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Fundamental Mechanism of Organ Diseases: A New Theory Connecting the Stress Reaction and Type of Disease

Volume 3 | Issue 1 | 1 of 7
Int J Psychiatr Res, 2020
Fundamental Mechanism of Organ Diseases: A New Theory Connecting
the Stress Reaction and Type of Disease
Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, Israel.
Nader Butto, Dgania 10/47, 4977852, Petah Tikva, Israel.
Received: 03 January 2019; Accepted: 31 January 2020
Nader Butto*
International Journal of Psychiatry Research
ISSN 2641-4317Review Article
Citation: Nader Butto. Fundamental Mechanism of Organ Diseases: A New eory Connecting the Stress Reaction and Type of Disease.
Int J Psychiatr Res. 2020; 3(1): 1-7.
Understanding fundamental biological mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels provides the
basis for formulating new theories of disease causation. This article presents a new theory of stress intensity and
type of disease in the same organ with reference to the four phases of life (i.e., excitation, expansion, contraction,
and relaxation). The intensity of the stress is determined by the balance between the intensity of the stimulus and
the subjective capacity to cope with it. In acute stress, the intensity of the stress may be provoked by one of the
four grades of fear (i.e., anxiety, fear, panic, and horror), which are related to the four phases of life. When a
traumatic conict is unresolved, the stress becomes chronic. In such cases, the response patterns follow four phases
of reaction to chronic stress (i.e., alarm, resistance, adaptation, and exhaustion), that may become maladaptive and
damaging. Both acute and chronic four-phase reactions are related to the four phases of life; their blockage results
in disease. The type of disease in the organ is determined by the blocked phase. The right or left side of the body,
meridian, or organ depend on male-female sex involvement, where the right and left sides are related to conicts
in males and females, respectively. The embryological germ layer-derived tissue depends on three possible trauma
perceptions: 1) when a sense of threat of survival is felt, the endoderm tissue derivative is involved; 2) if there is a
sense of lack of support, the mesoderm tissue derivative is involved; and 3) when there is a sense of separation, the
ectoderm derivative tissue is involved. This new theory represents the base for a new disease classication that may
assist researchers in identifying novel treatment targets, and developing innovative strategies for the prevention,
diagnosis, and treatment of disease.
Four grades of fear, Four phases of stress, Psychological conict,
Types of disease.
Advances in medical science improve the study and classication
of diseases, and for some medical conditions, one or more causes
are partially understood. However, the causes of most diseases
are currently unknown, and may not be readily apparent or
characterized for a high percentage of individuals with dierent
conditions. The main reason for this is that we are not applying the
denition of health established by the World Health Organization
(WHO). According to this denition, health is “a state of
complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely
the absence of disease or inrmity” (WHO, 1948). In fact, this
denition lies outside the biomedical model that considers the
individual as a biological machine, denes health as the absence
of illness or disease, and emphasizes the role of clinical diagnosis
and intervention and the purpose of treatment to achieve and
maintain the physiological parameters within the normal levels.
The spiritual realm is completely ignored and the psychological
aspect mostly neglected. A biopsychosocial model of health which
considers physiological, psychological, and social factors as
interrelated and places special emphasis on the role of stress in the
development of disease is warranted. The stress response consists
of the physiological, behavioral, and psychological alterations that
occur in the face of a challenge to an individual’s health and well-
It is widely accepted that subjective well-being varies greatly
between individuals; however, well-being is dened as a state of
mind in which a person feels able to achieve aspiration in life with a
sense of love, happiness, and freedom [1]. This reason is responsible
for the unhealthy status of the majority of the population, and the
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incidence of chronic disease continues to increase with ineective
measures of prevention. Numerous disorders originate from stress
that plays an important part in causing and aggravating diseases,
especially in individuals experiencing severe and prolonged stress.
Research showed that almost every system in the body can be
inuenced by chronic stress. Exposure to chronic stress may result
in long-term or permanent changes in the emotional, physiological,
and behavioral responses that inuence susceptibility to disease
and its course [2,3].
