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Interrogating Tradition: A Historical Inquiry on the 'Foundation Day' of Philippine Normal University

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ISSN 2094–5159
L D.C.  V
M S T. C
I E
Manila
History, Culture, and Heritage
MANILA
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L D.C.  V
M S T. C
I E
M S A, I.
N C  C   A
C  H R
P N H S, I.
Selected Papers of the 27th Annual
Manila Studies Conference
Technological Institute of the Philippines
Cubao, Quezon City | August 12–14, 2018
Manila
History, Culture,
and Heritage
MANILA: History, Culture, and Heritage
Selected Papers of the 27th Annual Manila Studies Conference
Technological Institute of the Philippines |
Cubao, Quezon City | August 12–14, 2018
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Marya Svetlana T. Camacho
Lorelei D.C. de Viana
ISSN 2094–5159
1. MANILA: History, Culture, and Heritage: Selected Papers I. Title
of the 27th Annual Manila Studies Conference, Technological Institute
of the Philippines, Cubao, Quezon City
August 12–14, 2018
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Table of Contents
Foreword...............................................................................................................iv
Animals of the Buried Past:
Exploring the Role of Fauna in Pre-Hispanic Santa Ana, Manila
Timothy James Vitales .........................................................................................1
Missing Pasig: e Manila River during
the Late Nineteenth Century and Contemporary Times
Analyn B. Muñoz ................................................................................................21
Interrogating Tradition: A Historical Inquiry
on the ‘Foundation Day’ of Philippine Normal University
Wensley M. Reyes ...............................................................................................35
Commercialization of Heritage Sites:
A Study on the Impact of Adaptive Reuse
Elmer M. Soliman, Jr. .........................................................................................54
Jose Nepomuceno, Father of Philippine Cinema
Nick Deocampo ...................................................................................................67
Flowers4Lolas Campaign:
Remembering World War II Comfort Women
Teresita Ang See ..................................................................................................78
Contemporary Balut Eating Culture and Innovations
in Metropolitan Manila
Emmanuel Jeric A. Albela ................................................................................ 103
e Contributors ................................................................................................. 117
e Manila Studies Association: Brief History and Publications ............... 118
Manila Studies Association: Board of Trustees ..............................................125
Interrogating Tradition:
A Historical Inquiry on the ‘Foundation Day’
of Philippine Normal University
Wensley M. Reyes
Abstract
is paper is a research on the historicity of a tradition of
Philippine Normal University (PNU). A tradition refers both to
the ‘process’ of handing down from generation to generation,
and some “thing,” custom, or thought process that is passed on
over time (Horner, as cited by Graburn, 2001). e research
revisits the tradition of celebratingPNU’sfoundationday.As
such, the paper looks into this event’s historical context and
sources.
PNU, being one of the oldest academic institutions, traces
its roots to a teacher training school established in 1901. By
tradition, the 1st day of September has been regarded as its
“foundation day.” Historical evidence exists, however, that
shows the institution was already in existence even before the
date being celebrated as foundation day. Given the existence
of various historical sources, there is a need to revisit this
tradition and correctly recognize thefoundation’s actual date.
Regardless of the school’s collective memory and practice,
historical accuracy must be the basis for celebrating signicant
events. In search of truth, historical research may at times yield
‘facts’ contrary to popular belief and practice. is is one of
those cases.
Introduction
e foundation day is essential to an institution, and to celebrate the exact
day of founding is important—it signies birth and beginning. Particularly,
it is a historic date, which marks the establishment of an institution or
an organization. To know one’s origin is crucial to identity, history and
36 MANILA: Selected Papers of the MSA 27th Annual Conference
legacy. Oentimes, historians are misinterpreted when historical questions
are raised to clarify certain traditions and practices. As in the case of the
Philippine Normal University (PNU), the researcher’s simple query about
the genesis of the institution led to rethinking the appropriateness of the
current date of foundation. By tradition, September 1, 1901 has always been
celebrated by PNU as its “foundation day” though historical evidences show
that the institution was already in existence even before this date. ere is
a need to revisit this tradition and determine the actual day of foundation.
is paper presents various sources (both primary and secondary)
regarding the ‘foundation day’ of PNU. It hopes to shed light on matters
concerning the historical founding of the school. Likewise, it aims to answer
the following historical questions:
1. What is the basis for determining the foundation day of an
institution, specically the case of PNU?
2. When did the school start celebrating its “foundation day”?; and,
3. What transpired during the early days of the Normal School?
Celebrating Foundation Days
In the history of academic institutions, by tradition, public academic
institutions are incorporated through legal sanctions, and logically, the day
when a decree is enacted becomes the institution’s foundation day. Hence,
the law becomes its basis. Documents become important evidences that
reinforce the claim. For example, the University of the Philippines (UP) was
created through Philippine Commission Act No. 1870, enacted on June 18,
1908. e date also serves as the founding date of UP.
However, there are some institutions that emphasize historical events
rather than the technicality of documents as its foundation. One example is
De La Sal le Universit y (DLSU) which celebrates June 16, 1911 as its foundation
day, “the day when nine brothers from Europe and the United States opened
in the district of Paco… the rst La Salle school in the Philippines’ even
though the school was only incorporated as De La Salle College (DLSC) on
February 12, 1912 (DLSU, 2012).
