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Defining Transcreation from the Practitioners Perspective: An Interview-Based Study



Transcreation is a relatively new practice in the linguistic sector which has become more important throughout recent years. Both companies and researchers have contributed to the definition of the phenomenon. However, the process has not involved those who carry out this work first-hand: transcreators, translators, linguists , etc. In this article, our aim is to learn the perceptions of the professionals who work in transcreation projects in order to determine whether the current definitions of the phenomenon are complete. For this, we have interviewed a qualitative and varied sample of members of the sector. The results suggest that the professionals share the current view of transcreation, although they highlight a second perception of the phenomenon as a multidisciplinary strategy that would overlap with other modalities of a creative nature. It is concluded that it is necessary to undertake additional research in order to confirm the validity of this new proposal.
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Carreira, O. (2020). Defining Transcreation from the Practitioners Perspective: an Inter-
view-based Study. In C. Botella Tejera, J. Franco Aixelá, & C. Iliescu Gheorghiu (Eds.),
Translatum Nostrum. La traducción y la interpretación en el ámbito humanístico . Co-
Oliver Carreira
Pablo de Olavide University
Transcreation is a relatively new practice in the linguistic sector which has become
more important throughout recent years. Both companies and researchers have
contributed to the definition of the phenomenon. However, the process has not
involved those who carry out this work first-hand: transcreators, translators, lin-
guists, etc.
In this article, our aim is to learn the perceptions of the professionals who work in
transcreation projects in order to determine whether the current definitions of the
phenomenon are complete. For this, we have interviewed a qualitative and varied
sample of members of the sector.
The results suggest that the professionals share the current view of transcreation,
although they highlight a second perception of the phenomenon as a multidiscipli-
nary strategy that would overlap with other modalities of a creative nature. It is
concluded that it is necessary to undertake additional research in order to confirm
the validity of this new proposal.
1. Background
1.1 Origins of the term
The term “transcreation” was not coined at any specific moment in time or in any
specific geographical place, but rather it is used in different contexts and with
various purposes over the last 60 years. One of the first uses is linked to the Hindu
tradition of translation of sacred texts. Purushottama Lal, a poet, translator and
critic, described in his work Transcreation: Two Essays (1972, re-edited and ex-
panded in 1996 under the title Transcreation: Seven essays on the art of transcrea-
tion) his experience when creating versions in English of the classic Hindu texts
Mahabhárata and Ramayana, originally written in Sanskrit. Although Lal defines
transcreation as “readable, not strictly faithful translation” (in Di Giovanni,
2008:34), the characterisation takes place to a large extent through the description
of the work carried out for the adaptation of sacred texts: “the translator must edit,
reconcile and transmute; his job in many ways becomes largely a matter of tran-
screation” (Lal, 1964). Sales (2005:194) provides an expanded view through the
analysis of these:
In his view, the important work that is required of the translator is that he or she be
able to comprehend the spirit of the text, the effect that the author was trying to cre-
ate, and then communicate it, that is, ‘attempt to recreate it with the resources of the
English language’. […] The concept of transcreation is audience-oriented, because
Lal believes that, in translation […] one is always translating only for one’s con-
It is, therefore, a process of recreating the spirit of the original text and, at the
same time, of communication depending on the target audience. In the same liter-
ary scope as Lal, we must also mention the Brazilian poet and translator Haroldo
de Campos, who defines transcreation in a similar way: “a transformative recrea-
tion of inherited traditions” (1963).
The second origin of the term is linked to the advertising industry. In the 60s
and 70s, advertising agencies started to use the word transcreation to refer to the
translation of creative advertising texts. Although we have not found any academic
resource to confirm this version, it is a story that is described in a large number of
websites for language service suppliers and other agents in the sector (One Hour
Translation, 2015; Brown, 2017; Lapinska, 2016). Furthermore, the current rela-
tionship between transcreation and the advertising and marketing scope is undeni-
able, making this origin plausible.
Finally, we found a third possible origin associated to the sector of video
games. In the 80s, companies detected that the mere translation of the text was not
enough to guarantee an adequate user experience, so they developed strategies that
included the modification of images or even lines of argument in order to trans-
form the content in a creative way. This strategy differed from the localization
processes used at the time (Ray and Kelly, 2010). As we will see later on, there is
a close relationship between transcreation and localization (and specifically in the
case of video games).
In short, we can conclude that the process of coining the term is fuzzy. The
three possible origins seem to point towards a parallel development over time and
from different points of view, although within similar semantic scopes.
