Coconut oil and glycerol, using Novozyme 435 Zha et al. (2014)
Coconut oil and glycerol, using Carica papaya lipase Pinyaphong et al. (2012)
Virgin coconut oil and glycerol Ponphaiboon et al. (2018)
Table 1. The synthesis methods of monolaurin
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tumor necrosis factor-α, growth of Staphylococcus
aureus, and exotoxins produced (Lin et al., 2009).
Monolaurin hampers the expression of the virulence
factor S. aureus and induction of vancomycin resistance
of Enterococcus faecalis. Monolaurin acts by inhibiting
signal transduction (Ruzin and Novick, 2000).
Murhadi (2009) reported that the concentration of
the minimum inhibitory of lauric acid against S. aureus
was below 1.0 mg/mL. This shows that monolaurin is
very active as an antibacterial compound. Other studies
also reported that the addition of 150 mg of monolaurin
per liter decreases the growth and toxin production by S.
aureus (Preuss, Echard, Dadgar et al., 2005). The study
reported by Zare et al. (2014) showed the ability of
monolaurin with a concentration of 128 μg/mL inhibits
S. aureus but did not inhibit E. coli significantly. Hess et
al. (2015) applied 182 mM monolaurin dissolved in
chloroform as a surfactant for biofilms, the results
showed that monolaurin was able to inhibit S. aureus and
E. faecalis. Besides, the use of laurate in the form of
monolaurin is more effective in inhibiting pathogenic
bacteria than in the form of lauric acid. Similar results
were reported by Schlievert and Peterson (2012) who
found that monolaurin at a concentration of 0.25 mM in
broth and biofilm cultures was able to inhibit S. aureus,
Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae.
The antibacterial spectrum of monolaurin becomes more
extensive when the system in an acidic pH.
Monolaurin has a broad spectrum as antibacterial.
Widiyarti et al. (2010) reported that the antibacterial
properties of monolaurin affect other pathogenic
bacteria, such as L. monocytogenes, Streptococcus
Microbial type Formulation References
Staphylococcus aureus Monolaurin (4000 μg/mL) diluted in BHIB Zare et al. (2014)
GML 182 mM diluted in chloroform for biofilm Hess et al. (2015)
GML 0.25 mM in Broth and Biofilm Cultures Schlievert and Peterson, (2012)
GML microemulsions Zhang et al. (2007), Zhang et al.
(2009)
Combination monolaurin with essential oils Preuss, Echard, Dadgar et al. (2005)
Monolaurin 100 μg/mL in ethanol Schlievert et al. (1992)
Staphylococcus
epidermidis
1-monolaurin (10001953 μg/mL) Krislee et al. (2019)
Escherichia coli Microemulsions contained 1 g/mL of monolaurin Petra et al. (2014)
Monolaurin (128 μg/mL) diluted in BHIB Zare et al. (2014)
GML microemulsions Zhang et al. (2009)
Monolaurin microemulsion Fu et al. (2009)
Microemulsion contained 8% GML Fu et al. (2006)
Bacillus and
Clostridium spores
50,000 g/mL monolaurin gel was effective to kill the spores Schlievert et al. (2018)
Bacillus anthracis 15-20 μg/mL monolaurin in absolute ethanol Vetter and Schlievert. (2005)
Bacillus subtilis Microemulsion contained 8% GML Fu et al. (2006)
Microemulsions contained 1 g/mL of monolaurin Petra et al. (2014)
GML microemulsions Zhang et al. (2008)
Monolaurin microemulsion Fu et al. (2009)
Bacillus licheniformis Combination monolaurin with nisin Mansour et al. (1999)
Bacillus cereus Microemulsions contained 1 g/mL of monolaurin Petra et al. (2014)
Monolaurin (25 μg/mL) dissolved in ethanol Cotton and Marshall (1997)
Candida and
Gardnerella vaginalis
GML gels (500 μg/mL) Strandberg et al. (2010)
Candida albicans Monolaurin (62.5-250 μM and 12.5 mmol/L) Seleem et al. (2016), Seleem et al.
(2018)
Enterococcus faecalis GML 182 mM diluted in chloroform for biofilm Hess et al. (2015)
Microemulsions contained 100 mg/mL of monolaurin Petra et al. (2014)
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa
GML (62.5 μg/mL) and GML Nanocapsules (15.62 μg/mL) Lopes et al. (2019)
Microemulsions contained 1.9 g/mL of monolaurin Petra et al. (2014)
Listeria monocytogenes GML combined with organic acids Oh and Marshall (2006)
Monolaurin combined with lactic acid and nisin Tokarskyy and Marshall (2008)
Mycobacterium terrae Combination monolaurin with essential oils Preuss, Echard, Enig et al. (2005)
Helicobacter pylori Monolaurin 0.5 mM in Iso-Sensitest broth Sun et al. (2003)
Monolaurin 1.25 mM in ethanol Bergsson and Thormar (2002)
Salmonella enterica Microemulsions contained 1 g/mL of monolaurin Petra et al. (2014)
Micrococcus luteus Microemulsions contained 100 mg/mL of monolaurin Petra et al. (2014)
Stenotrophomonas GML microemulsions Feng et al. (2009)
Table 2. The role of monolaurin as an antimicrobial
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agalactiae, Hemophilus influenzae, and Helicobacter
pylory. Monolaurin is also effective in inhibiting the
vegetative cells of B. cereus (Cotton and Marshall, 1997;
Affandi, 2017). 1-monolaurin (1-1.9 mg/mL) was
reported to be effective in inhibiting Staphylococcus
epidermidis on biofilms (Krislee et al., 2019).
