ArticlePDF Available

Fast Food Consumption and its Impact on Health


Abstract and Figures

Food is known to play an important role in both the development and prevention of many diseases. The habit of taking food also varies from society to society. Globalization and urbanization have greatly affected ones eating habits and forced many people to consume fancy and high calorie fast foods, popularly known as 'Junk food'. Fast food is an important item of the food as it is readymade in nature and easy to eat. Food eaten outside the home is now becoming a significant and regular component of life. These rapid changes in the levels and composition of dietary and activity/inactivity patterns in transitional societies are related to a number of socioeconomic and demographic changes. Numerous studies have concluded that the poor nutritional value, the excessive salt content and the degree of saturated fats and trans fatty acid associated with fast food products likely perpetuate the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, obesity and cardiovascular disease in Westernized societies. The present review describes the association between the consumption of such foods and health outcomes.
Content may be subject to copyright.
EMCJ. January 2020; 5 (1) 28
Fast Food Consumption and its Impact on Health
Jahan I1, Karmakar P2, Hossain MM3, Jahan N4, Islam MZ5
Food is known to play an important role in both the development and prevention of many diseases. The habit of
taking food also varies from society to society. Globalization and urbanization have greatly affected ones eating
habits and forced many people to consume fancy and high calorie fast foods, popularly known as ‘Junk food’.
Fast food is an important item of the food as it is readymade in nature and easy to eat. Food eaten outside the
home is now becoming a significant and regular component of life. These rapid changes in the levels and
composition of dietary and activity/inactivity patterns in transitional societies are related to a number of
socioeconomic and demographic changes. Numerous studies have concluded that the poor nutritional value, the
excessive salt content and the degree of saturated fats and trans fatty acid associated with fast food products likely
perpetuate the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, obesity and
cardiovascular disease in Westernized societies. The present review describes the association between the
consumption of such foods and health outcomes.
Keywords: Fast food, Lifestyle, Health and diseases
Received: October 15, 2019; Accepted: December 20, 2019
Food is important for survival1. It provides
necessary nutrition for the body of the human
being1. Fast food, which is available readymade and
easy to eat is now a days an important item of food1.
It often termed as food away from home (FAFH)1.
The term Fast food was introduced by Merriam-
Webster in 19512. According to Merriam-Webster,
fast food is the term given to food that can be
prepared and served very quickly2. Typically it
means any food that sold in a restaurant with low
preparation time and can be given to the customer
for take away2. So, it mainly designed for its quick
availability2. These are specialized products such as
hamburgers, pizzas, fried chicken or sandwitches1,3.
It can be categorized as Junk Food (JF)4. According
to National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), JF are
classified as food products which are high in salt,
sugar, fats and energy (calories) and contain little or
no proteins, vitamins or minerals4,5. Most JFs are
regarded as fast foods as they are prepared and
served fast but not all6. It can be termed as follows
also: EDLNF or EDNPFC: Energy dense low-
nutrient density foods or energy dense and nutrient
poor foods for children, FMNV: Foods of minimal
nutritional value, HFSS foods: Foods that is high in
fat, salt and sugar5.
Fast Food Consumption in the World:
Fast food was first popularized in 1950s in the
United States7. The first fast food restaurants were
established in the United States with White Castle in
19168. Now a days McDonalds, KFC and Pizza Hut
are multinational corporations with outlets across
the globe9.
At present fast food restaurants are one of the largest
segments of the food industry with over 200,000
restaurants and $120 billion in sales in the U.S.
alone10. International chains including McDonald’s
and Yum! Brands have 65 percent and 50 percent of
their sales overseas respectively which indicates that
fast food has a great demand all over the world11.
Multiple studies have shown that increased
frequency of takeaway and fast food consumption is
worldwide, especially in Europe, the United States,
and Australia12–18. The expenditure on fast foods is
more than their expenditure on higher education,
personal computers, software or new cars among
A governmental report in the United Kingdom
revealed that about 22% of residents were found to
purchase foods from takeaway outlets at least once
a week and 58% a few times a month14.
Approximately 28% of Australians consuming
1 Dr. Iffat Jahan, Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Eastern Medical College, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
2 Dr. Pijush Karmakar, Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Eastern Medical College, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
3 Dr. Mohammad Monir Hossain, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Eastern Medical College, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
4 Dr. Nusrat Jahan, Senior Consultant, Department of Internal Medicine, United Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
5 Prof. Dr. Md. Zakirul Islam, Professor & Head, Department of Pharmacology, Eastern Medical College, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
Address of Correspondence: Dr. Iffat Jahan, Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Eastern Medical College, Cumilla,
Bangladesh. Mobile: +8801818694693, Email:
Review Article
© 2020 Jahan I, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
3.0 Unported License ( ISSN 2518-6299 (print), 2520-5048 (online)
EMCJ. January 2020; 5 (1) 29
takeaway meals at least twice a week and 37% of US
residents eating fast food at least once over two
nonconsecutive days15,16. The National Restaurant
Association estimates that the average American
eats out an average of four times a week20.
In Turkey, it was revealed in a study that about one-
third of the research participants chose fast food as
snack for once or more times daily21.
