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Analyzing Application of Information Communication Technologies and Use for Information Provision by Library Staff of Mount Kenya University Library, Kisii Campus

World Journal of Computer Application and Technology 4(2): 23-33, 2016
DOI: 10.13189/wjcat.2016.040201
Analyzing Application of Information Communication
Technologies and Use for Information Provision by
Library Staff of Mount Kenya University
Library, Kisii Campus
Wamalwa Lucas Wanangeye*, Benard Omallah George
Mount Kenya University-Kisii Campus, Kenya
Copyright©2016 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under the
terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License
Abstract Information and Communication
Technologies (ICTs) play a crucial role in creating access to
and utilization of library information resources and services
through the use of library management systems leading to
the current stampede to train and refresh library staff skills in
order to promote and engender service delivery. When
academic libraries integrate ICTs in acquisition, processing,
storage, dissemination and accession to their holdings, user
needs are addressed quickly and on time. In this study the
researchers sought to determine the application of
Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Use
for information provision by library staff of the Mount
Kenya University Library, Kisii Campus. The target
population was Mount Kenya university library staff and
students. A survey research design aimed at identifying users
views and interpretation of the application and use of ICTs in
the provision of library information resources and services.
Stratified sampling was used to identify the
students-respondents and purposive sampling used to select
the library staff. While questionnaires were placed to collect
the data from students, library staff respondents were
interviewed. The study sample comprised four hundred (320)
library users and staff out of a population of three thousand
five hundred and twenty eight (1456). The study showed
among other findings, that there are improved access and use
of library resources and services through the use ICTs in
Mount Kenya University, Kisii Campus.
Keywords Information and Communication
Technologies, Library Resources and Services, Library
Management System, Academic Library
1. Introduction
Information communication technologies (ICTs) in the
information world have brought about some major changes.
According to La! ICTs are: "a diverse set of technological
tools and resources used to communicate, and to create,
disseminate, store and manage information" (cited in
Chisenga (2001:3) According to Chisenga (2001:3) "ICTs
came about as a result of the digital convergence of computer
technologies, telecommunication technologies and other
media communication technologies". Munoo (2000: 1) goes
on to say "the drive towards globalization of ICTs which
involve computer hardware and software, radio and
television receivers, broadcasting and telecommunications
equipment and networking, and multimedia systems has
created new technologies, products and services." Chisenga
(1999:2) pointed out that "ICTs if properly harnessed, can
play an important role in the development of the continent".
The use of ICTs in general, and the computer and Internet in
particular, enable library resources all over the world to be
accessed rapidly.
Developments in microcomputers and
telecommunications led to the growth of ICTs applications.
Abbas (1997) argued that the use of ICTs has changed the
roles and culture of libraries and library workers. ICTs play
an important role in information and knowledge
management. Technology has the potential to allow more
useful and valuable services to be produced than have
previously been available. The appetite and expectation of
the library users has increased because of ICTs, and
academic library workers are facing new challenges because
of the rapid technological advances. They are experiencing
escalating expectations and demands from the library users.
It is therefore especially important for university libraries
whose core asset is information, to instantly respond
creatively and dynamically to all these changes. Information
and communication technology (lCT) started developing in
the 19th Century.
Knowledgeable librarians seem to be the key to the whole
24 Analyzing Application of Information Communication Technologies and Use for Information
Provision by Library Staff of Mount Kenya University Library, Kisii Campus
process. Therefore ICTs skills are essential for all levels of
library workers and the traditional library core courses taught
in library and information science schools in the past years.
Even though there is so much emphasis on ICTs, paper print
books will remain important in libraries. According to Stover
(1999: 11) books have their own advantage of being able to
be browsed, and they are portable 1nd therefore have a large
base for users. Print and electronic information will continue
to coexist for the foreseeable future.
The modern library must be equipped to ensure fast and up
to date provision of information. The demand for library
service has increased over the last few years with ICTs
having transformed the services. The content and programs
of the universities have been transformed, and there have
been significant infrastructural developments within libraries.