Monolaurin 15-20 μg/mL in ethanol was even reported
to inhibit Bacillus anthracis, which is a pathogenic
bacterium that causes anthrax disease (Vetter and
Schlievert, 2005). Monolaurin in human milk was also
reported to be able to effectively inhibit Escherichia coli,
Clostridium perfringens, B. subtilis, S. aureus and E.
faecalis compared to cow's milk or formula milk
(Schlievert et al., 2019).
Monolaurin has good emulsion capacity and
stability. Therefore, monolaurin has been widely used in
the form of emulsions, especially microemulsions.
Monolaurin microemulsion has been proven to be
effective in inhibiting various types of pathogenic
bacteria. Zhang et al. (2009) reported that GML
microemulsion by combining with propionic acid and
tween 80 was proven to be effective in inhibiting S.
aureus and E. coli in less than 1 hour. Whereas Zhang et
al. (2008) reported that GML microemulsion was
effective in inhibiting B. subtilis. GML also shows a
synergistic effect when combined with antimicrobial salt
such as sodium lactate, so GML can potentially be
widely used as an antimicrobial by combining several
other types of antimicrobials. The use of monolaurin as
an antibacterial in the form of microemulsion was also
reported by Petra et al. (2014) who found that
microemulsion containing 1.9 g/L was proven effective
in killing gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as
Bacillus cereus, S. aureus, E. faecalis, Micrococcus
luteus and B. subtilis; and gram-negative bacteria such
as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Citrobacter
freundii, Salmonella enterica and Serracia marcescens.
The results also showed that monolaurin was more
effective as an antibacterial compared to
monoacylglycerol from other medium-chain fatty acids
such as capric (C10:0), undecanoic (C11:0), and myristic
(C14:0). The application of monolaurin as an
antimicrobial has also been developed in the form of
nanocapsules as an anti-biofilm whose results show that
monolaurin nanocapsules were effective against P.
aeruginosa (Lopes et al., 2019).
The inhibition mechanism of bacterial growth by
monolaurin is related to the disruption of cytoplasmic
membrane permeability of these bacteria. Several studies
have shown that monolaurin is more effective to inhibit
gram-positive bacteria, such as L. monocytogenes,
compared to gram-negative bacteria such as S. enteridis
or E. coli. When the use of monolaurin is combined with
other types of antibacterial agents, such as EDTA, this
can increase its ability to inhibit these gram-positive
bacteria (Affandi, 2017). Monolaurin has been proven
both through in vivo and in vitro testing to have potential
antifungal activities, including Candida albicans and to
modulate the host-cells pro-inflammatory response
(Seleem et al., 2016; Seleem et al., 2018). The advantage
of monolaurin is that high doses do not cause the side
effects of metabolic dysfunction or inflammation of the
metabolic system (Mo et al., 2019). Another advantage
is that in vivo and in vitro tests show that monolaurin can
inhibit the bacteria that cause vaginal infections such as
Candida vaginalis and Gardnerella vaginalis, but does
not inhibit beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus
(Strandberg et al., 2010).
4. Monolaurin for enhancing the immune system
Monolaurin can play a role in improving the human
immune system. Schlievert et al. (2019) reported that
monolaurin greatly contributes to anti-inflammatory
activity in human milk. Human milk contains
monolaurin about 3 mg/mL. When the monolaurin is
eliminated, the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial
human milk activity is also lost. The addition of
monolaurin restores anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial
human milk activity. Masmeijer et al. (2020) reported
that glycerol esters of medium-chain fatty acids,
including monolaurin, were able to produce immune-
modulating effects in experimental animals, namely veal
calves. The enhancement of the immune system through
an increase in fast and strong inflammatory reactions by
increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines,
then activate and attract leukocytes to the site of
infection with limited ROS production, so that tissue
damage occurs is less.
Monolaurin can enhance the immune system through
the mechanism of modulating T-cell lymphocyte
production and controlling immune cell proliferation.
Witcher et al. (1996) reported that monolaurin can
improve the immune system through increased T-cell
lymphocyte production. Monolaurin is also able to
enhance the immune system by stimulating splenocyte
proliferation and inducing T-cell proliferation. However,
at high concentrations (> 5 μg/mL), monolaurin can
control T-cell lymphocyte proliferation. Induction of T-
cell proliferation is optimal when pure monolaurin is
used at a concentration of 0.1 μg/mL. Monolaurin
inhibits the effects of the mitogenic toxin-1 syndrome
shock on T-cells but does not hamper lipopolysaccharide
-induced B cell stimulation. This shows that monolaurin
specifically affects T-cell populations. Monolaurin can
exert the effect of T-cell proliferation along the
phospholipid inositol signal transduction pathway.