September 1 as PNU’s Foundation Day
e Philippine Normal University (PNU) celebrates its foundation every
rst week of September. It has become a tradition to commemorate its
creation this time of the year. Various activities are conducted to highlight
this glorious moment. Historical signs might shed light why the tradition
Wensley M. Reyes | I T 37
of celebrating the “foundation day” on September 1 is being perpetuated.
As one enters the Philippine Normal University, a marker near the main
entrance reads:
PHILIPPINE NORMAL COLLEGE. Established a s Normal School
by Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission. Opened 1 September
1901, in the Escuela Municipal, Intramuros. Moved 1902, to the
Administration Building, Exposicion Regional de Filipinas, (1895)
Padre Faura St., Ermita. First graduates, 1903. Transferred to
this building 1912. Converted into a College by Republic Act No.
416, 1949. Macario Naval, First President. (Philippine Historical
Committee Marker 1952).
e Philippine Historical Committee installed this marker in 1952.
It welcomes visitors and students alike. Another marker, situated at the
base of PNU’s “Torch Memorial,” gives a short history of the school. e
centennial marker cites the early beginning of the school and mentions its
“opening class” on September 1, 1901 and its rst superintendent was Elmer
B. Bryan1 (National Historical Institute, 2001). In both markers, September
1 is regarded as the “opening day” and was equated to its “foundation day.”
A Short History of Philippine Normal University
e Philippine Normal University (PNU) traces its origins to the early years
of American colonial occupation when a Normal School was founded “for
the education of natives of the Islands in the science of teaching” (Philippine
Commission, 1901). ough an Escuela Normal managed by the Jesuits was
already in existence, it had no connection to the Normal School established
by the Americans.
e Philippine Commission laid the legal basis for the organization of
a public school system under American administration and educational
principles but adapted to Philippine conditions (Savellano, 1999, 254). Act
No. 74, enacted by the Philippine Commission in 1901, created a Department
of Public Instruction tasked to oversee the new educational structure. e
Act also established the Philippine Normal School and was an essential part
in the implementation of the public school system. e story of PNU is also
regarded as the story of public education in the Philippines (PNU, 2001).
By virtue of Republic Act No. 416 signed by President Elpidio Quirino
on June 18, 1949, the Philippine Normal School was converted into the
Philippine Normal College as a degree-granting institution as envisioned by
Senator Geronima T. Pecson and Senator Esteban R. Abada. On October 27,
38 MANILA: Selected Papers of the MSA 27th Annual Conference
1950, the formal ceremonies for the inauguration of the Philippine Normal
College and the installation of Macario Naval as its rst president were held
in its campus at the corner of Ta Avenue and Ayala Boulevard in Ermita,
Manila. Seventy-eight ocial representatives of colleges and universities,
both Philippine and foreign, and delegates of eight learned and professional
societies attended the event (PNC, 1950-51, 12). In 1955, the College awarded
its rst Master of Arts in Education degree (Ramirez, 1959, 2).
Aer the College was inaugurated in 1950 with Dr. Macario Naval
installed as its rst president, Dr. Emiliano C. Ramirez succeeded him in
1953 and Dr. Gregorio C. Borlaza took over in 1971. In 1972, Dr. Bonifacio
Sibayan was appointed as its fourth president. In 1972, through Republic
Act No. 6515, signed by President Ferdinand Marcos, the charter of the
College was amended and it was authorized to oer advanced degrees—
Ph.D., Ed.D., and other academic programs—which are relevant to
teaching training, school supervisors, administrators, and educational
leaders (PNC, 1976-77, 14).
In 1991, President Corazon Aquino elevated the college to university
status under Republic Act No. 7168, to be known as Philippine Normal
University (RP 1991). e main campus of the University is in the City of
Manila with campuses in Prosperidad, Agusan del Su r; Alicia, Isabela; C adiz,
Negros Occidental; and Lopez, Quezon. In 2008, through Republic Act No.
9647, the Philippine Normal University was declared as the National Center
for Teacher Education (RP 2009). e University has long been recognized
as the leading institution for higher learning with a mandate to train and
develop quality teachers and school managers in the country.
A Question of Tradition
A tradition refers both to the “process” of handing down from generation
to generation, and some “thing,” custom, or thought process that is passed
on over time (Horner, as cited by Graburn, 2001, 6). In this study, a school
tradition is put in the spotlight. Every year, important activities line up the
rst week of September. ese act ivities coincide with t he school’s celebration
of its foundation. However, though the tradition is rooted in the collective
memory of its alumni, faculty, sta and administrators, critical questions
were raised as to the historicity of the date and the context of its celebration.
In 2012, when the researcher rst asked a question with an “obvious”
answer—Why September 1 as the foundation day of PNU?—the researcher
expected that somebody would just hand a historical document stating the
actuality of the foundation. Being one of the oldest American-sponsored
Wensley M. Reyes | I T 39
institutions in the country, it was assumed that documents about its
institutional history were readily available. However, as the researcher
probed and looked for answers, he found himself in a historical predicament:
sources were not consistent with the observed tradition.
For this study, the researcher employed the historical method. e
historical questions to be answered were stated clearly. Various primary and
secondary sources were consulted, criticized, and examined. Utilization of
archival and electronic materials was also done. To validate or criticize the
researcher’s conclusions, assistance from fellow historians were sought as
well as inputs from the stakeholders of the institution. Stated below are the
ndings of the research.