Setting up ICTs takes a lot of work, but once implementation
has been done and the library workers have been trained, it
enables the staff to be knowledge workers and therefore
become creative and more productive even though they bring
their own problems.
2. Literature Review
ICTs are more than just another tool. Their potential for
increasing the range, relevance and accessibility of
information and communication used in libraries is very
significant as well as their potential for supporting library
staff in their everyday role and for continuing training and
professional development. The use of ICTs facilitates
storage of information in CD-ROMs, digital versatile disc
(DVD) and other electronic media. Furthermore, ICTs can be
used to integrate or repackage information from different
sources that can then be distributed (Chisenga 2001: 6).
Libraries are among the major information providers in
most countries. They need to be in the forefront in terms of
using the latest efficient information storage and
disseminating technology to deliver services to the users. To
prepare information professionals, there must be an
assessment of the librarian's role in the new electronic
information environment. The library workforce then needs
to be provided with the necessary skills to effectively assume
that role. According to Meadows, Gordon and Singleton
(1982: 1), some libraries are making a "transition from
traditional communication channels to digital channels".
However the major drivers of the changeover are
information collection, analysis, storage, retrieval,
distribution and dissemination.
Library employees have been trained to understand the
content of information resources, to understand technology
and to understand people. Library workers face tremendous
pressure to fulfill their traditional role and to utilize the latest
technology to radically restructure conventional library
functions. Stover (1999:9) argued that: the library is a place
that clearly must stay grounded in history, but at the same
time we must prepare for the changes that inevitably await us.
Just as the old cannot survive without the new, so the new
must not become disconnected from the old.
The information society has brought about changes in the
traditional skills of library workers. According to Steele and
Guha (1999): employees will be involved in a lifelong
learning process; be able to process and apply information to
the satisfaction of their client communities, be able to market
information and have high level of expertise as appropriate
in information technologies. Desai (2002) qualifies the
above statements by saying: Librarians are most interested in
instructional techniques and technologies and in the teaching
of information literacy in the sciences. They are also
interested in learning more about electronic resources,
including selections, management, and impact.
Library workers are no longer relying only on their
traditional skills, but they are now looking at having more
ICTs skills in order to be of more assistance to the library
users. Simmonds and Andaleeb (2001:631) argued that in
finding a way of familiarizing users with the library, there is
need to have access to helpful and knowledgeable library
staff. Users will be able to effectively use library resources if
they fully utilize the ICTs tools.
Knowledgeable librarians seem to be key to the whole
process. Therefore ICTs skills are essential for all levels of
library workers and the traditional library core courses taught
in library and information science schools in the past years.
Even though there is so much emphasis on ICTs, paper print
books will remain important in libraries. According to Stover
(1999: 11) books have their own advantage of being able to
be browsed, and they are portable 1nd therefore have a large
base for users. Print and electronic information will continue
to coexist for the foreseeable future.
The modern library must be equipped to ensure fast and up
to date provision of information. The demand for library
service has increased over the last few years with ICTs
having transformed the services. The content and programs
of the universities have been transformed, and there have
been significant infrastructural developments within libraries.
Setting up ICTs takes a lot of work, but once implementation
has been done and the library workers have been trained, it
enables the staff to be knowledge workers and therefore
become creative and more productive even though they bring
their own problems.
3. Research Methodology
This study aimed at determining the application of the
available ICTs and their use in provision of information
Mount Kenya University Library. Data was obtained to:
1 Identify utilization and limitations to the use of ICTs;
2 To solicit the views and impression the library staffs
have concerning their ICTs utilization and limitations;
3 To establish what should be done to maximize the
utilization of ICTs.
According to Bless and Higson-Smith (1995:63), a
World Journal of Computer Application and Technology 4(2): 23-33, 2016 25
research design "is a specification of the most adequate
operations to be performed in order to test specific
hypothesis under given conditions". Research design
revolves around surveys, experimentation and case studies.
