This document is under copyright.
Please contact the publisher for permission to re-use or reprint the material in any form
Carreira, O. (2020). Defining Transcreation from the Practitioners Perspective: an Inter-
view-based Study. In C. Botella Tejera, J. Franco Aixelá, & C. Iliescu Gheorghiu (Eds.),
Translatum Nostrum. La traducción y la interpretación en el ámbito humanístico . Co-
DEFINING TRANSCREATION FROM THE PRACTITION-
ERS PERSPECTIVE: AN INTERVIEW-BASED STUDY
Pablo de Olavide University
Transcreation is a relatively new practice in the linguistic sector which has become
more important throughout recent years. Both companies and researchers have
contributed to the definition of the phenomenon. However, the process has not
involved those who carry out this work first-hand: transcreators, translators, lin-
In this article, our aim is to learn the perceptions of the professionals who work in
transcreation projects in order to determine whether the current definitions of the
phenomenon are complete. For this, we have interviewed a qualitative and varied
sample of members of the sector.
The results suggest that the professionals share the current view of transcreation,
although they highlight a second perception of the phenomenon as a multidiscipli-
nary strategy that would overlap with other modalities of a creative nature. It is
concluded that it is necessary to undertake additional research in order to confirm
the validity of this new proposal.
1.1 Origins of the term
The term “transcreation” was not coined at any specific moment in time or in any
specific geographical place, but rather it is used in different contexts and with
various purposes over the last 60 years. One of the first uses is linked to the Hindu
tradition of translation of sacred texts. Purushottama Lal, a poet, translator and
critic, described in his work Transcreation: Two Essays (1972, re-edited and ex-
panded in 1996 under the title Transcreation: Seven essays on the art of transcrea-
tion) his experience when creating versions in English of the classic Hindu texts
Mahabhárata and Ramayana, originally written in Sanskrit. Although Lal defines
transcreation as “readable, not strictly faithful translation” (in Di Giovanni,
2008:34), the characterisation takes place to a large extent through the description
of the work carried out for the adaptation of sacred texts: “the translator must edit,
reconcile and transmute; his job in many ways becomes largely a matter of tran-
screation” (Lal, 1964). Sales (2005:194) provides an expanded view through the
analysis of these:
In his view, the important work that is required of the translator is that he or she be
able to comprehend the spirit of the text, the effect that the author was trying to cre-
ate, and then communicate it, that is, ‘attempt to recreate it with the resources of the
English language’. […] The concept of transcreation is audience-oriented, because
Lal believes that, in translation […] one is always translating only for one’s con-
It is, therefore, a process of recreating the spirit of the original text and, at the
same time, of communication depending on the target audience. In the same liter-
ary scope as Lal, we must also mention the Brazilian poet and translator Haroldo
de Campos, who defines transcreation in a similar way: “a transformative recrea-
tion of inherited traditions” (1963).
The second origin of the term is linked to the advertising industry. In the 60s
and 70s, advertising agencies started to use the word transcreation to refer to the
translation of creative advertising texts. Although we have not found any academic
resource to confirm this version, it is a story that is described in a large number of
websites for language service suppliers and other agents in the sector (One Hour
Translation, 2015; Brown, 2017; Lapinska, 2016). Furthermore, the current rela-
tionship between transcreation and the advertising and marketing scope is undeni-
able, making this origin plausible.
Finally, we found a third possible origin associated to the sector of video
games. In the 80s, companies detected that the mere translation of the text was not
enough to guarantee an adequate user experience, so they developed strategies that
included the modification of images or even lines of argument in order to trans-
form the content in a creative way. This strategy differed from the localization
processes used at the time (Ray and Kelly, 2010). As we will see later on, there is
a close relationship between transcreation and localization (and specifically in the
case of video games).
In short, we can conclude that the process of coining the term is fuzzy. The
three possible origins seem to point towards a parallel development over time and
from different points of view, although within similar semantic scopes.
