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Evaluating The Structural Stability of 3D Printed Shelters in Jordan

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_____________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract Runoff, sand storms, high wind, and earthquake are natural events that control the movement of people within the country sometime and out of country in other oceans. The immigrated refugees would require a temporary shelter that have a basic survival tools such as steel frame, a roof, and floor mat. The refugee shelter in the common play weak under natural event and therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compare the structural stability of 3D printed shelters to timber and steel shelters in Jordan. As the technology of three dimensional printing has developed enough to construct concrete houses within short period, high quality, and high strength. The paper has found that the 3D concrete mix is available in Jordan and have achieved very high compressive strength in comparison to traditional mixes. The 3D Printed shelter function better than the steel and timber shelter in resisting the column shear forces, as well as in the base reactions however it falls weaker in base shear forces, shear force on beams, column moments. The printed shelter found to be more stable under compression forces.
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Citation: Akeila, M., Kuok, K.K.K and Preece, C., (2020). “Evaluating The Structural Stability of 3D Printed
Shelters in Jordan.” Proceeding of International Conference on Advances in Mechanical, Civil, and
Construction Engineering (ICAMCCE) held in Dubai, UAE on 25 September, 2020.
Evaluating The Structural Stability of 3D Printed
Shelters in Jordan
Mohanad Akeila1, Kelvin Kuok King Kuok 1, Christopher Preece 2
1 Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology
2 Professor of Management, College of Engineering, Abu Dhabi University
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
Runoff, sand storms, high wind, and earthquake are natural events that control the movement of people within the
country sometime and out of country in other oceans. The immigrated refugees would require a temporary shelter
that have a basic survival tools such as steel frame, a roof, and floor mat. The refugee shelter in the common play
weak under natural event and therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compare the structural stability of 3D
printed shelters to timber and steel shelters in Jordan. As the technology of three dimensional printing has
developed enough to construct concrete houses within short period, high quality, and high strength. The paper has
found that the 3D concrete mix is available in Jordan and have achieved very high compressive strength in
comparison to traditional mixes. The 3D Printed shelter function better than the steel and timber shelter in resisting
the column shear forces, as well as in the base reactions however it falls weaker in base shear forces, shear force
on beams, column moments. The printed shelter found to be more stable under compression forces.
Keywords: Natural Events, Structural Stability, 3D Printed Shelters, 3D Concrete Mix
1. Introduction
Syrian refugees counted to be the largest displaced immigrants over camps in Jordan with temporal residency
rather than permanent. Syrian Refugees temporary residency perspective changed after 9-year placement in
Jordanian camps. The temporary shelters provided to refugees changed the concept of residency from
temporary to permanent, since the average life span of sheltering camps is 12 years (1). Current steel shelter
located in Jordan can survive up to 3 years under the climate conditions in contrast to tents shelters that are
durable for one year only (2). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the structural performance timber
shelter in comparison to steel and 3D printed Concrete shelters that is introduced in “Evaluating The
Environmental Performance of 3D Printed Shelters in Jordanpaper. The main reason behind the structural
analysis and comparison scheme is to identify the structural durability and rigidity of the printed concrete
shelter in comparison to other type of shelters to define whether it is safe to place refugees in 3D Printed
concrete shelter. The structural models will be simulated and analyzed by Etabs and results will be compared
in graphical presentation to define the best shelter under combination of the applied loads.
2. Literature Review
Structural design and analysis for refugee shelters are built on integrated design codes and standards. The
fundamentals between all design codes are similar in term of the rigidity of the structure to resist applied
loads. International Building codes (IBC) have referenced many other standards for specific requirements
such as minimum design loads of the structure, the structural concrete codes, masonry and block wall
stability standards, specification of structural steel, and wood designs (3). The design alphabets of shelters
studied in several manuals and under several books however the final version of Sphere Book summarized
the fundamental design of a refugee shelter that is constructed in association with UN requirements (4). The
following table present the collection of standards from multiple standards institutes combined to provide a
complementary solution for structural engineers in designing safe refugee shelters.
