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Abstract

Though recent technological advances have enabled note-taking through different modalities (e.g., keyboard, digital ink, voice), there is still a lack of understanding of the effect of the modality choice on learning. In this paper, we compared two note-taking input modalities -- keyboard and voice -- to study their effects on participants' learning. We conducted a study with 60 participants in which they were asked to take notes using voice or keyboard on two independent digital text passages while also making a judgment about their performance on an upcoming test. We built mixed-effects models to examine the effect of the note-taking modality on learners' text comprehension, the content of notes and their meta-comprehension judgement. Our findings suggest that taking notes using voice leads to a higher conceptual understanding of the text when compared to typing the notes. We also found that using voice also triggers generative processes that result in learners taking more elaborate and comprehensive notes. The findings of the study imply that note-taking tools designed for digital learning environments could incorporate voice as an input modality to promote effective note-taking and conceptual understanding of the text.

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Previous research has shown that the Read-Recite-Review (3R) technique, a retrieval-based strategy, enhances free recall but not inference performance relative to a common note-taking strategy. We hypothesize that this may be because retrieval practice enhances memory processes without encouraging learners to build a coherent situation model, a type of processing necessary for successful inference performance. In 2 experiments, we attempted to enhance situation-model processing during restudy by incorporating judgments of inferencing (JOIs) within the 3R technique. In Experiment 1, participants studied a technical passage on brakes (or pumps) under 1 of 3 study conditions: a) standard 3R, b) 3R plus metacomprehension judgments, or c) note-taking plus metacomprehension judgments. The combination of retrieval practice and metacomprehension judgments (i.e., 3R plus metacomprehension) improved inference performance relative to the standard 3R and note-taking plus metacomprehension judgments conditions. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the type of metacomprehension judgments (JOIs vs. judgments of learning) and test-expectancy (TE) instructions. Our results indicated that only the addition of JOIs to the 3R strategy enhanced inference and problem-solving performance relative to the standard 3R condition. These findings suggest that making metacomprehension judgments may not be a neutral event; instead, making JOIs in concert with retrieval practice can influence people's subsequent study behavior, which in turn can have a positive impact on inference performance. (PsycINFO Database Record
Chapter
In Chap.10, we presented linear models (LMs) models with fixed effects for correlated data. They are examples of population-averaged models, because their mean-structure parameters can be interpreted as effects of covariates on the mean value of the dependent variable in the entire population. The association between the observations in a dataset was a result of a grouping of the observations sharing the same level of a grouping factor(s). In this chapter, we consider the analysis of continuous, hierarchical data using a different class of models, namely, linear mixed-effects models (LMMs). They allow to take into account the correlation of observations contained in a dataset. Moreover, they allow to effectively partition the overall variation of the dependent variable into components corresponding to different levels of data hierarchy. The models are examples of subject-specific models, because they include subject-specific coefficients. In particular, in Sects.13.2–13.4, we describe the formulation of the model. Sections13.5,13.6, and13.7 are devoted to, respectively, the estimation approaches, diagnostic tools, and inferential methods used for the LMMs, in which the (conditional) residual variance-covariance matrix is independent of the mean value. This is the most common type of LMMs used in practice. In Sect.13.8, we focus on the LMMs, in which the (conditional) residual variance-covariance matrix depends on the mean value. Section13.9 summarizes the contents of this chapter and offers some general concluding comments.
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Although touchscreen mobile phones are widely used for recording informal text notes (e.g., grocery lists, reminders and directions), the lack of efficient mechanisms for combining informal graphical content with text is a persistent challenge. In this paper, we present InkAnchor, a digital ink editor that allows users to easily create ink-based notes by finger drawing and writing on a mobile phone touchscreen. InkAnchor incorporates flexible anchoring, focus-plus-context input, content chunking, and lightweight editing mechanisms to support the capture of informal notes and annotations. We describe the design and evaluation of InkAnchor through a series of user studies, which revealed that the integrated support enabled by InkAnchor is a significant improvement over current mobile note taking applications on a range of mobile note-taking tasks.
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Three experiments examined note-taking strategies and their relation to recall. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed either to take organized lecture notes or to try and transcribe the lecture, and they either took their notes by hand or typed them into a computer. Those instructed to transcribe the lecture using a computer showed the best recall on immediate tests, and the subsequent experiments focused on note-taking using computers. Experiment 2 showed that taking organized notes produced the best recall on delayed tests. In Experiment 3, however, when participants were given the opportunity to study their notes, those who had tried to transcribe the lecture showed better recall on delayed tests than those who had taken organized notes. Correlational analyses of data from all 3 experiments revealed that for those who took organized notes, working memory predicted note-quantity, which predicted recall on both immediate and delayed tests. For those who tried to transcribe the lecture, in contrast, only note-quantity was a consistent predictor of recall. These results suggest that individuals who have poor working memory (an ability traditionally thought to be important for note-taking) can still take effective notes if they use a note-taking strategy (transcribing using a computer) that can help level the playing field for students of diverse cognitive abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students' capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers' tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a greater proportion of reinstatement inferences than did males (Cohen’s d = .34, p = .01; Cohen’s d = .26, p = .04, respectively). In contrast, there was no evidence for gender differences in other types of think-aloud responses. These findings suggest that males and females differ in their use of cognitive processes that underlie reading comprehension, particularly with respect to the likelihood of retrieval of information from episodic memory.