1.2. The vision of the linguistic services sector
Although the origins of transcreation lie in the period of 1960-1980, their defini-
tive development and popularisation took place alongside the linguistic industry.
The start of the current boom can be placed in the year 2000, when the advertising
agency United Publicity Services Plc patented the term. The validity of this regis-
tration ended in 2010, the same year that CSA, a consultancy agency for linguistic
services, published Reaching New Markets through Transcreation: When Transla-
tion Just Isn’t Enough. This influential report by Ray and Kelly (2010) contributed
towards establishing the bases of what we currently understand to be transcreation
and all of the definitions of the service published by the organisations in the sector
would be heavily based on the content of this document.
In this context, each company creates its own definition of transcreation. Alt-
hough the majority share common elements, we are facing a plural vision of the
phenomenon based on the professional practice of each agent. In order to try to
systematise this group of visions, Pedersen (2014) carried out the analysis of a
sample of definitions published on the websites of various companies. In this
work, it is shown that transcreation is characterised by the following:
• It implies the creative adaptation of marketing, sales and advertising con-
• The process implies a change in the original terms and meanings, giving
priority to the effect and impact caused.
• The brand concept plays an important role, even if adapted to the audience.
• This is a value-added service, it goes beyond mere translation.
Pedersen continues by affirming that these approaches do not reveal much about
the real process of transcreation, although they do help us to understand the con-
ceptualisation of this reality.
1.3. Transcreation vs. localization
As we have seen when studying the origins of the term, and when considering the
analysis of the definitions by Pedersen, there is an important relationship between
transcreation and localization if we take into account the characterisation of the
latter. The defunct LISA defined localization as the process through which a prod-
uct is adapted in order to become suitable, from a linguistic and cultural perspec-
tive, for a target market (consisting of a country/region and language) where it will
be used and sold (in Esselink, 2000). This definition shares several features with
the considerations by Pedersen, which brings about reasonable doubt as to whether
the term could be an alternative denomination for localization.
Before considering this possibility, we must take into account that translation is
an open concept which is in constant evolution (Tymoczko 2005:1082). In fact,
the evolution which the concept of transcreation is going through is similar to that
experienced by localization some years ago (Morón and Calvo, 2018). In this
sense, there are authors who consider that these new denominations are a way of
reinventing the wheel (Nord, 2012) or who warn of the possibility of the new ter-
minology contributing towards the devaluation of the classic label of translation
(Munday, 2014:22), while others such as Katan (2015) suggest that the transcrea-
tion focus is an essential element for the survival of translation as we understand
it. If we consider that transcreation is a set of specific practices, the main differ-
ence between it and localization would be the technical approach of the latter. In
this sense, Mata (2015:190) distinguishes between two main subtypes: the locali-
zation of IT products and the localization of web content. Furthermore, De la Cova
(2015) provides a list of specific problems that must be faced in this field: tags,
code, concatenated strings, character restrictions, format conversion, lack of con-
text, adaptation of images, etc. Given this perspective, transcreation seems to
move through more creative scopes. According to Bernal Merino (2006:32):
Another term that we hear more and more is 'transcreation'. It is being increasingly
used by a new wave of companies seeking to distance themselves from traditional
translation firms. These new firms offer translation-like services that include not
only translation but also creativity (Yunker, 2005:1). But creativity has always been
a skill developed by translators to avoid the robotic word-for-word approach. For
example, Pedro Picapiedra ['Peter Chipstone'] is the Spanish name for 'Fred Flint-
stone'. Translators maintained the semiotic references and the alliteration, obtaining
a playful and meaningful name. Is this an instance of translation or transcreation?
In the same sense, Mangiron and O’Hagan (2006:20) state the following:
Game localisers are granted quasiabsolute freedom to modify, omit, and even add
any elements which they deem necessary to bring the game closer to the players and
to convey the original feel of gameplay. And, in so doing, the traditional concept of
fidelity to the original is discarded. In game localization, transcreation, rather than
just translation, takes place.