Mouton (1998:208) describes experimental research as
taking action and observing the consequences of that action.
According to Rowley (2002: 16) the case study research
seeks to undertake a modest scale research project based on a
workplace or a comparison of a limited number of
organizations. Case studies are able to achieve in sights that
are not possible with other approaches; they are useful for
preliminary exploratory stage of a research project and as a
basis for a more structured tool necessary in surveys. Yin
(1994: 13) identifies the strength of a case study as its ability
to investigate a phenomenon in its context. Rowley (2001: 17)
identified that a case study research "uses a variety of
evidence from different sources, such as documents, artifacts,
interviews and observations". The case study was conducted
using survey research.
Survey research involves "obtaining information directly
from a group of individuals" (Dane 1990: 120).
In the context of this study, a survey method was
appropriate because the study required the collection of data
on the opinion and views of library staffs of Mount Kenya
University Library. Survey research is the most appropriate
methodological approach for this type of study given the
nature of the research problem and purpose of the study.
According to Dane (1990: 120), survey research "involves
obtaining information directly from a group of individuals";
in this study information was obtained from Mount Kenya
University Library staffs.
The population in this study was library staffs of Mount
Kenya University Library who have undergone formal
training and deal with library readers on a day-to-day basis.
Bless and Higson-Smith (1995: 86) indicated that the
population parameters are "specific value of quantities that
relates to the population, such as the average age of all
primary school teachers." For this research, it is library staffs
that have undergone formal university training, be it one year
or four years. The trained university library staffs were
numbered 88. Bless and Higson-Smith (1995: 87) argued
that, the best way to get an accurate picture is to examine
each and every member of the group being researched; this
was done in the present study. According to Bless and
Higson-Smith (1995: 85), "it is also possible to reach
accurate conclusion, by examining only a portion of the total
group". Leedy (1997:211) pointed out that "for smaller
population, N<100, there is little point in sampling. Survey
the entire population".
There was a physical assessment of the available ICTs
resources in the library, with the assistance from the relevant
supervisors and the senior systems librarian, informal
interviews were carried out to collect data from the library
staffs. Published and unpublished sources were used to
collect additional data relevant to the study. Most of the data
was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire
at Appendix B. The questionnaire was used to identify the
knowledge and skills in the use and application of ICTs for
information provision by Mount Kenya University Library
staffs. The staffs' needs were identified as well in order to
promote full utilization of the available ICTs efficiently and
effectively during information provision.
Questionnaires were hand delivered to library staffs in the
main campus and the Faculty of Engineering and
Technology Library. According to Leedy (1997:187),
questionnaire's main disadvantage is a low response rate. In
order to improve the response rate reminders were sent to
those who received questionnaires by electronic mail and a
follow up was made to those who received them by hand.
Eighty-eight questionnaires were distributed by hand and
through e-mail, 67 questionnaires were returned. The
respondents were the library staffs who had undergone
formal training and obtained a certificate, diploma, degree
and masters and dealt with library users in their daily duties.
A date was set for collection of the questionnaires. A total of
67 (76.13 %) usable questionnaires were received back. The
returned questionnaires were sight-edited to eliminate those
that were not usable, and were post-coded to prepare for the
net response rate as proposed by Alreck and Settle
(1995:207). The response rate was according to Babbie's
analysis very good. Babbie (1991:267) pointed out that a
response rate of 50 percent is adequate, 60 percent is good,
and 70 percent is very good and adequate for analysis and
Alreck and Settle (1995:267) describes data analysis as
"the use of statistical tools in order to reduce the amount of
details in the data, summarizing it and making the most
important facts and relationships apparent". Variables were
distinguished and entered into the provided SPSS table.