1.2. The vision of the linguistic services sector
Although the origins of transcreation lie in the period of 1960-1980, their defini-
tive development and popularisation took place alongside the linguistic industry.
The start of the current boom can be placed in the year 2000, when the advertising
agency United Publicity Services Plc patented the term. The validity of this regis-
tration ended in 2010, the same year that CSA, a consultancy agency for linguistic
services, published Reaching New Markets through Transcreation: When Transla-
tion Just Isn’t Enough. This influential report by Ray and Kelly (2010) contributed
towards establishing the bases of what we currently understand to be transcreation
and all of the definitions of the service published by the organisations in the sector
would be heavily based on the content of this document.
In this context, each company creates its own definition of transcreation. Alt-
hough the majority share common elements, we are facing a plural vision of the
phenomenon based on the professional practice of each agent. In order to try to
systematise this group of visions, Pedersen (2014) carried out the analysis of a
sample of definitions published on the websites of various companies. In this
work, it is shown that transcreation is characterised by the following:
It implies the creative adaptation of marketing, sales and advertising con-
The process implies a change in the original terms and meanings, giving
priority to the effect and impact caused.
The brand concept plays an important role, even if adapted to the audience.
This is a value-added service, it goes beyond mere translation.
Pedersen continues by affirming that these approaches do not reveal much about
the real process of transcreation, although they do help us to understand the con-
ceptualisation of this reality.
1.3. Transcreation vs. localization
As we have seen when studying the origins of the term, and when considering the
analysis of the definitions by Pedersen, there is an important relationship between
transcreation and localization if we take into account the characterisation of the
latter. The defunct LISA defined localization as the process through which a prod-
uct is adapted in order to become suitable, from a linguistic and cultural perspec-
tive, for a target market (consisting of a country/region and language) where it will
be used and sold (in Esselink, 2000). This definition shares several features with
the considerations by Pedersen, which brings about reasonable doubt as to whether
the term could be an alternative denomination for localization.
Before considering this possibility, we must take into account that translation is
an open concept which is in constant evolution (Tymoczko 2005:1082). In fact,
the evolution which the concept of transcreation is going through is similar to that
experienced by localization some years ago (Morón and Calvo, 2018). In this
sense, there are authors who consider that these new denominations are a way of
reinventing the wheel (Nord, 2012) or who warn of the possibility of the new ter-
minology contributing towards the devaluation of the classic label of translation
(Munday, 2014:22), while others such as Katan (2015) suggest that the transcrea-
tion focus is an essential element for the survival of translation as we understand
it. If we consider that transcreation is a set of specific practices, the main differ-
ence between it and localization would be the technical approach of the latter. In
this sense, Mata (2015:190) distinguishes between two main subtypes: the locali-
zation of IT products and the localization of web content. Furthermore, De la Cova
(2015) provides a list of specific problems that must be faced in this field: tags,
code, concatenated strings, character restrictions, format conversion, lack of con-
text, adaptation of images, etc. Given this perspective, transcreation seems to
move through more creative scopes. According to Bernal Merino (2006:32):
Another term that we hear more and more is 'transcreation'. It is being increasingly
used by a new wave of companies seeking to distance themselves from traditional
translation firms. These new firms offer translation-like services that include not
only translation but also creativity (Yunker, 2005:1). But creativity has always been
a skill developed by translators to avoid the robotic word-for-word approach. For
example, Pedro Picapiedra ['Peter Chipstone'] is the Spanish name for 'Fred Flint-
stone'. Translators maintained the semiotic references and the alliteration, obtaining
a playful and meaningful name. Is this an instance of translation or transcreation?
In the same sense, Mangiron and O’Hagan (2006:20) state the following:
Game localisers are granted quasiabsolute freedom to modify, omit, and even add
any elements which they deem necessary to bring the game closer to the players and
to convey the original feel of gameplay. And, in so doing, the traditional concept of
fidelity to the original is discarded. In game localization, transcreation, rather than
just translation, takes place.
Therefore, we can state that it is the approach (technical/creative) rather than the
type of text (website, video game or software) that determines whether we mostly
speak of localization or transcreation, which are, in principle, differentiated prac-
Another element in favour of the distinction between localization and tran-
screation is that based on the characteristic processes of each service. While the
former takes place in the scope of the GILT concept (globalisation + international-
isation + localization + transcreation), the latter is associated to specific manage-
ment practices that include elements such as briefing, information on segmentation
and the adaptation of other elements. In the words of Risku et al (2017:58):
“We argue that the need for a term like transcreation’ or ‘localisation’, for that
matter does not stem from a higher degree of adaptation, but from the specific
service processes offered under this translatorial action label”.
