Conference PaperPDF Available

EDU-BUSINESS: PREREQUISITES FOR COMMERCIAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN UKRAINIAN HIGHER EDUCATION

Authors:
  • Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics
  • Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics

Abstract and Figures

Commercial methods of quality management in higher education are currently being applied in Ukraine. This article addresses the question of whether commercial methods of quality management can be applied in the context of higher education. This problem is important because the commercial quality management methods introduced by Ministry of Education and Science (as part of the updated HEIs financing system), by National Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance are based on the assumption that "edu-business" has "customers" who pay for "service". If these conditions cannot be applied to higher education, then the existing commercial methods of quality management are not applicable to HEIs and methods of quality management need to be rethinking, modifying and clarifying.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal for Quality Research 14(4) 12351244
ISSN 1800-6450
1
Corresponding author: Tetiana Kalashnikova
Email: kalashnikova.tv@gmail.com 1235
Tetiana Kalashnikova1
Maryna Salun
Liudmyla Katan
Tetiana Marenych
Article info:
Received 21.06.2020
Accepted 28.09.2020
UDC 37.014.6
DOI 10.24874/IJQR14.04-16
EDU-BUSINESS: PREREQUISITES FOR
COMMERCIAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN
UKRAINIAN HIGHER EDUCATION
Abstract: Commercial methods of quality management in higher
education are currently being applied in Ukraine. This article
addresses the question of whether commercial methods of quality
management can be applied in the context of higher education.
This problem is important because the commercial quality
management methods introduced by Ministry of Education and
Science (as part of the updated HEIs financing system), by
National Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance are
based on the assumption that “edu-business” has “customers”
who pay for “service”. If these conditions cannot be applied to
higher education, then the existing commercial methods of quality
management are not applicable to HEIs and methods of quality
management need to be rethinking, modifying and clarifying.
Keywords: Quality management; Quality assurance;
Edu-business; Higher education; University.
1. Introduction
This article analyzes and summarizes the
deliverables of the Ukrainian experience in
quality management in higher education,
identifies contradictions and inconsistencies
between the reformed quality management
system and the goals, roles, and interrelations
in higher education. The attempts to solve this
problem by applying the concept of
stakeholders force universities to distort own
understanding of their goals, roles, and
interrelations in order to comply with the
commercial model of quality management
(Zaslavska et al., 2016; Bielova et al., 2018;
Salun et al., 2020).
Prior to the 21st century, the issues of quality
management of higher education in Ukraine
were studied in the context of general issues
of management of higher education
institutions, as the quality improvement - in
the context of pedagogical sciences.
Nowadays changes in the quality
management of higher education are taking
place according to the new edition of the Law
of Ukraine “On Higher Education” (2020). A
system has been created at all levels of
management that should ensure the transition
to the production of high value-added
products by expanding the “knowledge
economy”.
The components of this system in accordance
with Ukrainian legislation are the quality
assurance system in educational institutions
(an internal system for ensuring the quality of
education); system of external quality
assurance of education; quality assurance
system for the activities of governing bodies
and institutions engaged in external quality
assurance of education (On Education: Law
of Ukraine, 2020).
However, the government is not ready to pay
for it, as evidenced by the data on financing
university expenses (State Budget Funds
Distribution, 2020) and shifting the burden of
expenses to students (The cost of contracted
education, 2019).
1236 T. Kalashnikova, M. Salun, L. Katan, T. Marenych
Currently, quality management processes
require universities to collect data on an
individual basis in order to prove that they
achieve their goals and establish processes to
ensure continuous quality improvement (The
system for quality ensuring of education in
Ukraine ,2018). These quality processes are
subject to external audit of the Ukrainian
center for assessing the quality of education
(established in 2005), the State Service for the
Quality of Education of Ukraine (established
in 2017). At regional level, these bodies are
represented by special units. The purpose of
their activities is to assess the quality of
educational activities, develop
recommendations for improving the internal
system for ensuring the quality of education,
as well as bringing educational and
managerial processes in accordance with the
requirements of the law and licensing.
Besides, the National Agency for Higher
Education Quality Assurance (created in
2015) operates in Ukraine as a permanent
collegial body in the field of ensuring the
quality of higher education.
2. Methodology
This descriptive study examined the legal acts
of the Ministry of Education and Science of
Ukraine and the National Agency for Higher
Education Quality Assurance which were
developed and implemented to manage
quality in higher education, to bring higher
education to the norms and rules of quality
management used by EU HEIs.
