Conference PaperPDF Available

Survey method for locating īnanga spawning sites at a catchment scale


A survey methodology for locating and mapping īnanga spawning sites near coastal rivermouths.
Survey method for locating īnanga spawning sites at a catchment scale
Shane Orchard1
Mike Hickford2
1 Waterways Centre for Freshwater Management (WCFM), University of Canterbury and Lincoln University.
2 Marine Ecology Research Group (MERG), University of Canterbury.
Waterways and MERG have recently published details of a survey methodology for locating and
mapping īnanga spawning sites near coastal rivermouths.
The full paper in NZ Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research is available online.
The problem
Īnanga (Galaxias maculatus) is one of five galaxiid species that provide New Zealand’s whitebait
fishery. Four of the five species are also threatened to various degrees. The management of whitebait
species is therefore important for conservation objectives as well as for maintaining the fishery. Aside
from regulations on fishing activities (which target the juvenile fish on their migration from the ocean
into freshwater systems) the degradation of habitat is a particular focus. Although all life stages are
important, the protection of spawning habitat may be particularly important for īnanga. It is found in
very specific places on the riparian margins of coastal waterways. These areas have become degraded
by historical activities associated with urbanisation and other intensive land uses near waterways.
These changes have the potential to dramatically impact on fish populations since the inanga life cycle
is relatively short (1 -2 years). Poor spawning success in one season can be expected to reduce the
stock of whitebait and adult populations in the next season. Repeat cycles of this may very quickly
diminish fish stocks - especially if it occurs at many spawning sites simultaneously. In reality, some
rivers have become ‘sinks’ that contribute little to maintaining stocks each year1. The fish population is
reliant on other rivers (the ‘sources’) where spawning success is higher.
Protecting and enhancing spawning habitat is therefore a very practical activity that can assist with
whitebait conservation, and tools such as spatial planning and the use of protected areas offer
promising ways to address the problem. However, locating where the spawning sites are is not
straightforward and this has become a barrier to practical action. The location and extent of the
spawning habitat requirements in different rivers is essential information for the design of effective
strategies. In a nutshell, we need to know which areas are important to protect, and whether additional
protection (or restoration) would be beneficial. However, because rivermouth systems are dynamic, the
location and extent of spawning sites can change over time. This introduces some complexities for
‘nailing down’ the answers that are needed to inform effective conservation strategies.
Overview of the census survey method
To help address the above problem, we developed a survey methodology to detect all of the spawning in
a catchment. Reliably capturing this information over time is very useful for identifying trends. Different
forms of īnanga spawning surveys have been carried out in New Zealand for several decades and our
approach was to adapt the existing methods to achieve the ‘catchment scale census’ we were after.
The main components of our methodology are:
an initial investigation to characterise the big picture and set the survey limits. This uses a
different approach to existing methods which typically focus on the location of the ‘salt water
a habitat quality assessment step similar to that used in an Australian study2, but guided by set
criteria. The objective of this step is to identify all areas that could potentially support spawning
in the catchment.
intensive searches of riparian vegetation in the areas identified via the above steps to detect
spawning sites3, but using standardised time frames that are repeated over several months.
The latter is important to address spatiotemporal variation that arises at several scales and can
potentially confound the interpretation of ‘snapshot’ surveys. Examples of major confounding
factors that we have addressed are differences in spawning activity between months, and the
effect of egg mortality on the riverbank (meaning that actual spawning sites may be difficult to
discover in searches that are looking for eggs).
Example of the method in action
In the paper we include details of how the census survey was
applied to locate spawning sites in the Heathcote/Ōpāwaho
catchment after the Canterbury earthquakes. We were
especially interested in whether they might have shifted
location in the catchment. At the start of the study the post-
quake pattern was initially unknown (similar to a river had never
been surveyed) but in this case the river has been well-studied
over several decades. By comparing our results with earlier
īnanga spawning surveys we were able to show that the
downstream limit shifted considerably following the
earthquakes. Because many current riparian management
activities are not compatible with protecting spawning habitat
this is important information for conservation4. Other aspects
such as trends in areas that are the most used or produce the
most eggs could be resolved by repeat surveys. Another
interesting finding was the discovery of high egg numbers at
sites where reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinaceae) was the dominant vegetation. Although this
invasive species has previously been regarded as a threat to spawning habitat it currently supports the
majority of spawning in the Heathcote/Ōpāwaho. Together, these examples show some of the useful
outcomes that may be generated by a comprehensive survey methodology to reliably quantify īnanga
spawning habitat at a catchment scale. The census-survey approach is applicable to rivers nationwide
and will help to address the current information gaps around where spawning occurs and what is
needed to protect it.
Link to article in NZ Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research here
Thanks to the Ngāi Tahu Research Centre, IPENZ Rivers Group, MBIE grant C01X1002 in conjunction with NIWA,
and the many volunteers that helped to support this work.
1 Hickford MJH, Schiel DR. (2011). Population sinks resulting from degraded habitats of an obligate life-history
pathway. Oecologia 166: 131-140.
2 Hicks A, Barbee NC, Swearer SE, Downes BJ. (2010). Estuarine geomorphology and low salinity requirement for
fertilisation influence spawning site location in the diadromous fish, Galaxias maculatus. Marine and
Freshwater Research 61: 1252-1258.