Alerck and Settle (1995:268) describes variables as "data
from each individual survey questions because they vary
from one person to the other". SPSS is a program used for
analyzing statistics and managing data. Variables are
analyzed into the collected data's frequencies, percentages
and cross-tabulation Responses were coded beginning with 1,
in a case where there were multiple responses, the first
response was coded 1 and the second was coded 2 and the
third was coded 3 and so forth. Data was manually entered
into the SPSS Data Editor. SPSS generates data to make it
easy for analysis. The next chapter presents the data that was
generated. Frequency tables were generated to express
percentages and charts were also used to display categorical
distribution graphically.
According to Powell (1991: 164) the content analysis
approach is best used for the responses for open-ended
questions, and this was the method adopted in this research.
Content analysis is collecting, organizing information
systematically in a standard format that allows analysts to
draw a conclusion about the characteristics and meaning of
recorded material (Alreck and Settle 1995:271). Content
analysis was made for open-ended questions; major themes
were drawn from the diverse responses. Dane (1990: 154)
describes content analysis as a methodology used for
determining the content of written recorded or published
26 Analyzing Application of Information Communication Technologies and Use for Information
Provision by Library Staff of Mount Kenya University Library, Kisii Campus
communications via a systematic, objective and quantitative
procedure. It is collecting, organizing information
systematically in a standard format that allows analysts to
draw a conclusion about the characteristics and meaning of
recorded material. It is useful for tabulating the results of
open-ended questions.
4. Results and Discussions
The purpose of this study was to determine the application
of ICTs and use by the library staffs of Mount Kenya
University Library. It surveyed staffs in their work situation.
The objectives of this study were: to establish the type of
ICTs used in Mount Kenya University Library; to determine
the purpose for which ICTs were used; to determine the ICT
skills and knowledge of Mount Kenya University Library
staffs; to establish how the staffs of Mount Kenya University
Library gained their ICT skills and knowledge; to identify
Mount Kenya University Library staff's training needs; and
then give recommendations on how ICTs could be
effectively and efficiently utilized to maximize information
provision in Mount Kenya University Library.
5. Characteristics of the Study Sample
This section deals with demographic information of the
respondents, such as gender, academic qualifications,
present occupation and positions, and experience.
6. Gender
The respondents were asked to indicate their gender in
order to identify the gender distribution of the study
population. Table 2 shows that the female respondents were
45 (67.2%) compared to 22 (32.8%) males.
Tab le 1. Gender
FEMALE 45 67.2
MALE 22 32.8
TOTAL 67 100
Source: Primary
7. Academic Qualifications
The respondents were asked to indicate their academic
qualifications in order to get their formal educational
background in relation to their work. This was with the
knowledge that the respondents have all undergone formal
university training. Information given in Table 3 regarding
the respondent's professional qualifications showed that only
three have a Certificate in Librarianship, 37 had a diploma in
Librarianship, three had both a diploma in Librarianship and
a degree from other subject disciplines, and the holders of
Masters in Librarianship were 24.
The masters' degree holders accounted for 35.8 percent,
while first degree and certificate holders accounted for 4.5
percent each, and diploma holders accounted for 55.2
percent. Mount Kenya University Library used to train its
entire staff up to master’s degree, but has since changed its
policy and is now training those recruited with high school
certificate up to undergraduate diploma level, while those
recruited with first degree are trained up to master’s level.
Tab le 2. Academic Qualifications
DIPLOMA 37 55.2
DEGREE 3 4.5
MASTERS 24 35.8
TOTAL 67 100.0
Source: Primary
8. Present Position and Area of Work
According to the data collected and analyzed in Table 4
below, there are thirty eight (56.7%) library officers, five
(7.5%) library supervisors, fifteen (22.4%) librarians and
nine (13.4%) senior librarians.