Table 1. American Structural Design Codes & Standards (3)
Origination
Standard
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
ACI 318-11, Building Code Requirements for
Structural Concrete
ACI 530-11, Building Code Requirements for
Masonry Structures
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
AISC 360-10, Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings
American Forest & Paper Association
NDS-2012, National Design Specification
(NDS) for Wood Construction
American were not the only association generated building for mini structures. The following building
codes present other countries stability requirements in a shelter:
1- Pakistan Building Code of year 2007
2- The national building codes of Philippines for year 2005
3- Bangladesh National Building Code of year 2008
4- Local building codes can be also implemented if exist in the location of sheltering camp. However,
the codes shall be compared to the provisions of IBC and the most conservative shall be implemented
in the structural analysis.
Design Loads:
International building loading codes are intended to design structure that is stable for 50 years, however such
duration is not applicable to design post disaster structure, which are normally designed for 5 years
maximum. The following loads are modified to fit within the specification of the structural stability of shelter
design.
1- Floor Live Load
International Building code design standard for the floor live load call for 1.9kPa for dwelling that is
designed to be as permanent residency. Post disaster shelters shall be designed for limited budget
developers as well as low income people and therefore, the floor live load structural design standard can
be lowered from 1.9kPa to 1.0 kPa (3). The compromised standard is sufficient for the analysis of any
elevated floor. Jordanian structural applied load code claim for 2.0 kPa of distributed live load in houses
(5).
2- Roof Live Load
International Building Code (IBC) roof live load have considered the maintenance applied load to the
roof other than the rain load and the snow load. Sheltering structures with plastic, tarps, or thatch roofing
is not designed to take any roof live load such as the maintenance labours that step of the roof for
maintenance purposes. Shelters with more substantial roofing materials such as plywood, corrugated
sheets, and sandwich panels are designed to consider applied live load of 1.0 kPa (3)
3- Snow Loads: short term shelters with life span shorter than 5 years applied snow loads can be reduced
by the following amounts:
Table. 2: Snow load design reduction factor for structures life fall within 5 years (3)
Design Life
Reduction Factor
More than 6 weeks
25%
6 weeks to 1 year
20%
1 to 2 years
15%
2 to 5 years
10%
More than 5 years
0%
Snow loads reduction factors are not relevant as the table show for structures that designed to survive for
more than 5 years. The proposed 3D Printed shelter life span is 15 years minimum to ensure cost
efficiency over occupancy and therefore, the standards for the snow calculation shall remain without any
reduction, thus the design calculation specified in ASCE/SEI 7-10 shall remain the same. Therefore,
Shelter made of 45m2 designed for middle east refugees shall carry a snow load of 1.2KN/m2 (57)
4- Wind Load: The Kingdom of Jordan, design code standards specify the wind speed at 126km/hr,
therefore the shelter design shall be capable to stand such high wind speed (5). In hot dry climate the air
speed in Jordan found to be 3.4m/s (12.4 km/hr) therefore, the shelter shall be designed and simulated
against higher wind load which is 126km/hr.
5- Seismic Load: American Society of Civil Engineers earthquake design standard (ASCE 37-02) is derived
from peak ground acceleration (PGA). The American seismic standard used in design refugee shelter
haven’t considered design factor reduction formula over the life span of the shelter. International Building
Code seismic load calculated on the exceedance probability of earthquake during the life of the structure.
IBC structure durability is 50 years, and the seismic design load is calculated on 2% exceedance of the 5
years’ structure life span.
Jordan seismic standard made to prevent structure against earthquakes on rocky layer. The probability of
earthquake existence according to latest Jordanian earthquake assessment show that the influence of the
ground motion is negligible for the engineering design consideration, thus the existence of earthquake in
Jordan is one in every 50 years (8).