In a similar line, Bell (2018) suggests that the relationship between translation,
localization and transcreation takes place on three levels. On the first, translation
transfers words from one language to another. On the second, localization adapts
materials to a specific market. On the third and final level (the transcreation
phase), the creation of content in the target language is inspired by the original
material, although considerably adapted to the language and culture where it will
be used.
Finally, it is interesting to highlight that, although until now transcreation has
been linked to traditionally creative services such as marketing, advertising or
video games, that doesn’t mean that it must be limited to these. According to Law
(2017), there is development potential for transcreation in fields such as software
localization, regulatory compliance and regulatory content, technical communica-
tions or learning materials.
2. Objectives and methodology
As we have seen, the phenomenon of transcreation has been analysed by both the
industry and academic fields. However, this process did not take into account the
testimonies from those who undertake transcreation first-hand: transcreators, trans-
lators, writers and other professionals in the linguistic sector. Their points of view
would be highly valuable for developing and expanding the concept of transcrea-
tion. One of the few exceptions is Benetello (2016:40), who proposes a definition
based on her experience as a transcreation professional:
“Writing advertising or marketing copy for a specific market, starting from copy
written in a source language, as if the target text had originated in the target lan-
guage and culture”.
Although the proposal is interesting, its representativeness is limited as it is only
based on the perceptions of a single individual.
Our proposal is based on the lack of representative testimonies on what tran-
screation is and how it is perceived by those who do it. For this, we suggest the
performance of individual interviews with a representative sample of profession-
als. There are many precedents of social-type studies based on interviews and
questionnaires with translators (Pérez, 2017; Zaretskaya et al, 2015; Gutiérrez,
2016). In our case, we are going to follow an exploratory-interpretative paradigm
(Grotjahn, 1987) with a non-experimental character, based on qualitative data
where we will carry out interpretative analysis.
The selection of the sample of subjects interviewed was based on a set of crite-
ria with both a practical and representative nature. It is important to mention that it
was not always possible to find the highest level of representativity desired, due to
the fact that actual access to suitable participants was difficult in terms of availa-
bility, desire to participate and logistic considerations. Therefore, the criteria be-
low serve as a commented sample description:
Size: 7 subjects (hereinafter called S1, S2, S3, etc.). We believe that this
number is a good balance between representativeness and manageability of the
Language spoken and combinations: all 7 participants were active language
professionals, native Spanish speakers and worked at the EN>ES combination.
Sex: four women and three men. We sought parity in the sample.
Age: from 30 to 58. We wanted to include the perspectives of people who
recently joined the market as well as people who have been involved for long-
er, in order to balance the bias associated to experience. We tried to find partic-
ipants for the 20-30 years old range, but as we have mentioned before, it was
not possible due to availability considerations.
Experience: between 3 and 35 years. The objective here is similar to the
previous point. Taking into account that transcreation is a relatively recent mo-
dality, our aim is to avoid the results becoming skewed by a population with
little or excessive experience.
Specialities: we have selected professionals who pertain to the entire profes-
sional spectrum of the linguistic sector, which includes specialists in the fields
of audiovisual, medical, literary, localization, theatre, technical or transcrea-
tion. We believe that the point of view of transcreators is important, but it could
be much more interesting to hear the point of view of those who do not work in
this modality but are within the sector.
The interviews took place in the period of November - December 2018. Each par-
ticipant was contacted by videoconference in an individual manner and the con-
versation was recorded for further transcription and analysis. A list of six ques-
tions, detailed below with the motivation for each one, was developed, in order to
perform each intervention in a similar way and achieve a coherent interviewing
Have you heard or are you familiar with the term “transcreation”? Could
you define it in your own words? - Here the aim is to obtain an informal defini-
tion from the person being interviewed, and to compare the responses from dif-
ferent subjects in order to determine whether they coincide.
Do you consider it to be a service in itself, separately, on the same level as
others such as l10n, AVT or other types of translation (technical, legal, medi-
cal, etc.)? - This question, together with the next one, aims to determine
whether transcreation is perceived as a service/speciality or as a strategy/way
of doing things.
Do you consider it to be a strategy for approaching problems applicable to
different types of projects or services? - Similar to the previous. There is no
disjunctive question to consult whether transcreation is perceived as a service
or as a strategy so as not to dismiss the possibility of there being a double per-
ception in this regard.
Do you think it constitutes a service that is clearly different to others that
are known or do you identify with the idea that it is a new term invented to re-
fer to existing practices? - The aim of this question is to determine whether
transcreation is perceived as a real practice or rather a marketing exercise car-
ried out by companies to rename existing practices.