No ‘Foundation Day’ celebration
before the 50th Anniversary
School calendars, prospectus, and yearbooks are considered primary
sources and could provide important information on school activities and
celebrations. Perusal of these sources showed that apparently, prior to 1951
(the 50th anniversary of PNC), there was no mention of celebrating the
school’s foundation day in any of the school documents found. e early
decades of the school were preoccupied with growth and management.
Early publications relating to the Philippine Normal School are its
prospectus. e Philippine Normal School – Prospectus for the Year 1903-
4 (Bureau of Education, 1904) mentioned essential facts regarding the
school’s organization and schedule. It stated that the Philippine Normal
School in Manila was organized under the provision of Act No. 74 of the
United States Philippine Commission, during the year 1901. e principal
purpose of this school was to train Filipinos to serve as teachers in the
public schools of the Archipelago. As for the classes, the school year was
divided into two terms. e rst term of the year 1903-1904 began on
June 15, 1903, and closed on October 23, 1903. e second term began on
October 26, 1903, and closed on March 18, 1904. A vacation of two weeks
in the second term began on December 19, 1903, and ended January 3, 1904
(Bureau of Education, 1904, 7).
Likewise the schools Prospectus for the Year 1904-1905 (Bureau of
Education, 1905) carried the same information regarding its organization
and stated important dates to remember, which included the following: For
the school year 1904-1905, the rst term began on June 13, 1904, and closed
on October 28, 1904. e second term began on October 31, 1904, and closed
on March 31, 1905. In the second term the holiday vacation occurred, for
40 MANILA: Selected Papers of the MSA 27th Annual Conference
which the school closed on December 23, 1904, resuming its sessions on
January 9, 1905. For the year 1905-1906, the opening day of the rst term
was scheduled on June 12, 1905 and ended on October 27, 1905. e second
term was from October 30, 1905 to March 30, 1906. School holiday vacation
was from December 22, 1905 until resumption of classes on January 8, 1906
(Bureau of Education, 1905, 8).
e PNS Calendar for 1918-19 included activities such as Independence
Day (July 4), Occupation Day (August 13), Assumption Day (August 15),
anksgiving (November 28), Concepcion Day (December 8), Christmas
(December 25), Rizal Day (December 30), Epiphany (January 6),
Washington’s birthday (February 22) and many others, but still no mention
of the foundation of the school (Bureau of Education, 1918, 4).
Furthermore, various important school activities were reminisced in the
school’s yearbook e Torch/ Torchlight. e 1913 and 1914 To rc h enumerated
the activities for the school calendar of 1912-1913 and 1913-1914 but no event
pertaining to the foundation day was mentioned (PNS 1913; PNS 1914). e
“Important Dates of the Normal School” was published in  e Torc h and has
no entry relating to any celebration of foundation (PNS 1916, 68-70). In 1917,
school activities were listed in “A chronological list of the principal events
for the School Year 1916-1917” which was published in e Torch (PNS 1917,
62, 64). However, there was no mention of any celebration relating to the
school’s “foundation day.” e same results were observable in the ‘Calendar
of Activities during the Year 1927-1928’ (PNS 1928).
Fig. 1 Philippine Normal Universit y before the Second World War. Source: retroscope.ph
Wensley M. Reyes | I T 41
It seems like the institution, before its Golden Jubilee, was not mindful
of its founding as evidenced by the lack of recognition, documentation,
and celebration. No entry pertaining to the school’s foundation day was
published in school calendars and annuals.
The 1951 Golden Jubilee
Two years prior to its Golden Jubilee celebration, the school was elevated
to a college through Republic Act No. 416, which was approved on June
18, 1949. is law added to the two-year general and three-year combined
curricula, a four-year course and a ve-year course leading to the degrees
of Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education and Master of Arts in
Education (ChanRobles, 2018). is was made possible through the eorts of
Senator Geronima T. Pecson. e inauguration of the new college was held
on October 27, 1950 with Bishop Vicente Posadas Reyes, Auxiliary Bishop of
Manila, serving as guest.
In 1951, the Normal School was to reach its 50th year, and to celebrate
this event is a historic feat for any institution. e Golden Jubilee of the
institution was celebrated, in the words of Macario Naval, “for us all to
dedicate ourselves anew to the ideals for which this country’s oldest public
institution of learning was established” (PNC Golden Jubilee Souvenir Book,
1951). e inclusive dates of the celebration are from August 31 to September
2, 1951.
Numerous events were programmed for the Golden Jubilee of the College.
A radio broadcast over Station DZMB entitled “e PNC Reports to the
People” was aired on the evening of August 31. Other radio activities were
musical performances of faculty and students aired over Station DZFM on
September 1. A broadcast over Station DZPI with the topic “Meet Our Most
Distinguished Alumni” was also aired with the intention of informing the
public about the eminent graduates of the college in various elds. ese
alumni were also awarded with Diploma of Honor during the celebration.
On September 1, than ksgiving ser vices were celebrated at St. Paul ’s Church
(for Catholics) and Central Student Church (for Protestants) followed by
educational exhibits from dierent units of the school and display of books.