Therefore, we can state that it is the approach (technical/creative) rather than the
type of text (website, video game or software) that determines whether we mostly
speak of localization or transcreation, which are, in principle, differentiated prac-
Another element in favour of the distinction between localization and tran-
screation is that based on the characteristic processes of each service. While the
former takes place in the scope of the GILT concept (globalisation + international-
isation + localization + transcreation), the latter is associated to specific manage-
ment practices that include elements such as briefing, information on segmentation
and the adaptation of other elements. In the words of Risku et al (2017:58):
“We argue that the need for a term like ‘transcreation’ – or ‘localisation’, for that
matter – does not stem from a higher degree of adaptation, but from the specific
service processes offered under this translatorial action label”.
In a similar line, Bell (2018) suggests that the relationship between translation,
localization and transcreation takes place on three levels. On the first, translation
transfers words from one language to another. On the second, localization adapts
materials to a specific market. On the third and final level (the transcreation
phase), the creation of content in the target language is inspired by the original
material, although considerably adapted to the language and culture where it will
Finally, it is interesting to highlight that, although until now transcreation has
been linked to traditionally creative services such as marketing, advertising or
video games, that doesn’t mean that it must be limited to these. According to Law
(2017), there is development potential for transcreation in fields such as software
localization, regulatory compliance and regulatory content, technical communica-
tions or learning materials.
2. Objectives and methodology
As we have seen, the phenomenon of transcreation has been analysed by both the
industry and academic fields. However, this process did not take into account the
testimonies from those who undertake transcreation first-hand: transcreators, trans-
lators, writers and other professionals in the linguistic sector. Their points of view
would be highly valuable for developing and expanding the concept of transcrea-
tion. One of the few exceptions is Benetello (2016:40), who proposes a definition
based on her experience as a transcreation professional:
“Writing advertising or marketing copy for a specific market, starting from copy
written in a source language, as if the target text had originated in the target lan-
guage and culture”.
Although the proposal is interesting, its representativeness is limited as it is only
based on the perceptions of a single individual.
Our proposal is based on the lack of representative testimonies on what tran-
screation is and how it is perceived by those who do it. For this, we suggest the
performance of individual interviews with a representative sample of profession-
als. There are many precedents of social-type studies based on interviews and
questionnaires with translators (Pérez, 2017; Zaretskaya et al, 2015; Gutiérrez,
2016). In our case, we are going to follow an exploratory-interpretative paradigm
(Grotjahn, 1987) with a non-experimental character, based on qualitative data
where we will carry out interpretative analysis.
The selection of the sample of subjects interviewed was based on a set of crite-
ria with both a practical and representative nature. It is important to mention that it
was not always possible to find the highest level of representativity desired, due to
the fact that actual access to suitable participants was difficult in terms of availa-
bility, desire to participate and logistic considerations. Therefore, the criteria be-
low serve as a commented sample description:
• Size: 7 subjects (hereinafter called S1, S2, S3, etc.). We believe that this
number is a good balance between representativeness and manageability of the
• Language spoken and combinations: all 7 participants were active language
professionals, native Spanish speakers and worked at the EN>ES combination.
• Sex: four women and three men. We sought parity in the sample.
• Age: from 30 to 58. We wanted to include the perspectives of people who
recently joined the market as well as people who have been involved for long-
er, in order to balance the bias associated to experience. We tried to find partic-
ipants for the 20-30 years old range, but as we have mentioned before, it was
not possible due to availability considerations.
• Experience: between 3 and 35 years. The objective here is similar to the
previous point. Taking into account that transcreation is a relatively recent mo-
dality, our aim is to avoid the results becoming skewed by a population with
little or excessive experience.
• Specialities: we have selected professionals who pertain to the entire profes-
sional spectrum of the linguistic sector, which includes specialists in the fields
of audiovisual, medical, literary, localization, theatre, technical or transcrea-
tion. We believe that the point of view of transcreators is important, but it could
be much more interesting to hear the point of view of those who do not work in
this modality but are within the sector.