Changes in goals, roles and relationships in
higher education were studied using a
commercial approach to quality management
in higher education and the application of the
concept of stakeholders and client approach
on the basis of comparative analysis methods
to study self-analysis reports on educational
programs submitted for accreditation to
establish the feasibility and effectiveness of
using a commercial approach to quality
management in higher education and
applying the concept of stakeholders.
In the study, the findings were confirmed by
the results of similar studies by European
researchers published in the open access
databases with a high citation rating.
3. Results and Discussion
The goal of higher education in Ukraine (On
Higher Education: Law of Ukraine, 2020) is
to train competitive human capital for high-
tech and innovative development of the
country, self-realization of the individuals,
meeting the needs of society, the labor market
and the state in qualified specialists. The
presented goal of higher education provides
an understanding of the various roles and
interrelations, the nature of the student’s role,
the nature of the academic environment and
the nature of the interrelation between
students and academic staff, universities and
other stakeholders (Table 1).
Let's look at how highlighted educational
goals for roles and relationships related to
quality management in HEIs. According to
the results of international survey «Quality
management in higher education:
developments and drivers» (Martin, &
Parikh, 2017) as the main areas of HEIs
quality management were highlighted
(ranked by priority): teaching and learning,
research and management, international
cooperation. Therefore the main educational
goal is university education for student
development, so, academic quality (the
quality of human resources development and
the knowledge production) is highlighted. At
the same time, academic quality is seen as a
driving force for the competitiveness of
national economies both for the country
development and transformation of civil
society so as for socio-economic
development. In this interpretation of the goal
of higher education in Ukraine there is no
commercial component for which it is
advisable to use commercial quality
management and corresponding indicators.
1237
Table 1. Educational goals for roles and relationships
Studentsrole
Academic staff
role
Students and
Academic staff
relationship
University and
Business Relationship
Student as a
researcher
Expert in the
generation and
dissemination of
new knowledge
Social, research,
educational activity
Higher education
transforms people
who transform society
including business
Student
Teacher and
mentor
Partnership
University prepares
business leaders
according to
community values
Student as
trainee
Expert in
assessing
professional
competencies and
work skills
Ensuring the value of
graduates in the labor
market through the
formation of
sufficient knowledge,
skills, qualifications
and a responsible
attitude to work
The university
responds to the needs
of business and the
labor market
According to commercial quality
management higher education presents its
effectiveness and efficiency through
indicators which are not directly related to the
teaching and learning activities such as
availability of plans, procedures, number and
qualifications of staff, student-staff ratios or
various outputs regarding graduate
employment rates, their salary level, etc.
(Stensaker, 2018). So, in Ukraine, the main
indicators of the effectiveness and efficiency
of HEIs activities for state financing of
university expenses (State Budget Funds
Distribution, 2020) are:
the number of applicants for higher
education studying on a budgetary
basis indexed by the level of higher
education (for the first cycle the
coefficient is 1, the increasing
coefficient is provided for the
second cycle, lowering for the third
cycle and scientific level), form (for
full-time, dual form the coefficient is
1, the decreasing coefficient is used
for part-time, distance, evening
learning), specialties (for the
branches of knowledge social and
behavioral sciences, law,
management and administration,
social work, services, public
administration the coefficient is 1,
increasing multiplying coefficients
are used for other specialties);
an indicator of the scale of activity,
which depends on the actual number
of applicants for higher education
studying on the basis of budget
financing;
an indicator of scientific activity,
which depends on the special fund
income according to the results of
scientific and technical works on
international cooperation projects,
according to the results of scientific
and technical works on business
contracts and on the results of the
provision of scientific services for
one scientific and pedagogical
workplace as average for the
previous three calendar years;
an indicator of international
recognition based on getting into one
of the international ratings of QS
World University Rankings (2019),
The Times Higher Education World
University Rankings (2020) or
1238 T. Kalashnikova, M. Salun, L. Katan, T. Marenych
Academic Ranking of World
Universities (2019) World Top
500 Universities with the result of
the first 1000 positions;
graduate employment rate based on
monitoring results.