Tab le 3. Post Held
Library Officer 38 56.7
Library Supervisor 5 7.5
Librarian 15 22.4
Senior Librarian 13.4
Total 67 100.0
Source: Primary
The respondents were also asked to indicate their present
area of work. This was meant to identify the type of routine
jobs ICTs are used for depending on their work position in
the library. The data collected and analyzed indicated that the
library workers work in various areas. Graph A below shows
that the circulation assistants are nineteen (28.4%),
cataloguing assistants are nine (13.4%), acquisition
assistants are six (9%), periodicals assistant are three (4.5%),
inter library loans assistants are three (4.5%), the automation
assistant is one (1.5%), MKU Documents and Special
Collection (MKU-DSC) are two (3%); and subject librarians
are 24 (35.8%). The subject librarians are each responsible
for at least two to three academic subjects offered by Mount
Kenya University.
9. Experience
The respondent's work experience in Mount Kenya
University Library was sought. The data on Table 5 shows
World Journal of Computer Application and Technology 4(2): 23-33, 2016 27
that 23.9 percent of the respondents have 1-5 years’
experience, 40.3 percent account for those respondents with
experience of 6-10 years, 16.4 percent have 11-15 years’
experience, 10.4 percent have 16-20 years, six percent have
21-25 years and three percent have 26-30 years.
According to the informal interviews, most of the
respondents who have experience of 16 years and more were
recruited with the minimum entry qualifications of high
school certificate and junior certificate. It is most prevalent
for the library staffs who were recruited with a minimum of a
degree to leave Mount Kenya University Library after some
time for other libraries or change professions. The majority
of the respondents have worked for Mount Kenya University
Library only, for instance, 40 (71.6%) had never worked in
other libraries while only 19 (28.4%) have worked in other
Tab le 4. Experience
0-5 yrs 16 23.9
6-10 yrs
11-15 yrs 11 16.4
16-20yrs 7 10.4
21-25yrs 4 6.0
26-30yrs 2 3.0
TOTAL 67 100.0
Source: Primary
In order to identify what ICTs are they available to, and
how they are used for provision of information. The analysis
was as follows:
10. Access to Information
Communication Technologies
Table 6 provides the data on the availability of ICTs and
access to computers that are commonly used in libraries. The
data analysis shows that all the respondents have access to
computers. This data was collected in order to identify what
ICTs were available and to how many respondents. Those
who had access to both personal and terminal computers
were 35 (52.2%), and four (6%) shared computers. Staffs
who indicated that they use terminal computers are three
(4.5%). All the senior library staffs have personal computers,
while the cataloguing and acquisitions assistants have
personal computers too, although at times they have to share
them with other workers.
According to the senior systems librarian, Mount Kenya
University Library has managed to provide its staffs with
Hewlett and Packard and Dell computers in order to be in
line with the latest emphasis of using ICTs to provide library
services in today's libraries. The researcher also observed
that the library had two document scanners, barcode
scanners for the circulation, cataloguing and ordering
sections, microfilm and microfiche readers, televisions,
video machines, videos, a telephone line in every office,
telex-fax machines, shared printers for all the computers, and
two audio systems. Data analysis shows that the computers
in Mount Kenya University Library have Windows 2000, 98
and Windows NT. These ICTs are for use inside Mount
Kenya University Library only.
Tab le 5. Access to Information and Communication Technologies
ICTs Access Frequency Percent
Personal Computer 25 37.3
Terminal Computer 3 4.5
Shared Computer 4 6.0
Personal and Terminal 35 52.2
Total 67 100.0
Data received through interviews and observation shows
that all library staffs had access to the Internet and World
Wide Web, the intranets (Mount Kenya University databases)
and extranets (databases outside Mount Kenya University)
for their computers. The networking systems of the Mount
Kenya University Library are the local area network (LAN);
Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) database that is an
American based Institute; and the US Machine Readable
Cataloguing Record (USMARC) bibliography. All the
library staffs are connected through the LAN but not all of
them have a connection with other networks like OCLC.
According to the interview, all junior staff (those who do not
have masters) in the ordering and cataloguing sections had
OCLC connection but not all senior staff had those databases
because they do not order and catalogue library material.
11. Utilization of Information
Communication Technologies
This section is an analysis of the interview and
questionnaire data on the library staff' efficiency and
effectiveness in using the available ICTs in their work place.