The interviews took place in the period of November - December 2018. Each par-
ticipant was contacted by videoconference in an individual manner and the con-
versation was recorded for further transcription and analysis. A list of six ques-
tions, detailed below with the motivation for each one, was developed, in order to
perform each intervention in a similar way and achieve a coherent interviewing
• Have you heard or are you familiar with the term “transcreation”? Could
you define it in your own words? - Here the aim is to obtain an informal defini-
tion from the person being interviewed, and to compare the responses from dif-
ferent subjects in order to determine whether they coincide.
• Do you consider it to be a service in itself, separately, on the same level as
others such as l10n, AVT or other types of translation (technical, legal, medi-
cal, etc.)? - This question, together with the next one, aims to determine
whether transcreation is perceived as a service/speciality or as a strategy/way
of doing things.
• Do you consider it to be a strategy for approaching problems applicable to
different types of projects or services? - Similar to the previous. There is no
disjunctive question to consult whether transcreation is perceived as a service
or as a strategy so as not to dismiss the possibility of there being a double per-
ception in this regard.
• Do you think it constitutes a service that is clearly different to others that
are known or do you identify with the idea that it is a new term invented to re-
fer to existing practices? - The aim of this question is to determine whether
transcreation is perceived as a real practice or rather a marketing exercise car-
ried out by companies to rename existing practices.
• Do you think that transcreation is worse or better paid that other types of
projects or services? - The aim here is to determine whether transcreation is
perceived as a value-added service and whether this is associated to higher
• What is your perspective on the role of the brand in transcreation? Do you
think it is linked to the process or that transcreation can occur without a
brand? - Based on the idea that the brand is an essential element in the adver-
tising field, the aim is to determine whether transcreation would be limited to
this field or could include others.
Once the testimonies were received from the subjects, we analysed them and com-
pared them with the characterisation of transcreation proposed by Pedersen (2014)
that we mentioned previously. The purpose of this comparison is to determine
whether the interviews contribute new elements to the existing body of knowledge
that may invite further research in this line. We chose Pedersen’s proposal as our
baseline due to its integral nature, as it is an academic approach but with an indus-
3. Results and analysis of responses
Below is a series of significant fragments selected from the testimonies of the par-
ticipants. The complete transcription of the interviews can be downloaded from
this link: https://bit.ly/2XtuEow.
The responses to question 1 are as follows:
S1: Adaptation of a text with a marketing background or commercial purpose.
Translation, but not only translation. A text that you try to adapt to a specific
recipient which is related to a culture, country, etc.
S2: An activity in the field of creative translation, taking a slogan or advertis-
ing campaign and transferring it to one’s own language. The form and format
change, but the content does not.
S3: A type of translation that focuses on transmitting the content rather than the
form, like in advertising.
S4: To transcreate is to go beyond translation, it is to translate for a specific
audience, with its own characteristics, different to those of the original lan-
S5: A way of translating texts, not only in the advertising field, because I con-
sider that transcreation involves texts of many other types, according to the
idea to be sold [the customer], it is an adaptation that goes beyond translation
and localization, with much more creative freedom.
S6: A translation strategy, a way of approaching certain problems for a much
freer translation, we could say, less reliant on the original text. It is more than
just a strategy; it is a way of approaching a series of cultural problems and
S7: The adaptation of a text from one language to another, adapting to the
needs of the target audience as stated by the customer or as you decide, beyond
There are a series of shared ideas among the participants, from which we can con-
stitute a group definition of transcreation as a process of adaptation to a specific
recipient and culture, where the form of the message changes but the content does
not. It is a type of creative translation that avoids the literal, the objective of which
is to sell. Furthermore, the idea that it goes beyond translation is repeated several
The responses to question 2 are as follows:
S3: I think so.
S4: Depending on the field, yes. Particularly in the technical, legal, marketing
and advertising fields, it is necessary. In the audiovisual field, I disagree.
Where I see it most evident is in the scope of advertising. Transcreation is very
linked to the target audience.
S5: I understand that it is a different process, a different modality, but I don’t
think it’s a different speciality.
