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Pathways from emotional intelligence to well-being and health outcomes among unemployed: Mediation by health-promoting behaviours

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Abstract

This study investigated whether health-promoting behaviours mediate the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and well-being and health outcomes in the unemployed population. Spanish unemployed (N = 530) completed questionnaires of EI, health-promoting lifestyles, subjective well-being and perceived health. Path-analytic results showed that EI predicted well-being and self-reported health. Health-promoting behaviours: spiritual growth, stress management and physical activity, partially mediated the link between EI and well-being and health outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of the role that promoting health behaviours might play regarding to well-being and health outcomes after job-loss, and in developing of EI and health-promotion programmes for unemployed populations.

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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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The aim of this study was to compare the oral health-related behaviors of unemployed people with those of employed people and to assess whether they differ according to the length of unemployment. This study is part of the Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires. The present study comprised dentate participants, 30-63 yr of age (n = 4,670). Current employment status (employed vs. unemployed) and length of current unemployment (≤1, >1-2, >2-5, and >5 yr) were used as exposures. Binary logistic regression models were fitted separately for the oral health-related behaviors, and latent class analysis (LCA) was used to form behavioral clusters. Current unemployment and being unemployed for longer than 5 yr were inversely associated with regular use of dental services. Current unemployment indicated non-regular dental attendance, infrequent use of xylitol, daily smoking, and risky use of alcohol. Findings from the LCA supported the assumption that unemployed people could be considered as a risk group for poor oral health-related behaviors.
Article
The HPLP II to measure the extent to which adults engage in a health-promoting lifestyle is presented here. Background, conditions for permission to use the instrument, and the subscales of the instrument are described. English and Spanish versions of the HPLP II are presented along with scoring instructions.
Article
Background The present study aimed at analyzing whether training in emotional competences (EC) would increase the level of perceived EC among unemployed adults, whether the unemployment duration would moderate the effects of the training and whether the changes in EC would predict changes in the levels of perceived stress, somatic complaints, mental health, and mood states. Methods Seventy-five participants were randomly allocated to an EC training program, or a control group. Following a controlled experimental design, the participants completed all the measures prior to the intervention (T1), one month later (T2) and six months after the first data collection (T3). Results The results showed that change in EC after the training depended on the duration of unemployment. The difference between the experimental and control groups in EC after the training was significant when the participants had been unemployed for less time. In addition, the results indicated that changes in EC were found to be significant predictors of changes in perceived stress, mental health, somatic complaints, and vigor and confusion (mood dimensions) six months after the intervention. Conclusion The data suggest that unemployment duration plays a crucial role in determining the range and intensity of intervention effects.
Article
This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
Purpose: To investigate the influence of poor health on job-search behavior and re-employment, and the mediating role of job-search cognitions and coping resources. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among unemployed persons receiving social security benefits in the Netherlands (n = 510). Self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, job-search cognitions, and the intention to search for a job were measured at baseline. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate determinants of job-search behavior during a follow-up period of 6 months. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to investigate the influence of health, job-search cognitions and coping resources on re-employment during a mean follow-up period of 23 months. Results: Persons with poor health were less likely to search for paid employment (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.39-0.85) and were also less likely to find paid employment (HR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.39-0.89). Persons with a positive attitude toward job-search, high perceived social pressure to look for a job, high job-search self-efficacy and high job-search intention were more likely to search actively and also to actually find paid employment. Adjustment for job-search cognitions and coping reduced the influence of health on active search behavior by 50 % and on re-employment by 33 %. Conclusions: Health-related differences in job-search behavior and re-employment can be partly explained by differences in coping, job-search attitude, self-efficacy, and subjective norms towards job-search behavior. Measures to reduce the negative impact of poor health on re-employment should address the interplay of health with job-search cognitions and coping resources.
Article
The relationships among emotional intelligence, social coping, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 624 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation‐effect model specifying that emotional intelligence had an effect on psychological distress mediated by social coping was hypothesized and tested using structural equation modeling procedures. For comparison, a direct‐effect model and a direct‐and‐mediation‐effect model were also fitted to the data. The results indicated that the mediation‐effect model provided an adequate and good fit, suggesting that the effects of self‐relevant and other‐relevant emotional intelligence on psychological distress were mediated by avoidant coping and social‐interaction coping, respectively. Implications of the findings for enhancing emotional intelligence of students and in promoting the use of adaptive social coping strategies for their psychological well‐being are discussed.