6- Floods: post disaster manual created by International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
(IFRC), consider the impact of the flood on the type of it. Flash flood impact the sheltering system in
different way than standing water. The flood factor shall be taken from the historical data of the country
selected to host the sheltering camp, since Jordan taken as the proposed location to execute the 3D printed
shelter community on its land, the flood design factors defined in the runoff would exist if the rainfall
reach 22mm within 24 hours. As per the historical data over 100 years the events of runoff are countable
and therefore, the flood factor can be neglected in the design. However the shelters need to be raised
30cm minimum from the ground level to avoid letting water inside the shelters in case of runoff (9)
3. Structural Design Models Development
The following segments will describe the structural design of the steel, timber, 3D printed concrete shelter.
The 3D Concrete and Steel shelters will be developed in Etabs and analyzed through the same software
however, the timber Shelter will be analysed using Etabs only since, the applied load on the concrete same
applied on the timber to define the performance of moment, shear, and deflection. The difference found huge
and therefore concrete is more stable than timber.
3.1- Steel Shelter Structural Design
Steel transitional shelters designed and built to hoist Syrian refugees in Jordan become the most preferable
solution to UNHCR as the other type of shelters such as the tents stand weak against high wind and floods.
The transitional shelter is made of structural thin framing system that is cladded by corrugated sheets and
filled with thermal wool insulation. The reinforced concrete slab and foundation underneath stabilize the
structural framing to the ground in case of up lifting wind storm. UNHCR designed the shelter to
accommodate 5 refugees with in 24m2 (2).
Fig.1 Steel Transitional Shelter (2)
The steel shelter has been modified slightly in the following model to be able to serve the religious needs of
the Muslims refugees in separating the genders and parents from children’s. Thus the modified steel shelter
is made of 2 rooms and a kitchen with overall area of 46m2 instead of 24m2 in addition to single slope roof
instead of gable roofing to reduce the working hours on the roof as the single level roofing would require
less manpower and generate less waste (10)(9). Fig. 1 present the plan view of the structural steel shelter.
All of the three shelters can accommodate two bunk bed in the living room with four single armchairs, fully
equipped kitchenette, bed room with double bed and studying table. Fig.2 present the steel shelter model
developed in Etabs and Fig.3 present the overall steel shelter perspective.
Fig. 4: Transitional Steel Shelter Overall Perspective
Fig. 2: Steel Shelter Plan View
3.2- 3D Printed Shelter Structural Model
3D Printing technology in building shelters investigated from cost, time, and environmental perspectives in
the previous two papers titled “Evaluating The Visibility of Building Syrian Refugee Shelters by 3D Printing
Technology in Jordan” and “Evaluating The Environmental Performance of 3D Printed Shelters in Jordan”.
The last of the series is evaluating the structural stability of the printed shelters in comparison to steel and
timber shelter under Jordanian climate conditions. Jordan selected as country for the study as it located in
the heart of the middle east and have the needful instruments to make 3D Printed shelter work as alternative
sheltering solution to Syrian refugees. The concrete of the printer found to be available at batch plants close
to the refugee camps located in Azraq and Al Mafraq district. As presented in papers before the 3D Printed
shelter is built over a raft foundation casted within 3D Printed mold. The walls are printed in a form of façade
unit with air gap of 10cm separating the internal from the external wall as shown in Fig. 6. The printed shelter
can occupy the same number of refugees to the steel and timber shelters, and therefore the plan of the shelter
presented in Fig. 5 illustrate the room distribution in the shelter. The roof of the printed shelter is made of
hard sandwich panels pinned to concrete columns, and trimmed by aluminum flashing to the walls. Fig.7
present overall perspective of the described 3D Printed Shelter.
The major construction component of the printed shelter is the printable concrete mix that is made of cement,
sand, gravel, water, and chemicals. The printable mix presented in Table. 3 was given by COBOD (A mega
printing company based in Europe). The mix has been taken to two concrete companies in Jordan to create
equivalent mix that satisfy the overall density of the mix as well as the proposition of mix components to be
able to produce the mix locally.