3 Mitchell CP, Eldon GA. (1991). How to locate and protect whitebait spawning grounds. Rotorua: Freshwater
Fisheries Centre. 49pp.
4 Orchard S, Hickford M. (2016). Spatial effects of the Canterbury earthquakes on īnanga spawning habitat and
implications for waterways management. Report prepared for IPENZ Rivers Group and Ngāi Tahu Research
Centre Waterways Centre for Freshwater Management and Marine Ecology Research Group. Christchurch:
University of Canterbury. 37pp.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Canterbury earthquakes resulted in numerous changes to the waterways of Ōtautahi Christchurch. These included bank destabilisation, liquefaction effects, changes in bed levels, and associated effects on flow regimes and inundation levels. This study set out to determine if these effects had altered the location and pattern of sites utilised by inanga (Galaxias maculatus) for spawning, which are typically restricted to very specific locations in upper estuarine areas. Extensive surveys were carried out in the Heathcote/Ōpāwaho and Avon/Ōtākaro catchments over the four peak months of the 2015 spawning season. New spawning sites were found in both rivers and analysis against pre-earthquake records identified that other significant changes have occurred. Major changes include the finding of many new spawning sites in the Heathcote/Ōpāwaho catchment. Sites now occur up to 1.5km further downstream than the previously reported limit and include the first records of spawning below the Woolston Cut. Spawning sites in the Avon/Ōtākaro catchment also occur in new locations. In the mainstem, sites now occur both upstream and downstream of all previously reported locations. A concentrated area of spawning was identified in Lake Kate Sheppard at a distinctly different location versus pre-quake records, and no spawning was found on the western shores. Spawning was also recorded for the first time in Anzac Creek, a nearby waterway connected to Lake Kate Sheppard via a series of culverts. Overall the results indicate that spawning is taking place in different locations from the pre-quake pattern. Although egg survival was not measured in this study, sites in new locations may be vulnerable to current or future land-use activities that are incompatible with spawning success. Consequently, there are considerable management implications associated with this spatial shift, primarily relating to riparian management. In particular, there is a need to control threats to spawning sites and achieve protection for the areas involved. This is required under the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010 and is a prominent objective in a range of other polices and plans.
Full-text available
Many species traverse multiple habitats across ecosystems to complete their life histories. Degradation of critical, life stage-specific habitats can therefore lead to population bottlenecks and demographic deficits in sub-populations. The riparian zone of waterways is one of the most impacted areas of the coastal zone because of urbanisation, deforestation, farming and livestock grazing. We hypothesised that sink populations can result from alterations of habitats critical to the early life stages of diadromous fish that use this zone, and tested this with field-based sampling and experiments. We found that for Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, obligate riparian spawning habitat was very limited and highly vulnerable to disturbance across 14 rivers in New Zealand. Eggs were laid only during spring tides, in the highest tidally influenced vegetation of waterways. Egg survival increased to >90% when laid in three riparian plant species and where stem densities were great enough to prevent desiccation, compared to no survival where vegetation was comprised of other species or was less dense. Experimental exclusion of livestock, one of the major sources of riparian degradation in rural waterways, resulted in quick regeneration, a tenfold increase in egg laying by fish and a threefold increase in survival, compared to adjacent controls. Overall, there was an inverse relationship between river size and egg production. Some of the largest rivers had little or no spawning habitat and very little egg production, effectively becoming sink populations despite supporting large adult populations, whereas some of the smallest pristine streams produced millions of eggs. We demonstrate that even a wide-ranging species with many robust adult populations can be compromised if a stage-specific habitat required to complete a life history is degraded by localised or more diffuse impacts.
In habitats such as estuaries, which are characterised by large and fluctuating gradients in abiotic variables, finding appropriate habitat for successful spawning and egg development can be critical to a species' survival. We explored how salinity requirements for successful fertilisation may govern the distribution of estuarine spawning habitat for the diadromous fish, Galaxias maculatus, which spawns in inundated vegetation on estuary banks during spring tides. Artificial fertilisation experiments confirmed that successful fertilisation only occurs at low salinities (<20). Thus, we predicted that egg distributions would depend upon the extent of low-salinity surface waters in an estuary. Using estuary geomorphology classification schemes, which classify estuaries by physical and chemical characteristics such as their salinity dynamics, we hypothesised that stratified estuaries would provide a greater extent of low salinity surface water than well-mixed estuaries. This prediction was supported by surveys of egg distributions in five estuaries in Victoria, Australia. Eggs were distributed over a greater proportion of 'stratified' v. 'mixed' estuary types. We suggest that combining knowledge of the spawning requirements of a species and physical properties of the habitat, such as those encapsulated in estuary geomorphic classification schemes, can greatly facilitate efforts to identify critical habitats and thus aid in species management and conservation.
How to locate and protect whitebait spawning grounds. Rotorua: Freshwater Fisheries Centre
  • C P Mitchell
  • G A Eldon
Mitchell CP, Eldon GA. (1991). How to locate and protect whitebait spawning grounds. Rotorua: Freshwater Fisheries Centre. 49pp.