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Monolaurin also plays a role in changing LAT, PLC-γ,
and the formation of AKT groups induced by TCR PI3K
-AKT. This mechanism is supported by the presence of
calcium which affects human T-cell signalling and
function, thereby reducing cytokine production (Zhang et
al., 2016).
Both studies in vivo and in vitro show that
monolaurin can play a role in hampering the production
of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6,
IL-8, MIP-3α, TNF- α, and IFN-γ) (Witcher et al., 1996;
Li et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2016). In other studies Silva
et al. (2018) through in vitro testing showed that
monolaurin could modulate the metabolite production
and host immune response when inoculated with
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In the
fibroblasts layer (HGF-1), the genes IL-6, IL-18, TNF,
and IL-1α showed decreased expression, whereas, in
keratinocytes, the genes increased expression (except IL-
1α) when given monolaurin treatment. Besides,
metabolites in the form of pyruvic acid and glycerol
increase significantly when monolaurin is added to 50
μM. Monolaurin can also play a role in controlling the
activity and function of human T-cells through the
binding of human serum albumin (HAS). Monolaurin
controlled or rearranged the formation of PLC-γ1, LAT,
and phosphorylation of AKT and then controlled
cytokine production in cells (Zhang and Houtman,
2016).
5. Monolaurin as an antiviral
Lauric acid has greater antiviral properties than other
fatty acids. Lauric acid inhibits the virus through an
inhibitory mechanism at the end of the maturation stage
of the replication cycle (Bartolotta et al., 2001). Laurate
in the form of monolaurin is more biologically active
than free lauric acid to kill bacteria and viruses. While in
the form of diacylglycerols and lauric acid
triacylglycerols are not active against microorganisms
(Lieberman et al., 2006). The antiviral mechanism of
monolaurin is by dissolving lipids and phospholipids,
which make up the outer part of microorganisms or
viruses which then causes disintegration of the outer
membrane. Damage to the outer membrane of the virus
causes the virus to rupture and die. Other researchers
report that the antiviral mechanism is that monolaurin
interferes with the signal transduction of organisms and
through interference in the process of assembling viral
RNA and the process of virus maturation or propagation
(Projan et al., 1994; Arora et al., 2011). In general, the
recommended dosage of monolaurin for adults is 1-3
grams, while for children (aged 3-10 years) it is
recommended around 30 mg as much as 1-3 times a day.
However, consumption of monolaurin at higher doses is
still permitted because monolaurin has GRAS status
and non-toxic to humans (Lieberman et al., 2006).
Monolaurin can inhibit various types of viruses. Some
monolaurin studies as antiviral can be seen in Table 3.
Monolaurin has been reported to have the ability to
fight various types of viruses, especially enveloped
viruses, including various influenza viruses. Hilmarsson
et al. (2007) reported that monoacylglycerols with
medium-chain fatty acids such as monocaprylin,
monocaprin, and monolaurin have good virucidal effects
against influenza viruses such as HPIV2 and RSV. The
virucidal activity becomes more effective if the pH is
lowered to around 4.2. The results of this study increase
the potential of medium-chain monoacylglycerols for
pharmaceutical preparations in counteracting respiratory
viral infections caused by RSV and HPIV2 viruses, and
possibly for other paramyxo and myxoviruses. Arora et
al. (2011) reported that monolaurin which is mostly
derived from coconut oil has the potential as an
alternative treatment and to prevent the pandemic of the
Novel H1N1 virus or swine flu virus that once attacked
in several countries in the world.
Monolaurin was also reported to be able to destroy
Virus type Formulation References
HIV-1 and SIV
GML (5%) was dissolved in K-Y gel Li et al. (2009)
GML 5% in gel Haase et al. (2015)
GML 40 μg/mL Welch et al. (2020)
respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human
parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2)
Monolaurin in lower pH (4.2) Hilmarsson et al. (2007)
1% monolaurin (Lauricidin) in 5% ethanol Hierholzer (1982)
Avian Influenza VIRUS VCO sebesar 10 mL/kg pakan Yuniwarti et al. (2012)
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-
2)
Monolaurin in lower pH (4.2) Hilmarsson et al. (2005)
1% monolaurin (Lauricidin) in 5% ethanol Hierholzer (1982)
Mump virus GML 80 μg/mL Welch et al. (2020)
1% monolaurin (Lauricidin) in 5% ethanol Hierholzer (1982)
Yellow fever virus (YFV) GML 80 μg/mL Welch et al. (2020)
Zika virus GML 80 μg/mL Welch et al. (2020)
coronavirus 229E 1% monolaurin (Lauricidin) in 5% ethanol Hierholzer (1982)
Table 3. The role of monolaurin as an antiviral
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the herpes virus and HIV-1, and reduce the risk of
transmission of the virus in infants of pregnant women
infected by HIV (Lieberman et al., 2006; Hilmarsson et
al., 2007; Li et al., 2009). Li et al. (2009) using as much
as 5% monolaurin dissolved in K-Y gel and then applied
vaginally to monkeys that have been infected with SIV.