The currently accepted model that explains the relationship
between stress and disease is the general adaptation syndrome
model developed by Hans Selye [4]. This model is based on the
observation that all living organisms respond to stress in a basic
reaction pattern, and this is always the same “nonspecic response
of the body to any demand,” irrespective of the agent causing
the stress. This pattern is focused on achieving or maintaining
homeostasis, which is the stability of physiological systems
that maintain life. Therefore, it does not provide an answer to
the following questions: Why are the “diseases of adaptation”
polymorphic in their manifestations, if they are all due to stress?
Why can the same stress inuence dierent organs and dierent
diseases in the same organ?
In a previous article, [5] a new mind–body model was presented
describing the correlation between the type of conict and its
site of inuence in the physical body. According to this model,
the body is divided into seven segments; in each segment, an
endocrine gland is related to a specic aspect of life. The organ
systems were divided into 12 groups, which are related to the
information processing modes. A topographic map connecting
the psychological functions and physical body was presented.
However, other questions remain unresolved: 1) why there are
dierent diseases in the same organ even though the psychological
conict is the same? 2) why the left or right side of the body is
involved? 3) why dierent kinds of cancer occur in the same
organ? In this article, a new theory explaining the reasons for the
manifestation of dierent diseases in the same organ is presented.
Study aims
This article presents a new theory regarding the relationship
between reaction to stress and the type of the disease in a specic
organ. Moreover, the theory describes the relationship between the
right or left side of the organ and body, and the causes of dierent
histological types of cancer in the same organ. It also makes a
unique contribution to the literature by oering a new description
of the cause of specic diseases in specic organs. This is achieved
by investigating the relationship between the four phases of stress
and four grades of fear. Blockage of one of these four phases of life
oers a potential new therapeutic strategy to reach a healthy status
as dened by the WHO.
Psychological conict, four degrees of reaction to stress, and
four phases of life
There is widespread interest among researchers concerning
psychological stress. This type of stress has been implicated in
a variety of disease processes, such as coronary disease, cancer,
lowered immunological activity against pathogens, reduced
quality of life, increased incidence of depression and suicide,
higher levels of anxiety, and increased alcohol intake. [6] Stress is
generally dened as “a particular relationship between the person
and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or
exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-
being” [7]. Normally, stress is a natural reaction to conict intended
to stimulate action, and it plays an essential role in protecting the
organism from threatening situations. The degree of stress that can
be experienced in each event depends on the importance of the
desired object. The grade of impediments to achieve the desired
object depends on the intensity and duration of stress and the
diculties or easiness to cope with it. Each diculty, problem, or
obstacle encountered in life is associated with one of the grades
of fear: anxiety, fear, panic, and horror. Events associated with
anxiety and fear are dened as conicts, while those associated
with panic and horror are dened as traumas.
Events causing stress that can be adequately elaborated and
expressed results in a positive stress termed eustress. This type of
stress leads to intellectual growth, spiritual evolution, and well-
being. However, if the event is rejected, it may be converted into
conict or trauma associated with negative stress or distress. Thus,
distress manifests when the stressor is greater that the capacity of
the defense system to maintain homeostasis, or when the energy
of the defense system (vitality) is low. In such cases, the stressor
may be perceived as signicant and result in distress, even if its
intensity is low.
The intensity of the stimulus is perceived subjectively and depends
on the strength of the stressor and the capacity to cope with the
problem. The proportionality between the intensity of the stressor,
the readiness to absorb the stimulus, and the ability to react
manifests as four degrees of stress [8]. The capacity to cope with
the problem depends on three resources, namely psychological,
biological, and energetic:
The psychological perspective emphasizes the assessment
of the emotional and mental situations and their ability to
cope with demands that are objectively related to substantial
adaptive capacity.
The biological perspective emphasizes the function of certain
physiological systems in the body (e.g., endocrine or immune
systems) that are regulated by both psychologically and
physically demanding conditions.
The energetic perspective emphasizes the assessment of the
state of vitality that represents an expression of the vital
energy available to cope with the stressor for maintaining
One of the properties of living systems is the dynamic pulsation in
a four-phase rhythm termed the four phases of life (i.e., excitation,
expansion, contraction, and relaxation). This pulsation is also the
expression of life force, which is observable in its electrical and
mechanical functions. The excitation–contraction coupling of
the heart is a typical example of these phases. This phenomenon
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presents in all living cells, and can be experienced in the human
body during breath, menstrual period, sexual intercourse,
pregnancy, and numerous other functions when regular pulsation
provides a sense of life and pleasure.