Do you think that transcreation is worse or better paid that other types of
projects or services? - The aim here is to determine whether transcreation is
perceived as a value-added service and whether this is associated to higher
economic remuneration.
What is your perspective on the role of the brand in transcreation? Do you
think it is linked to the process or that transcreation can occur without a
brand? - Based on the idea that the brand is an essential element in the adver-
tising field, the aim is to determine whether transcreation would be limited to
this field or could include others.
Once the testimonies were received from the subjects, we analysed them and com-
pared them with the characterisation of transcreation proposed by Pedersen (2014)
that we mentioned previously. The purpose of this comparison is to determine
whether the interviews contribute new elements to the existing body of knowledge
that may invite further research in this line. We chose Pedersen’s proposal as our
baseline due to its integral nature, as it is an academic approach but with an indus-
try basis.
3. Results and analysis of responses
Below is a series of significant fragments selected from the testimonies of the par-
ticipants. The complete transcription of the interviews can be downloaded from
this link:
The responses to question 1 are as follows:
S1: Adaptation of a text with a marketing background or commercial purpose.
Translation, but not only translation. A text that you try to adapt to a specific
recipient which is related to a culture, country, etc.
S2: An activity in the field of creative translation, taking a slogan or advertis-
ing campaign and transferring it to one’s own language. The form and format
change, but the content does not.
S3: A type of translation that focuses on transmitting the content rather than the
form, like in advertising.
S4: To transcreate is to go beyond translation, it is to translate for a specific
audience, with its own characteristics, different to those of the original lan-
S5: A way of translating texts, not only in the advertising field, because I con-
sider that transcreation involves texts of many other types, according to the
idea to be sold [the customer], it is an adaptation that goes beyond translation
and localization, with much more creative freedom.
S6: A translation strategy, a way of approaching certain problems for a much
freer translation, we could say, less reliant on the original text. It is more than
just a strategy; it is a way of approaching a series of cultural problems and
finding solutions.
S7: The adaptation of a text from one language to another, adapting to the
needs of the target audience as stated by the customer or as you decide, beyond
mere translation.
There are a series of shared ideas among the participants, from which we can con-
stitute a group definition of transcreation as a process of adaptation to a specific
recipient and culture, where the form of the message changes but the content does
not. It is a type of creative translation that avoids the literal, the objective of which
is to sell. Furthermore, the idea that it goes beyond translation is repeated several
The responses to question 2 are as follows:
S1: Yes
S2: Yes
S3: I think so.
S4: Depending on the field, yes. Particularly in the technical, legal, marketing
and advertising fields, it is necessary. In the audiovisual field, I disagree.
Where I see it most evident is in the scope of advertising. Transcreation is very
linked to the target audience.
S5: I understand that it is a different process, a different modality, but I don’t
think it’s a different speciality.
S6: We are seeing it more as a service, but perhaps more from the customers
than from the translator. From the perspective of the business person, of the
company, of those requesting it, the petitioner, yes. Perhaps from the perspec-
tive of the person requesting it. I don’t know if I would give the translation a
different focus, knowing, obviously, that the purpose is the same.
S7: Yes, without a doubt. It is another category.
Six of the subjects stated that transcreation is a service, while one disagreed (S5)
and argued that it is a modality rather than a speciality, as it can be applied to dif-
ferent disciplines (although the way in which the idea is described can be confus-
ing, reading the full response shows that it is perceived as a strategy). Regarding
those who responded affirmatively, four of them did so categorically, one stated
that transcreation is only a service in the advertising field and another specified
that it has the nature of a service from the perspective of the person requesting it
(company or customer) and not from the person supplying it (linguist).
The responses to question 3 are as follows:
S1: It can be both, more of a speciality because there is a sector of customers
that need this type of translation or approach or a need in a different type of
S2: There can be cases of transcreation within a text in a different speciality,
but I don’t know if I would call that transcreation. I can't imagine transcreation
in a legal or technical text. It is something which is highly associated to mar-
keting and creativity. I am certain that it is a separate discipline.
S3: Perhaps it is a type of translation, in the same sense as localization or liter-
ary translation, but at the same time it can also be a resource to use within a
translation of a different type.
S4: In some cases, of course.
S5: It is complicated, it’s a strategy and I can approach a text from a more or
less transcreative point of view, depending on what is requested of me. As a
strategy, we were using it in many cases, but not as a service, and now it has a
name and what we have always done as a strategy has now been put in this
box. The customer as a service, the translator as a strategy.