A historical pageant entitled “e PNC Marches On” was conceived and
presented by Prof. Victoria Abelardo, and the explanations and descriptions
of the scenes were made by Dr. Antonio S. Altonaga and Mr. Maximo Ramos.
A reception and ball was held in the evening of September 1 at the Normal
Hall (PNC 1951-52, 14-17).
42 MANILA: Selected Papers of the MSA 27th Annual Conference
e event was celebrated with grandeur and a long and colorful parade
was participated in by the alumni, students, and the faculty during the
second day of the Jubilee. is activity was well attended that
(t)he procession was formed at the old site of the Normal School
on Padre Faura Street and was so long that when its head had
reached the College grounds the rear had not yet started. e
graduates marched in their class groups carrying placards for
each year. A single graduate marched for the rst graduating class
(1903) and led the alumni.” (PNC 1951-52, 17)
According to Macario Naval, president of the College, the institution
celebrated the golden anniversary of its founding from September 1-3, 1951
explaining that
the purpose of the celebration was two-fold: rst, to enable all
surviving graduates to return, if not in body, in thought and spirit,
to the guiding inuence of their Alma Mater, thereby renewing the
ties of unity that bind them; and second, to bring before the people
in general the importance of the role of the College in the life of the
entire nation. (PNC 1951-52 ,13)
However, it is not quite clear when the idea of celebrating the school’s
foundation was conceptualized. In the souvenir program of the 50th
anniversary celebration, an entry entitled “A Chronology of the Philippine
Normal College” written by Mrs. Bibiana B. Dagdagan was printed. is
“chronology” narrates the series of events pertinent to the existence of the
institution. It also highlights that on
September 1, 1901, [was the] formal opening of the Normal
School to three hundred forty-nine students from all parts of the
Philippines. Its rst superintendent was Mr. E.B. Bryan, and its
rst building was the Escuela Municipal, which it shared with the
Manila Grammar School.
Likewise, the author stated that “Section 17 of Act 74 was passed by the
Philippine Commission on January 21, 1901, creating the Department of
Public Instruction which was to implement the mission of the United States
in the Philippines – that of training the Filipinos for democracy.”
“September 1” as an important day in the institution’s history would be
stated in the First Annual Report of the President of Philippine Normal
School (PNC, 1950-51): “Organized under the provisions of Act No. 74 of the
Wensley M. Reyes | I T 43
United States Philippine Commission, the Philippine Normal School was
formally opened on September 1, 1901 (PNC 1950-51, 1).” is date would be
immortalized when the college was bestowed its ocial historical marker in
1952 unveiled by the Philippine Historical Committee. e marker initially
reads, “PHILIPPINE NORMAL COLLEGE. Established as Normal School
by Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission. Opened 1 September 1901,
in the Escuela Municipal, Intramuros” (Philippine Historical Committee
Marker 1952).
When did the school start celebrating its “foundation day? e sources
say that it was a post-war event. e yearly celebration of September 1 as
foundation day was accepted as a “tradition” of the institution until it
reached the present generation. us, going back to the discussion on the
foundation day of PNU, the researcher would assume, with the current
knowledge of the University’s practice, some people took the date of the
formal opening of classes as the school’s foundation day and may have
committed a historical oversight.
September 1: “Foundation day or Opening Day”?
Since 1951, it has been a yearly tradition to celebrate September 1 as the
school’s foundation day. A particular date was deemed to be necessary
especially with momentous events at hand — the conversion of the Normal
School into a college in 1949, and the celebration of its Golden Jubilee in
1951. Assumptions have been made that there was a yearly celebration
before this year, but no available materials have been found to support
this claim. Also, an assumption that the “opening day” is the same as the
“foundation day” was propagated and perpetuated.
A closer look at the various sources would reveal the signicance of
the date chosen. September 1, 1901, which happens to fall on a Sunday, is
considered to be the “foundation day” because it was the “opening day” or
“the rst regular session” of the Normal School. A report submitted to the
Secretary of Public Instruction, Hon. Bernard Moses, dated September 16,
1902 tells the beginning story of the Normal School. is report may have
become the basis of the September 1 “foundation day.” According to the
report:
Manila Normal School. is school occupies the central position
in the educational movement in these islands, and its work
is of vital importance in carrying out the policy of supplying
thoroughly trained Filipino teachers to take charge of the schools
throughout the archipelago.
44 MANILA: Selected Papers of the MSA 27th Annual Conference
Aer some preliminary work the Manila Normal School was
organized by E.B. Bryan, its principal, on September 1, 1901. It
was at that time provided with rooms in the municipal school
building in the Walled City, the same building being also
occupied by the Manila Grammar School, which held its sessions
in the forenoon, thus reducing the normal school to aernoon
sessions only. (Bureau of Insular Aairs, 1903, 921)
A similar narrative was stated by American jurist Charles B. Elliot2 in
his book e Philippines: A Study in Tropical Democracy (1917) where he
wrote that
(t)he rst regular session of the normal school opened September
1, 1901, with two hundred and y pupils in attendance. But the
expense and the diculties of transportation made attendance
at Manila impossible for many who aspired to become teachers,
and special normal sessions were arranged for in the various
school divisions. (Elliot, 1917, 231)
However, various sources provide information which are not consistent
to this claim. e report of the Philippine Commission (1904) narrates that,
“(o)n the 6th of September Mr. E.B. Bryan [Elmer B. Bryan] formerly of the
University of Indiana, arrived and was at once put in charge of the normal
school. Before any formal announcement of the opening of the school was
made 250 students were enrolled” (Philippine Commission, 1904, 268).