The approach implemented by the Ministry of
Education and Science of Ukraine for state
financing of university expenses (State
Budget Funds Distribution, 2020) is purely
commercial on the one hand and, on the other
hand, inhibits the setting up of e-university
(Ismail et al., 2019) the current trend of the
university entering the global educational
space with the commercialization of being
developed curricula materials for a wide
range of consumers. It should be noted
separately that public ranking of universities
does not answer the question: what
specialties, faculties, university departments
have become the basis for maintaining or
increasing funding. So for the stakeholders,
the question of the quality of higher education
in the specialties and educational programs of
universities remains unanswered. Similar
findings were obtained during the study
Gerdin J. and Englund H. (2019).
This approach is more related to the saving of
budgetary funds but not to the increasing of
the effectiveness of systems and procedures
for assessing the quality of higher education
after abandoning the traditional
standardization of the system (development,
implementation and use of the uniform
educational standards for the specialty).
Using the indicators linked to funding formed
by the HEIs themselves possibly can be quite
cost-effective, but this procedure more related
to government goals that go beyond assessing
the quality of higher education. In this terms
the quality of higher education in the context
of public administration provides: informing
stakeholders based on regular reporting;
make the use of public funds more open,
understandable, accountable; reduction of
state budget expenditures on higher
education; deregulation of higher education
systems; establishing close links between
universities and economic development;
development of international competition
among higher education institutions.
The same approach is used by the National
Agency for Higher Education Quality
Assurance. The main indicators of the
effectiveness and efficiency of HEIs activities
for Educational Program accreditation
according to Self-assessment Report of the
Educational Program (Regulation on the
accreditation, 2019) are:
design of educational program based
on the standard of higher education
for the specialty for level of higher
education, the following are
established: the uniqueness of the
program (goals and learning
outcomes) which is based on the
interests of stakeholders, on modern
trends in the development of the
specialty and the labor market taking
into account regional characteristics,
based on experience similar to
national ones and foreign programs
and its compliance with the mission
and strategy of the university is also
checked;
the structure and content of the
educational program should provide
the opportunity to establish an
individual educational path for each
student with a choice of academic
disciplines, ensure the formation of
soft skills and practical training of
students, allowing them to acquire
the competencies necessary for
further professional activity, provide
the possibility of using dual
(cooperative) education;
access to the educational program
and recognition of learning
outcomes are based on university
rules on the use of student learning
outcomes achieved in other
universities or in non-formal
education on the basis of providing
access to competing programs;
1239
studying and teaching in the
educational program demonstrates
how the forms and methods of
studying and teaching ensure the
achievement of learning outcomes,
meet the requirements of a student-
oriented approach, comply with the
principles of academic freedom,
combined with the teachers research
interests, associated with the
internationalization of the
university; is student satisfaction
sufficient;
assessment measures, student
assessment and academic honesty
focus on the timely delivery of
information to students about the
format, accuracy and fairness of
assessment formats, criteria for
reviewing learning outcomes, the
procedure for preventing and
resolving conflicts of interest in
assessing students' knowledge, skills
and requirements of a higher
standard education is considered as
“if appropriate”;
university staff is analyzed
comprehensively from the point of
view of their professionalism during
the selection process, professional
development and development of
pedagogical skills, but at the same
time, the organization and
implementation of the educational
process provides for the wide
participation of professional
practitioners, field experts, and
representatives of employers
(pedagogical skills may be absent);
the educational environment and
material resources of the university
are evaluated on the basis of
indicators of accumulated financial
and technical resources, other
infrastructure, educational,
organizational, informational,
advisory and social support for
students and if its are enough to meet
the needs and interests of students;
the internal quality control of
educational programs of the
university is based on the regulation
of the development, approval,
monitoring and periodic review of
the educational program, taking into
account the comments,
requirements, proposals of
stakeholders and taking into account
information about career prospects
and employment paths of graduates.
The approach of the National Agency for
Higher Education Quality Assurance to
Educational Program accreditation according
to Self-assessment Report of the Educational
Program (Regulation on the accreditation,
2019), on the one hand, is purely commercial,
and on the other hand, prevents the creation
of an effective competitive edu-business,
entrepreneurial universities (Global League
of Entrepreneurial Universities, 2020) the
current trend is the University’s entry into the
global educational space with the
commercialization of educational materials
being developed for a wide range of
consumers. It should be noted separately that
the value of the developed state standards of
higher education when using this approach is
reduced and even leveled. Therefore, for
stakeholders, the question of the quality of
higher education in the specialties and
educational programs of universities again
remains unanswered.