According to the data analyzed, even though all library staffs
have access to ICTs the junior staffs hardly use the ICTs for
anything else except their routine jobs because they work on
targets and have to produce a specified statistical output at
the end of the day. The junior library staffs use computers for
their routine jobs like cataloguing, ordering, issuing and
returning of library material at all times in their job to an
extent that if the computers are down they cannot do any
work. Senior library staffs use and apply a number of ICTs'
resources and at the same time have hands on practice and
get trained in the process.
12. Access and Use of Information
Communication Technologies
The respondents were asked to indicate the ICTs'
resources they had access to in order to try and identify the
skills they had and identify their limitations in using the
available tools. According to Table 7, all the 67 respondents
28 Analyzing Application of Information Communication Technologies and Use for Information
Provision by Library Staff of Mount Kenya University Library, Kisii Campus
are able to access and use online public access catalogue
(OPAC), 37 respondents could scan draw and design, and
photocopying and printing services could be done by 32
respondents. Respondents who could do cataloguing and
acquisitions using ICTs were 54, 50 respondents could
operate the integrated circulation systems, 53 respondents
could operate the compact disk read only memory
(CD-ROM). The majority used the e-mail tool that
accounted for 66 respondents; the image archive could only
be used by ten respondents and therefore not very popular.
Forty respondents could use the resource sharing electronic
library, and 62 respondents could use Internet and the World
Wide Web. Only four respondents could use video
conferencing facilities, Braille specialist software was found
to be not known by any respondent. The respondents that
were able to make links to specific subject gateway were 37.
The data analysis indicates that the ICTs resources the
respondents have access to and used were those they used for
their daily work, as well as e-mail that are used for the
institutional communication and private communication.
Tab le 6. Access to and Use of The Following
Access and Use of following Frequency Percent
OPAC 67 100
Scanning Drawing & Design 37 55.2
Photocopying and Printing 32 47.8
Cataloguing & Acquisition 54 80.6
Integrated Circulation System 50 74.6
CD-ROM 53 79.1
Email 66 98.5
Image Archive 10 14.9
Resource Sharing 40 59.7
Access & Use of following Frequency Percent
Internet and WWW 62 92.5
Video Conferencing 4 6
Braille specialist software 0 0
Links specific subjects
gatewa ys
37 55.2
13. Previous Training in Information
Communication Technologies
Data on training of the respondents (see Table 8), shows
that 31 (46.3%) were trained on the use of ICTs available in
the library. Those who had not had training in ICTs were 26
(38.8%). Some respondents got their ICTs training while
they were doing their diplomas in information studies and
those account for six (9%) while the ones who got it when
they were doing masters degrees account for four (6 %).
The majority of the respondents who have had training in
ICTs had in-house training. Some had computer knowledge
they learnt from their colleagues; and some enroll on their
own for courses offered by other institutions. A few senior
library staffs have gone for ICTs training course or
workshops as mentioned below, and some even indicated
that they wish they could be trained on routine library
programmes so that they are not rendered helpless when they
experience problems after working hours.
Apart from being trained on the programmes that the
library used, data analysed show that some library workers
attended short courses and workshops on the following:
Two respondents trained on PowerPoint;
Two respondents trained on library systems;
Two respondents were trained on e-mail;
Seven respondents attended a course on Internet;
Four respondents attended a CD-ROM course;
One respondent did a course on hypertext mark-up
language (HTML);
Two respondents trained on index and database access;
One respondent did records management;
Three respondent were trained on US Marc and OCLC;
One respondent did hands-on practice and theory on
online resources;
Two respondents did web use and design.
The only respondents who were trained on the
above-mentioned ICTs were seven library workers who
seem to enjoy a monopoly over training courses.