S6: We are seeing it more as a service, but perhaps more from the customers
than from the translator. From the perspective of the business person, of the
company, of those requesting it, the petitioner, yes. Perhaps from the perspec-
tive of the person requesting it. I don’t know if I would give the translation a
different focus, knowing, obviously, that the purpose is the same.
S7: Yes, without a doubt. It is another category.
Six of the subjects stated that transcreation is a service, while one disagreed (S5)
and argued that it is a modality rather than a speciality, as it can be applied to dif-
ferent disciplines (although the way in which the idea is described can be confus-
ing, reading the full response shows that it is perceived as a strategy). Regarding
those who responded affirmatively, four of them did so categorically, one stated
that transcreation is only a service in the advertising field and another specified
that it has the nature of a service from the perspective of the person requesting it
(company or customer) and not from the person supplying it (linguist).
The responses to question 3 are as follows:
S1: It can be both, more of a speciality because there is a sector of customers
that need this type of translation or approach or a need in a different type of
S2: There can be cases of transcreation within a text in a different speciality,
but I don’t know if I would call that transcreation. I can't imagine transcreation
in a legal or technical text. It is something which is highly associated to mar-
keting and creativity. I am certain that it is a separate discipline.
S3: Perhaps it is a type of translation, in the same sense as localization or liter-
ary translation, but at the same time it can also be a resource to use within a
translation of a different type.
S4: In some cases, of course.
S5: It is complicated, it’s a strategy and I can approach a text from a more or
less transcreative point of view, depending on what is requested of me. As a
strategy, we were using it in many cases, but not as a service, and now it has a
name and what we have always done as a strategy has now been put in this
box. The customer as a service, the translator as a strategy.
S6: I have always seen it as a strategy, a means of expression, instead of stick-
ing too closely to the text, when I find myself in situations with certain types of
texts, in a novel I wouldn’t consider adapting, but perhaps in a legal text, in a
sworn translation I would.
S7: If you mean that the customer doesn’t mention it, but rather you decide
that, for example, text should be added or removed, then yes.
Only one of the participants says that transcreation is not a strategy and is ra-
ther an evident service (S2). The other participants show a certain degree of
agreement with the idea that it is a strategy. From these, four state that it has a dual
nature, both strategy and service, and two mention that it is a strategy in some
cases, such as a literary translation or in the marketing field. Interestingly, the
interviewee who stated in the previous question that transcreation is only a service
(S5) contradicts themselves and here mentions that it has one character or another
depending on who uses it: the customer or the translator.
The responses to question 4 are as follows:
S1: The term is new. It is possible for it to be related to concepts such as locali-
zation, but to me it is new. Transcreation is solely and exclusively related to
marketing and advertising. I don’t know if the activity is new. The term is.
S2: What we do in transcreation was already done before, we haven’t reinvent-
ed the wheel, but it does help to define a practice that previously wasn’t. The
word “transcreation” is an invention by the industry rather than by the profes-
sionals themselves. I would use it as a synonym depending on the context.
When selling my services? Yes. From a stricter perspective? Probably not.
S3: It has always been done, the practice has always existed and it was given a
S4: I believe that the term was created for scopes where creative translation
didn’t exist, but for those that did already have it, it wasn’t necessary. So it’s
true that it’s transcreation, but it didn’t have a name. On the other hand, in oth-
er fields where translation was more literal, the improvement is more obvious.
S5: I think it is a term that helps to categorise a strategy that, as it was spread
out among various disciplines, nobody had categorised. Not only advertising
translation, but rather it is a strategy that we use in many disciplines and that is
now more or less compartmentalised in one place. I don’t think anything is
being done now that wasn’t done before it was called transcreation.
S6: I haven’t seen anything new, transcreation is a collection of various strate-
gies, but it’s something that already existed. We put a new name on things that
already existed, but I don’t think there’s anything new in its formulation.
S7: It’s very similar to what was called localization years ago, in a broad sense.
