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Sense of Belonging and Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance

Sense of Belonging and Job Satisfaction on Employee
Santi Riana Dewi*
Universitas Serang Raya
Rizal Suryamarta
Universitas Indonesia
Denny Kurnia
Universitas Serang Raya
Universitas Serang Raya
Abstract. The company's ability to develop is
influenced by improvements in employee
performance. Performance can be measured
from various aspects, namely from the inputs,
processes, outputs, and outcomes achieved.
There are several variables that affect employee
performance, including a sense of belonging and
job satisfaction. This research aims to find out
how much the contribution of each indicator of
the variable sense of belonging and job
satisfaction will affect employee performance
improvement in a multinational company in
Banten. The causal relationship between
variables was analyzed with Structural
Equation Modeling-Partial Least Squares
(SEM-PLS). The sampling method used is a
simple random sampling with total respondent
was 68 employees. The data was obtained
through a questionnaire and processed using the
SmartPLS. The variables studied included Sense
of Belonging, Job Satisfaction and Performance.
The research results are targeted to be able to
contribute to the company to find the most
dominant indicators affecting employee
performance improvement, become the basis for
companies to determine policies and be a
reference for further research in the field of
human resource management. The results of
this research on manufacturing company's
employees in Merak Banten showed that the two
exogenous latent variables, Sense of Belonging
(X1) and Job Satisfaction (X2) with their
indicators affecting endogenous latent variable
of Performance (Y) with their indicators
Keywords: sense of belonging, job satisfaction,
The background of this study is a gap exists
between the targets and the actual results achieved,
and to find out the indicators, which is the
dominant variables affecting employee
performance. Identification of the problems
obtained from the interviews, that it was found that
there was still a need to increase awareness of the
company success, there were still complaints about
the working environment, and still needed to
improve employee performance. The formulation
of the problem of this research is whether or not
there is a positive influence of sense of belonging
on performance and whether or not there is a
positive influence of job satisfaction on
performance. The impact of this research is a
significant performance increase, to reduce
employee turnover, and increase company profits.
Many factors affect employee performance,
including job satisfaction and a sense of belonging.
High job satisfaction is expected to make
employees feel satisfied and happy, so employees
will provide the best performance for the company.
As for the existence of a high sense of belonging,
employees are expected to be more respectful and
still want to work in the company, whatever the
circumstances. Sense of belonging owned by
employees is also expected to be able to reduce
turnover rates, so companies do not need to
frequently recruit because of the high employee
turnover. By knowing the factors that give the most
significant contribution to improve performance, it
will be easy for companies to determine the factors
that need to get more attention, compared to other
factors. Employee performance that exceeds
company standards and company targets will be
able to provide good quality to meet consumer
needs in terms of quantity and quality of products
or services produced. For this reason, improving
employee performance is very important for the
company, with very satisfying employee
performance, will indirectly provide profit for the
company and the survival of the company. Broadly
speaking, performance can be seen from the input,
process, output, and value.
Goal setting researchers have drawn an
instructive distinction between performance
outcome goals and learning goals. A performance
outcome goal targets a specific end result. A
learning goal, in contrast, strives to improve
creativity and develop the skill. Learning goals are
encouraging learning, creativity, and skill
development. A performance outcome goal often
distracts attention from the discovery of task-
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 477
Proceedings of the International Conference on Community Development (ICCD 2020)
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
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relevant strategies. In short, for example, golfers
must be told how to play the game before it fails to
achieve targeted performance or is a challenge to
provide the best performance. In addition,
performance is real results such as the performance
of individuals, groups, or organizations both in
terms of quantity and quality of performance.
Performance is also an action and behaviour,
teamwork, cooperation, risk-taking and creativity.
As for nonperformance considerations, such as
custom or contract, where the type of work, nature
of work, equity, years of service, hierarchy level,
and so on are valued [1]- [3].