Commercial quality management assumes the
availability of a product (service), and a
presence of client relationship between the
business and the person who pays for the
product (service). So what will happens with
the higher education goals if commercial
quality management methods will be applied
to higher education?
4. Experimental
Modern student-centered learning represents
the student as the main customer of the
university. The students' role as a client of a
university is easily consistent with a market
1240 T. Kalashnikova, M. Salun, L. Katan, T. Marenych
philosophy that underlies modern public
policy and weakly matches with public policy
where universities provide the activities to
reach the goals of country's cultural, socio-
economic, and innovative development. It is
also weakly consistent with the benefits
system of other stakeholders in higher
education. However, quality management
methods developed in a commercial
environment, based on customer
relationships, will be absolutely acceptable
with this approach for defining higher
education goals.
Just such an approach forces universities to
express their success rates in the language of
business, while goals, roles and relationships
are distorted. The measurement methods
contained in the quality assessments are
consistent with the assumption that the
university works with customers. For
example, a survey of student satisfaction with
a training course is an indirect indicator of the
quality of teaching (the student acts as a
university client); a survey of graduates on
employment is an indirect indicator of
employers' satisfaction with graduates
(employers act as customers, and students act
as a product); data on student performance,
their movement (how many entrants, how
many students were deducted, how many
graduates) becomes an indicator of the
effectiveness of the university (the student
acts as a university product).
Even business hardly solves the problem of
changing needs of clients, meanwhile in
higher education we are faced with the
problem of multidirectional needs of clients
(student and employer) and product
instability (the product is the training courses
for a student and the knowledge, skills, and
competencies of a student or graduate for an
employer). Thus, if a student is a customer of
the university, then he will the person
whodefines the quality parameters of the
selected courses, their content and no other
stakeholders (government, business)
according to market philosophy should have
the legal right to interfere into this process.
Under these conditions, the role of
universities in society will be minimal.
The stakeholder’s approach solves some of
the difficulties of the client approach and
takes into account the significant role of
universities in the society. In the field of
higher education, the list of stakeholders
usually includes students, graduate students,
PhD students, staff, employers, external
experts and advisors, venture partners, the
regional community, as well as other
stakeholders professional associations,
accreditation bodies, parents, and regional
and state supervisors. Thus, we come to a
contradiction of a purely market approach
(customer-oriented approach) in assessing the
quality of higher education and the
advisability of abandoning market ideology
by universities in favor of a socially oriented
approach. At the same time, there are the
problems with identification and balancing
the interests of stakeholders and ways of their
involvement into the decision-making
process about educational standards, as well
as the effectiveness of functioning and
funding of universities.
Bjorn Stensaker (2018) proposed several
options for the development of higher
education quality management system. By
analyzing these development options of
higher education quality management system,
superimposing them on the reality of the
development of higher education in Ukraine,
we can introduce adapted different pathways
opening up to Ukrainian higher education
quality management system.
Scenario 1 is based on gradual changes in
Ukrainian higher education, the phased
development of a system for assessing the
quality of higher education taking into
account European practice (an integrated
approach to assessing the quality of higher
education based on both commercial and non-
commercial indicators) and adaptation to
accelerating internationalization and
increasing globalization of the “industry”
(purely competitive, commercial approach to
assessing the quality of higher education).
1241
This scenario will allow Ukrainian
universities to adapt to the requirements of
the global competitive environment, create an
entrepreneurial environment within the
university on the basis of academic,
organizational, financial, personnel
autonomy and at the same time not lose
existing, formed competitive advantages.
Scenario 2 provides that the Ministry of
Education and Science of Ukraine will
continue the practice of financing universities
according to the results of training on the
basis of student satisfaction, employment
opportunities for graduates, indicators of
scientific activity, which depends on the
special fund income. At the same time, the
significance of academic expertise and
internal standards of disciplines and
professions will be underestimated. Using
this scenario requires balancing the social,
cultural and economic goals of higher
education. According to implementation of
this scenario the universities will lose their
existing competitive advantages, which are
usually underestimated by stakeholders. The
implementation of the results of analysis of
stakeholder interests in the practice of
education will always be late and most likely
will not correspond to the state educational
standards and state interests, therefore this
scenario can be considered as destructive.