Moreover, P.O. Olayta (Potenciano O. Olayta) narrated the early
beginnings of the Normal School. His article, “e History of the
Philippine Normal School,” was published in the school yearbook e
Torc h (1913). According to him, “(t)he materialization of the provisions
of Act Number 74 of the Philippine Commission, early in the year 1901,
marked the beginning of the history of the Philippine Normal School. e
16th day of September of that year the Normal School opened its doors”
(Olayta, 1913, 12).
e historical fact stated in the account of Olayta regarding the opening
day was also cited in a book by Cristina Torres (2010) where she used the
memoir of Conrado Benitez,3 A History of the Philippine Normal School,
Recollections of a Graduate 1901-1906 (Torres, 2010, 166). Act No. 74 of
the Philippine Commission established the Philippine Normal School
in Manila, located on the Exposition Grounds between Padre Faura and
Herran streets, and opened its doors to enrollees on September 16, 1901
(Torres, 2010, 141).
Wensley M. Reyes | I T 45
us, given the evidence, the accuracy and consistency of the claim that
September 1 being the “opening day” or the “foundation day” is put into
question. e narratives of Olayta and Benitez have historical weight due to
their proximity and participation to the event being described.
However, the national signicance of September 1, 1901 should not
be discounted. On this day, the Philippine Commission, composed of
Governor William Howard Ta and four other Americans, appointed three
Filipinos – Benito Legarda, Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, and Jose Ruiz de
Luzuriaga – to the commission. In the area of education, it was highlighted
in the report of David Barrows, Director of Education, that “on September
1 of the same year the superior administrative authority over the Bureau
passed from the Military Governor of the Philippines to the Secretary of
Public Instruction” (Barrows, 1906, 3).
Facts about the Establishment and Beginnings
of Philippine Normal School
e Philippine Normal School (now Philippine Normal University) came
into being through an enactment of the Philippine Commission in 1901.
Act No. 74 was enacted on January 21, 1901. A part of the law states the
provisions regarding the creation, maintenance, and organization of a
Normal School. As stipulated in Section 17 of Act No. 74:
ere shall be established and maintained in the city of Manila
a Normal School for the education of natives of the Islands in the
science of teaching. e rules and plan for the organization and
conduct of such school and of the qualications of pupils entering
the same, shall be determined by the General Superintendent of
Public Instruction.
Various primary accounts may be utilized to reconstruct the early events
in the school’s history. One of the earliest accounts as to the activities
pertaining to Normal is a report submitted by David Barrows dated May
22, 1901 (US Army, 1901, 66). Barrows, who was City Superintendent of
Schools and Action Principal of Manila Normal School, submitted the
report to Fred Atkinson, General Superintendent of Public Instructions.
Barrows narrated the events as follows:
I have the honor to report that the preliminary term of the
Manila Normal School was opened on Wednesday, April 10, and
was closed Friday, May 10, 1901. Plans to conduct such term
were made by the General Superintendent of Public Instruction,
46 MANILA: Selected Papers of the MSA 27th Annual Conference
at whose request $3,000 were allowed for the expenses of same
out of the appropriation for a Normal School, made by Act 74.
On March 9th the undersigned was appointed Acting Principal of
the Manila Normal School, and this appointment was approved
by the Military Governor. Preparations were at once begun to
open such a term on Wednesday, April 10th. e school building
on Calle Victoria, within the Walled City was selected for this
purpose as the only building in the Department of Schools at
all suitable. It was, however, at this date still occupied by the
Sisters of Charity, who, until the end of March, were the teachers
of the girls’ school therein conducted, and although these ladies
hastened their leaving, repairs could not be commenced until
nearly the end of March. e building had not been thoroughly
renovated since the American occupation of Manila, when for
a considerable time it was occupied as a hospital for Spanish
soldiers. To properly prepare this building it was found necessary
to paint and calcimine eight rooms and the wide corridor and to
change two partitions, tearing out the old kitchen and bath. (US
Army, 1901, 67)
Barrows also mentioned the provinces of origin of those who attended
this term. e twenty-three provinces and islands represented were: Abra,
Samar, Panay, Bulacan, Manila, Mindanao, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna,
Figure 2. Escuela Municipal de Manila in Intramuros.
Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/johntewell/26956243660
Wensley M. Reyes | I T 47
Union, Nueva Ecija, Mindoro, Cavite, Pangasinan, Batangas, Ilocos Norte,
Ilocos Sur, Zambales, Tayabas, Bataan, Morong, Sorsogon, and Leyte.
Likewise, an interesting statistical report prepared by the Registrar
during the term was presented (US Army, 1901, 72) and “permanent records,
of each pupil have also been retained by the Normal School, and form the
basis of recommendations for teachers’ positions (76).”