Tab l e 7. Previous ICTs Training
Previous ICT Training Frequency Percent
YES 31 46.3
No 26 38.8
Diploma 6 9.0
Masters 4 6.0
Total 67 100.0
14. Skills and Knowledge for
Application and Use of ICT’s within
the Library
The respondents were asked if they had skills in some of
the ICTs' resources that are commonly used in libraries. This
was to try and find out what resources they are able to use in
their work. The respondents use the routine work
programmes as reflected by Table 9. E-mail use was by 66
(98.5 %) respondents, 61 (91 %) respondents searched the
WWW, 54 (80.6%) respondents used Microsoft Word, 52
(77.6 %) respondents catalogued, 48 (71.6%) used
circulation control, 42 (62.7%) did a reference service using
online tools, and 39 (58.2%) used the resource ordering
The following ICTs applications are not used as much as
the above mentioned by the respondents, these includes
journal control which was used by 17 (25.4 %) percent, and
inter library loans (ILL) could be done by 24 (35.8 %) of the
respondents. Journal control and inter-library loans have
fewer staff than other departments such as circulation and
cataloguing, and those library staffs are the only ones who
World Journal of Computer Application and Technology 4(2): 23-33, 2016 29
have been trained on the job to use those programmes.
According to an informal interview held with the head of
circulation, fines control is a very sensitive module because
it deals with financial affairs and therefore only 18 (26.9%)
respondents knew how to operate it. The rest of the ICTs'
resources like enrollment in online courses was done by
eight (11.9%) respondents, the use of online discussion
forum could done by 23 (34.3%) and the use of video
conferencing could be done by four (6%). The respondents
who had skills for the above three mentioned tools, online
courses, online discussion forum and video conferencing
were mostly expatriates who got training from the libraries
they worked in before.
Tab le 8. Skills in Information and Communication Technologies
Circulation Control 48 71.6
Cataloged 52 77.6
Ordered 39 58.2
Journal Control Order 17 25.4
Fines Control 18 26.9
Inter Library Loans 24 35.8
Reference services 42 62.7
Microsoft word document 54 80.6
Used Email 66 98.5
Searched the Web 61 91
Enrolled for online course 8 11.9
Online discussions 23 34.3
Video Conferencing 4 6
15. Training Needs
The respondents were asked to identify their ICTs training
needs in order to determine if training was needed and what
in particular was needed. The respondents were given a
choice of the types of training needs and as indicated by
Table 9. Understanding the theory, practice and pedagogy of
online learning was chosen by 35 (52.2 %), increasing
awareness for locating online resources there were also 38
(56.7 %), for evaluating online learning material there were
38 (56.7%) and for designing and developing new online
materials there were 29 (43.3 %) respondents. Some of the
respondents indicated that they were not familiar with the
listed programmes and therefore could make the best
Tab l e 9. Training Respondents would benefit from
Training to benefit from Frequency Percent
Understanding he theory , practice and
pedagogy of online learning
35 52.2
Increasing your awareness locating online
20 22.9
Evaluating existing online learning material 38 56.7
Designing and developing new online material 29 43.3
16. Online Resources Training That Will
Improve Their Work
In order to determine the perception of the respondents on
what they thought could improve their work they were asked
to indicate the online resources that they perceived to be key
to the improvement of their work. Table 11 highlights the
analysis of the finding information on the web were 41
(61.2 %) respondents and was the majority;
Online assessment exercises were 39 (58.2 %)
respondents and were the second most popular.
Electronic discussion lists were 29 (43.3 %)
Authoring online learning material were 28 (41.8 %)
E-mail could help improve their work were 27 (40.3 %)
Video conferencing were 26 (38.8 %) respondents.