Scenario 3 is based on the fact that increased
competition will force universities to choose
evaluators of the quality of higher education
not within the country, but abroad based on
the requirements of “paying customers”. This
will lead to the strengthening of the brands of
some national universities, allow them to
become leaders in national edu-business, but
at the same time curtail the activities of the
National Agency for Higher Education
Quality Assurance due to a decrease in the
number of players in the education market.
This scenario, therefore, provides the creation
of transnational educational structures with
the losing part of state control over the quality
of higher education, the complexity of
introducing national and state interests in
student learning programs.
The introduced scenarios are likely to appear
in some hybrid forms. Regardless of the
scenario, the current pragmatism in financing
higher education have not be entirely based
on commercial quality assessment. It is
necessary to understand the strategic goals of
the development of the state and society,
among which the Life Long Learning is one
of the mainstreams. As well as the fact that
public ratings form public consciousness in
the field of higher education.
Although the central theme of this study is the
use of a commercial approach to quality
management in Ukrainian higher education,
this phenomenon is considered through
changing and reforming the public
administration system of this activity and
forming the new vision of development of
universities and higher education in Ukraine
in a global competitive environment without
an emphasis on conducting edu-business.
5. Conclusion
The presented analysis shows that the
stakeholder approach better suites to higher
education goals than the client approach.
If universities operate with stakeholders, not
with the clients, then the “simplifying”
benefits of customer relationships will be lost.
When stakeholders replace customers, things
get more complicated. For example, in the
context of universities, if the "economy"
needs more engineers, the "society" needs
more doctors and teachers, and students
prefer to study literature and art, whose
interests should be in priority? If universities
respond to stakeholders, then balancing
interests becomes a joint task for government
and universities.
If quality were defined as a “customer
satisfaction,” it would be really easy to
conduct a customer survey to find out if they
are satisfied with the received service. But if
quality is defined as “stakeholder
satisfaction,” then there is currently no easy
1242 T. Kalashnikova, M. Salun, L. Katan, T. Marenych
way to collect and interpret the data. In these
circumstances, data on student satisfaction
with the training course, on the employment
of graduates, on student performance and
their movement do not have a simple
connection with the quality of higher
education. That is why commercial methods
of quality management are not suitable for use
in universities.
Acknowledgment: This study was
conducted at the Simon Kuznets Kharkiv
National University of Economics in Ukraine.
The authors would like to thank management
of the University for their supports. This
study was carried out without any financial
grant from any sources.
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QUAERE/QUAERE%202018.pdf
Tetiana Kalashnikova
Simon Kuznets Kharkiv
National University of
Economics,
Kharkiv,
Ukraine
kalashnikova.tv@gmail.com
Maryna Salun
Simon Kuznets Kharkiv
National University of
Economics,
Kharkiv,
Ukraine
Maryna.Salun@hneu.net
Liudmyla Katan
Dnipro State Agrarian and
Economics University,
Dnipro,
Ukraine
katanluda@gmail.com
Tetiana Marenych
Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko
National Technical
University of Agriculture,
Kharkiv,
Ukraine
thmarenych2020@gmail.com
1244 T. Kalashnikova, M. Salun, L. Katan, T. Marenych
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Universities of a new generation need to unite the representatives of science and business who are interested in turning ideas into a real market product. This paper provides an original analysis of prerequisites for the formation and development of entrepreneurial universities in Ukraine. This study used the results of the generalization of literature on entrepreneurial universities and European experience on their formation. It has shown the main approaches to the understanding of the nature and features of entrepreneurial universities and underlines its global impact. Analysis of the results of research has allowed to formulate the author's definition of "entrepreneurial university" and to form a synthesis of the key judgments about entrepreneurial universities. It was concluded that the key focus in determining of the entrepreneurial university must be made on the results of the commercialization of research activities of universities, as well as the practical training of students up to the demand of business. Statistical data and international ranking reports were used to illustrate the current state of the higher education system of Ukraine. Peculiarities of the educational environment in the context of global changes and the identified trends in world studies were considered. The constraints faced by the educational system of Ukraine were allocated, including legislation base, the autonomy of universities issues, the diversification of funding sources. This leads to the conclusion that the use of European experience will allow adapting the educational space of Ukraine to the requirements of time and the global labour market. The functioning of higher education system became the basis for the substantiation of prerequisites of the establishing of entrepreneurial universities in Ukraine, defining the catalysts factors of entrepreneurial activity of universities and identifying barriers to their development.