Meanwhile, Job satisfaction basically reflects
the extent to which someone likes his job. In the
formal definition, job satisfaction is an affective or
emotional response to various aspects of one's
work. This definition implies job satisfaction is not
a concept of unity. Conversely, a person can be
relatively satisfied with one aspect of his work and
not satisfied with one or more other aspects.
Another opinion state that satisfaction is a function
of how fairly an individual is treated at work.
Satisfaction results from one's perception that work
outcomes, relative to inputs, compare favourably
with significant other's outcomes or inputs. Public
sector managers may consider prioritizing regular
employee surveys that will help them capture and
avoid negative perceptions. In addition to job
satisfaction, employee feeling of trust seems to play
an important role in influencing employees'
chances of finding alternative work. This is indeed
a very interesting result. While there is limited
research on the relationship between trust and
information technology, it should be noted that
more recent research conducted shows significant
relevance in that context. Furthermore, the same
applies to the private sector, where trust and job
satisfaction seem to play a major role. For that
sector, managers will use survey feedback to
increase their awareness about issues of trust and
job satisfaction. Solutions can only be found if the
problem and the underlying reasons are well
diagnosed and fully understood [4]- [6].
Furthermore, sense of belonging is an important
aspect to study because of its impact in the
interpersonal relationships on an individual, and
then an individual’s sense of belonging in an
environment is dependent on the strength of
relationships within that environment. In previous
work-related studies on health care, some key
variables improving a sense of belonging among
colleagues ware connected to work engagement,
interaction, based on openness, mutual trust,
respect, appreciation and regular joint meetings to
discuss work-related issues in managerial work. In
the other hand, it was found that distrust,
competition, envy and lack of appreciation were
mentioned to reduce the sense of belonging among
colleagues. Other study found that a sense of
belonging to the organization was a factor of
motivation. Thus the relationship between
belongingness to the organization and motivation
has been established [7]- [9].
Several concepts from the previous research
and the literature, can be a reference for
determining the indicators in this study. From the
concepts and results of previous studies show that
the sense of belonging can directly or indirectly
affect performance, and job satisfaction has a
positive influence on performance in companies or
institutions. It is explained from the concept above
that job satisfaction is a feeling of pleasure towards
the tasks given, the work environment, and about
the trust given to the company. While the sense of
belonging can foster morale, because there is an
appropriate placement, there is hope for the future,
attention, and the company's responsibility towards
This research was conducted at multinational
companies in Banten province. This company is
engaged in crop protection chemicals. The sample
in this study is 68 permanent employees who have
worked for more than one year.
Based on the literature, a conceptual framework
is developed, and there are two exogenous latent
variables, namely sense of belonging and job
satisfaction, and one endogenous latent variable is
performance. The processed data is obtained
through the results of filling out questionnaires that
are distributed, then processed using SmartPLS
Figure 1. Conceptual Model
According to Hair et al., the systematic
assessment criteria consist of a two-step process for
measurement models and structural model [10].
First assess the construct validity for the evaluation
of reflective measurement model. Construct
validity consists of convergent validity and
discriminant validity. The convergent validity
evaluates the factor loadings, composite reliability
and Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and the
discriminant validity evaluates cross-loadings, and
Fornell & Larcker.
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 477
The sense of belonging manifest variables
(indicators) include pride, ability to work,
obedience to rules, providing the best performance,
prioritizing the interests of the company.
Meanwhile, the manifest variables (indicators) of
job satisfaction include the ability to meet needs,
conformity between expectations and reality, the
fulfilment of work values, obtain a sense of
fairness, the suitability of the work environment. In
comparison, performance indicators include
productivity, responsibility, cooperation, work
knowledge and skills, customer satisfaction.
The research hypothesis consists of the first
null hypothesis that there is no influence of sense
of belonging on performance, the second zero
hypothesis does not have the effect of job
satisfaction on performance. The first alternative
hypothesis is that there is an influence of sense of
belonging to performance, the second alternative
hypothesis is that there is an effect of job
satisfaction on performance.
