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Aquaculture as a Component for Livelihood Development of Tribal Farmers of Selected Blocks of Koraput District, Odisha, India

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Jemamantadeipur and Kantabada Villages of Begunia Block, Khordha District, Odisha were adopted in a model village cluster approach in the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India funded and ICAR-CIFA operated project for demonstration of freshwater aquaculture technologies and livelihood development of the adopted beneficiaries. One fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) carp hatchery of 1.0 million seed production per operation in four days capacity was installed and operated in Kantabada Village from 2015 monsoon. Carp brood rearing was done in one 0.2 ha pond and seed rearing practices were undertaken in two ponds of 0.2 ha each at Kantabada and 0.4 ha at Jemamantadeipur. Around 50-60% survival was achieved for each stage of carp seed rearing from spawn to fingerling stage during the demonstration period (2015-2016). One community pond of 2.4 ha with average water spread area (WSA) of 1.4 ha was taken for demonstration of grow out fish culture in Jemamantadeipur Village. Total 76 beneficiary families, mostly tribals from both the villages were adopted in the project. Grow-out carp culture operations were carried out in the community pond of Jemamantadeipur Village in two phases in two years. The first phase was during November, 2015 - June, 2016 and the second phase during September, 2016 - May, 2017. The species cultured were catla, Catla catla; rohu, Labeo rohita; mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala and grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella @ 1:2:1:1 ratio and were stocked @ 5,000 fingerlings/ha. The fish production was enhanced from the pre-adoption level of 450 kg/ha/yr to a range of 3,096-3,610 kg/ha/yr. The profit share per beneficiary family of Jemamantadeipur Village was calculated to be Rs. 3,200/= approximately per year from fish culture operations. The present intervention of ICAR-CIFA revealed that the fish production can be increased from the community pond through integrated use of seed, feed and fertilizer resources as inputs. Emphasis was given for improving the knowledge and skills of the farmers for adoption of scientific fish farming practices in their locality for better economic returns.
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A study was conducted to identify how aquaculture assists in developing sustainable livelihood to the fish farming community in rural Bangladesh during the period from January to December, 2009. The Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA), a conceptual framework that aims to ameliorate poverty was applied to understanding the role of aquaculture in the Mymensingh area of the North-central Bangladesh. The study used the SLA as a foundation or main basis of analytical tool to identify the means and ways to enhance the livelihood of fish farmers. The analysis reveals how fish farmers can achieve positive sustainable livelihood through access to a wide range of livelihood assets. Higher economic return (BDT 1,19,360/ha/year) and social benefits were found to be gained by the fish farming community through human capital development. Lack of operating capital, vulnerability and insufficient institutional support were identified as major constraints to long term sustainability.
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Since 1960s Community aquaculture gained its importance in India through the attempts of Research and Development agencies. Demonstration of fish culture practices in community ponds are challenged by its nature as water bodies are common property resources which requires substantial support from communities, local bodies and other agencies. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) - Khordha, the Farm Science Centre under Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) works on Front Line Demonstration of community aquaculture in Khordha district. Promotion of community aquaculture by KVK is through the identified ponds and also requests from interested communities. Technical inputs and one time provision of fingerlings of Indian Major Carps viz., Catla, Rohu and Mrigal are supplied for the farmers to adopt the practice. A participatory approach is envisaged for mobilizing communities, stocking ponds and adopting all Scientific Management Practices. During 2011-13, KVK demonstrated fish culture in five community ponds covering an area of 6 ha. An average production was 22.41 q /ha realized against the farmers practice of 15.46 q/ha. High production costs, risks of poaching and other constraints were also elicited by members who adopted the practice. This paper presents the works done by KVK in promoting community aquaculture and its impact in fish production.
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Aquaculture production has prospered rapidly since the 1970s and is considered as a part of the rural development program in many countries. The impacts of aquaculture on the rural communities in terms of livelihood and food security are assessed in this paper. Aquaculture contributes to the livelihood of the poor through improved employment and income. Aquaculture creates job opportunities for rural communities, especially for illiterate women to earn side income for the household. With increased financial ability, household manage to reflect stronger purchasing power and have better access to the resources. However, there is a controversy among the researchers whether that aquaculture in rural communities is showing a pro-poor growth due to imbalance in resource distribution. In terms of food security, aquaculture of small indigenous fish in the small farmer system in rural areas provides a high quality of animal protein and essential nutrients, such as vitamin B12, calcium, and potassium. Unfortunate cases like child blindness, infant mortality and non-communicable disease (NCDs) have substantively decreased with the help of rural aquaculture. In Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICT), locally-canned tuna turned out as an affordable and non-perishable food source for the remote inland residents, helping them to achieve self-sufficiency. However, when aquaculture involves farming of large-sized commercial species, problem of food insecurity resurfaced as these commercial large fish species does not bring same quantity of nutrition as compared to small fishes.
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