One of the properties of living systems is the dynamic pulsation in
a four-phase rhythm termed the four phases of life (i.e., excitation,
expansion, contraction, and relaxation). This pulsation is also the
expression of life force, which is observable in its electrical and
mechanical functions. The excitation–contraction coupling of
the heart is a typical example of these phases. This phenomenon
presents in all living cells, and can be experienced in the human
body during breath, menstrual period, sexual intercourse,
pregnancy, and numerous other functions when regular pulsation
provides a sense of life and pleasure.
The same four phases are applied to reaction to stress; in case of
acute stress, the phases are the following: threat, organization,
contraction, and resolution or shock [9]. Chronic stressors include
daily hassle, work overload, nancial diculties, frustration
caused by of trac jams, marital arguments or family problems.
The pent-up anger we hold inside in any of these situations, or the
guilt and resentment toward others and ourselves, result in general
adaptive syndrome which exerts eects on the hypothalamus and
specic eects on the corresponding area or organ in the body.
For example, work overload aects the thyroid and cervical spine,
nancial diculties aect the kidneys, marital arguments aect
the right breast, etc. However, instead of discharging this stress,
we hold it inside where its eects become cumulative. If the
conict persists over an extended period of time (e.g., caring for
a spouse with dementia) or brief focal events that continue to be
experienced as overwhelmingly long after they have ended (e.g.,
experiencing a sexual assault) [10].
The stress provoked by these conicts becomes chronic and
activates behavioral and physiological response patterns, which
are benecial for the survival of the individual and the species.
However, these patterns may become maladaptive in cases of
chronic stress [11-13], causing physiological dysfunction, and
eventually disease. The behavioral and physiological response
patterns can be blocked in one of the four phases of chronic stress:
alarm, resistance, adaptation, and exhaustion.
Each phase of acute and chronic stress is associated with one grade
of fear intensity. The degree of intensity determines the blockage
of one of the fourth phases of life.
Figure 2 depicts the four phases of acute and chronic stress and
their correlation with the four phases of life.
The rst grade of stress, when the intensity of the stressor is low,
is associated with anxiety that could cause a state of tension, over-
vigilance, increased awareness, and disturbed sleep. The second
grade of stress, when the degree of the reaction is proportional
to the stressor, causes a state of alert and is associated with a
sense of fear. The third grade of stress, when the degree of the
stimulus exceeds the absorption capacity of the defense system,
is associated with a sense of panic that leads to post-traumatic
stress disorder. The fourth grade of stress, when the intensity of
the stressor exceeds the ability of the defense system to react,
induces intense feelings of horror and helplessness; it manifests as
a shock with general motor and sensory paralysis, leading to post-
traumatic stress disorder. 
For example, if individuals are chronically anxious regarding their
employment status, the thyroid will be blocked in the excitation
phase causing hyperthyroidism. If individuals live in a constant
fear of losing their job, the thyroid will be blocked in the expansion
phase and appears as goiter. If the vital energy of the gland remains
sucient, the disease will be goiter with normal or hyperthyroidism;
if the vital energy of the thyroid is low, the disease will appear as
goiter with hypothyroidism. If the grade of fear is panic, it will be
blocked in the contraction phase and appear as nodules. If the vital
energy of the cells in the nodule is good or low, it will appear as hot
nodule and cold nodule, respectively. If the trauma was associated
with shock reaction or the chronic distress led to exhaustion, and
block in relaxation phase in the glands as hyposecretion; and if the
vital energy is severely depleted, it manifests as cancer. Infectious
diseases are manifestations of blockage in the relaxation phase due
to the lack of energy and hypo-functionality of the cells that are
attacked by an infectious agent.
Four phases of life and types of diseases
Under normal circumstances, the four-phase response subsides
and the body relaxes and returns to its normal status 3 min after a
threatening situation is terminated and the real or imagined danger
is removed. However, if stress continues and the body is unable to
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cope, it is likely that bodily resources become chronically blocked
in one of the four phases of life. This will initially manifest as
physiological dysfunction of the specic organ and subsequently
transform to organic disease. The phase of blockage determines
the type of disease that manifests in the specic organ.