Based on data that has been processed with
SmartPLS software, the results of these data can be
analyzed the effect of sense of belonging and job
satisfaction on employee performance. The results
will be presented as follows.
Measurement Model Evaluation (Outer Model)
The construct validity measurement consists of
convergent validity assessment and discriminant
validity assessment. The convergent validity scores
have met the threshold values for CR > 0.7 and
AVE > 0.5 respectively. The results of the
convergent validity test, the result of outer loading
output obtained the following results. Performance:
K1 = 0.844, K3 = 0.895, K4 = 0.759. Job
satisfaction: JS26 = 0.820, JS27 = 0.879, JS28 =
0.892. Sense of Belonging: SB5 = 0.862, SB7 =
0.770, SB10 = 0.824.
The assessment result of discriminant validity is
shown in table 1. Fornell and Larcker paper said
that [11], the square root of AVE in each construct
must be larger than other correlation values
between other constructs.
The results of the latent variable reliability test
obtained the following results. Cronbach’s Alpha
value for Performance = 0.788, Job Satisfaction =
0.838, and Sense of Belonging = 0.761. Whereas
based on Composite Reliability. The value of
Performance = 0.873, Job Satisfaction = 0.898, and
Sense of Belonging = 0.860. So, it can be
concluded that all the instruments are reliable
because the values of all are above 0.7 and the
AVE value 0.697, 0.747 and 0.672 respectively.
Then further analysis can be done.
Table 1. Output Cross Loading
Measurement of Structural Model (Inner
R-squared value (R2) is used to measure how
much influence exogenous latent variables on the
endogenous latent variable. It is found that 16.1%
influence of the Sense of Belonging and Job
Satisfaction variables on performance. The
significance test result is shown in table 2 below.
Table 2. Bootstrapping Assessment Result
T-table value for the confidence level of 95%
of 5%) and the degree of freedom (df) = n-2 =
68 - 2 = 66 is 1.9966. T calculate (2.643) > T table
(1.9966): Job Satisfaction latent variable together
with its indicators has a significant effect on
Performance latent variable. The original sample
value shows positive value 0.245. It is mean that
there is a positive direction of the association
between Job Satisfaction latent variable(X2) on
Performance latent variable (Y).
T calculate (2.789) > T table (1.9966): Sense
of Belonging latent variable together its indicators
has a significant effect on Performance latent
variable. The original sample value shows positive
value 0.297. It is mean that there is a positive
direction of association between Sense of
Belonging latent variable (X1) on Performance
latent variable (Y).
Based on the results of previous studies, it
indicates that job satisfaction directly affects
employee performance through productivity
factors. It was stated that the relationship between
productivity was often in the form of personal
achievement and satisfaction at work also
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 477
considered strong [12],[13]. In another study said
that the existence of work unit distance is one of
the factors that cause a sense of thinking does not
grow in employees against managers in the
workplace. This means that if there is no gap
between the manager and other employees, the
sense of belonging will grow by itself. The physical
distance between units is one factor that prevents a
sense of belonging among managers. The distance
between units is experienced as the physical
distance from colleagues and superiors themselves.
In addition, in previous studies, showing that
geographical or physical distance is a factor in the
emergence of cohesiveness and reduces the spirit of
working together in or between professional
groups. So, it can be interpreted that the lack of
cooperation because of geographical distance can
reduce the sense of ownership. As things that need
to be discussed are seen in other papers that
provide an overview of the development of a
combination of models that were adapted from
Passini's cognitive mapping model, there are
indications that the emergence of a new economy
undermines the ability of employees to form an
engagement with people, places and companies.
Furthermore, other studies indicate that the factors
of trust and understanding outside the context
between groups consist of beliefs that are not
related to gender, race, position or stratum. These
things still have the substance of inter-group
relations, affecting gender inequalities and
affecting racial ownership in science, technology,
engineering, and mathematics [14],[15].