Teachers and aspirants for teachers’ position admitted to class work 600
Number on regular attendance to the end of term 570
Teachers in attendance from Manila schools 103
Number of male teachers from provinces holding positions 95
Number of female teachers from provinces holding positions 42
Total number of women in attendance 170
Average age of pupils attending 25
Number of provinces and islands represented 23
One account in “e Present Educational Movement in the Philippines”
by Fred Atkinson (1902) mentions the early activities of the Normal School
in Manila. It is also evident that the statistical statement of the school under
the “present” organization covered September 16, 1901 until January 1,
1902 (Atkinson, 1902, 1420).
From April 10 to May 10, 1901, a preliminary term of the
Manila Normal School was conducted under the direction of
Superintendent Barrows, of the Manila public-schools, acting
principal of the normal school, who called to his assistance 47
well-trained American teachers.
A building within the walled city, known as the Escuela
Municipal, by thorough renovation and alteration was changed
into a good school house, containing a large assembly hall, with
seating capacity of 500, an oce, library, storeroom and 10 large
recitation rooms (Atkinson, 1902, 1416).
Another source, e Fieenth Annual Report of the Director of
Education from January 1, 1914 to December 31, 1914, provided a summary
of the genesis of the Normal School:
48 MANILA: Selected Papers of the MSA 27th Annual Conference
e establishment of the Philippine Normal School was
authorized by Act No. 74 passed by the Philippine Commission
on January 21, 1901, and the school was formally opened on April
10, 1901. During the early years of the school it served the purpose
of giving elementary and secondary instruction to students who
were seeking a general education, to young men and young
women who were preparing themselves for certain professions,
to students who desired to enter colleges and universities in the
United States, and nally, to those who were preparing for the
teaching service (Philippine Islands, 1915, 35).
Adding to the literature on the history of training teachers, a thesis
entitled “e Development of Teacher Training in the Philippine Islands”
by David Gilito (January 1934) presented the context of early teacher
education in the Philippines. It also narrates important ideas leading to the
creation of a normal school during the early part of American occupation.
e rapid expansion of the schools into the dierent remote
sections of the country brought about a necessity for the
organization of a school that would devote its activities to the
training of Filipino teachers. us the Philippine Commission
brought about the passage of an act called Act. No. 74, which
established the Philippine Normal School, in January, 1901. e
school began to operate on April 10 of the same year (Gilito, 1934,
15).
Meanwhile, in 1952, Victoria Castro, Estela Calleja, Emilio Edualino,
Aurea Parfan and Josena Pulido made their historical judgement when
they published a book entitled Integration as Practiced in the Philippine
Normal College. is account is crucial because it gives an idea as to how the
stakeholders, particularly those from the Normal, determine a signicant
event, particularly the foundation of the institution. In a report, Victoria
Castro and Emilio Edualino were featured as the school’s Directress of
Student Teaching and Supervisor of Student Teaching, respectively (PNC,
1955, 18). In their book, Castro, et al. discussed a short history of the college:
Aer several hearings and discussions, Act No. 74 was passed
and it became a law on January 21, 1901. Section 17 of this Act
of the Philippine Commission dealing with the opening of a
school for the training of teacher says: ere will be established
and maintained in the City of Manila a Normal School for the
education of the natives of the Islands in the science of teaching.
Wensley M. Reyes | I T 49
us, the Philippine Normal School was founded. From that time
on, it has been discharging its mission of training elementary
school teachers for the country and providing leadership in the
eld of elementary education (Castro, et al., 1952).
Aside from these narratives, markers installed by appropriate historical
agencies are considered sources. Two historical markers can be found inside
the university premises and a careful reading of the texts reveal a historical
fact that is oen ignored. ese markers provide clear information in stating
the obvious.
Philippine Normal College. Established as a Normal School by
Act 74 of the Philippine Commission (Philippines Historical
Committee, 1952).
Philippine Normal University (1901-2001). Itinatag bilang
Philippine Normal School sa ilalim ng Department of Instruction
sa bisa ng Batas Blg. 74 ng Philippine Commission, Enero 21, 1901
(National Historical Institute, 2001).
Conclusion
It can be ascer tained that t he school’s existence came before September 1, 1901
and the tradition to celebrate the school ’s foundation day is a postwar-created
activity. During the 50th year of the school, there was a need to determine the
date of its foundation in order to celebrate accordingly. Unfortunately, in
the process of determining a signicant day, the “opening day” was chosen
as the “foundation day.” A tradition to celebrate the “Foundation Day” was
born while overlooking the historical certainty regarding the factuality and
signicance of the chosen date.
ere are many dates that could be considered as the foundation day of
PNU. Initially, January 21, 1901 could be regarded as the school’s founding
being the actual date when the Philippine Commission enacted Act No. 74.
Its historical accuracy and signicance cannot be denied. e emergence of
the school was motioned by this Act. Funds were given due to the provision
stated in the law. Likewise, even the markers installed by historical agencies
clearly state this date as the “foundation day.”
However, April 10 might also be considered as the school foundation if
the “opening day” may be equated as the “foundation day.” e preliminary
term of the Manila Normal School was opened on Wednesday, April 10,
and was closed on Friday, May 10, 1901. e expenses of this term were
50 MANILA: Selected Papers of the MSA 27th Annual Conference
paid out of the appropriation for a normal school made by Act No. 74. Dr.
David P. Barrows, Superintendent of City Schools, had immediate charge as
acting principal of the Manila Normal School. e school was held in the
school building on Calle Victoria, in the Walled City, known as the Escuela
Municipal.