Article
This study analyzes the factorial invariance of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) across sexes. Data from 2080 Spanish junior high school students (1023 males and 1057 females) were analyzed. Single group analyses showed an acceptable one-factor measurement model for both male and female groups. The factor means were found to be unequal. Sequential multigroup analyses, using the multi-sample procedure in LISREL 8, to test the equivalence of factor structures of the SWLS for male and female groups showed that factor loadings and unique variances are not invariant across the sexes. The results obtained showed that the SWLS exhibits some sensitivity to sexes in the groups analyzed.
Article
Unemployment and underemployment have adverse mental and physical health consequences, such as increased stress and depression. Health damaging behaviors like unhealthy eating, smoking, and alcohol use may be used to cope, contributing to chronic disease risk. In this adverse economic climate, it is vital to understand the health implications of unemployment and underemployment as well as underlying mechanisms. A randomized household survey of adults in six low resource communities was conducted in New Haven, Connecticut in 2009, yielding a sample of 1205 (73% participation) racially diverse adults (61% Black, 20% Latino, 12% White) ages 18-65 (61% women). We used ANOVA to test group differences and structural equation modeling to test mediation. 14.5% were unemployed and looking for work, 18.4% worked part-time, 38.2% worked full-time. Those employed full-time reported the least damaging psychological factors and health behaviors: lowest levels of stress and depression, most healthy and least unhealthy eating, most physical activity, and lowest levels of smoking and drinking. Those employed part-time fell in the middle, and those unemployed fell on the unhealthy end of all psychological and behavioral factors. Stress significantly mediated the associations of full-time employment with frequency of unhealthy eating and physical activity, and amount of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Depression significantly mediated the association of full-time employment with frequency of healthy eating. Compared to <10% nationwide, rates of unemployment in this sample were high. Both those unemployed and employed part-time reported adverse health behaviors as compared to those employed full-time, partially mediated by heightened stress and depression. It is vital for the health and well-being of the nation to increase not simply employment, but specifically full-time employment. Provision of mental health services to those unemployed and underemployed should be a priority to promote healthier lifestyles and prevent costly future chronic disease.
Article
Over the past decade, emotional intelligence (EI) has received much attention in the literature. Previous studies indicated that higher trait or ability EI was associated with greater mental distress. The present study focused on mediating effects of positive and negative affect on the association between trait EI and mental distress in a sample of Chinese adults. The participants were 726 Chinese adults (384 females) with an age range of 18-60 years. Data were collected by using the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that EI was a significant predictor of positive affect, negative affect and mental distress. Further mediation analysis showed that positive and negative affect acted as partial mediators of the relationship between EI and mental distress. Furthermore, effect contrasts showed that there was no significant difference between the specific indirect effects through positive affect and through negative affect. This result indicated that positive affect and negative affect played an equally important function in the association between EI and distress. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.
Article
Recently, increasing numbers of scholars have argued that emotional intelligence (EI) is a core variable that affects the performance of leaders. In this study, we develop a psychometrically sound and practically short EI measure that can be used in leadership and management studies. We also provide exploratory evidence for the effects of the EI of both leaders and followers on job outcomes. Applying Gross' emotion regulation model, we argue that the EI of leaders and followers should have positive effects on job performance and attitudes. We also propose that the emotional labor of the job moderates the EI–job outcome relationship. Our results show that the EI of followers affects job performance and job satisfaction, while the EI of leaders affects their satisfaction and extra-role behavior. For followers, the proposed interaction effects between EI and emotional labor on job performance, organizational commitment, and turnover intention are also supported.
Article
Associations amongst personality, coping, health locus of control, emotional intelligence (EI) and health behaviours were examined in a group of 364 Canadian students. Consistent associations with health behaviours were found for Conscientiousness, with the correlation pattern for other measures being more variable. EI, coping and health locus of control scales were intercorrelated, and a scale-level factor analysis suggested the extraction of a superordinate Coping/EI factor. This was found to mediate the relationship between personality and both taking regular exercise and healthy diet strategy. These findings suggest that associations between coping and EI, and the ways in which EI can act as a coping resource, should be investigated further.