The results of research on manufacturing
company employees in Merak Banten showed that
the two exogenous latent variables, Sense of
Belonging (X1) and Job Satisfaction (X2) with
their indicators affecting endogenous latent
variable of Performance (Y) with their indicators
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 477
... Second, a sense of belonging is defined as the experience of personal involvement in an environment so that people feel themselves to be an integral part of that environment (Hagerty et al. 1992). Dewi, Suryamarta, and Kurnia (2020) propose that sense of belonging is an important aspect to study because of its impact in the interpersonal relationships on an individual, and then an individual's sense of belonging in an environment is dependent on the strength of relationships within that environment. Ray and Chiagouris (2009) indicate that store atmosphere has an effect on store emotions. ...
This study aims to examine the relationships between pink atmosphere, pink promotion, positive emotions, pink experiential equity, pink experiential relationship quality and pink-seeking intentions. The findings are based on structural equation modeling of a convenience sample of 495 women consumers who have purchased L’Oréal Paris beauty products at three stores in Shanghai. The results contribute to the pink marketing theory by providing additional insights into pink atmosphere, pink promotion, warm glow, sense of belonging, pink experiential equity, pink experiential satisfaction, pink experiential trust, pink experiential loyalty and pink-seeking intentions. These findings are discussed based on both academic and practitioner implications.
In this study, organizational justice perceptions of seafarers in relation to their job belongingness and satisfaction levels were investigated. The outcomes of organizational behaviour and the relationships among these outcomes are more important in maritime than they are in other sectors because of the demanding conditions of the life onboard which requires seafarers to work and live at the same place with the same people for a long time. The number of studies about the relationship among these three outcomes in the maritime sector is scarce, so this research is expected to fill a gap regarding this. The study was conducted with 398 Turkish seafarers. According to the results, positive organizational justice perceptions of seafarers have a significant effect on their vocational belongingness and job satisfaction levels, which will be called internal customer satisfaction levels of seafarers in this study. It is also found that internal customer satisfaction of seafarers has positive effect on their vocational belongingness. Although relations among various organizational outcomes in the maritime sector are significant due to their effective role on the smooth-going of the relations onboard, they have not been widely studied so far, so the further studies may focus on closing this gap with surveys administrated with a wider group of seafarers.
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In Pakistan, the doctor's profession is considered gorgeous and dignified because it is directly related to the lives of human beings. In Pakistani society, there is a general inclination that in government hospitals, the patients are not properly treated by the doctors. The purpose of this study is to find out factors that influence level of job satisfaction among the workforce of autonomous medical institutions of Pakistan and its effects on performance. The sample of the study is comprised of 200 doctors, nurses, administrative and accounts staff working in autonomous medical institutions in Punjab. 250 Questionnaires were distributed out of which 200 were received back and used for analysis. SPSS is used for data analysis statistically. It is concluded from study that facets such as: pay, promotion, job safety and security, working conditions, job autonomy, relationship with co-workers, relationship with supervisor and nature of work; affect the job satisfaction and performance.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine and compare the differential impacts of job satisfaction (JS), trust (T), and perceived organizational performance (POP) on turnover intention (TI) in public and private sector organizations. Design/methodology/approach Draws on a sample of 311 employees from the service sector (129 public and 182 private) in the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE). The main concepts utilized in the study are borrowed from previous research and further tested for validity and reliability. Four main hypotheses are explored. Findings In support of previous research, statistical analysis ( t -test) revealed that public sector employees tend to be more satisfied, more trusting, and have less intention to leave their organization. Regression analysis revealed that public sector employees’ TI are most significantly affected by their perceptions of the performance of their organization, with JS, work experience (WE) and education (Ed) also having significant effects. In contrast, private sector employees’ TI was most significantly affected by JS and feelings of trust (T). Research limitations/implications Although very useful, the present study is limited in scope and therefore suffers from some limitations. The sample only includes employees from UAE organizations operating in education, some government institutions and the financial sector. Future research might consider including employees the health sector and other public organizations such as the immigration/police departments which play important strategic roles in the UAE economy. Also, future research might consider extending the scope of the study to include institutions in similar neighboring countries in the region, such as Qatar and Kuwait. Practical implications The findings of this study points to the relative importance of trust, JS and perceived organizational performance in affecting TI in public and private sectors. These can be considered as indicators to assist managers in these sectors to better manage/minimize TIs. In particular, the findings indicate that managers in general (and UAE public sector managers in particular) need to monitor and better manage not only their employees’ JS but also perceptions of the overall performance of the organization. Originality/value While research on the influence of JS on TI in both of these sectors has been abundant over the years, studies examining the impact of trust and perceptions of organizational performance remain few and are largely lacking. Also, studies on turnover in the UAE (and particularly those comparing public and private sectors) remain largely lacking. This study and its findings fill this gap and provide some insights on the differential impact of trust, JS and perceived organizational performance on employee TIs in public-private sectors, particularly in the UAE context.