Fig. 5 3D Printed Shelter Plan
View
Fig. 6 Structural Model of 3D
Printed Shelter
Fig. 7: Overall 3D Printed Shelter
Perspective
Table 3. COBOD 3D Printed Concrete Mix (11)
As COBOD mix is made of traditional OPC cement, gravels, and water. The recycled roof tiles are material
that is available in Europe as construction waste, however in the middle east such material is rare and
expensive and therefore the two concrete suppliers (Kingdom Concrete and Lafarge Holcim) have alternate
the roofing tiles by increasing the quantity of gravel of the same tile size. The percentages of the materials
modified slightly by the concrete suppliers to meet a slump that is close to zero as the printed concrete should
not have much of slump to stay in place. The superplasticizer of COBOD mix: Master Glenium SKY 631
was not available in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and therefore AdCon PC 550, and PC 711 provided
as alternative chemicals to the mix as both of the plasticizers are made polycarboxylic polymer base.
Table 4. 3D Printed Concrete Mixes in Jordan
KIGDOM CONCRETE
LAFARGE HOLCIM
Material
Dry
Weight
Percentages
by weight
Dry
Weight
Percentage
by Weight
Material
Cement OPC
665
(kg/m3)
30%
761
(kg/m3)
32%
Cement OPC
Fine Aggregate II
(Silica Sand) (0-
2mm)
416.9
(kg/m3)
19%
435
(kg/m3)
18%
Silica Sand (0-2)
Fine Aggregate I
(Semsemiyah)
(0-6mm)
902.7
(kg/m3)
41%
980
(kg/m3)
41%
Gravel (0-8)
Water
209.5
(L/m3)
10%
207
(L/m3)
9%
Water (Total)
Admixture
AdCon PC 550
(Superplasticizer)
5.4
(L/m3)
0.2%
7
(L/m3)
0.3%
PC711
Superplasticizer
Polypropylene
Fibre (Crack
stopper)
2
(kg/m3)
0.1%
2.488
(kg/m3)
0.1%
Polypropylene
Fibre (Crack Stop
fiber)
Total
2,199.6
100%
2392.5
100%
Total
The slump test of Kingdom Concrete mix achieved 4cm slump at the first cast and reduced to 2 cm after half
an hour. The slump test of Lafarge measured to be 2.5cm in the first trial and reduced to 1 cm only after half
an hour. The mixes taken further for compressive strength and flexural strength tests to feed the structural
software with strength generated by the printed mixes. The following Table.5 present the strength achieved
by each of the mixes and the selection criteria followed in selecting the mix that is plugged in Etabs to
simulate the structural performance of the printed shelter.
COBODD Printable Concrete Mix
Material
Quantity [ton]
Percentages by weight
Cement
6.12 ton
32 %
0-2mm sand
3.50 ton
18 %
0-4mm gravel (0-8mm)
3.50 ton
18 %
0-4mm recycled
roofing tiles (0-8mm)
4.38 ton
23 %
Water
1.66 ton
9 %
Glenium sky 631
(superplasticizer)
0.04 ton
0 %
Crack stop fibers
0.02 ton
0 %
Total
19.22 ton
100 %
Table. 5: Compressive and Flexural Test Results
Test Type
Duration
LAFARGE HOLCIM
KINGDOM CONCRETE
Compressive
Strength
(N/mm2)
3 Days
55.2
57
7 Days
60.3
69
28 Days
70.5
87
Flexural
Strength
(N/mm2)
28 Days
6.5
6.9
The compressive and flexural strengths selected from above table. 5 was Lafarge even it found to be smaller
than Kingdom Concrete results however a smaller value will give a tolerance to increase the strength if the
structure didn’t achieve the same stability the other two shelters (timber and steel) achieve and therefore the
strength of the concrete would require to be increased to achieve an equivalent stability performance to the
other two shelters. If the Lafarge mix found to be reinforcing the printed shelter with high stability
performance the mix of Kingdom Concrete will give bigger efficiency values to Lafarge mix and therefore,
extending the lifespan of the shelter. The three shelters loaded with the same amount of forces presented in
the literature review in order to identify the structural performance of shelters against seismic, dead, live,
wind, and snow loads.