S6: I have always seen it as a strategy, a means of expression, instead of stick-
ing too closely to the text, when I find myself in situations with certain types of
texts, in a novel I wouldn’t consider adapting, but perhaps in a legal text, in a
sworn translation I would.
S7: If you mean that the customer doesn’t mention it, but rather you decide
that, for example, text should be added or removed, then yes.
Only one of the participants says that transcreation is not a strategy and is ra-
ther an evident service (S2). The other participants show a certain degree of
agreement with the idea that it is a strategy. From these, four state that it has a dual
nature, both strategy and service, and two mention that it is a strategy in some
cases, such as a literary translation or in the marketing field. Interestingly, the
interviewee who stated in the previous question that transcreation is only a service
(S5) contradicts themselves and here mentions that it has one character or another
depending on who uses it: the customer or the translator.
The responses to question 4 are as follows:
S1: The term is new. It is possible for it to be related to concepts such as locali-
zation, but to me it is new. Transcreation is solely and exclusively related to
marketing and advertising. I don’t know if the activity is new. The term is.
S2: What we do in transcreation was already done before, we haven’t reinvent-
ed the wheel, but it does help to define a practice that previously wasn’t. The
word “transcreation” is an invention by the industry rather than by the profes-
sionals themselves. I would use it as a synonym depending on the context.
When selling my services? Yes. From a stricter perspective? Probably not.
S3: It has always been done, the practice has always existed and it was given a
name afterward.
S4: I believe that the term was created for scopes where creative translation
didn’t exist, but for those that did already have it, it wasn’t necessary. So it’s
true that it’s transcreation, but it didn’t have a name. On the other hand, in oth-
er fields where translation was more literal, the improvement is more obvious.
S5: I think it is a term that helps to categorise a strategy that, as it was spread
out among various disciplines, nobody had categorised. Not only advertising
translation, but rather it is a strategy that we use in many disciplines and that is
now more or less compartmentalised in one place. I don’t think anything is
being done now that wasn’t done before it was called transcreation.
S6: I haven’t seen anything new, transcreation is a collection of various strate-
gies, but it’s something that already existed. We put a new name on things that
already existed, but I don’t think there’s anything new in its formulation.
S7: It’s very similar to what was called localization years ago, in a broad sense.
It is a change in name to sell something that already existed.
Six of the interviewees state that the practice of transcreation already existed and
that the term was coined later on. The subject who disagrees (S1) does not do so in
the sense of denying the existence of the practice, but rather that they don’t know
if it occurred previously, simply mentioning that the term is new.
The responses to question 5 are as follows:
S1: I imagine that it should be better paid. It’s not something that all translators
can do. It requires specific training or natural creativity.
S2: Yes, better.
S3: Probably better.
S4: In theory, it ought to be better paid than a normal translation because of the
effort involved in creation, the mental effort is much greater.
S5: Yes, because the industry is selling it as a new service, a new type of trans-
lation, just like happened with localization. We sell an added service.
S6: Perhaps it is being better paid because of the way it is being sold, as some-
thing different to translation, the idea that a machine can translate and the
translator can transcreate.
S7: Better paid, because it is more aligned with advertising translation, there is
much more creativity, creation of copy, a lot of back and forth.
All of the interviewees agree that transcreation is a better paid practice. The differ-
ences appear in the level of certainty in this regard. While four of them clearly
state that it is a better paid service for various reasons, the remaining three state
that this is so due to various reasons.
The responses to question 6 are as follows:
S1: For me, transcreation is related to advertising and marketing, so I would
associate transcreation to a brand.
S2: If there is no brand present, for me, like I said, it moves from transcreation
to something broader.
S3: I would say that it is not necessary.
S4: Well, if the brand is understood as the seal of, for example, Marvel, you
must speak in a certain way. In advertising, a brand has to make its mark, so in
that case I do think that transcreation is very important, it is linked to the brand
S5: That would mean accepting that it is only advertising translation. If I con-
sider that AVT is transcreation, I break away from the brand concept. I don’t
think there always has to be a brand.
S6: Advertising translation is obviously ordered by brands. If we understand
transcreation as a broader concept, the brand concept becomes diluted. I think
that the brand can have an advertising translation and there cannot be transcrea-
tion without a brand, because you are always selling something.
S7: The brand isn’t necessary, although it is linked to advertising translation,
there can also be general techniques applied to a text without the need to know
who the client is.
Four of the interviewees responded positively with regards to the relationship be-
tween brand and transcreation, in some cases based on the relationship between
this concept and advertising and marketing translation. The remaining three indi-
cate that this is not necessary, referring to cases where transcreation could be ap-
plied as a strategy and not as a service.