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Contrary to the extant thinking on motivation in the workplace, we argue that performance or outcome goals can have a deleterious effect on one's performance. We demonstrate that in situations where primarily the acquisition of knowledge and skills rather than an increase in effort and persistence is required, a specific challenging learning rather than an outcome goal should be set. A learning goal draws attention away from the end result. The focus instead is on the discovery of effective strategies or processes to attain desired results. The practical implications of learning goals for leadership, performance appraisal, and professional development are explained.
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The correlates of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice were examined using 190 studies samples, totaling 64,757 participants. We found the distinction between the three justice types to be merited. While organizational practices and outcomes were related to the three justice types, demographic characteris-tics of the perceiver were, in large part, unrelated to perceived justice. Job performance and counterproductive work behaviors, considered to be outcomes of perceived justice, were mainly related to procedural justice, whereas organizational citizenship behavior was similarly predicted by distributive and procedural justice. Most satisfaction measures were similarly related to all justice types. Although organizational commitment and trust were mainly related to procedural justice, they were also substan-tially related to the other types of justice. Findings from labora-tory and field studies are not always in agreement. Future research agendas are discussed. ᭧ 2001 Academic Press The study of work-place justice has been proliferating in recent years. Whereas early studies on justice were conducted in the early 1960s (Adams, 1963, 1965), the majority of studies on justice in organizations were published We thank Dr. Dan Ilgen and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Yochi Cohen-Charash, Institute
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The healthcare management literature states that physicians often coordinate their activities within and between organizations through social networks. Previous studies have also documented the relationship between professional networks and physicians' attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM). The present study sought associations between physicians' self-reported attitudes toward EBM and the formation of inter-physician collaborative network ties. Primary data were collected from 297 clinicians at six hospitals belonging to one of the largest local health units of the Italian National Health Service. Data collection used a survey questionnaire that inquired about professional networks and physicians' characteristics. Social network analysis was performed to describe inter-physician professional networks. Multiple regression quadratic assignment procedures were performed to assess the relationship between self-reported attitudes toward EBM and clinicians' propensity to collaborate. Physicians who reported similar attitudes toward EBM were more likely to exchange information and advice through collaborative relationships (β = 0.0198; p < 0.05). Similarities in other characteristics, such as field of specialization (β = 0.1988; p < 0.01), individual affiliations with hospital sites (β = 0.0845; p < 0.01), and organizational clinical directorates (β = 0.0459; p < 0.01), were also significantly related to physicians' propensity to collaborate. Communities of practice within healthcare organizations are likely to contain separate clusters of physicians whose members are highly similar. Organizational interventions are needed to foster heterophily whenever multidisciplinary cooperation is required to provide effective health care.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify factors that foster or prevent sense of belonging among frontline and middle managers in social and health-care services in Finland. Design/methodology/approach The data have been collected among social and health-care managers (n = 135; 64 per cent nursing managers) through two open-ended questions in a questionnaire concerning sense of community. The results of the open-ended questions have been analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings Among managers, six categories of factors that foster sense of belonging (open interaction, effective conversation culture, support and encouragement, common values, a shared vision of the work and its objectives and structure of leadership) and five categories of factors that prevent sense of belonging (negative work atmosphere, lack of common time, structural solutions in the organization, problems that occur in the organizational level and problems related to leadership and management) have been identified. Practical implications The resulting information can be used to develop sense of belonging among managers at all levels of organization (horizontal and vertical). Originality/value Paying attention to the quantity and quality of interaction and to structural solutions in the organization can affect the sense of belonging among frontline managers and middle managers.