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Purpose – The setting up of e-university has been slow-going. Much of e-university slow progress has been attributed to poor business models, branding, disruptive technologies, lack of organisational structure that accommodates such challenges, and failure to integrate a blended approach. One of the stumbling blocks, among many, is the handling of evaluation process. E-university models do not provide much automation compared to the original brick-and-mortar classroom model of delivery. The underlining technologies may not have been supportive; however, the conditions are changing, and more evaluation tools are becoming available for academics. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This paper identifies the extent of current online evaluation processes. In this process, the team reviews the case study of a UK E-University using Adobe Connect learning model that mirrors much of the physical processes as well as online exams and evaluation tools. Using the Riva model, the paper compares the physical with the online evaluation processes for e-universities to identify differences in these processes to evaluate the benefits of e-learning. As a result, the models can help us to identify the processes where improvements can take place for automating the process and evaluate the impact of this change. Findings – The paper concludes that this process can be significantly shortened and provide a fairer outcome but there remain some challenges for e-university processes to overcome. Originality/value – This paper examines the vital quality assurance processes in academia as more universities move towards process automation, blended or e-university business models. Using the case study of Arden University online distance learning, the paper demonstrates, through modelling and analysis that the process of online automation of the evaluation process is achieved with significant efficiency.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address how issues of legitimacy are influencing the functioning and shaping of the field. The paper identifies key global agendas currently linked to the role of QA in the governance of higher education, the dependencies among key actors within the field and the possible directions of QA in the years to come. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on existing studies on external quality assurance (EQA) and provides a meta-reflection on current trends and dynamics within the field. Findings The paper argues that the field of EQA is facing a rather turbulent future, both due to increasing competition from other actors that also claim ownership to issues related to quality, and from national authorities which are looking for ways to increase the efficiency and the effectiveness of how the higher education sector is governed. Research limitations/implications Studies on EQA need to be strongly linked to studies of governance in higher education as such a link will broaden the understanding of how the field of quality assurance is developing. Practical implications The paper provides some hints as to how agencies may position themselves in a more insecure future. Originality/value An original contribution is made by linking theories of how legitimacy is developed and shaped to the field of quality assurance.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how actors subjected to public performance evaluations may “contest commensuration,” i.e. may seek to influence how such ratings and rankings will be construed among important stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative study of press releases, and interviews with department heads, is used as a basis for the analysis. Findings The empirically derived taxonomy of public responses to a state-initiated performance evaluation of educational programs shows that actors may mobilize an array of commensuration management tactics so as to maintain or improve one’s relative positional status. Such tactics may have at least three different foci, namely, on the comparison object (i.e. on the new grouping of actors), the comparison dimension (i.e. the standardized format for comparison) and the comparison rate (i.e. the rate received), respectively. The authors also find that not only are threats to positional status likely to spur commensuration management tactics, but also the opportunity to exploit a good rate. Originality/value The paper augments recent research that has problematized the so-called “reactive conformance thesis” by focusing on how evaluated organizations may directly try to influence external stakeholders through public responses. The study is also one of the first that analytically disentangles how they may skillfully exploit different forms of “plasticity” that are inherent in any type of commensuration.
The state and problems of education quality management and educational activity in ukraine: expert assessment. Theory and Practice of Public Administration
  • L O Bielova
  • V G Bulba
  • O V Postupna
Bielova L. O., Bulba V. G., & Postupna O. V. (2018).The state and problems of education quality management and educational activity in ukraine: expert assessment. Theory and Practice of Public Administration, 2(61). Retrieved from http://kbuapa.kharkov.ua/e-book/tpdu/2018-2/doc/1/1_1.pdf
Quality management in higher education: developments and drivers: results from an international survey. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP
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Martin M., & Parikh S. (2017) Quality management in higher education: developments and drivers: results from an international survey. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000260226
Perspective Trends in the Educational Space of Ukraine
  • K A Zaslavska
  • M M Salun
  • V V Sidorenko
  • M Y Yavdak
Zaslavska, K. A., Salun, M. M., Sidorenko, V. V., & Yavdak, M. Y. (2016). Perspective Trends in the Educational Space of Ukraine. Проблемы экономики, 1, 94-99. Retrieved from http://oaji.net/articles/2016/728-1465390553.pdf