The results of his research showed that monolaurin was
proven to protect against SIV virus infection when
applied vaginally. Besides, monolaurin is also able to
inhibit the production of various pro-inflammatory
cytokines8 and MIP-3α. Vaginal use of monolaurin also
plays a role through an indirect mechanism as a
protection against microbicides containing anti-retroviral
(ARV) agents, thereby increasing monolaurin antiviral
activity (Haase et al., 2015). Welch et al. (2020)
conducted a study of the activity of virucidal monolaurin
on several types of viruses, including HIV-1. The results
showed that monolaurin at a concentration of 40 μg/mL
effectively inhibited HIV-1 replication and was able to
maintain the viability of vaginal microflora, especially
the Lactobacillus group. The study was also carried out
using an analog of monolaurin, which is in the form of
reutericyclin compounds secreted by Lactobacillus, the
results showed that reutericyclin was also able to inhibit
replication of HIV-1. In the efficacy study of monolaurin
against HIV-1 using the rhesus macaque model, the use
of 5% monolaurin is very safe and does not affect
microflora especially vaginal Lactobacilli (Schlievert et
al., 2008). Kirtane et al. (2017) also reported that
monolaurin added to vaginal cream up to 35% was
proven to be safe without side effects and was effective
in controlling microbes in the vagina.
Monolaurin has also been shown to be able to
destroy herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and
HSV-2). Hilmarsson et al. (2005) reported that
monolaurin has virucidal activities effectively against
HSV-1 and HSV-2, especially at low pH (pH 4.2).
Virucidal activities of monolaurin are higher than
monoacylglycerol from long-chain fatty acids such as
myristate, palmitate, and oleate, but not significantly
different from monocaprin. Other studies show that
monolaurin has a broad spectrum inhibiting various other
types of viruses, especially the group of enveloped
viruses (Hierholzer, 1982; Welch et al., 2020). Welch et
al. (2020) also reported that the use of monolaurin to
concentrations of 80 μg/mL effectively inhibited the
replication of enveloped viruses such as mump virus,
yellow fever virus, and Zika virus. The ability of
monolaurin to inhibit the replication of various types of
viruses shows that monolaurin has great potential to be
used for medical and pharmaceutical purposes in
preventing or preventing virus attacks, including SARS-
CoV-2 which is a group of enveloped viruses which is
now becoming a pandemic in almost all countries in the
world.
6. Prospective of monolaurin against SARS-CoV-2
Monolaurin has been known to have antiviral
activity for various types of viruses, including
parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. This
makes monolaurin interesting to learn more about its
ability as an antiviral in counteracting the virus that is
currently a pandemic in almost all countries in the world,
namely SARS-CoV-2, which is the cause of COVID-19.
SARS-CoV-2 is a virus that attacks the respiratory tract;
its characteristics are closely related to the SARS virus
which had become a pandemic in 2003 (Kang et al.,
2020; Zhou et al., 2020). This virus has almost the same
characteristics, which include a group of enveloped
viruses, where the virus membrane is composed of
phospholipids, and the core of the virus is composed of
the RNA genome. Previous research has reported that
monolaurin compounds can inhibit various types of
viruses from groups of enveloped viruses including
viruses that infect the respiratory tract such as HPIV,
RSV, and coronavirus 229E (Hierholzer, 1982;
Hilmarsson et al., 2007). Monolaurin is proven to be able
to inhibit viruses like this through the disintegration
mechanism of the viral membrane, preventing the
binding of the virus to the host-cell membrane, or the
mechanism of inhibiting RNA synthesis and viral
maturation.
Monolaurin is known to have active properties as an
antimicrobial and antiviral, which is more effective than
other monoacylglycerols. Monolaurin is
monoacylglycerol in which the head (glycerol) is polar
or hydrophilic while the acyl/tail (laurate) is non-polar or
hydrophobic. It is this non-polar tail that has the potential
to interact and destroy the outer membrane of SARS-
CoV-2 composed of lipid components (phospholipids).
The nature of monolaurin is similar to amphilitic soaps
which are proven to be very effective at killing SARS-
CoV-2 through the destruction of viral membranes.
Previous studies have reported that monolaurin and its
derivatives such as lauric acid and sodium lauryl sulfate
are effective in destroying the membrane of enveloped
viruses (Thormar et al., 1987; Piret et al., 2005). The
characteristic of monolaurin, which is capable of
destroying the outside of enveloped viruses, also has the
potential to prevent the attachment of the virus to host-
cells, thereby reducing virus infectivity. The studies have
shown that lauric acid hampers vesicular stomatitis of the
virus by inhibiting the binding of the virus to host-cells
(Hornung et al., 1994). The mechanism through which
interference with decreasing viral attachment with host-
cells is known to be an effective method in reducing the
infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 (Baglivo et al., 2020).
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MINI REVIEW
Monolaurin can also fight viruses by inhibiting viral
maturation. The research conducted by Bartolotta et al.
(2001) showed that lauric acid was able to inhibit the
Junin virus (JUNV) by inhibiting the final maturation
stage in the replication cycle. As it is known that JUNV
is an enveloped virus similar to SARS-CoV-2, the outer
membrane is composed of lipid bilayers that are shaped
like nails.