It is a change in name to sell something that already existed.
Six of the interviewees state that the practice of transcreation already existed and
that the term was coined later on. The subject who disagrees (S1) does not do so in
the sense of denying the existence of the practice, but rather that they don’t know
if it occurred previously, simply mentioning that the term is new.
The responses to question 5 are as follows:
S1: I imagine that it should be better paid. It’s not something that all translators
can do. It requires specific training or natural creativity.
S2: Yes, better.
S3: Probably better.
S4: In theory, it ought to be better paid than a normal translation because of the
effort involved in creation, the mental effort is much greater.
S5: Yes, because the industry is selling it as a new service, a new type of trans-
lation, just like happened with localization. We sell an added service.
S6: Perhaps it is being better paid because of the way it is being sold, as some-
thing different to translation, the idea that a machine can translate and the
translator can transcreate.
S7: Better paid, because it is more aligned with advertising translation, there is
much more creativity, creation of copy, a lot of back and forth.
All of the interviewees agree that transcreation is a better paid practice. The differ-
ences appear in the level of certainty in this regard. While four of them clearly
state that it is a better paid service for various reasons, the remaining three state
that this is so due to various reasons.
The responses to question 6 are as follows:
S1: For me, transcreation is related to advertising and marketing, so I would
associate transcreation to a brand.
S2: If there is no brand present, for me, like I said, it moves from transcreation
to something broader.
S3: I would say that it is not necessary.
S4: Well, if the brand is understood as the seal of, for example, Marvel, you
must speak in a certain way. In advertising, a brand has to make its mark, so in
that case I do think that transcreation is very important, it is linked to the brand
S5: That would mean accepting that it is only advertising translation. If I con-
sider that AVT is transcreation, I break away from the brand concept. I don’t
think there always has to be a brand.
S6: Advertising translation is obviously ordered by brands. If we understand
transcreation as a broader concept, the brand concept becomes diluted. I think
that the brand can have an advertising translation and there cannot be transcrea-
tion without a brand, because you are always selling something.
S7: The brand isn’t necessary, although it is linked to advertising translation,
there can also be general techniques applied to a text without the need to know
who the client is.
Four of the interviewees responded positively with regards to the relationship be-
tween brand and transcreation, in some cases based on the relationship between
this concept and advertising and marketing translation. The remaining three indi-
cate that this is not necessary, referring to cases where transcreation could be ap-
plied as a strategy and not as a service.
Once we had analysed the testimonies from the subjects interviewed, the next
step would be to compare them with the characterisation of transcreation provided
by Pedersen that we have mentioned on section 1.2. Below, we include each one
of these and we compare the likeness between Pedersen’s formulation and the
combined answers given by the interviewees:
• “It implies the creative adaptation of marketing, sales and advertising con-
tent”: this statement remains valid if we consider transcreation only as a ser-
vice. However, from the responses above, we can conclude that there is also a
perception of the practice as a strategy, which transcends the strictly advertis-
ing or commercial scope.
• “The process implies a change in the original terms and meanings, giving
priority to the effect and impact caused”: this characteristic also maintains its
validity, although it would omit one point mentioned by various subjects. Tran-
screation exists as part of a process destined to selling a product or service (at
least when perceived as a service). That is to say, the priority is effectively to
maintain an effect or impact caused, but it is necessary for the final objective to
be commercial, with the entire process being subject to this.
• “The brand concept plays an important role, even if adapted to the audi-
ence”: the brand is important in transcreation if it is only considered as a syno-
nym of translation or advertising adaptation. However, there is a perception
that transcreation can exist without a brand, therefore its importance moves
from relative to being a definitive element.
• “This is a value-added service, it goes beyond mere translation”: transcrea-
tion is a value-added service. However, the perception in this regard is related
to the need to invest more hours of work in this practice and to have creative
capacities, not to the innovative character. In this sense, it is important to high-
light how transcreation has a double perception depending on the observer: the
petitioner (company) or the offerer (linguistic professional) of the service.