3.3 Timber Shelter Structural Modeling
The last type of shelters designed and simulated to identify the structural performance of it is the timber
shelter. The timber shelter is made to equal size of the steel and 3D Printed shelter. The Timber shelter follow
the design principle of the other two shelter design in which the foundation built first to support the structure
frame which will be cladded to form the shelter envelope. The timber shelter frame consists timber posts
embedded in concrete foundation. The suspended timber flooring is made of timber joist connected to the
main timber post and to each other by steel L angles. The timber flooring is covered with plywood sheets.
The timber posts cladded by plywood sheeting to form the shelter walls. The roof is made of timber purlins
crossing over timber rafters in order to support the steel roofing sheet. The design of the timber shelter in
Jordan inspired from the preferences of post-disaster shelter manual published by International Federation
of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The manual recommend 10 shelter design made of timber shelters
for the western region and Asia.
Fig. 8 Timber Shelter Plan View
Fig. 9 Structural Model of Timber
Shelter
4. Structural Analysis and Comparison
The designed shelters loaded with forces summarized in the literature review and results presented in table
6. As Fig. 11 show the shear forces applied on the roof beams of the shelters deflected by steel roofing in the
steel shelter better than the sandwich panel supported by steel tubes in the printed shelter. The reason behind
that is the homogenousity between similar building material, thus steel to steel will perform better than steel
to other material in resisting the shear forces. In Fig 12. the concrete columns of the printed shelter took the
shear forces in better mechanism to the steel shelter, as the concrete columns found to be more rigid between
the printed walls to the steel frame. The concrete columns however took less moment in comparison to the
steel framing of the steel shelter. In reference to Fig. 13 the steel shelter performed better under the shear
forces applied on the base of the shelters in comparison to the 3D and timber shelter. The timber shelter
behaves better than the printed concrete due to the elasticity of timber under shear reactions applied to shelter
foundations. Finally, the base reactions summarized in Fig. 14 show that the the shelter concrete foundations
took less shear forces than the concrete foundation of the printed shelter.
Table. 6: Structural Response of shelter elements in each of the shelters
Structure Response
3D Printed
Shelter
Timber
Shelter
Steel
Shelter
Best
Shear Force On Beams (KN)
-2.2322
15.61
0.43
Steel
Column Shear Forces (KN)
0.2629
-17.466
0.6401
3D Printed
Concrete
Column Moments (KN.M)
-0.2642
4.8664
0.1746
Steel
Base Shear (KN)
1367.8231
382.67
216.83
Steel
Base Reaction (KN)
32.05
35.6363
183.6671
3D Concrete
-5 0 5 10 15 20
CONCRETE
TIMBER
STEEL
Shear Force On Beams (KN)
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5
CONCRETE
TIMBER
STEEL
Column Shear Forces (KN)
Fig. 10: Timber Shelter Perspective
Fig. 11: Shelter Resistance to
Forces on Beam
Fig. 12: Shears Force Resisted
by Shelter Columns
Maximum Load Comparison
As the comparison of the shear forces, reactions and moments show that the steel and concrete printed
shelters are very close in results further analysis carried below on the maximum loads a shelter can carry
under single loading system. The purpose is to define the stability of shelter under compression forces
applied to shelter elements as single unit. The timber shelter eliminated of the loading comparison as timber
weak under compression and it is not a preferred in the middle east due to the scarcity of wood as construction
material. The max load comparison study presented in table. 4 has shown that the 3D Concrete shelter took
more dead, live, wind and snow loads than the one carried by steel shelter.