On the other hand, September 1’s historicity as the “foundation day” of
PNU is put into uncertainty because it can be clai med that the institution was
already in existence before the said date. Adding to counter the historicity of
the date are the narratives of two alumni of the Normal School, Potenciano
Olayta and Conrado Benitez, who stated that it was September 16 (not
September 1) when the school opened. Likewise, a Philippine Commission
report stated that “(o)n the 6th of September Mr. E.B. Bryan [Elmer B. Bryan]
formerly of the University of Indiana, arrived and was at once put in charge
of the normal school. Before any formal announcement of the opening of
the school was made 250 students were enrolled” (Philippine Commission,
1904, 268).
Technically, there are no clear-cut rules in choosing a foundation day.
Any day could be selected as deemed appropriate by the organization or
institution. However, with the recent ndings, it can be categorically stated,
in the case of PNU, that the formal opening (of classes) does not equate to
the establishment of the institution. e school’s stakeholders should revisit
institutional traditions and practices relating to its foundation day.
Notes
1 Elmer B. Br yan (1865-1930) of Indiana University beca me the rst principal of Philippine
Normal S chool from Septemb er 1901 to January 1903. On Ja nuary 2, 19 03, he was appointed
General Superintendent of Education succeeding Fred Atkinson. Upon resignation due to
illness, E.B. Bryan was replaced by Dav id Barrows on August 13, 1903.
2 Charles Burke Elliot, an American jurist, was appointed by President William H. Ta as
Associate Justice to the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 1909 to 1912. He was also a
member of the Philippine Commission, serving as the Secretary of Commerce and Police
unt il 1912 .
3 Conrado Benitez, a Filipino educator, was a former dean of the College of Liberal Arts,
University of the Philippines.
Wensley M. Reyes | I T 51
References
Books and Journals
Atkinson, Fred W. “e Present Educational Movement in the Philippine Islands.” In U.S.
Bureau of Education. e Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1900-1901.
Washington: Government Printing Oce, 1902.
Barrows, David. Sixth Annual Report of the Director of Education Fiscal Year 1906 to the
Secretary of Public Instruction of the Government of the Philippine Islands. Manila: Bureau
of Printing, 1906.
Castro, Victoria, Estela A. Calleja, Emilio Edualino, Aurea Parfan and Josena Pulido.
Integration as Practiced in the Philippine Normal College. 1952.
Dagdagan, Bibiana B. “Philippine Normal College.” PNC Golden Jubilee Souvenir Book 1951.
1951.
De La Salle University. “A Brief History.” Ocial Website of the De La Salle University, ht tp://
www.dlsu.edu.ph/inside/history.asp accessed 14 August 2018.
Elliott, Charles B. e Philippines: A Study in Tropical Democracy. Indianapolis: e Bobb-
Merril Company, 1917.
Graburn, Nelson H.H. “What is Tradition?’ Museum Anthropology 24, nos.2/3 (2001):6-11.
Gilito, David. “e Development of Teacher Training in the Philippine Islands.” esis.
University of Southern California, 1934.
National Historical Institute. Philippine Normal University (1901-2001) Marker. 2001.
Olayta, P.O. “e History of the Philippine Normal School.” e Tor ch (e ird Senior
Annual), 12 (1913). Manila: PNS Senior Class.
Philippi ne Commission. Ac t No. 74 – Educat ion Act of 1901. An Act establi shing a depart ment
of public instruction in the Philippine Islands, and appropriating forty thousand dollars
($40,000) for the organization and maintenance of a normal, and a trade school in
Manila, and een thousand dollars ($15,000) for the organization and maintenance of
an agricultural school in the island of Negros for the year 1901, https://bit.ly/2nAnCgV.
Philippine Historical Committee. Philippine Normal College Marker. 1952.
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Philippine Normal School. e Torch (e ird Senior Annual) 12 (1913). Mani la: PNS Senior
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________. e To rch (e Fourth Senior Annual) 13 (1914). Manila: PNS Senior Class.
________. e To rch (e Seventh Senior Annual) 15 (1916). Manila: PNS Graduating Class.
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Philippi ne Normal College . First Annual Repor t of the President of Nor mal College, School Year
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________. Philippine Normal College Reporting to the People. Manila: PNC, 1955.
________. “e Philippine Normal College: A Brief History,Concise Bulletin of Information
(Calendar for School Year 1976-77). Manila: PNC Printing Press, 1976.
Philippine Normal University. Philippine Normal University, 100 Years of Service and
Leadership in Teacher Education. Manila: PNU, 2001.
Philippi nes. Bureau of Educat ion. Bulletin No. 1 – e Philippine Normal S chool, Prospec tus for
the 1903-4. Manila: Bureau of Public Printing, 1904.
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18 and Announcement for 1918-19. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1918.
Philippines. Department of Public Instruction, Bureau of Education. Bulletin No. 21 – e
Philippine Normal School, Manila, P.I. Catalogue for 1904-05 and Prospectus for the 1905-
6. Mani la: Bureau of Public Printing, 1905.
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Ramirez, Emiliano C. “Challenges to the Philippine Normal College.” Address delivered
by Dr. Emiliano C. Ramirez on his inauguration as Second President of the Philippine
Normal College on February 7, 1959. Manila, Philippines, 1959.