There are xed rules that guide the manifestation of disease
according to the four stress phases and blockage of one of the
four phases of life. Blockage in the phase of excitation due to
repeated threat manifests as hypersensitivity and hyperactivity due
to over-vigilance, increased requirement of the functional tissue.
All endocrine glands function in the same manner and manifest
the same kind of disease according to the blockage of the four
phases of life. For example, if the endocrine gland is blocked in
the excitation phase, it leads to hyperactivity. For example, it may
manifest in the thyroid as hyperthyroidism, in the pancreas as
hyperinsulinemia, in the adrenal as hypercholesterolemia, in the
respiratory system as irritation and cough, in the digestive system
as dysentery when the small intestine is involved and irritable
bowel in the colon, allergy in the immune system, arrhythmia in
the heart, and epilepsy in the brain.
Blockage of the gland in the expansion phase manifests as
hyperplasia or cysts. For example, it may manifest in the thyroid as
a goiter, in the thymus as thymoma, in ovaries as hyperplasia etc.
In other organs, it may manifest as enlargement of the organ, (e.g.,
splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly, polycystic kidneys),
and in the brain as hydrocephalus, etc. In the digestive system,
respiratory system, uterus, and bladder it appears as thickening of
the mucosa with increased mucus.
Blockage in the contraction phase appears as nodules in the
endocrine glands and breasts. Contraction in smooth muscle, such
as the artery walls, appears as hypertension. In the digestive system,
it appears as spasm in the esophagus. In the heart, it appears as
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, in the brain as Parkinson’s disease,
and in the skin as scleroderma or skin ulcers if the contraction
is more severe (Burger’s disease). In the mucosa of the digestive
system it appears as ulceration, such as gastric ulcer, Crohn’s
disease, ulcerative colitis, in the uterus as metrorrhagia, and in
the myelin of the nervous system as multiple sclerosis. In the
musculoskeletal system, it appears as muscle contraction and joint
inammation, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis,
and spinal hernias.
Blockage in the relaxation phase is the manifestation of lack of
energy. In the endocrine glands, it appears as hypofunction; if the
energy level is very low (e.g., hypothyroidism, hypogonadism,
hypocortisolemia), it manifests as cancer. In the muscles, it
appears as accidity, myasthenia gravis, as well as hiatal, inguinal,
abdominal, and umbilical hernias. In the heart, it manifests as
dilative cardiomyopathy. In the central nervous system, it appears
as depression and Alzheimer’s disease. All infectious diseases and
cancers are blocked in the relaxation phase. The nervous system
collects, transfers, and processes information and directs short-
term change in other organ systems. Therefore, the disease of the
nervous system depends on the segment involved, and the brain
area specically connected with the organs (Table 1).
Left and right side of the body
Males and females dier in many ways. These dierences include
both biological phenotypes [14] and psychological traits [15].
Some of these dierences are inuenced by environmental factors
[16,17]. Although there are fundamental dierences between the
sexes that are rooted in biology, each sex has its own energy.
The encounter between the male energy of the spermatozoa and
the female energy of the ovum created life independently of sex.
These two types of energies continue to be nourished by parents
until the age of approximately 21 years [18].