About 33 percent of children and adolescents in the
United States consume fast food a day and intake
increase with age22,23. In the United States, $8 billion
is spent on food and beverages by children between
the ages of 4 and 12 years24.
Fast food is particularly popular among adolescents,
with a report from 2001 indicating that 75% of US
teenagers between the ages of 11 and 18 years eat at
fast-food outlets at least once a week and a 2010
report indicating that 70% of Brazilian students (9-
18 years old) consume fast food four times or more
per week17,18.
Fast Food Consumption in Asia:
According to Naido et al., in 2014, 96.6% of the 1.53
million fast-food (FF) outlets in China, 94.7% of the
87,186 outlets in India and 68.6% of 8152 outlets in
Vietnam was available25. American FF restaurants
expanded rapidly in China over the last decade26.
The modern fast-food industry in China started in
Beijing in 198726. The fast food industry had
estimated revenues of $94.2 billion in 2013 which
was 20.0% of the total revenue in China26.
According to a recent report, over two million fast
food restaurants operated in China in 2013,
including franchise and chain operators of all sizes
and independent Chinese-style fast food facilities27.
In Singaporean it was observed that 70.8% of adults
aged 1821 years consumed Western fast-foods on
a weekly basis compared to 3.0% of adult aged 60
years and over28.
Fast Food Industry in Bangladesh:
Fast food culture was started in the early nineties in
Bangladesh1. The first fast food shop started its
business in the Bailey road of Dhaka1. Swiss,
Helvetia etc. are name of some Bangladeshi fast
food shops formed in franchising system1. In early
2000, Bangladesh experienced the entry of the first
international brand of fast food franchise in the
country1. Pizza Hut and KFC entered into
Bangladeshi market having franchise with
Transcom Foods Limited (TFL)1.
Reason behind Preference for Fast Food:
Fast food companies are targeting young children
with great promotion strategies, delicious recipes
and attractive advertisement29. The important
factors for giving preference of fast food include
good taste, easy accessibility, increased convenience
and its pocket friendly nature29,30.
Students usually prefer this kind of foods to save
both time and money31-34. Socioeconomic trends,
such as prolong work hours, more women employed
outside the home and a high number of single-parent
households have changed the way families obtain
their meals13,35-37.
Reason for the choice to dine out include insufficient
time to cook at home, opportunities to socialize or
conduct business, convenience or the need for a
quick meal, enjoyment and family outings or
celebrations (birthdays, anniversaries and other
special occasions)1.
Changing of lifestyle and loss of the family tradition
of eating together may be the reason of increasing
the popularity of fast foods among young
people31,34,38. Singh et al. revealed in their research
that Indian young consumers visit fast food places
for enjoyment but home food was their first
Fast Food Items:
Examples of most prominent fast food items include
burger, pizza, fried chicken, hamburger and
sandwich1. Gupta et al. found that the most popular
junk food item was chips (71%) followed by
chocolate (14%), bakery products (13%), soft drinks
(7%), and sugar-sweetened beverages (5%) in their
A study conducted in Baroda reported higher
consumption of junk food items (56%) such as
chocolates, pastries and sweets and soft drinks
(39%) by school age children40. Another study
conducted in Lucknow reported daily consumption
of junk food items such as chocolate, bakery items,
and ice cream by 28%, 14%, and 35% among school
age children, respectively41.
Fast Food Consumption & its Relation with Age:
In Singaporean children and teens, it was observed
that 70.8% of adults aged 1821 years consumed
Western fast-foods on a weekly basis compared to
3.0% of adult aged 60 years and over28.
High consumption of these foods in the younger age
demographic has also been observed in studies from
US, Europe and South Korea 12,42-45.
Seventy Five Percent of US teenagers between the
ages of 11 and 18 years eat at fast-food outlets at
least once a week17. 70% of Brazilian students (9
18 years old) consume fast food four times or more
per week18.
Jahan I, et al. Eastern Medical College Journal
EMCJ. January 2020; 5 (1) 30
Figure-1: Mean percentage of calories from fast
food among children and adolescents aged 2-19
years, by weight status and age: United States, 2011-
Fast Food Consumption & its Relation with
A Swedish study reported that female students led a
healthier lifestyle than male students which was
similar to the findings by Bipasha et al46. In their
study Ansari et al found, men had reported frequent
consumption of snacks than women38. Similar
findings were also found among the University
students of France47.
Figure-2: Mean percentage of calories from fast
food among children and adolescents aged 2-19
years, by sex and age: United States, 2011-2012
Harmful Effects of Fast food:
Social Hazards:
The fast food consumption has been increased
dramatically since the early 1970s which has effect
on social health also5. With changes in lifestyle,
there is increase in the consumption of junk food
among school going children48.
Nutritional habits which is the pre-requisites for
learning is decreased as well as the strength-
children need for making friends, interacting with
family, participating in sports and games or simply
feeling good about them due to more consumption
of out of home meals5.