Once we had analysed the testimonies from the subjects interviewed, the next
step would be to compare them with the characterisation of transcreation provided
by Pedersen that we have mentioned on section 1.2. Below, we include each one
of these and we compare the likeness between Pedersens formulation and the
combined answers given by the interviewees:
“It implies the creative adaptation of marketing, sales and advertising con-
tent”: this statement remains valid if we consider transcreation only as a ser-
vice. However, from the responses above, we can conclude that there is also a
perception of the practice as a strategy, which transcends the strictly advertis-
ing or commercial scope.
“The process implies a change in the original terms and meanings, giving
priority to the effect and impact caused”: this characteristic also maintains its
validity, although it would omit one point mentioned by various subjects. Tran-
screation exists as part of a process destined to selling a product or service (at
least when perceived as a service). That is to say, the priority is effectively to
maintain an effect or impact caused, but it is necessary for the final objective to
be commercial, with the entire process being subject to this.
“The brand concept plays an important role, even if adapted to the audi-
ence”: the brand is important in transcreation if it is only considered as a syno-
nym of translation or advertising adaptation. However, there is a perception
that transcreation can exist without a brand, therefore its importance moves
from relative to being a definitive element.
“This is a value-added service, it goes beyond mere translation”: transcrea-
tion is a value-added service. However, the perception in this regard is related
to the need to invest more hours of work in this practice and to have creative
capacities, not to the innovative character. In this sense, it is important to high-
light how transcreation has a double perception depending on the observer: the
petitioner (company) or the offerer (linguistic professional) of the service.
4. Conclusions
Based on the analysis in the previous section, we can conclude that the current
definitions and characterisations of transcreation are aligned with the perception
among professionals, although only partially. In this sense, transcreation would
have been considered exclusively as a service carried out in the commer-
cial/advertising scope until now. However, the testimonies analysed show that
there is a second perception of transcreation as a multidisciplinary strategy that
can be applied in areas other than that of advertising. In this line, there is an over-
lap of transcreation with other modalities traditionally considered to be creative,
such as audiovisual translation, literary translation or part of localization.
From here, several hypotheses are considered. The first would be the dual na-
ture of transcreation as both a service and a strategy. The second would be that
transcreation exclusively consists of a service, while the practices corresponding to
its perception as a strategy would not be included in this denomination.
We are aware that the results obtained do not have statistical validity due to the
size of the sample that we have worked with. Despite this, we consider that it is a
qualitatively representative group and that the information obtained is promising
and invites us to continue researching the line of the first hypothesis mentioned
given its innovative nature with regards to existing literature. Even if refuted, the
additional information provided by the perceptions of the professionals would
allow us to contribute towards the theoretical development of the practice.
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OLIVER CARREIRA is an English-Spanish freelance translator and has worked
in the sector of linguistics since 2007. His main specialities are the localization of
software and websites, transcreation and translation of IT and fintech. He has
worked in companies such as Airbnb, Amazon, BlaBlaCar and Mintos. He has a
Diploma in Tourism (University of Malaga, 2006), a Degree in Translation and
Interpretation (University of Cordoba, 2010) and studied a University Masters in
Multimedia Translation (University of Vigo, 2014). Since 2018, he has been a
doctoral candidate at the University Pablo de Olavide in Seville.
... Jednym z nich jest z pewnością termin "transkreacja", którego zakres podlega w dzisiejszej humanistyce ciągłym dookreśleniom, prowadzącym niekiedy do błędnego ujednolicenia skrajnie odmiennych praktyk tłumaczeniowych. Jak zauważa Carreira [2020], zdaniem praktyków transkreacja może być ujmowana jako odrębna usługa różniąca się od przekładu lub jako specyficzna strategia tłumaczeniowa. Mar Díaz-Millón i María Dolores Olvera-Lobo [2021] wykazują w dokonanym niedawno systematycznym przeglądzie (wyłącznie anglojęzycznej) literatury, że wprowadzony w 1995 roku termin, który szczególne zainteresowanie wzbudza od roku 2015, pojawia się zasadniczo w czterech ujęciach: jako aktywność związana z przekładem (translation-related activity), w domenie komunikacji, reklamy oraz poezji, za każdym razem przyjmując nieco odmienny, ale niesprowadzalny do innych pojęć sens. ...