Gland Conict Excitation Expansion Contraction Relaxation
Adrenal Territorial
Adrenal hyperplasia Nodules Hypocortisolemia
Ovaries Siblings
Male hypertestosteronemia
Ovarian hyperstimulation
Testicular hyperplasia
Ovarian follicular cysts
Corpus luteum cysts Cystadenomas
Ovarian broma
Fear of
Islet cell hyperplasia
increased beta-cell mass Pathologic
pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia
Adenoma of pancreas
Hypofunction of the pancreas
Thymus Lack of
protection Thymic hyperactivity Allergy Thymoma
Lymphoid Hyperplasia Atrophy Malignant thymomas
Thyroid Work and
study Hyperthyroidism Goiter
Thyroid cyst
Thyroid nodule
Hypophysis Projects Hyperpituitarism Hyperplasia Enlargement of the
pituitary gland
Empty sella
Pituitary carcinoma
Pineal gland Near fainting Vitiligo Hyperplasia Adenoma
Small pineal gland (in schizophrenia)
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Organ Conict Excitation Expansion Contraction Relaxation
Lungs Fear of death Cough Emphysema Asthma
Nasal polips
Respiratory failure
Colon Criticism Irritable colon Megacolon Ulcerative colitis polips Constipation Diverticulosis
Stomach Unexpected event Gastritis Mucus Ulcer
Polips Dyspepsia Cancer
Spleen Unaccepted expected event Inammation Splenomegaly Spleen contraction (splenic
capsule) Lymphoma Leukemia
Small intestine Hesitation Indecision Enteritis Mucus overproduction Crohn’s disease Flaccidity and obstruction
Heart Separation from loved one Arrhythmia Cardiomegaly Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Dilatative cardiomyopathy
Urinary bladder Sexual conict Aseptic cystitis Mucus hypersecretion Hypercontractility Cystitis cancer
Kidneys Material conict Aseptic nephritis Cystic kidney Renal atrophy Renal failure nephrolithiasis
Pericardium Fear of love Aseptic pericarditis Pericardial thickening Constrictive pericarditis Cancer
Lymphatic system Low self-esteem Inammation Lymphadenopathy Lymphatic contraction Lymphoma
Gall bladder Anger Cholecystitis Enlarged gallbladder Contracted gallbladder Gallstones
Liver Lack of parent’s love Aseptic hepatitis Steatosis
Hepatomegaly Cirrhosis Hepatic failure
Right: non- sexual conict
with partner
Left: mother or children
hypersensitivity Cysts Nodules Cancer
Uterus Pregnancy Maternity Inammation Cysts Myoma
Phybroma Cancer
Esophagus Event not being digested or
rejected Esophagitis Mucus hypersecretion Spasm Cancer
Table 1: Correlation between the phases of blockage and disease.
The amount of male and female energy may vary and depends
on numerous environmental factors; however, it mainly depends
on the love received from parents. However, typically, males have
more male energy and females have more female energy, resulting
in brain dierences between the two sexes. These two energies are
expressed physically and functionally. Male energy corresponds to
the right side of our body and left side of our brain, while female
energy corresponds to the left side of our body and right side of our
brain. Research found that males tend to use one side of their brain
(particularly the left side for verbal reasoning), while females
tend to use both cerebral areas for visual, verbal, and emotional
responses. Brain dierences between sexes, which uniquely aect
biochemical processes, may contribute to the susceptibility to
specic diseases and inuence specic behaviors. The left side of
the brain controls the male functions such as assertiveness, logical,
analytical, doing, controlling, aggressiveness, striving, projecting,
toughness, organizing, rushing, thrusting, facts, systems, and self-
interest. In contrast, the right side of the brain controls the female
functions, such as intuition, feelings, openness, and unselshness.
In males coping with stressors, the left side of the brain is generally
overstimulated and the right side of the body reacts and feels
the stress. In females coping with stressors, the left side of the
body or organ feels the eects of the stress and this determines
susceptibility to disease.
Therefore, in males, diseases manifest in the right side of the body
or the right side of the organ. In females, diseases manifest on the
left side. For example, fear of abandonment by the father or mother
may appear as pneumonia in the right and left lung, respectively. In
males in conict with themselves, the disease appears on the right
side of his body. For example, a male was unexpectedly red from
his work; the stomach will be the site of manifestation, the right
meridian of the stomach will be blocked, and pain in the right knee
will appear. In a female, these eects will appear on the left side
of the body. For example, females with fear of death will develop
disease in the left lung, while males will develop the disease in the
right lung.
Psychological reactivity and embryological layers
Male and female energy in individuals determine their magnetic
polarity that can be positive (indicated by a “bar” if the individual
has excess of male energy), negative (indicated by a “triangle”
if the individual has female energy), or balanced (indicated by a
“circle” if the male and female energy are balanced). The female
negative polarity has a preference for the inner world of thoughts,
interests, ideas, and imagination (introversion), and is characterized
as receptive, soft, uid, allowing, nurturing, sensual, empathetic,
exible, emotional, attached, and dependent on touch and love.