Obesity, Overweight & Fast food:
Dietary habits and lifestyle practices are the
important determinants for overweight31-34. The
dietary factors associated with overweight were due
to increased frequency of eating at fast food and
having sweetened tea or coffee49. The shift from
healthy, homemade food to more convenient, longer
lasting fast foods combined with a sedentary
lifestyle has resulted in obesity and related health
Figure-3: Percentage of children and adolescents
aged 2-19 years who consumed fast food on a given
day, by calories consumed: United States, 2011-
There are almost 500 million people are obese and
two billion overweight or obese in worldwide51-53.
Kuchler claims that promotion strategies by fast
food companies are also responsible for rising
obesity rates1.
Consumption of fast food among children in the
United States have an adverse effect which
increased risk for obesity10. In China obesity rates
also have increased rapidly in the past few yeras54,55.
Several studies have been performed to observe the
association between fast food and obesity26. The
majority of the study were conducted in Western
countries and showed positive association between
fast food and obesity56-61.
A systemic review based on 16 studies conducted in
Western countries examined the association
between fast food and risks of weight gain and
obesity, and revealed mixed results58. In a previous
study of over 24,000 children aged 2–18 years in
Beijing found that children consuming western fast
food 3 times per week were 1.50 times overweight
or obese compared to children with fast food <1 time
per week62.
A longitudinal study (during 2000-2009) was done
to see the associations between changes in BMI,
WHtR (Waist-Height Ratio) and WHpR (Waist-Hip
Ratio) and changes in Western fast food which
revealed positive association between the number of
Western fast food consumption and subsequent
increase in central adiposity63.
Jahan I, et al. Eastern Medical College Journal
EMCJ. January 2020; 5 (1) 31
A study was done on young adults to see the
association between fast food consumption and
change in BMI over a 3-year period also showed that
increased fast food consumption was associated
with a higher BMI64.
Rouhani et al. found increased incidences of
overweight and obesity among Isfahani (Iranian)
girls aged 11-13 years those who intakes of fast
foods more65.
Figure-4: The effects of Fast Food on the body
High consumption of JF has been identified as a
major cause of overweight in India among school
age children from 9.7% to 13.9% from 2001 to
201066. In some previous studies it was found that
high consumption of fried foods and sugary drinks
has been significantly associated with high body
mass index and weight gain in children67,68.
Some researchers also found that those who ate fast
food at home and also those students who attended
school close to fast food restaurants were more
probable to be overweight69.
Fast food eating on regular basis can increase the
risk of weight gain and obesity because of having a
high energy density with the presence of high levels
of fat and sugar in the meal and a correspondingly
low level of fiber and protein31,34,38.
A study was done in an urban private medical
student in Bangladesh, showed that a quarter of
respondents were overweight which is higher than
the national average49.
The students who used to eat at fast food shops 2-3
times per month were more likely to be overweight
as compared to the other groups who eat at fast food
shops once per month or less49. Eating at fast food
shops was also found to be associated with gaining
weight in other studies64.
Consumption of fast foods two times or more per
week has been associated with 31% higher
prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men
and 25% higher prevalence in women70.
Obesity is associated with an increase in respiratory
problems. Even without diagnosed medical
conditions, obesity may cause episodes of shortness
of breath or wheezing with little exertion. Obesity
also can play a role in the development of sleep
apnea, a condition in which sleep is continually
disrupted by shallow breathing and asthma70,71.
A recent study published in the journal Thorax
suggests that children who eat fast food at least three
times a week are at increased risk of asthma and
rhinitis, which involves having a congested, drippy
Regular consumption of fast food meals was related
to increases in energy intake of 56 kcal/day and 187
kcal/day among adults and children,
respectively70,71. A higher frequency of fast-food
consumption was associated with a weight gain of
0.72 kg over 3 years and of 4.5 kg over a 15-year
period above the average weight gain71,72.
Non-Communicable Disease & Fast Food:
The Global Burden of Disease study found diet as a
major factor for increasing hypertension, diabetes,
obesity and other CVD73. Increased consumption of
junk food is also associate with increased risk of
early development of diet-related noncommunicable
It is no longer confined to the developed countries
but also spread to the developing countries as
well29,30. The young generation taking unhealthy fast
foods causing a long-term negative effect on their
Frequent consumption of fast food has adverse
effects on human health because of its excessive
content of energy and fat and low nutritional
High consumption of junk food is also responsible
for increased risk of early development of diet-
related noncommunicable diseases, including
hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose
tolerance, metabolic syndrome, musculoskeletal
disorders and cancers29,30,48,74.
Jahan I, et al. Eastern Medical College Journal
EMCJ. January 2020; 5 (1) 32
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increased
day by day in low middle-income countries (LMIC)
because of changing of lifestyle with increasing
urbanization, economic development and
globalization81. Unhealthy dietary patterns also have
negative environmental impacts on climate
There is a relation between different type of cancer
and Fast Food consumption also. One of the major
causes of Gastro-intestinal Carcinoma is fast food
consumption and it can be 25% due to high fat and
fried food39. Though most of the fast food users are
well informed about the negative effects associated
with fast food consumption, but they were still
reported to have fast food in regular basis without
considering their health complications30. In the long
run which will increase their healthcare costs also30.
Oral Health & Fast Food:
There is also a convincing evidence base linking of
poor oral health, in particularly periodontal disease,
to amplified CVD risk. Periodontal disease occurs as
the result of untreated dental caries, which is in turn
driven by a number of factors including poor oral
hygiene and excess sugar consumption82.