Savallano, Julieta. 1999. “Teacher Education in the Philippines.” Philippine Studies 47, 2: 253 -
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Torres, Cristina Evangelista. e Americanization of Manila, 1898-1921. Quezon City:
University of the Philippines Press, 2010.
United States Army (Division of the Philippines). “Department of Public Instructions — e
Manila Normal School.” Annual Report of Major General Arthur MacArthur, U.S. Army,
commanding, Division of the Philippines, Military Governor in the Philippine Islands, Vol.
II, 67-76. Manila, 1901.
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and the Head of t he Executive Depa rtments of the Civi l Government of the Phi lippine Islands
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Accessed through e Lawphil Project, https://bit.ly/2MpAaFN.
________. Republic Act No. 9647 (June 30, 2009). An Act Designating the Philippine Normal
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ly/2OyBBPG.
Preparation and Manuscript
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Conferences may be accepted for publication in Manila. All manuscripts
submitted should be original and must not have been submitted to another
publication for consideration. Articles submitted to this journal represent
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Manuscripts must be typed and single-spaced, including quotations,
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should follow the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (Chicago: Chicago
University Press, 2003). Please consult recent issues of Manila for format of
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Manuscripts should range between 8,000 to 10,000 words, including notes
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Refereeing
Manila publishes selected papers presented at MSA Annual Conferences,
although other submissions may also be accepted. e selection is done by
an Editorial Advisory Board and refereed by external reviewers. Research
papers are assessed as to clarity of presentation, research methodology,
and references (preferably primary sources) used. It is expected that papers
submitted for review and publication do not duplicate research that has
already been published. In some instances, a revisionist paper is accepted
for publication if it is considered that it would clarify accepted theories or
provide informationbasedon new evidence and/or a re-reading of data. An
article accepted for review and publication goes through several stages of
editing before it is nally published in Manila.
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Submission of Papers
Papers should be submitted in hard copy and electronic version using MS
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Studies Association, 40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village, Diliman, Quezon City
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Animal remains in Santa Ana archaeological excavations,
Jose Nepomuceno and Philippine cinema, Filipino
comfort women, and heritage buildings are just some of
the topics presented in this year’s issue of MANILA. e journal
brings together studies that show the various aspects of the city
of Manila and how its history is intertwined inextricably with
that of the nation. e papers are selected from the 27th Annual
Manila Studies Conference held at the Technological Institute
of the Philippines in Cubao, Quezon City on September 12-14,
2018. is volume intends to provide a deeper appreciation and
understanding of Manila within the context of the citys and the
country’s history and culture.
Lorelei D.C. de Viana and Marya Svetlana T. Camacho
Issue Editors
M S A
#40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village
Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
P N H S
#40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village
Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
N C  C   A
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Tel. 527-2192 to 97 Fax: 527-2191 and 94
Email: info@ncca.gov.ph | website: www.ncca.gov.ph
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Bureau of Education. The Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1900-1901. Washington: Government Printing Office
  • Fred W Atkinson
Atkinson, Fred W. "The Present Educational Movement in the Philippine Islands." In U.S. Bureau of Education. The Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1900-1901. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1902.
Sixth Annual Report of the Director of Education Fiscal Year 1906 to the Secretary of Public Instruction of the Government of the Philippine Islands
  • David Barrows
Barrows, David. Sixth Annual Report of the Director of Education Fiscal Year 1906 to the Secretary of Public Instruction of the Government of the Philippine Islands. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1906.
Integration as Practiced in the Philippine Normal College
  • Castro
  • Estela A Victoria
  • Emilio Calleja
  • Aurea Edualino
  • Josefina Parfan
  • Pulido
Castro, Victoria, Estela A. Calleja, Emilio Edualino, Aurea Parfan and Josefina Pulido. Integration as Practiced in the Philippine Normal College. 1952.
PNC Golden Jubilee Souvenir Book
  • Dagdagan
  • B Bibiana
Dagdagan, Bibiana B. "Philippine Normal College." PNC Golden Jubilee Souvenir Book 1951. 1951.
The Philippines: A Study in Tropical Democracy. Indianapolis: The Bobb-Merril Company
  • Charles B Elliott
Elliott, Charles B. The Philippines: A Study in Tropical Democracy. Indianapolis: The Bobb-Merril Company, 1917.
The Development of Teacher Training in the Philippine Islands
  • David Gilito
Gilito, David. "The Development of Teacher Training in the Philippine Islands." Thesis. University of Southern California, 1934. National Historical Institute. Philippine Normal University (1901-2001) Marker. 2001.
The History of the Philippine Normal School
  • P O Olayta
Olayta, P.O. "The History of the Philippine Normal School." The Torch (The Third Senior Annual), 12 (1913). Manila: PNS Senior Class.
000) for the organization and maintenance of an agricultural school in the island of Negros for the year 1901
  • Manila
  • Dollars
Manila, and fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000) for the organization and maintenance of an agricultural school in the island of Negros for the year 1901, https://bit.ly/2nAnCgV.
The Torch (The Third Senior Annual)
  • Philippine Normal School
Philippine Normal School. The Torch (The Third Senior Annual) 12 (1913). Manila: PNS Senior Class.