Clinical research on monolaurin against SARS-CoV-
2 is still limited, but various studies have proven that
monolaurin has a good antiviral ability, especially in the
enveloped viruses group. Besides, various studies have
shown that consumption of lauric oil as a source of
monolaurin provides good health effects. Therefore a
more in-depth study is needed relating to the clinical test
of monolaurin potential in counteracting COVID-19 both
through the mechanism of enhancing the immune system
and the mechanism of inhibiting the synthesis/
propagation of viral RNA.
7. Conclusion
Monolaurin is a bioactive lipid from medium-chain
fatty acids that have been proven safe for consumption,
has a broad spectrum as an antibacterial, boosts the
immune system, and acts as an antiviral. The
recommended dosage of monolaurin for adults is 1-3
grams, while for children is 30 mg as much as 1-3 times
a day from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or supplements
as a source of monolaurin. Its ability to kill various types
of viruses, especially enveloped viruses such as influenza
viruses and coronavirus 229E, makes monolaurin
potentially able to ward off SARS-CoV-2 which is the
cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, further
clinical tests are needed to determine the accuracy of
efficacy and effectiveness.
Conflict of interest
The author declared no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the Rector of
Universitas Padjadjaran and the Ministry of Education
and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia for the support
provided.
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... The results indicated that the effectiveness of monolaurin to inhibit Fusarium spp, was demonstrated by the smaller Gompertz parameter value than the control, such as the A value (7.41 + 0.22 cm), μ max (1.05 + 0.10 cm day -1 ), λ (4.33 + 0.43 days), and MDT (5.05 + 0.31 days) with a correlation coefficient value of 0.99. Monolaurin could inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by being employed as an immunomodulator and protector virus [90] Novel Corona Virus (nCov- 19) In vitro assay [91] Monolaurin was able to destroy virus including novel coronavirus (nCov-19) with preventing the ability of the virus to produce the syncytial formation ...
... A study by Subroto and Indiarto found that monolaurin can act as an immunomodulator to increase the immune system and protect the body from virus attacks such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [90]. It was proposed that the mechanism behind this process might be due to the increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, modulating T-cell lymphocytes, and the control of cell proliferation. ...
Article
Virgin coconut oil is obtained by wet processing of coconut milk using fermentation, centrifugation, enzymatic extraction, and the microwave heating method. Presently, VCO has several positive effects and benefits to human health, hence, it is regularly consumed and widely known as a unique functional food. VCO contains lauric acid (45 to 52 %). By lipase in the digestive system, VCO can undergo a breakdown into lauric acid, 1‐monolaurin, and 2‐monolaurin. These components have both hydrophilic and lipophilic groups and are also recognized as excellent antimicrobial lipids. Furthermore, lauric acid and monolaurin can be used as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral with broad‐spectrum inhibition. Lauric acid and monolaurin have a strong ability to destroy gram‐positive bacteria, especially S. aureus, fungi such as C. Albicans, and viruses including vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and visna virus (VV). Lauric acid and monolaurin interact with certain functional groups located in the cell membrane and can cause damage to the cell. In general, the potential of VCO as healthy food is contributed by lauric acid and monolaurin which are antimicrobial agents. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a functional edible oil, rich with lauric acid. VCO can be converted into partial lipids, i.e., lauric acid, 1‐monolaurin, and 2‐monolaurin by lipase in the digestive system. These compounds are known as antimicrobial lipids based on their excellent activity in inhibiting the growth of broad‐spectrum microbial. The inhibition mechanism of lauric acid and monolaurin as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents is also discussed
... The mechanism of the role of glyceryl guacholate related to its function as an antiviral includes controlling the pro-inflammatory cytokine system, activating leukocytes, disintegrating membranes, and inhibiting the process of maturation and replication of the virus. 42 The antibacterial component of VCO that can increase sputum conversion is lauric acid. Lauric acid is a bioactive compound that can be an inhibitory factor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...
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Virgin coconut oil is widely promoted and used as healthy and beneficial oil. One of them is caused by antimicrobials. Caprylic, caproic acid, capric acid, lauric acid and tau glyceryl monolaurate are other VCO compositions. Furthermore, due to the non-heating manufacturing process, the content in VCO can reduce cholesterol levels of triglycerides, LDL, phospholipids, VLDL and increase HDL in blood serum. VCO consumption lowers the number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies while increasing the conversion of BTA sputum. Until now, the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) disease was extremely high. VCO can be used as a supplement to help TB patients recover faster.
... These lymphocytes mark the incoming antigen and then destroy it. Thus, the immune system is the human body's mechanism to fight or expel foreign objects that enter their bodies in the form of bacteria or viruses (Catanzaro et al., 2018;Subroto and Indiarto, 2020). ...
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Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a type of spice derived from layered tubers, widely used as a source of flavour, taste, and cooking spices. Garlic is a therapeutic ingredient rich in bioactive compounds and antioxidants. The purpose of compiling this review is to provide information about bioactive compounds in garlic as a source of bioactive compounds and their potential to improve the immune system. This review also discussed the various effects of garlic processing on the stability and activity of bioactive compounds and the changes that occur during storage. Garlic contains high levels of organosulfur compounds, micronutrient selenium (Se), and flavonoids. The bioactive compounds in garlic are generally extracted using ethanol as a solvent. Food processing treatments such as boiling, frying, and others can have a positive impact on the organosulfur compounds. Organosulfur levels correlate with changes in antioxidant capacity and activity. The bioactive compounds of garlic can potentially boost the immune system or act as immunostimulants.