Behavioral Symptoms & Fast food:
In Norwegian adolescents, showed that those having
high junk food were more likely to have
hyperactivity-inattention disorder83.
The latest nationwide cross-sectional sample survey
for assessing psychological symptoms of adolescent
and eating habits found that fast foods pattern, sugar
sweetened beverages pattern and the meats pattern
were significantly associated with higher risk of
psychological symptoms84.
Metabolic Consequences & Fast Food:
Food dense in calories, when oxidized in the body
causes enormous formation of acetyl Co-A. Acetyl
Co A in excess is channelized out of mitochondria
for its participation in other metabolic pathways and
for its effective utilization. These pathways include
denovo fatty acids synthesis and biosynthesis of
cholesterol, which causes excess fatty acid and
cholesterol formation85.
Another pathway which acetyl Co A is involved in
formation of ketone bodies, which is inactive when
energy levels are high, but is active in case when
impaired glucose tolerance sets in. Carbonated soft
drinks, in addition to towering amount of sugar
reportedly contain methylglyoxal (MG), which is
strongly associated with human carbonyl stress86.
The younger people who are getting addicted to fast
food, which may arise a serious public health
concern and urgent action should be taken to tackle
this public health problem31,32,72,87,88.
Balanced diet should be given preference instead of
junk or fast foods not only by young people but also
in all age group5. Specific health education
programme, dietary guidelines and effective public
awareness campaigns should be initiated against the
unhealthy lifestyle of university students and
improve their health29. A combined initiative from
families, universities, public health experts and the
government is needed to tackle this public health
Figure-5: Recommendation for decreasing the
consumption of Fast Food
The rapid growth of the FF industry has become a
public health concerns considering its negative
health consequences including obesity related risks.
Children, parents and general public should be
advocated about the associated ill health effects of
the junk foods in various forms. Ensuring
availability of variety of healthy food menu at
markets or restaurants will give better options for
general public, thereby promoting healthy lifestyle.
1. Islam N, Shafeyat Ullah GM. Factors Affecting
Consumers’ Preferences on fast food items in
Bangladesh. J Appl Business Res. 2010; 26 (4):
2. Auty S. Consumer choice and segmentation in
the restaurant industry. The Service Industries
Journal. 1992; 12 (3): 324-39.
3. Fast food. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/fast_food. [Accessed on August 12,
4. MCSP Nutrition Brief: Junk Food Consumption
is a Nutrition Problem among Infants and
Young Children: Evidence and Program
Considerations for Low- and Middle-Income
Countries. 2016: 1-10. Available at: [Accessed on August 10, 2019].
Jahan I, et al. Eastern Medical College Journal
EMCJ. January 2020; 5 (1) 33
5. Keshari P, Mishra CP. Growing menace of fast
food consumption in India: time to act. Int J
Community Med Public Health. 2016; 3 (6):
6. Gupta A, Kapil U, Singh G. Consumption of
Junk Foods by School-aged Children in Rural
Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian J Public
Health. 2018; 62 (1): 65-7.
7. Profiling Food Consumption in America.
Washington, DC: Agriculture Fact Book;
Chapter 2, 2002. Available at:
usdafactbookchapter2.pdf [Accessed on August
11, 2019]
8. Bareham JR. Consumer Behavior in the Food
Industry. A European Perspective. Butterworth-
Heinemann. UK: Oxford, 1995.
9. Binkley JK. Calorie and Gram Differences
between Meals at Fast Food Table Service
Restaurants. Appl Econ Perspect P. 2008; 30
(4): 750-63.
10. Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB,
Mark A. Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Effects of
Fast-Food Consumption on Energy Intake and
Diet Quality Among Children in a National
Household Survey. Pediatrics. 2004; 113 (1):
11. Buttle F. Hotel and Food Service Marketing
A Managerial Approach. London, England:
Cassell Educational; 1986. p 76-191.
12. Orfanos P, Naska A, Trichopoulos D, Slimani
L, Ferrari P, Bakel MV, et al. Eating out of
home and its correlates in 10 European
countries. The European Prospective
Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
study. Public Health Nutr. 2007; 10 (12): 1515-
13. Guthrie JF, Lin BH, Frazao E. Role of food
prepared away from home in the American diet,
1977-78 versus 1994-96: changes and
consequences. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2002; 34 (3):
14. Food Standards Agency. Consumer Attitudes to
Food Standards: Wave 8. January 2008.
Available at:
media/pdfs/cas2007ukreport.pdf. [Accessed on
August 3, 2019].
15. Smith KJ, McNaughton SA, Gall SL, Blizzard
L, Dwer T, Venn AJ. Takeaway food
consumption and its associations with diet
quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional
study of young adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys
Act. 2009; 6: 29.
16. Paeratakul S, Ferdinand DP, Champagne CM,
Ryan DH, Bray GA. Fast-food consumption
among US adults and children: dietary and
nutrient intake profile. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;
103 (10): 1332-8.
17. French SA, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D,
Fulkerson JA, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant
use among adolescents: associations with
nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and
psychosocial variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab
Dis. 2001; 25 (12): 1823-33.