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TRANSCREATION IN INDIA AND BRAZIL: ON THE CONCEPTS OF PURUSHOTTAMA LALA AND HAROLDO DE CAMPOS The study aims to compare the concepts of transcreation developed in India and Brazil. The first, more extensive part of the article introduces the profile of Indian translator, poet, essayist, and publisher Purushottama Lal (1929-2010) and attempts to outline his concept of transcreation, which seems to have not been introduced to Polish translation scholars so far. The second part seeks to sketch the most significant differences between Lal’s concept and the ideas of Brazilian translation theorist, translator, and poet Haroldo de Campos (1929-2003). The analysis allows us to conclude that, despite their surprising lexical and chronological convergence, these concepts developed independently and exhibit a number of fundamental differences, which, as indicated by bibliographic reconnaissance, have not yet been discussed in the humanities.
... This paper is the continuation of a previous work by the same author (Carreira 2020b). In this preliminary study, a group of seven translators was selected and subjected to structured interviews (Robson 2016). ...
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Transcreation is a practice with a status that has to date not been consolidated in the field of Translation Studies. While some authors consider that the term brings little value to the discipline (Bernal Merino 2006 ; Gambier and Munday 2014), others define transcreation as a service involving the creative adaptation of marketing and advertising content (Pedersen 2014 ; TAUS 2019) or as a strategy adopted in creative areas like AVT (Malenova 2017 ; Chaume 2018), localization (Mangirón and O’Hagan 2006 ; Crosignani and Ravetto 2011) and literary translation (Lal 1996 ; De Campos 2013). The above definitions reflect the perspectives of the language services industry and academia. However, the points of view of individual language professionals have not usually been considered when conceptualizing transcreation. The purpose of this paper is to address these perceptions by adopting a social qualitative approach by means of an instrument called “The DTP Survey.” The results of this survey seem to point to a dual definition of transcreation as both a service and a strategy, with both approaches being compatible and not mutually exclusive as they have been in previous characterizations of the practice.
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Transcreation is a creative adaptation service that has been studied from the perspective of the language services industry and academia. Despite broad interest in the topic, little is known about the perceptions individual professionals have of this practice. To fill this gap, this paper aims to provide information from this point of view and focuses on the economic characteristics of transcreation. For this purpose, a sociological study based on a survey has been carried out. A total of 360 professionals from all over the world participated in this initiative. The results show that transcreation is considered as a hard-to-automate service. The practice is perceived and paid as a value-added one, and it can be defined as a form of qualified craftsmanship. Likewise, it seems to be a better-paid service than others. Finally, transcreation is demanded not only by language service providers but also by companies in industries such as marketing, advertising, public relations, and communication.
Conference Paper
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The paper (in Slovak) addresses the issue of the need to define student-oriented outcomes from the educational process at the university, specifically the expected learning outcomes defined in the course information sheets. Clear formulations of expected outcomes are one of the first pieces of information not only for domestic but also for foreign students, who often come into contact for the first time with the culture of education in foreign universities. They decide on their participation in a given course on the basis of this information about the expected outcomes. When formulating the outcomes, the authors recommend to follow the Bloom's taxonomy. Keywords: learning outcomes, university, students, course information sheet, Bloom’s taxonomy
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This chapter is oriented to provide some knowledge about two areas in transcreation that have not been thoroughly researched in this field: workflows and transcreation. For this purpose, a social methodology is proposed. By interviewing a group of four professional transcreators, it is expected to obtain more information on these two areas. Taking into account the results obtained in these interviews, a general workflow diagram is proposed. Likewise, a general quality assessment model is suggested for transcreation. Due to the nature and limitations of this proposal, the representativity of these items should be considered as limited, though it offers a good starting point for further research.
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The transcreation brief seems to be a key part of the adaptation processes at this kind of projects. Despite the importance that many professionals, companies and researchers give to this document, we do not have a clear definition about the characteristics of this tool. In fact, in many cases it is not even clear if this is a specific document at all. This proposal offers a quick view about what we know about this key element of the transcreation process. After establishing the differences between the concepts of client brief, creative brief and transcreation brief, a tentative analysis of examples of these documents is carried out in order to determine what are the elements that make the transcreation brief a different document to others that are quite similar in a common workflow.