... One of the rapidly developing lipid modifications is converting triacylglycerol (TAG) into its partial acylglycerols, including monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG), which have hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups so that they have properties as surfactants and emulsifiers [3], [4]. MAG and DAG also have good biological activity for health so that they can be applied to various food products, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals [1], [5]- [7]. In addition, oil-rich DAG has been used as a healthy oil as a substitute for TAG oil because the addition of DAG into TAG makes the oil more hydrophilic and safe for consumption because it can diminish fat accumulation in the body [8]- [13]. ...
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Lipid modification through the conversion of triacylglycerol (TAG) to partial acylglycerol, namely monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG), has developed rapidly to obtain structured lipids (SLs) that can be used in various pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Glycerolysis of TAG enables high MAG and DAG recovery by optimizing the factors influencing the reaction. This article provides an overview of various studies on the factors that affect glycerolysis, especially the ratio of fat/oil to glycerol used. The oil to glycerol ratio plays a role in determining the progress of TAG conversion and the composition of reaction products. Excess glycerol in the reaction system encourages further glycerolysis reactions due to its reaction with the formed DAG to produce MAG. On the other hand, the reaction leads to the formation of more DAG if the amount of glycerol is limited. The use of an oil to glycerol molar ratio close to 1:5 is recommended to support high MAG synthesis, while a 2:1 ratio is recommended to support more efficient DAG synthesis.
... Monolaurin has a broad-spectrum activity as an antibacterial, boosts the immune system, and acts as an anti-viral. Its ability to kill various types of viruses, especially enveloped viruses such as influenza viruses and coronavirus 229E, makes monolaurin potentially able to ward off SARS-CoV-2 which is the cause of the COVID-19 (Subroto, & Indiarto, 2020). ...
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Understanding the complex pathogenesis of COVID-19 continues to evolve. With observation and quarantine as the prevailing standard of care, this study evaluated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in the biochemical markers of suspect and probable cases of COVID-19. A 28-day randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention was conducted among 63 adults in two isolation facilities in Santa Rosa City, Laguna, Philippines. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either a standardized meal (control) or a standardized meal mixed with a predefined dosage of VCO. Changes in clinical markers were measured at three time points (day 0, 14, and 28), with daily monitoring of COVID-19 symptoms. Participants in the intervention group showed a significant decline in the C-reactive protein level, with the mean CRP level normalized to ≤5 mg/dL on the 14th day of the intervention. As an adjunct therapy, meals mixed with VCO is effective fostering faster recovery from COVID-19.
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Background Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a fatty acid monoglyceride, which richly exists in coconut oil, palm oil, and human milk. Except for the recognized emulsifying properties, GML's good antibacterial ability and low energy density also make it an ideal functional additive and food quality improver. Scope and approach This review discusses GML synthesis, health benefits, positive effects on food storage and quality, and critically discusses its fate and safety in vivo. The routine emulsification of GML in foods is beyond the scope of this review. Key findings and conclusions GML is synthesized through direct esterification, methyl laurate glycerolysis or laurate glycerolysis. Although the in vivo fate of GML is assumed to be similar to that of glyceryl trilaurate, there is no direct experimental evidence for this inference. Previous studies proved that GML functions beyond an emulsifier. In food quality, GML inhibits the growth of harmful microorganisms and extends shelf life. It also improves the nutritional value and sensory properties of animal-derived food by regulating amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. In health efficacies, GML reduces lipid accumulation, rebuilds the intestinal barrier, modulates immune activity, and may have positive effects on the nervous system. These are associated with the direct intervention of GML on gut microbiota, immune cell activity and energy metabolism. However, developing more efficient GML synthesis schemes, enhancing the application of GML on food quality, and exploring the in vivo fate, health efficacy mechanism or safety of GML in different experimental models remain interesting topics in the future.
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A total of 340 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired each year. Antimicrobial agents that target multiple infectious pathogens are ideal candidates to reduce the number of newly acquired STIs. The antimicrobial and immunoregulatory properties of GML make it an excellent candidate to fit this critical need. Previous studies established the safety profile and antibacterial activity of GML against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. GML protected against high-dose SIV infection and reduced inflammation, which can exacerbate disease, during infection. We found that GML inhibits HIV-1 and other human-pathogenic viruses (yellow fever virus, mumps virus, and Zika virus), broadening its antimicrobial range. Because GML targets diverse infectious pathogens, GML may be an effective agent against the broad range of sexually transmitted pathogens. Further, our data show that reutericyclin, a GML analog expressed by some lactobacillus species, also inhibits HIV-1 replication and thus may contribute to the protective effect of Lactobacillus in HIV-1 transmission.