18. Cimadon HMS, Geremia R, Pellanda LC.
Dietary habits and risk factors for
atherosclerosis in students from Bento
Gonçalves (State of Rio Grande). Arq Bras
Cardiol. 2010; 95 (2): 166-172.
19. Clark MA, Wood CR. Consumer loyalty in the
restaurant industry: A preliminary exploration
of the issues. Int J Contemp Hosp Manag. 1988;
10 (4): 139-44.
20. National Restaurant Association. Rapid
response. Available at:
sed on August 3, 2019].
21. Goyal A, Singh NP. Consumer perception about
fast food in India. An exploratory study. Brit
Food J. 2007; 109 (2): 182-95.
22. Powell LM, Nguyen BT, Han E. Energy intake
from restaurants: demographics and socio-
economics, 2003-2008. Am J Prev Med. 2012;
43 (5): 498-504.
23. Vikraman S, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Caloric
intake from fast food among children and
adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012.
NCHS Data Brief. 2015; 213: 1-5.
24. Sebastian RS, Wilkinson EC, Goldman GD. US
adolescents and My pyramid: associations
between fast-food consumption and lower
likelihood of meeting recommendations. J Am
Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 226-30.
25. Euromonitor Passport Database. Fast Food in
Singapore; 2016. Available at: https://go. [Accessed on
August 3, 2019].
26. Wang Y, Wang L, Xue H, Qu W. A Review of
the Growth of the Fast Food Industry in China
and Its Potential Impact on Obesity. Int J
Environ Res Public Health. 2016; 13 (11): 1-16.
27. China Fast-Food Restaurants Market: New
Market Research Published. Available at:
y/notsubscribed.aspx?indid=940 [Accessed on
August 10, 2019].
28. Naidoo N, Dam RMV, Sheryl NG, Tan CS,
Chen S, Lim JY, et al. Determinants of eating at
local and western fast-food venues in an urban
Asian population: a mixed methods approach.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act.2017;14(1):1-12.
29. Nipun TS, Debnath D, Miah MSUH, Kabir A,
Hossain MK. Bangladeshi Student's Standpoint
on Junk Food Consumption and Social
Behaviour. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci. 2017; 12
(1): 68-75.
30. Bipasha MS, Goon S. Fast food preferences and
food habits among students of private
universities in Bangladesh. South East Asia J
Public Health. 2013; 3 (1): 61-4.
Jahan I, et al. Eastern Medical College Journal
EMCJ. January 2020; 5 (1) 34
31. Jaworowska A, Blackham T, Davies IG,
Stevenson L. Nutritional challenges and health
implications of takeaway and fast food. Nutr
Rev. 2013; 71 (5): 310-8.
32. Baric IC, Satalic Z, Lukesic Z. Nutritive value
of meals, dietary habits and nutritive status in
Croatian university students according to
gender. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003; 54 (6): 473-
33. Brevard PB, Ricketts CD. Residence of college
students affects dietary intake, physical activity,
and serum lipid levels. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996;
96 (1): 35-8.
34. Kremmyda LS, Papadaki A, Hondros G,
Kapsokefalou M, Scott JA. Differentiating
between the effect of rapid dietary acculturation
and the effect of living away from home for the
first time, on the diets of Greek students
studying in Glasgow. Appetite. 2008; 50 (2-3):
35. Bowers DE. Cooking trends echo changing
roles of women. Nat Food Rev. 2000; 23 (1): 1-
36. St-Onge MP, Keller KL, Heymsfield SB.
Changes in childhood food consumption
patterns: a cause for concern in light of
increasing body weights. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;
78 (6): 1068-73.
37. Jabs J, Devine CM. Time scarcity and food
choices: an overview. Appetite. 2006; 47 (2):
38. El Ansari W, Stock C, Mikolajczyk RT.
Relationships between food consumption and
living arrangements among university students
in four European countries - a cross-sectional
study. Nutr J. 2012; 11 (28): 1-7.
39. Watson RR, Mufti SI. Nutrition and Cancer
Prevention. Florida: CRC Press; 1996. p 34-67.
40. Kotecha PV, Patel SV, Baxi RK, Mazumdar
VS, Shobha M, Mehta KG, et al. Dietary pattern
of school going adolescents in Urban Baroda,
India. J Health Popul Nutr. 2013; 31 (4): 490-6.
41. Singh M, Mishra S. Fast food consumption
pattern and obesity among school going (9-13
year) in Lucknow district. Int J Sci Res. 2014; 3
(6): 1672-4.
42. Ma Y, Bertone-Johnson ER, Stanek EJ III, Reed
GW, Herbert JR, Cohen NL, et al. Eating
patterns in a free-living healthy US adult
population. Ecol Food Nutr. 2005; 44 (1): 37-
43. Dave JM, Lawrence CA, Jeffery RW,
Ahluwalia JS. Relationship of attitudes toward
fast food and frequency of fast-food intake in
adults. Obesity. 2009; 17 (6): 1164-70.
44. Satia JA, Galanko JA, Siega-Riz AM. Eating at
fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary
intake, demographic, psychosocial and
behavioral factors among African Americans in
North Carolina. Public Health Nutr. 2004; 7 (8):
45. Wyne M, Lee MJ, Moon SJ. Fast-food
consumption in South Korea. Int J Consum
Stud. 1994; 18 (3): 279-91.