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People's judgments about how well they have learned and comprehended text materials can be important for effectively regulating learning, but only if those judgments are accurate. Over two decades of research examining judgments of text learning—or metacomprehension—has consistently demonstrated that people's judgment accuracy is quite poor. We review recent research that has shown some success in improving judgment accuracy and then argue that the most common method used to investigate metacomprehension accuracy may inadvertently constrain it. We describe a new method that sidesteps some problems of the older method and present evidence showing how people can achieve high levels of metacomprehension accuracy.
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The ability to monitor the status of one’s own understanding is important to accomplish academic tasks proficiently. Previous studies have shown that comprehension monitoring (metacomprehension accuracy) is generally poor, but improves when readers engage in activities that access valid cues reflecting their situation model (activities such as concept mapping or self-explaining). However, the question still remains as to which process, encoding or retrieving, causes the improvement of metacomprehension accuracy, and the findings of previous research on this matter have been inconsistent. This study examined whether college students’ metacomprehension accuracy improves when they expect, at the time of reading, that they will explain the content later (active encoding) or when they actually generate an explanation (encoding plus active retrieving). In the experiments, college students read five texts. During reading, some students expected that they would generate explanations but did not actually generate them. In contrast, some students actually generated an explanation of the text after reading. All students then rated their comprehension of each text. Finally, they completed tests on the materials. Results of both studies revealed that metacomprehension accuracy, operationalized as the association between comprehension ratings and test performance, was greater for the group that actually generated explanations than for the expectancy or control groups.
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Investigated the relationship between test predictions and test performance for text material. Ss predicted test performance or made judgments about ease of comprehension both before and after reading short expository texts. As Ss gained more information about texts, the correlations between predictions and performance increased. Generally, test predictions were better predictors of test performance than were ease of comprehension ratings. Exps 2 and 3 showed that Ss use domain familiarity in their test predictions, but this declines from before to after reading. Increased accuracy of test predictions from before to after reading was interpreted as indicating that Ss use specific information gained from reading texts to make accurate predictions about their future test performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The serial position curve is characterized by a steep, possibly exponential, primacy effect extending over the 1st 3 or 4 words in the list, an S-shaped recency effect extending over the last 8 words in the list, and a horizontal asymptote spanning the primacy and recency effect. The shape of the curve may well result from proactive and retroactive inhibition effects occurring within the list itself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts, students with lower verbal abilities were overconfident in predictions of future performance, and students with higher verbal abilities were underconfident in judging past performance. Revised texts produced overconfidence for predictions. Thus, absolute accuracy of predictions and confidence judgments depended on students' abilities and text difficulty. In contrast, relative metacomprehension accuracy as measured by gamma correlations did not depend on verbal ability or on text difficulty. Absolute metacomprehension accuracy was much more dependent on types of materials and verbal skills than was relative accuracy, suggesting that they may tap different aspects of metacomprehension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Listeners efficiently exploit sentence prosody to direct attention to words bearing sentence accent. This effect has been explained as a search for focus, furthering rapid apprehension of semantic structure. A first experiment supported this explanation: English listeners detected phoneme targets in sentences more rapidly when the target-bearing words were in accented position or in focussed position, but the two effects interacted, consistent with the claim that the effects serve a common cause. In a second experiment a similar asymmetry was observed with Dutch listeners and Dutch sentences. In a third and a fourth experiment, proficient Dutch users of English heard English sentences; here, however, the two effects did not interact. The results suggest that less efficient mapping of prosody to semantics may be one way in which nonnative listening fails to equal native listening.
Article
Taking notes is of uttermost importance in academic and commercial use and success. Different techniques for note-taking utilise different cognitive processes and strategies. This experimental study examined ways to enhance cognitive performance via different note-taking techniques. By comparing performances of traditional, linear style note-taking with alternative non-linear technique, we aimed to examine the efficiency and importance of different ways of taking notes. Twenty-six volunteer adult learners from an information management course participated in this study. Cognitive performance scores from a traditional linear note-taking group were compared with another group by using a commercially available non-linear note-taking technique. Both groups were tested in two settings: after a classroom lecture and a panel forum discussion. Tasks included measures on story comprehension, memory, complexity of mental representations and metacognitive skills. Data analysis revealed that the non-linear note-takers were significantly better than the linear group both in terms of the quantity and the quality of the learned material. This study demonstrates the importance of using cognitively compatible note-taking techniques. It identifies the cognitive mechanisms behind effective note-taking and knowledge representation. Using such techniques enables deeper understanding and more integrated knowledge management.