Owing to attachment and dependency, events such as lack of love
are perceived as survival fears. The psychological inner world is
felt deeply in the inner germ layer. Therefore, aected tissues are
derived from the endoderm, such as the internal linings of the body,
including the lining of most of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs,
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liver, pancreas, and other glands that open into the gastrointestinal
tract, and certain other organs (e.g., the upper urogenital tract and
female vagina). Endoderm cells give rise to certain organs, among
them the colon, stomach, intestines, lungs, liver, and pancreas.
Positive male polarity is oriented toward the outer world of
activities, excitement, people and things (extroversion), and is
characterized as focused, goal-oriented, stable, strong, structured,
logical, driven, critical. Therefore, individuals around them leave
them for excess of criticism. Events related to the outer world are
felt in the outer germ layer, ectoderm which forms certain “outer
linings” of the body that connect with the external environment
and protect from harmful stimuli, such as the skin, neural tissue,
adrenal medulla, pituitary gland, connective tissue of the head and
face, eyes, and ears [19]. Individuals with balanced polarity can
be either taking action with a structured plan in mind or they keep
options open to new opportunities, between the negative internal
and external positive polarity.
Events connect the outer world and the inner feeling aect
tissues. Cells derived from the mesoderm, which lies between the
endoderm and the ectoderm, give rise to all other tissues of the
body, including the dermis of the skin, adrenal cortex, lymphatic
tissue, skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle, connective tissues
(e.g., bone, cartilage), urogenital system, heart, and blood vessels
[20]. Most organs have three representative germ layers. The
perception modality and trauma interpretation will determine
which germ layer derivative tissue in the specic organ will be
involved in the disease. When the traumatic conict is perceived
as life threatening, lack of support, or connection disruption,
endoderm-derived cells, mesoderm-derived cells, and ectoderm-
derived cells are involved, respectively.
For example, a 56-year-old male was unexpectedly red from work
and he could not cope with this event. The stomach was the site of
this conict. If this conict is not resolved, it will induce chronic
stress that consumes stomach energy and result in blockage in
the exhaustion phase. If the vitality of the cells in the stomach
drops below a certain critical level, the membrane potential is
depolarized and the cells may transform to cancerous cells [21].
However, there are dierent types of cancer in the stomach (e.g.,
adenocarcinoma, myosarcoma, or lymphoma). If the conict was
experienced as a threat of survival because nancial diculties,
tissue derived from the endoderm will be involved to develop
adenocarcinoma of the mucosa cells. If the main conict was
lack of support from the spouse and family, cells derived from
mesoderm are involved to develop myosarcoma. However, if
the main problem after the event is guilt and low self-esteem,
lymphoma of the stomach will be the cancer manifestation.
Scientic evidence demonstrates that chronic stress most likely
results in long-term or permanent changes that inuence the
susceptibility to develop the disease and course of disease.
However, this eect is described in the literature using the general
adaptation syndrome model, which is vague and cannot be used
to explain the specic manifestation in organs or the occurrence
of dierent diseases in the same organ. In a previous article,
the correlation between psychological conict and organs was
presented [5] where the kind of stressor determines the organ or the
gland involved. The area involved depends on the relation between
seven endocrine glands and seven aspects of life. For example,
territorial conicts act on the adrenal gland, social disruption due
to physical damage act on the pancreas, and chronic stress related
to work acts on the thyroid.
The way in which the conict acts on specic organ and meridians
is described in Chinese medicine. For example, unexpected stress
that could not be absorbed aects the stomach, fear of criticism
aects the colon, conicts related to pregnancy or maternity aect
the uterus, separation conict from loved one aects the heart, etc.
This article continues the line of previous articles, in which physical
diseases were identied as markers of unresolved conicts that
resulted in chronic distress, considering the psychological factor as
the cause of disease development, and connect the specic conict
with glands and organs.
In another previous article, [8] the correlation between the four
phases of life, four phases of stress, and four grades of fear was
In this article, a new theory regarding the correlation between
the perceived intensity of stress, four grades of fear, four phases
of life, and four dierent types of diseases in the same organ is
presented. The traumatic conict is caused by rejection of an event
in life, which may be converted to chronic stress if not adequately
elaborated or expressed. The unresolved psychological conict or
trauma causes chronic stress that interferes with the electromagnetic
activity of the specic organ, leading to physiological dysfunction
and susceptibility to disease.