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Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are worldwide public health issues. The gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathophysiology of diet-induced obesity. Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a widely consumed food emulsifier with antibacterial properties. Here, we explore the anti-obesity effect of GML (1,600 mg/kg of body weight) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. HFD-fed mice were treated with 1,600 mg/kg GML. Integrated microbiome, metabolome, and transcriptome analyses were used to systematically investigate the metabolic effects of GML, and antibiotic treatment was used to assess the effects of GML on the gut microbiota. Our data indicated that GML significantly reduced body weight and visceral fat deposition, improved hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid metabolism, and ameliorated glucose homeostasis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. Importantly, GML modulated HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and selectively increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum . Antibiotic treatment abolished all the GML-mediated metabolic improvements. A multiomics (microbiome, metabolome, and transcriptome) association study showed that GML significantly modulated glycerophospholipid metabolism, and the abundance of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum strongly correlated with the metabolites and genes that participated in glycerophospholipid metabolism. Our results indicated that GML may be provided for obesity prevention by targeting the gut microbiota and regulating glycerophospholipid metabolism.
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Background: Viral infectivity depends on interactions between components of the host cell plasma membrane and the virus envelope. Here we review strategies that could help stem the advance of the SARS-COV-2 epidemic. Methods and results: We focus on the role of lipid structures, such as lipid rafts and cholesterol, involved in the process, mediated by endocytosis, by which viruses attach to and infect cells. Previous studies have shown that many naturally derived substances, such as cyclodextrin and sterols, could reduce the infectivity of many types of viruses, including the coronavirus family, through interference with lipid-dependent attachment to human host cells. Conclusions: Certain molecules prove able to reduce the infectivity of some coronaviruses, possibly by inhibiting viral lipid-dependent attachment to host cells. More research into these molecules and methods would be worthwhile as it could provide insights the mechanism of transmission of SARS-COV-2 and, into how they could become a basis for new antiviral strategies.
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The flexibility of monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) attracted the attention of researchers to learn more about MAG and DAG in food science and technology. The objective of this paper is to serve a review or summarize the production (especially enzymatic glycerolysis), characteristics, and application of MAG and DAG, especially for fat-based products. The characteristic of MAG and DAG related to melting and crystallization properties, polymorphism, microstructure, and rheology are presented and discussed. The applications of MAG and DAG include their use as fats/oils rich in MAG and DAG, margarine/shortening, surfactant/emulsifier, and organogels are also provided. Various studies have shown that MAG and DAG can improve the characteristics of various fat-based food products.
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Human milk has antimicrobial compounds and immunomodulatory activities. We investigated glycerol monolaurate (GML) in human milk versus bovine milk and infant formula for antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Human milk contained approximately 3000 µg/ml of GML, compared to 150 μg/ml in bovine milk and none in infant formula. For bacteria tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli), except Enterococcus faecalis, human milk was more antimicrobial than bovine milk and formula. The Enterococcus faecalis strain, which was not inhibited, produced reutericyclin, which is an analogue of GML and functions as a growth stimulant in bacteria that produce it. Removal of GML and other lipophilic molecules from human milk by ethanol extraction resulted in a loss of antibacterial activity, which was restored by re-addition of GML. GML addition caused bovine milk to become antimicrobial. Human milk but not bovine milk or formula inhibited superantigen and bacterial-induced IL-8 production by model human epithelial cells. GML may contribute beneficially to human milk compared to bovine milk or infant formula.
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Glycerol monolaurate (GML) has potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to assess the dose-dependent antimicrobial-effects of GML on the gut microbiota, glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were fed on diets supplemented with GML at dose of 400, 800 and 1600 mg kg−1 for 4 months, respectively. Results showed that supplementation of GML, regardless of the dosages, induced modest body weight gain without affecting epididymal/brown fat pad, lipid profiles and glycemic markers. A high dose of GML (1600 mg kg−1) showed positive impacts on the anti-inflammatory TGF-β1 and IL-22. GML modulated the indigenous microbiota in a dose-dependent manner. It was found that 400 and 800 mg kg−1 GML improved the richness of Barnesiella, whereas a high dosage of GML (1600 mg kg−1) significantly increased the relative abundances of Clostridium XIVa, Oscillibacter and Parasutterella. The present work indicated that GML could upregulate the favorable microbial taxa without inducing systemic inflammation and dysfunction of glucose and lipid metabolism.
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Glycerol monolaurate is a broadly antimicrobial fatty acid monoester, killing bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses. The compound kills stationary-phase cultures of Bacillus anthracis , suggesting that the molecule may kill spores. In this study, we examined the ability of glycerol monolaurate alone or solubilized in a nonaqueous gel to kill vegetative cells and spores of aerobic B. anthracis , B. subtilis , and B. cereus and anaerobic Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ( Clostridioides ) difficile. Glycerol monolaurate alone was bactericidal for all five organisms tested. Glycerol monolaurate alone was effective in killing spores. When solubilized in a nonaqueous gel, the glycerol monolaurate gel was bactericidal for all spores tested. The data suggest that glycerol monolaurate nonaqueous gel could be effective in decontaminating environmental and body surfaces, such as skin. IMPORTANCEBacillus and Clostridium spores are known to be highly resistant to killing, persisting on environmental and human body surfaces for long periods of time. In favorable environments, these spores may germinate and cause human diseases. It is thus important to identify agents that can be used on both environmental and human skin and mucosal surfaces and that are effective in killing spores. We previously showed that the fatty acid monoester glycerol monolaurate (GML) kills stationary-phase cultures of Bacillus anthracis . Since such cultures are likely to contain spores, it is possible that GML and a human-use-approved GML nonaqueous gel would kill Bacillus and Clostridium spores. The significance of our studies is that we have identified GML, and, to a greater extent, GML solubilized in a nonaqueous gel, as effective in killing spores from both bacterial genera.