Table.4: Compare 3D Concrete Shelter to Steel Shelter in Resisting Applied Loads
Applied Load
Concrete
Steel
Efficiency of 3D Shelter
to Steel Shelter
Dead
103 KN/m2
78 KN/m2
24%
Live
186 KN/m2
157 KN/m2
16%
Snow
184 KN/m2
156 KN/m2
15%
Wind
133 m/s
130 m/s
2%
Conclusion
The Syrian immigrant refugees displaced due to the internal war has populated the nearby countries land
with shelters and temporary houses. The shelters constructed in association with the small time frame due to
the enormous amount of immigrants every day, found to be un-durable housing solution over the long run
and therefore, alternative type of shelters presented in this paper can achieve the required durability for
Syrian refugees located Jordan. The models of the shelter simulated by Etabs and 3D Printed shelters
constructed from concrete mix that have high cement to water ratio found to be more stable than steel and
timber shelters, as the printed shelter carried more applied compression load than the other two type of
shelters. The simulation of the printed shelter has achieved the international requirement of shelter structural
stability as well as is showed the innovative of design in reducing the execution period through molding the
shelter main elements such as the columns using the technology.
050 100 150 200
CONCRETE
TIMBER
STEEL
Base Reaction (KN)
0 500 1000 1500
CONCRETE
TIMBER
STEEL
Base Shear (KN)
Fig. 13: Base Reactions on
Foundations
Fig. 14: Base Shelter
Resistance
Data Availability
Access to Data is Restricted: As the research presented in the paper is one part of a PhD research that is
funded by Swinburne University of Technology. The models of the research as well as the amaltical theme
remains under the custody of the university data base till the project completed. Any use of data shall be
communicated with the author of the paper to ensure no violation to the university copy right of the research.
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This paper aims to assess risks due to potential Flash Floods hazards in Wadi Mousa and to determine the magnitude of flows for flash flood hazards and construct Floodplain Zone maps for the selected flood return periods of 25, 50, 75 and 100 years. Wadi Mousa is considered an ephemeral wadi with intermittent flash flood of flows that can exceed the 298 m3/s threshold. Its floods, however, do not flow every year. Nevertheless, at certain years the extent of flood can be huge. The surface drainage may be broadly divided into sub-catchments according to drainage namely; Wadi Als-Sader, Wadi Jelwakh with Wadi Khaleel, Wadi Al-Maghir. Wadi Zarraba is the confluence of the three sub- catchments. The study covers an area of 53.3 km2 and comprises a high semi -arid infrequent flash floods generated by heavy rainstorm over the catchment and flows to Wadi Araba. Average annual rainfall of Wadi Mousa was calculated of 178 mm, and average annual evapotranspiration is 1300 mm per year. The runoff analysis indicates that only rainfall events exceeding 22 mm within the 24 hour period would generate runoff.
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Seismic hazard in Jordan and neighbouring areas was assessed following the standard probabilistic approach. Eighteen seismic sources have been identified and characterized using appropriate seismic parameters. Two ground motion models, were used and their results were compared to explore the hazard sensitivity. The hazard results are given in the form of maps of PGA and SA (at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s), for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Maximum PGA values within Jordanian territory range between 0.25 and 0.30 g. Maximum SA values at 0.2 s and 1.0 s range between 0.6-0.7 g and 0.15-0.20 g, respectively. A comparison of PGA values for two cities in Jordan (Amman and Aqaba) shows that the influence of the ground motion model is negligible for the probability levels of engineering interest. Results of the seismic hazard analysis were used to develop a new macrozonation map for Jordan as well as an associated suite of elastic response spectra applicable for the different seismic zones. In this map, Jordan is divided into three seismic zones with values of the seismic zone factor ranging between 0.06 and 0.15.
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The UNHCR estimates that the average forced displacement period is 17 years, which many refugees and IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons) spend entirely in camps. This reality has caused camps to be increasingly considered as permanent cities of our future rather than temporary relief solutions. Unfortunately, this recognition has not been matched by corresponding increases in the planning or resources devoted to camps. In the case of shelter, a basic human need, little to no architectural infrastructure exists and urban planning remains short-term. As a result, camp dwellers are often forced to take it upon themselves to transform existing humanitarian storage facilities into essential domiciles, markets, and communities. In this paper, we describe our observations and survey results on the state of and practices surrounding shelter from three camps in north Iraq. Our findings illustrate the various modes of shelter that exist due to economic and political expediency, and highlight opportunities for ICTs to improve the quality of life for millions of displaced residents.
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Structural Steel Design in Amman. Amman
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