46. Von-Bothmer MI, Fridlund B. Gender
differences in health habits and in motivation
for a healthy lifestyle among Swedish
university students. Nurs Health Sci. 2005; 7
(2): 107-18.
47. Monneuse MO, Bellisle F, Koppert G. Eating
habits, food and health related attitudes and
beliefs reported by French students. Eur J Clin
Nutr. 1997; 51 (1): 46-53.
48. Sahoo K, Sahoo B, Choudhury AK, Sofi NY,
Kumar R, Bhadoria AS, et al. Childhood
obesity: Causes and consequences. J Family
Med Prim Care. 2015; 4 (2): 187‑92.
49. Rasul FB, Shawon MSR, Nazneen S, Hossain
FB. Do the dietary and lifestyle practices make
the private medical students overweight: A
cross-sectional study in Bangladesh? J Biol
Agric Healthcare. 2013; 3 (2): 130-9.
50. Gores SE. Addressing nutritional issues in the
college-aged client: strategies for the nurse
practitioner. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2008; 20
(1): 5-10.
51. World Health Organization. Fact Sheet No.
311. 2014. Available at:
weight [Accessed on August 3, 2019].
52. Obesity and overweight. World Cancer
Research Fund. WCRF-AICR. Food, Nutrition,
Physical Activity, and the Prevention of
Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington DC:
World Cancer Research Fund; 2007. p 517.
53. Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B,
Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional,
and national prevalence of overweight and
obesity in children and adults during 1980-
2013: a systematic analysis for the global
burden of disease study 2013. Lancet. 2014;
384 (9945): 766-81.
54. Wang Y, Mi, J, Shan XY, Wang QJ, Ge KY. Is
China facing an obesity epidemic and the
consequences? The trends in obesity and
chronic disease in China. Int J Obes. 2007; 31
(1): 177-88.
55. JI CY, Chen TJ. Empirical changes in the
prevalence of overweight and obesity among
Chinese students from 1985 to 2010 and
corresponding preventive strategies. Biomed
Environ Sci. 2013; 26 (1): 1-12.
56. Anderson B, Rafferty AP, Lyon-Callo S,
Fussman C, Imes G. Fast food consumption and
obesity among Michigan adults. Prev Chronic
Dis. 2011; 8 (4): 1-11.
57. Fraser LK, Clarke GP, Cade JE, Edwards KL.
Fast food and obesity: A spatial analysis in a
large United Kingdom population of children
Jahan I, et al. Eastern Medical College Journal
EMCJ. January 2020; 5 (1) 35
aged 13-15. Am J Prev Med. 2012; 42 (5): e77-
58. Rosenheck R. Fast food consumption and
increased caloric intake: A systematic review of
a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity
risk. Obes Rev. 2008; 9 (6): 535-47.
59. De Vogli R, Kouvonen A, Gimeno D. The
influence of market deregulation on fast food
consumption and body mass index: A cross-
national time series analysis. Bull World Health
Organ. 2014; 92 (2): 99-107.
60. Bezerra IN, Curioni C, Sichieri R. Association
between eating out of home and body weight.
Nutr Rev. 2012; 70 (2): 65-79.
61. Nago ES, Lachat CK, Dossa RAM, Kolsteren
PW. Association of out-of-home eating with
anthropometric changes: A systematic review
of prospective studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.
2014; 54 (9): 1103-16.
62. Shan XY, Xi B, Cheng H, Hou DQ, Wang Y,
Mi J. Prevalence and behavioral risk factors of
overweight and obesity among children aged 2-
18 in Beijing, China. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2010;
5 (5): 383-9.
63. Xu H, Short SE, Liu T. Dynamic relations
between fast-food restaurant and body weight
status: A longitudinal and multilevel analysis of
Chinese adults. J Epidemiol Community
Health. 2013; 67 (3): 271-9.
64. Duffey KJ, Gordon-Larsen P, Jacobs DR Jr,
Williams OD, Popkin BM. Differential
associations of fast food and restaurant food
consumption with 3-y change in body mass
index: The Coronary Artery Risk Development
in Young Adults Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;
85 (1): 201-8.
65. Rouhani MH, Mirseifinezhad M, Omrani N,
Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L. Fast food
consumption, quality of diet, and obesity among
Isfahanian adolescent girls. J Obes. 2012;
(597924); 1-8.
66. Ranjani H, Mehreen TS, Pradeepa R, Anjana
RM, Garg R, Anand K, et al. Epidemiology of
childhood overweight & obesity in India: A
systematic review. Indian J Med Res. 2016; 143
(2): 160‑74.
67. Goel S, Kaur T, Gupta M. Increasing proclivity
for junk food among overweight adolescent
girls in district Kurukshetra, India. Int Res J
Biological Sci. 2013; 2 (3): 80‑4.
68. Harnack L, Stang J, Story M. Soft drink
consumption among US children and
adolescents: Nutritional consequences. J Am
Diet Assoc. 1999; 99 (4): 436‑41.