The aim of this evaluation research was to measure the impact of a caring-based intervention on the level of work engagement in older nurses. Every effort is needed to retain older nurses at the bedside by assisting them to revitalise the internal motivation and self- reward that brought them to nursing. A mixed method evaluation research approach using both qualitative and quantitative measurements was used to determine the impact of a caring-based programme on improving the work engagement scores of older Registered Nurses (RNs). The results of this study suggest that leadership strategies aimed at improving work engagement using caring theories have a significant positive impact. The findings contribute to our understanding of how work engagement can be enhanced through building work environments where there is a sense of belonging and teamwork, where staff are allowed time to decompress as well as build positive work relationships. Nurse Leaders (NLs) bear a responsibility to partner with older Registered Nurses (RNs) to build engagement in their work life while enhancing the quality of care. Successful leaders will find ways to meet these unique challenges by creating a healthy work environment.
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
The purpose of this study was to examine collaboration relating to public health nursing in different sized Norwegian municipalities. It sought to gain insight into factors that are important for successful collaboration, frequency of meeting points for collaborating activities and missing professionals in different sized municipalities. A cross-sectional e-post questionnaire study was carried out on a national sample of public health nurses and their collaborators. A total of 849 public health nurses (43.64%), 113 doctors at clinics and school health services (54.8%), 519 child protection workers (16.34%) and 115 midwives (41.3%) returned the questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (anova), Kruskal-Wallis H and chi-square tests were used to tests differences between groups. Trust, respect and collaborative competence were ranked highest by all the respondents and formalised structures, economy and leadership ranked least important in collaborative activity. The majority of the respondents stated that they do not have fewer meeting points compared with 5 years ago. Collaboration with mental health services was missed most by all respondents. There were associations between frequency of meeting points and statements on collaboration related to municipality size. Norway is in the throes of a major coordination reform. The fact that relational factors were deemed most important for successful collaboration is an important finding at a time when focus is on structural change. The findings indicate the need for further in depth qualitative studies on reasons for 'missing collaborators,' on professional cultures in different sized municipalities and on interpersonal relationships. Qualitative enquiry is necessary to gain a greater understanding of how relational concepts of respect, trust and conflict are understood by municipal public health professionals.
Aim: To study the relationships between nurse practice environment, workload, burnout, job outcomes and nurse-reported quality of care in psychiatric hospital staff. Background: Nurses' practice environments in general hospitals have been extensively investigated. Potential variations across practice settings, for instance in psychiatric hospitals, have been much less studied. Design: A cross-sectional design with a survey. Method: A structural equation model previously tested in acute hospitals was evaluated using survey data from a sample of 357 registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and non-registered caregivers from two psychiatric hospitals in Belgium between December 2010-April 2011. The model included paths between practice environment dimensions and outcome variables, with burnout in a mediating position. A workload measure was also tested as a potential mediator between the practice environment and outcome variables. Results: An improved model, slightly modified from the one validated earlier in samples of acute care nurses, was confirmed. This model explained 50% and 38% of the variance in job outcomes and nurse-reported quality of care respectively. In addition, workload was found to play a mediating role in accounting for job outcomes and significantly improved a model that ultimately explained 60% of the variance in these variables. Conclusion: In psychiatric hospitals as in general hospitals, nurse-physician relationship and other organizational dimensions such as nursing and hospital management were closely associated with perceptions of workload and with burnout and job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and nurse-reported quality of care. Mechanisms linking key variables and differences across settings in these relationships merit attention by managers and researchers.