The type of disease that manifests in the involved gland or organ
depends on the grade of fear and intensity of stress. In acute stress,
the intensity of the stressor provokes one of the four grades of
fears: anxiety, fear, panic and horror; each grade is related to one of
the four phases of life. When the conict is not resolved, the stress
converts to a chronic status and the specic organ will remain
blocked in one of the four phases of life. This eect will determine
the type of disease that appears in that organ. The involvement of
the left or right side of the body depends on the involvement of
male or female aspects in the traumatic conicts. That may explain
why, for example, the is in the right and not the left side of the
lung, and the atherosclerotic plaque is found in the right coronary
artery rather than the circumex.
Finally, all types of cancer are expressions of changes in the
bioelectrical properties of cells. We connect the shock reaction
in acute stress or energy exhaustion in chronic stress to these
bioelectrical changes. However, the type of cancer that appears
in the organ can involve tissues derived from dierent germ
layers. The perception of the trauma is divided into three dierent
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© 2020 Nader Butto. is article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
categories, namely survival, lack of support, or separation. When
the traumatic conict is perceived as conict of survival, the tissue
derived from the endoderm will be aected. When there is a sense
of lack of support, tissue from the mesoderm is aected. When the
trauma is perceived as detachment and separation, tissue derived
from the ectoderm will be aected. These relations represent the
base for a new disease classication that may assist researches in
precisely identifying the psychological conict that needs to be
elaborated and resolved (Table 2).
Magnetic polarity Female
polarity Male positive
Polarity symbol
Feeling preference Inner world Intermediate External world
Conict perception Survival Lack of support Separation
Germ layer involved Endoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm
The purpose of therapy is to renew the rhythm of life pulsation
according to the four phases of life, by elaborating the psychological
conict, and resolving the traumatic conict by completion of the
learning process. This is the base for reducing stress and achieving
homeostasis. Special emphasis on increasing vitality by introducing
lifestyle changes (e.g., sleep, correct personal alimentation, and
physical and sexual activities) is essential to achieve the state of
well-being, and prevent the development of disease or conversion
of acute disease to chronic disease. Additional clinical studies,
including randomized clinical trials, are warranted to conrm the
correlation between psychological traumatic conict and disease,
and demonstrate the eectiveness of such interventions.
The author would like to thank Enago ( for the
English language review.
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... In this article, a new therapeutic technique called energyemotional washout or energy washout (EWO) is presented, and is based on integrated model described in research recently published in different journals [29,46,50,51]. The basic model considers the humankind as the manifestation of the integration between body, psyche, and soul. ...
... Physical and emotional trauma led to alteration of the state of harmonic vibration in the biofield and to the interruption of the energetic flow along the energy channels (meridians) as a result of destructive wave interference [50]. When this disruption happens, cellular membrane potential, cellular function, and the body's defense and repair systems become impaired, and physical illness subsequently appears. ...
... This study addressed the stress reaction and adaptation with reference to the 4 life phases: excitation, expansion, contraction, and relaxation [50]. According to this theory, the 4 life phases correspond to the 4 phases of the following 3 types of stress: • Acute stress: threat, organization, flight and fight, and recovery or shock • Chronic stress: alarm, resistance, adaptation, and exhaustion • Fear: anxiety, fear, panic, and horror Each phase of acute stress is associated with a corresponding grade of fear. ...
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Aim. To investigate incidental adrenal enlargement clinical characteristics and functional status and analyze functional lesion risk factors. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study included 578 patients with adrenal imaging features showing enlargement. Incidental adrenal enlargement cases (78) were considered eligible. Demographics, functional diagnosis, adrenal imaging features, and concomitant diseases were analyzed. Results. The number of adrenal enlargements and proportion of incidental adrenal enlargement increased each year. Mean patient age was 50.32 years. Thirty-nine cases had unilateral enlargement on the left side and 3 on the right side; 36 had bilateral enlargement. Routine medical checkup was found to have the greatest chance (43.59%) of revealing clinical onsets leading to discovery. Biochemical and functional evaluation revealed 54 (69.23%) cases of nonfunctional lesions, 12 (15.38%) of subclinical Cushing syndrome, 6 (7.69%) of primary hyperaldosteronism, 1 (1.28%) of metastasis, and 5 (6.41%) of unknown functional status. Nodular adrenal enlargement (OR, 7.306; 95% CI, 1.727-28.667; P = 0.006) was a risk factor for functional lesions. Age and lesion location were not significant factors. Conclusion. Incidental adrenal enlargement is a frequent radiographic finding and is accompanied by diverse clinical factors that require proper evaluation and management. Nodular adrenal enlargement was a risk factor.