69. Howard PH, Fitzpatrick M, Fulfrost B.
Proximity of food retailers and rates of
overweight ninth grade students: an ecological
study in California. BMC Public Health. 2011;
11 (68): 1-8.
70. Bowman SA, Vinyard BT. Fast food
consumption of U.S. adults: impact on energy
and nutrient intakes and overweight status. J
Am Coll Nutr. 2004; 23 (2): 163-8.
71. Christiansen E, Garby L, Sorensen TI.
Quantitative analysis of the energy
requirements for development of obesity. J
Theor Biol. 2005; 234 (1): 99-106.
72. Pereira MA, Kartashov AI, Ebbeling CB, Horn
VL, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR Jr, et al. Fast-food
habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (The
CARDIA study):15-year prospective analysis.
Lancet. 2005; 365 (9453): 36-42.
73. Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A
comparative risk assessment of burden of
disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors
and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990
2010: A systematic analysis for the Global
Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;
380 (9859): 2224-60.
74. Reilly JJ, Methven E, McDowell ZC, Hacking
B, Alexander D, Stewart L, et al. Health
consequences of obesity. Arch Dis Child.
2003; 88 (9): 748-52.
75. O Donnell SI, Hoerr SL, Mendoza JA, Tseui
Goh E. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88 (5): 1388-95.
76. Powell LM, Nguyen BT. Fast-food and full-
service restaurant consumption among children
and adolescents: effect on energy, beverage and
nutrient intake. JAMA Paediatr. 2013; 167 (1):
77. Marcino L, Todd JE, Guthrie J, Lin BH. How
food away from home affects children’s diet
quality? No. ERR-104. Economic Research
Service.; US Department of Agriculture,
Washington DC, 2010. Available at: www.ers. [Accessed on August 19, 2019]
78. Kirkpatrick SI, Reedy J, Kahle LL, Harris JL,
Ohri-Vachaspati P, Krebs-Smith SM. Fast-
food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but
are consistently poor. Public Health Nutr. 2014;
17 (4): 924-31.
79. Boutelle KN, Fulkerson JA, Neumark-Sztainer
D, Story M, French SA. Fast food for family
meals: relationship with parent and adolescent
food intake, home food availability and weight
status. Public Health Nutr. 2007; 10 (1):16-23.
80. Lin BH, Guthrie J, Frazao E. Nutrient
Contribution of Food Away from Home.
America’s Eating Habits: Changes and
Consequences. Washington, DC: USDA
Economic Research Service Bulletin AIB- 750,
May 1999. Available at: https://pdfs.semantic
54e39783411c.pdf [Accessed on August 15,
81. Anand SS, Hawkes C, De Souza RJ, Mente A,
Deghan M, Nugent R, et al. Food Consumption
and its impact on Cardiovascular Disease:
Jahan I, et al. Eastern Medical College Journal
EMCJ. January 2020; 5 (1) 36
Importance of Solutions focused on the
globalized food system: A Report from the
Workshop convened by the World Heart
Federation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015; 66 (14):
82. Demmer RT, Desvarieux M. Periodontal
infections and cardiovascular disease: the heart
of the matter. J Am Dental Assoc. 2006; 137
(Suppl): 14s-20s.
83. Oellingrath IM, Svendsen MV, Hestetun I.
Eating patterns and mental health problems in
early adolescence - a cross-sectional study of
12-13 year-old Norwegian school children.
Public Health Nutr. 2014; 17 (11): 2554-62.
84. Xu H, Sun Y, Wan Y, Zhang S, Xu H, Yang R,
et al. Eating pattern and psychological
symptoms: A cross-sectional study based on a
national large sample of Chinese adolescents. J
Affect Disord. 2019; 244: 155-63.
85. Some bad effects of junk food. [Internet]. 2009.
Available at:
article_792389_23.html. [Accessed on: August
9, 2019].
86. Nakayama K, Nakayama M, Terawaki H,
Murata Y, Sato T, Kohno M, et al. Carbonated
soft drinks and carbonyl stress burden. J
Toxicol Sci. 2009; 34 (6): 699-702.
87. Yadav K, Krishnan A. Changing patterns of
diet, physical activity and obesity among urban,
rural and slum populations in North India. Obes
Rev. 2008; 9 (5): 400-8.
88. Denney-Wilson E, Crawford D, Dobbins T,
Hardy L, Okely AD. Influences on consumption
of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents. Asia
Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009; 18 (3): 447-52.
Jahan I, Karmaker P, Hossain MM, Jahan N,
Islam MZ. Fast Food Consumption and its
Impact on Health. Eastern Med Coll J. 2020; 5
Jahan I, et al. Eastern Medical College Journal
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Consumption of takeaway and fast food by young adolescents is no longer confined to the developed countries; it has spread to the developing countries as well. The culture of fast food consumption has replaced the traditional meal among university students and is a great public health concern. Excessive consumption of fast food is responsible for obesity epidemics and the cause of a dramatic increase of obesity-related diseases. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March to December, 2015 among students attending in five. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference, prevalence and pattern of fast food consumption among the students. The prevalence of fast food consumption among those students was 98.5%, and 43.3% of their pocket money was spent on its purchase. The important factors for the preference of fast food include good taste, easy accessibility, increased convenience, and pocket friendly in nature. Approximately 22% of the respondents mentioned that they consumed fast food 4 days per week and more than one-fifth had the meal every day. Fifty four percent of the respondents skipped their breakfast due to a variety of reasons including class pressure and had fast food after finishing their classes, either from varsity canteens or other fast-food outlets. Though 98% of the students were well informed about the negative effects associated with excessive fast food consumption, they were still profoundly addicted to it. Specific health education programs, dietary guidelines and effective public awareness campaigns could be initiated to address the unhealthy lifestyle of university students and improve their health.