Based on the analysis in the previous section, we can conclude that the current
definitions and characterisations of transcreation are aligned with the perception
among professionals, although only partially. In this sense, transcreation would
have been considered exclusively as a service carried out in the commer-
cial/advertising scope until now. However, the testimonies analysed show that
there is a second perception of transcreation as a multidisciplinary strategy that
can be applied in areas other than that of advertising. In this line, there is an over-
lap of transcreation with other modalities traditionally considered to be creative,
such as audiovisual translation, literary translation or part of localization.
From here, several hypotheses are considered. The first would be the dual na-
ture of transcreation as both a service and a strategy. The second would be that
transcreation exclusively consists of a service, while the practices corresponding to
its perception as a strategy would not be included in this denomination.
We are aware that the results obtained do not have statistical validity due to the
size of the sample that we have worked with. Despite this, we consider that it is a
qualitatively representative group and that the information obtained is promising
and invites us to continue researching the line of the first hypothesis mentioned
given its innovative nature with regards to existing literature. Even if refuted, the
additional information provided by the perceptions of the professionals would
allow us to contribute towards the theoretical development of the practice.
BELL, Terena. (2018) Translation, Localization, Transcreation: What’s the Differ-
ence?. Electronic version: <https://www.cmswire.com/digital-
BENETELLO, Claudia. (2016) “When translation is not enough: Transcreation as a
convention-defying practice. A practitioner’s perspective”. The Journal of Spe-
cialised Translation, 29, pp. 28-44. Electronic version:
<https://www.jostrans.org/issue29/art_benetello.php> (consulted 28.02.2019).
BERNAL MERINO, Miguel Ángel. (2006) “On the Translation of Video Games”.
The Journal of Specialised Translation, 6, pp. 22-36. Electronic version:
BROWN, Will. (2017) What is transcreation? How is it different from video trans-
lation?. Electronic Version: :< https://www.jbistudios.com/blog/what-is-
transcreation-how-different-from-video-translation> (consulted: 28.02.2019).
DE CAMPOS, Haroldo. (1963) “Translation as creation and criticism”. In Sergio
Bessa, Antonio and Cisneros, Odile (eds.) 2007. Novas Selected Writings. Ev-
anston: Northwestern University Press, pp. 312-326.
DE LA COVA, Elena. (2015) “Translation Challenges in the Localization of Web
Applications”. Sendebar, 27, pp. 235-266. Electronic version:
> (consulted: 28.02.2019).
DI GIOVANNI, Elena. (2008) “Translations, Transcreations and Transrepresenta-
tions of India in the Italian Media”. Meta: Journal des Traducteurs, 53 (1), pp.
26-43. Electronic versión: <https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/meta/2008-v53-
n1-meta2114/017972ar.pdf> (consulted 28.02.2019).
ESSELINK, Bert. (2000) A Practical Guide to Localization. Amsterdam: John Ben-
GROTJAHN, Richard. (1987) “On the methodological basis of introspective meth-
ods”. In Faerch, Claus and Kasper, Gabrielle (eds.) 2016. Introspection in sec-
ond language research. Clevendon, England: Multilingual Matters, pp. 54-82.
GUTIÉRREZ, Silvia. (2016) “La competencia intercultural en la profesión del tra-
ductor: aproximación desde la formación de traductores y presentación de un
estudio de caso”. TRANS. Revista de Traductología, 20, pp. 57-74. Electronic
version: <http://www.trans.uma.es/Trans_20/Trans_20_A4.pdf> (consulted
LAL, Purushottama. (1964) Great Sanskrit Plays in Modern Translation. Nueva
York: New Directions Publishing.
— (1972) Transcreation: Two Essays. Calcuta: Writers Workshop.