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In veal and dairy beef production systems, Holstein bull calves experience many stressors and excessive pathogen exposure, necessitating the use of antimicrobials for welfare and production reasons. The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to explore the effects of esterified fatty acids used as feed supplement on health, production and immune variables in veal calves. Different glycerol-esters of fatty acids were used: short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-based glycerol-mono- (C4) and tributyrate (C4), and medium chain fatty acid (MCFA)-based glycerol-monocaprylate/monocaprinate (C8/C10) and glycerol-monolaurate (C12) in two different doses. One hundred sixty eight calves (2-to 4-week-old) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups; monobutyrate (1 g/animal/day); tributyrate (0.5 g/animal/day); low C8/C10 (7 g/animal/day) and high C8/C10 (10 g/animal/day); low C12 (4 g/animal/day) and high C12 (6 g/animal/day) and a control group (CON). Duration of in-feed supplementation was 14 weeks. Average daily gain, bodyweight at 14 weeks on feed and slaughter weight were determined. Health monitoring consisted of clinical signs and repeated thoracic ultrasonography. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks of supplementation, the function of neutrophils, monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated ex vivo by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by neutrophils and monocytes, proliferation of and cytokine release by PBMCs. Study power was based upon ROS production by neutrophils and treatment groups were too limited to detect significant differences in growth and health variables. Glycerol-ester supplementation resulted in different effects on immune cell function, depending on the type and dose of the glycerol-ester as well as duration of supplementation. Our main findings were increased secretion of interleukin IL-17A by PBMCs at 4 weeks of feed supplementation in high C8/C10 (P < 0.01), low C12 (P<0.01) and monobutyrate (P < 0.01) groups, combined with decreased ROS production in neutrophils (P<0.001) and monocytes (P<0.05) in the high C8/C10 and monocytes (P<0.05) in low C12 groups compared to the control animals. After 12 weeks on feed, ROS production by neutrophils (P<0.001) and monocytes (P<0.01) of monobutyrate and by monocytes (P<0.01) of tributyrate groups was decreased compared to control calves. In summary, supplementation of glycerol-esters of MCFAs resulted in immune-modulatory effects, which did not manifest themselves in improved health and growth of calves under the conditions and limitations of this study. Especially doses of high C8/C10 and low C12 show potential to promote an early, robust pro-inflammatory response with diminished ROS production. This might be beneficial for clearance of pathogens in young calves in periods of stress and high pathogen load.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous microorganism that commonly causes hospital-acquired infections, including pneumonia, bloodstream and urinary tract infections and it is well known for chronically colonising the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis, causing severe intermittent exacerbation of the condition. P. aeruginosa may appear in the free form cell but also grows in biofilm communities adhered to a surface. An alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents are nanoparticles that can act as carriers for antibiotics and other drugs. In this context, the study aimed to characterise and verify the anti-biofilm potential of GML Nanocapsules against P. aeruginosa. The nanocapsules showed a mean diameter of 190.7 nm, polydispersion index of 0.069, the zeta potential of −23.3 mV. The microdilution test showed a MIC of 62.5 μg/mL to GML and 15.62 μg/mL to GML Nanocapsules. The anti-biofilm experiments demonstrated the significant reduction of biomass, proteins, polysaccharide and viable P. aeruginosa in biofilm treated with GML Nanocapsules while the free GML did not cause an effect. The AFM images showed a decrease in a biofilm which received GML. The positive results suggest an alternative for the public health trouble related to infections associated with biofilm.
Article
BACKGROUD Understanding the interactions between feed additives and the functional properties of egg white protein (EWP) may offer novel insights into the effects of feed additives on laying hens, and provide an alternative for the modification of EWP functional properties by using laying hens as bioreactors. Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is widely used in food industry as an effective antibacterial emulsifier. In this work, the effects of three doses of dietary GML supplementation (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) on the functional properties of EWP were investigated. RESULTS The hardness of EWP gels was significantly improved by 300 and 450 mg/kg GML supplementation. The foaming capacity (FC) and foaming stability (FS) were increased after GML treatment, where 450 mg/kg GML showed the most significant improvements with 44.82% in FC and 23.39% in FS. The stabilization of EWP‐oil emulsions were also improved, supported by slowed creaming process and smaller oil droplets. Moreover, the heat denaturation temperature and rheological properties were also modified by dietary GML supplementation, implying improved thermal stability. CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated that GML supplementation has the potential to modify the functional properties of EWP, broadening the application of GML and providing new perspective to evaluate the efficacy of feed additives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.