Full-text available
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non‑communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children’s physical health, social, and emotional well‑being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co‑morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.
Full-text available
The fast-food (FF) industry and obesity rates have rapidly increased in China. This study examined the FF industry growth in China, key factors contributing to the growth, and the association between FF consumption (FFC) and obesity. We collected related data from multiple sources and conducted analysis including linear regression analysis on the increase in FF revenue. It was found that FF industry in China is large, with over two million FF facilities. Its total revenue (in million US$) increased from 10,464 in 1999 to 94,218 in 2013, and by 13% annually since 2008. Increased income, urbanization, busier lifestyle, speedy FF service, assurance of food safety, new brands and foods have stimulated demand for FF. Studies have linked FFC with obesity risk, including a few reporting a positive association between FFC and obesity in China. Rapid expansion of Western-style FF restaurants has also stimulated local FF industry growth. Government regulation and public health education need to address the health consequences of rapidly increasing FFC. Lessons learned in China will help other countries.
Full-text available
Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern.
Full-text available
Away-from-home food consumption has rapidly increased, though little is known about the independent associations of restaurant food and fast food intake with body mass index (BMI) and BMI change. The aim was to compare the associations of restaurant food and fast food consumption with current and 3-y changes in BMI. Multivariate linear regression models, with control for demographic and lifestyle factors, were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating with BMI by using data from subjects of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (n = 3394) obtained at exam years 7 (1992-1993) and 10 (1995-1996). Forty percent of the sample increased their weekly consumption of restaurant or fast food, though mean (+/-SD) changes were -0.16 +/- 2.39 times/wk (P = 0.0001) and -0.56 +/- 3.04 times/wk (P < 0.0001), respectively. Cross-sectionally, fast food, but not restaurant food, consumption was positively associated with BMI. Similarly, higher consumption of fast food at year 7 was associated with a 0.16-unit higher BMI at year 10. After adjustment for baseline away-from-home eating, increased consumption of fast food only (beta: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.39) and of both restaurant food and fast food (beta: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.51) were positively associated with BMI change, though the estimates were not significantly different (P = 0.47). Increased consumption of restaurant food only was unrelated to BMI change (beta: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.21, 0.19), which differed significantly (P = 0.014) from the estimate for an increase in both restaurant food and fast food intake. We found differential effects of restaurant food and fast food intakes on BMI, although the observed differences were not always statistically significant. More research is needed to determine whether the differential effects are related to consumer characteristics or the food itself.
Full-text available
Fast food industry is a high growing sector of Bangladesh. It is concerned with the tastes and habits of the people. The food-taking habit especially in fast food segment has been changing very fast over last decade among the people of Dhaka - the capital city of Bangladesh. The reasons could be attributed by the increase of awareness, growth of education, development of information technology, and expansion of television channels and print media in Bangladesh. Hence, this paper aims at identifying the preference factors of fast food consumers living in Dhaka city. This study was conducted among the university students who usually eat fast food at their leisure time. To conduct the study, a total of 250 respondents were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data. Multivariate analysis technique like factor analysis was performed to identify the preference factors of the fast food student-consumers of Bangladesh. Multiple regressions were run to identify the relationship between the factors identified and the overall preference of the consumers. Results show that the consumers give most importance on brand reputation of the food item followed by nearness to receive and accessibility, similarity of taste with previous experience, cost and quality of the food, discount and taste, cleanliness and hygiene, salesmanship and decoration, fat and cholesterol level, and self-service factors. This study suggests that the brand reputation, nearness and accessibility, similarity in taste, and cost and quality relationship should be emphasized to improve the attraction of the university students towards the fast food items in Bangladesh.
Introduction: Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. Methods: We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adults, using univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression, and compared these data with data on Michigan obesity prevalence. Results: Approximately 80% of Michigan adults went to fast-food restaurants at least once per month and 28% went regularly (≥2 times/wk). Regular fast-food consumption was higher among younger adults (mostly men) but was not significantly associated with household income, education, race, or urbanicity (in a multivariate framework). The prevalence of obesity increased consistently with frequenting fast-food restaurants, from 24% of those going less than once a week to 33% of those going 3 or more times per week. The predominant reason for choosing fast food was convenience. Although hypothetically 68% of adults who go to fast-food restaurants would choose healthier fast-food items when available, only 16% said they ever use nutritional information when ordering. Conclusion: The prevalence of fast-food consumption is high in Michigan across education, income, and racial groups and is strongly associated with obesity. Making nutritional information at fast-food restaurants more readily available and easier to use may help consumers to order more healthful or lower-calorie items.