— (1996) Transcreation: Seven Essays On The Art Of Transcreation. Calcuta:
KATAN, David (2015). “Translation at the cross-roads; Time for the transcreation
turn?”. Perspectives, (24)3, pp. 365-381. Electronic Version:
LAPINSKA, Kassie. (2016) 5 Tales of Transcreation. Electronic versión:
LAW, Louise. (2017) Transcreation Transforms Digital Marketing in All Industry
Sectors. Electronic Version: <https://www.welocalize.com/transcreation-
transforms-digital-marketing-in-all-industry-sectors> (consulted 28.02.2019).
MANGIRON, Carmen. and O’HAGAN, Minako. (2006) “Game Localisation: Un-
leashing Imagination with 'Restricted' Translation”. The Journal of Specialised
Translation, 6, pp.22-36. Electronic Version:
<https://www.jostrans.org/issue06/art_ohagan.php> (consulted 28.02.2019).
MATA, Manuel. (2005). “Localización y traducción de contenido web”. In: Reine-
ke, Detlef (ed.) 2005. Traducción y localización. Mercado, gestión y tecnolo-
gías. Las Palmas: Anroart, pp. 187-252.
MORÓN, Marián and CALVO, Elisa. (2018) “Introducing transcreation skills in
translator training contexts: A situated project-based approach”. The Journal of
Specialised Translation, 29, pp. 126-148. Electronic Version:
<https://www.jostrans.org/issue29/art_moron.php> (consulted 28.02.2019).
MUNDAY, Jeremy. (2004) “Advertising: some challenges to translation theory”.
The Translator: Studies in Intercultural Communication, (10) 2, pp. 199-219.
NORD, Christiane. (2012) “Paratranslation – a new paradigm or a re-invented
wheel?”. Perspectives, 20 (4), pp. 399-409. Electronic Version:
ONE HOUR TRANSLATION. (2015) The Importance of Creative Translations (Tran-
screation). Electronic version:
translations-transcreation> (consulted 28.02.2019).
PEDERSEN, Daniel. (2014) “Exploring the Concept of Transcreation”. Cultus: The
Intercultural Journal of Mediation and Communication, 7, pp. 57-71. Electron-
ic Version: <http://www.cultusjournal.com/files/Archives/pedersen_5_p.pdf>
PÉREZ, Lorena. (2017) Análisis de las percepciones en torno a la práctica de la
posedición en el sector professional de la traducción en España. Sevilla: Uni-
versidad Pablo de Olavide. Unpublished PhD Thesis
RAY, Rebecca & KELLY, N. (2010). Reaching New Markets through Transcrea-
tion. Lowell: Common Sense Advisory.
RISKU, Hanna, Pichler, Theresa and Wieser, Vanessa. (2017) “Transcreation as a
Translation Service: Process Requirements and Client Expectations”. Across
Languages and Cultures, 18 (1) , pp. 53-77. Electronic Version:
SALES SALVADOR, Dora. (2005) “Translational Passages. Indian fiction in English
as transcreation?”. In: Branchadell, Albert and Margaret West, Lovell (eds.)
2005. Less Translated Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp: 189-206.
TYMOCZKO, Maria. (2005) “Trajectories of research in Translation Studies”. Me-
ta: Journals des Traducteurs, 50 (4), pp. 1082-1097. Electronic version:
ZARETSKAYA, Anna, CORPAS, Gloria and SEGHIRI, Miriam. (2015) “Integration of
machine translation in CAT tools: state of the art, evaluation and user atti-
tudes”. SKASE Journal for Translation and Interpretation, 8, (1), pp. 76-88.
Electronic version <http://www.skase.sk/Volumes/JTI09/pdf_doc/04.pdf>
OLIVER CARREIRA is an English-Spanish freelance translator and has worked
in the sector of linguistics since 2007. His main specialities are the localization of
software and websites, transcreation and translation of IT and fintech. He has
worked in companies such as Airbnb, Amazon, BlaBlaCar and Mintos. He has a
Diploma in Tourism (University of Malaga, 2006), a Degree in Translation and
Interpretation (University of Cordoba, 2010) and studied a University Masters in
Multimedia Translation (University of Vigo, 2014). Since 2018, he has been a
doctoral candidate at the University Pablo de Olavide in Seville.