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Despite common perceptions, transcreation is not glorified translation. Nor is it a synonym for 'creative translation' - a definition based on the questionable assumption that translation is not a creative act per se. While it is true that different types of texts allow for different degrees of freedom when it comes to 'transposing' them from one language to another, transcreation should be regarded as a different practice altogether. The typical translation evaluation grid used by professional reviewers contains several error categories. What happens when we apply this grid to transcreation? As it turns out, those errors can only apply to translation, not to transcreation, where they are not errors at all. Committing such errors, i.e. breaking the rules of grammar or spelling, is actually considered a plus in transcreation. Evidence suggests that transcreation is the only possible way to 'translate' marketing and advertising copy. In this article I draw on my professional experience as a copywriter involved in both origination and transcreation, and I will define transcreation as writing advertising or marketing copy for a specific market, starting from copy written in a source language, as if the target text had originated in the target language and culture. I also argue that creating target-language copy that can truly resonate with the target audience requires a special set of skills (language skills, copywriting skills, cultural sensitivity and local market understanding), which make the transcreation professional a fully-fledged consultant. I conclude on the specific skillset is required from transcreation professionals.
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This research presents an innovative training project developed during the academic year 2016-2017 at the Universidad Pablo de Olavide (UPO, Spain), aimed at integrating transcreation skills in an undergraduate translator training context: the TeCreaTe project. This paper defines transcreation as a new service vis-à-vis other services such as translation and/or localisation. The main intercultural challenges transcreation poses for translator trainees are analysed and illustrated, on a brief-based approach. Responding effectively to market changes and opening up new employment opportunities are demanding goals. The TeCreaTe project has positively contributed to the development of participants’ key translation-related transferable and specific skills thanks to the inclusion of simulated transcreation projects.
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This preliminary study aims at exploring the nature of challenges that translators face when they take on a localization project of a web application. Taking into account that localization is an activity constrained by time, process and economic resources, translators need to make use of their full skill set to overcome the various challenges imposed by the source text and the localization process itself. For the purpose of this study, an ad hoc monolingual English corpus composed of the user interface strings of web applications has been used. Since multiple types of challenges are found in a localization project of this nature, this paper focuses on those related to internationalization practices and to constraints imposed by the translation memory segmentation process. Although localization is a mature field and a great deal of guidelines and best practices is available for content creators and tool developers, as found in this qualitative study, localizers can still suffer the consequences of deficient internationalization practices and non-ergonomic translation tools.
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There have been proposed various techniques for combining machine translation (MT) and translation memory (TM) technologies in order to enhance retrieved TM matches and increase translators' productivity. We provide an overview of these techniques and propose a way of classifying them. According to the results of our user survey, many translators are not aware of MT feature in their computer-assisted translation (CAT) tool. However, more than a half of the population perceive such combination as useful. We argue that it is necessary to take into account user perspective when evaluating MT and CAT integration and suggest characteristics of such evaluation.
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From its humble beginning in the 1970's, the video games industry has flourished and become a worldwide phenomenon. Although most games are developed in Japanese and English, the globalisation of popular culture and the desire to expand to new markets have led most producers to localise their games into many target language versions. This has brought about the emergence of a new field in translation, game localisation, which combines elements of audiovisual translation and software localisation. This paper looks at the specific features of game localisation which give it its unique nature. It examines the priorities and constraints associated with translation of this particular genre, which relies heavily on imagination and creativity to deliver a satisfactory game experience. Using as a case study the best-selling PlayStation series, Final Fantasy, examples are presented to illustrate the challenges game localisers face, focusing particularly on linguistic and cultural issues.
This paper explores the dynamics of cultural representation through the media, making special reference to the translation of cultural traits that occur in the cinema and television. By taking into account several films and television commercials which were broadcast in Italy over a five-year span, featuring variously complex and stratified translations of India, an attempt is made to define and explore the different guises which translation can take when the object of transfer is not merely language and its purpose is not merely communication. The transformations which have been identified in the use and transfer of Indian cultural traits through the Italian media are here discussed in terms of translation, transcreation and transrepresentation.
The article sums up the principle trajectories of research in translation studies that are likely to be productive in the coming decades. I focus on six broad areas. The first encompasses attempts to define translation: this includes research as diverse as examinations of particular linguistic facets of translation, corpus studies of translation, descriptive historical studies, and analysis of think-aloud protocols. The second area of research pertains to the internationalization of translation, which challenges basic Western assumptions about the nature of translation and generates new case studies that shake the foundations of translation theory and practice as they are known at present. Changes in translation theory and practice associated with emerging technologies and globalization constitute the third research area to be discussed. The fourth strand is the application to translation of various interpretive perspectives based on frames from other disciplines. The last two branches of research have to do with the relationship of translation studies to cognitive science and neurophysiology. The article closes with some general observations about the implications for translation research as a whole and the structure of translation studies entailed by the six areas discussed.
Translation, Localization, Transcreation: What's the Difference
  • Terena Bell
BELL, Terena. (2018) Translation, Localization, Transcreation: What's the Difference?. Electronic version: <> (consulted 28.02.2019).