Article
In everyday life, people have the notion that acknowledging and dealing effectively with emotions contributes to their wellbeing. A recent meta-analysis by Schutte, Malouff, Thorsteinsson, Bhullar, and Rooke (2007) indicated that Emotional Intelligence (EI) is associated with better health. Our purpose is to expand their work by including: (1) studies published after the date considered by them; (2) non-English studies; and (3) a cumulative meta-analysis to check for the sufficiency and stability in the history of this research domain. Based on 105 effect sizes and 19,815 participants, the results globally support previous findings. When measured as a trait, EI was more strongly associated with health ( = .34) than when it was measured as an ability ( = .17). The weighted average association with mental ( = .36) and psychosomatic health ( = .33) was higher, than the association with physical health ( = .27). Within the trait approach, the TEIQue showed the strongest association with mental health ( = .50), followed by the EQ-i ( = .44), SEIS ( = .29) and TMMS ( = .24). Furthermore, the cumulative meta-analysis indicated that this line of research has already reached sufficiency and stability. Overall, the results are encouraging regarding the value of EI as a plausible health predictor.
Article
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, subjective well-being, and self esteem). The average number of persons with psychological problems among the unemployed was 34%, compared to 16% among employed individuals. Moderator analyses demonstrated that men and people with blue-collar-jobs were more distressed by unemployment than women and people with white-collar jobs. Linear and curvilinear moderating effects of the duration of unemployment were also identified. Furthermore, the negative effect of unemployment on mental health was stronger in countries with a weak level of economic development, unequal income distributions, or weak unemployment protection systems compared to other countries. Meta-analyses of longitudinal studies and natural experiments endorsed the assumption that unemployment is not only correlated to distress but also causes it. Seemingly inconsistent longitudinal results of older meta-analyses can be explained by retest artifacts. We also identified mental-health related selection effects during job loss and job search, but they are weak. With an effect size of d = −.35 intervention programs for unemployed people were found to be moderately effective in ameliorating unemployment-related distress among continuously unemployed persons.
Article
Studies suggest that health status influences patient satisfaction, but little work has examined the influence of different measures of health status on satisfaction. The authors examined whether the association between health status and satisfaction varied for different measures of health status among 2000 diabetic patients receiving care across 25 Veterans Affairs facilities. Health status was measured using (1) the diabetes-related components of the Total Illness Burden Index (DM TIBI), a measure of diabetes severity and comorbidities; (2) the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Physical Function Index (PFI10); and (3) the SF-36 general health perceptions question (SF-1). Satisfaction was measured both by a 5-item scale on satisfaction with patient-provider communication and by a single item on overall diabetes care satisfaction. In adjusted models, worse health on all three health status measures correlated with lower satisfaction, but the DM TIBI explained more of the variation in satisfaction than either the PFI10 or SF-1. Moreover, when the DM TIBI was added to the model containing PFI10, PFI10 was no longer significantly associated with satisfaction. In this diabetes population, health status appears to have a substantial impact on patient satisfaction, and this effect is considerably greater for diabetes severity than for physical functioning.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine health-promoting behaviors and psychosocial well-being of university students in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional study was conducted using convenience sample (n = 247) of students recruited at various locations on campus. The Chinese version of the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II; S. Walker, K. Sechrist, & N. Pender, 1995) was given to students as a questionnaire. Relatively few university students had a sense of "health responsibility" (6.5-27.1%), engaged in any form of physical activity (31.2%), or exercised regularly (13.8%). Less than half ate fruits (35.2%) and vegetables (48.9%) every day. Positive personal growth was reported by 50.6% of the students; 42.5% used stress-management skills and 74.1% rated their interpersonal relationships as meaningful and fulfilling. Students' scores on the health responsibility, nutritional habits, spiritual growth, interpersonal relations, or stress-management subscales of the HPLP-II did not differ significantly by gender, but males scored better than females (p = 0.001) on the physical exercise subscale. This study provides information on gender differences and specific needs of students which can help university administrators, curriculum planners, and community health professionals design guidelines for structuring a healthier environment and developing health education programs that support healthy choices among university students.