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Membrane potential (Vm ), the voltage across the plasma membrane, arises because of the presence of different ion channels/transporters with specific ion selectivity and permeability. Vm is a key biophysical signal in non-excitable cells, modulating important cellular activities, such as proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, the multiplicities of various ion channels/transporters expressed on different cells are finely tuned in order to regulate the Vm . It is well-established that cancer cells possess distinct bioelectrical properties. Notably, electrophysiological analyses in many cancer cell types have revealed a depolarized Vm that favors cell proliferation. Ion channels/transporters control cell volume and migration, and emerging data also suggest that the level of Vm has functional roles in cancer cell migration. In addition, hyperpolarization is necessary for stem cell differentiation. For example, both osteogenesis and adipogenesis are hindered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under depolarizing conditions. Therefore, in the context of cancer, membrane depolarization might be important for the emergence and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs), giving rise to sustained tumor growth. This review aims to provide a broad understanding of the Vm as a bioelectrical signal in cancer cells by examining several key types of ion channels that contribute to its regulation. The mechanisms by which Vm regulates cancer cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation will be discussed. In the long term, Vm might be a valuable clinical marker for tumor detection with prognostic value, and could even be artificially modified in order to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis.
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The construct of masculinity has achieved a place of virtual hegemony within research and practice in the psychology of men. We argue that “masculinity” as it is currently conceptualized pays too little attention to the contingent and contextual effects of gendered social learning in men. The result is a substantive limit on prediction and influence in scientific domains, and the risk of perpetuating essentialist discourse about gender in public domains. We offer a pragmatic and functional view of theory development and research in the social sciences in which we identify the eradication of gender inequality and the promotion of human well-being as core values in the psychology of men. We then show how a reformulated model of gendered social learning has the potential to enhance scientific prediction and influence, and also promote a social discourse in the public domain that is consistent with the core values of the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In mammals, including humans, newly differentiated cells are continuously generated from stem cells throughout development. In the adult, stem cells are found in different organ systems where they can contribute to the replacement of cells lost to physiological turnover, injury, or disease. When taken from their residence bone marrow-derived stem cells develop characteristics that typify brain, muscle, liver, and endothelial cells. Analogously, brain-derived stem cells exhibit characteristics of hematopoietic and muscle cells. The fate of a cell is therefore likely to be dictated in part by the local environment. This chapter reviews the bone marrow stem cell plasticity, focusing on the differentiation of the cells into different neural cell types and their potential therapeutic value in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Stem cells change their properties over time. In the immune system, fetal hematopoietic stem cells have different antigenic properties and exhibit broader lineage potentials than do adult hematopoietic stem cells.
ObjectivesTo assess whether exercise was associated with increased positive and decreased negative affect for university students during academically demanding times.DesignWithin-subjects daily diary study.MethodsFifty-nine university students completed the LTEQ [Godin, G., & Shephard, R.J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 141–146], cognitive appraisals of daily events [Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York: Springer], and the PANAS [Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070] for 14 days immediately prior to the final examination period.ResultsOur hypotheses were partially supported as threat appraisals were significantly associated with decreased positive affect on days closer to the final examination period. Contrary, to our hypotheses exercise was not independently associated with increased positive and decreased negative affect. However, the interaction between exercise and day was significant as participants experienced increased positive affect during the last 3 days of data collection immediately preceding the final exam period. There was also a significant exercise by threat interaction with follow-up tests showing the exercise/negative affect relationship was significantly moderated by threat appraisals only when academic events were appraised as mildly threatening.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that exercise behavior might be an effective way for college students to cope with stress especially during academic demanding times.