There was an open-ended question asking respondents to
add what other areas they could think of that would improve
their use and applications of ICTs they can think of that will
improve their work apart from the above listed ones, only
four (6 %) indicated the following:
Word processing and
An introduction to library ICTs course, respondents'
answers. Those who thought:
Tab l e 10. Online Resource Training that will improve work
Online Resource Training Frequency Percent
Email 27 40.3
Electronic Discussion List 29 43.3
Video Conferencing 26 38.8
Web Information 41 61.2
Authoring Online learning
28 41.8
Online Assessment exercise 39 58.2
Any other resource 4 6
The respondents were asked to suggest the type of training
they would find suitable. The respondents indicated how
they would like to have their training in future. Table 12
shows the frequency distribution of the number of
respondents according to what they prefer. A traditional
face-to-face workshop was chosen by 54 (80.6%)
respondents, they indicated that they prefer it because one is
able to ask questions and have the trainer go back and repeat
what was missed. The respondents who chose an advice by
phone were 23 (34.3%) because they prefer learning at their
own pace and in their privacy. An open or flexible learning
online was chosen by 42 (62%) respondents because it would
still be part of ICTs training, they should be able to learn
online. The other training needs the respondents had varied
and were many. They have training needs in:
Web design
30 Analyzing Application of Information Communication Technologies and Use for Information
Provision by Library Staff of Mount Kenya University Library, Kisii Campus
Video conferencing
General information technology in libraries
Authority control
Designing web based courses
Subject links trouble shooting skills
Document scanning
The respondents indicated that except for only a few, none
had ever attended any lCTs training in a form of workshop or
course except on the programmes they use for their jobs.
Tab l e 11 . Preferred mode of acquiring information communication
technology skills
Recommendation Frequency Percent
Traditional face to face workshop 54 80.6
Advice by phone, email, or through
electronic discussions
23 34.3
Open or flexible learning online 42 62.7
17. Conclusions and Recommendations
Mount Kenya University Library is going through rapid
technological changes and advances requiring an even more
adaptive and sophisticated workforce. There is a need for a
newly developed workforce of electronic resource library
staffs, information managers, system interrogators and
training and education providers to conceive, build and
implement a wide array of information technology. Mount
Kenya University Library has most of the ICTs suitable 6or
use in libraries and should use them for the efficient and
effective provision of information to its users.
Utilization of ICTs in Mount Kenya University Library by
the staffs is inadequate as only the library staffs who provide
certain service know how to use the relevant ICTs for that
service. The use and applications of ICTs requires library
staffs with skills and knowledge. Mount Kenya University
Library staffs are not fully utilizing the ICTs in their office
because of their varying levels of ICT skills. This research
has established that Mount Kenya University library staffs
have varying and limited ICT skills, and that there is need to
train the library staffs at all levels in order to achieve
effective and efficient use and application of ICTs. The
library should establish a central training office for training
of its staffs. Information communications technology
solution will only be successful if they directly focus on the
workforce that is expected to satisfy the critical information
needs of the library users.
Mount Kenya University library should train its staffs at
the same pace as it is acquiring and developing its ICTs. Dole
and Stalker (1996) too pointed out that libraries should
devote some of the resources to training their workers. In that
regard, Mount Kenya University Library should adapt and
devote some resources every year in order to have
continuous training on ICTs considering how dynamic they
are. Training should be considered important for all the
levels of library staffs because their main objective is to
make available information to the library users. Library
staffs that are resisting technology must be brought on board
and sensitized on its worthiness.
UNESCO Asia-Pacific Regional Bureau for Education
(2002) indicated that, Universities are entering into
partnerships with the private sector, particularly the IT
industry, in order to help maintain operation and financial
viability of ICT-based education programmes. This ICTs
programmes must be sustained and developed on a long-term
basis. Mount Kenya University Library has already indicated
its plan of linking with other higher institutional libraries and
national libraries for information provision; it should include
training as a joint venture. Kaniki (1999) recommended that,
"it will be a waste of limited resources for each institutions
and library to develop its own courses as the needs for
training appear to be similar". Mount Kenya University
Library therefore should work together with other
institutions that have ICTs training needs within the country.
Gallant investment in ICT in libraries is required in
relation to library resources. As such, library staff must be in
the know of all resources held in the library and how ICT
foster their utility. Academic libraries must subscribe to all
e-resources which will enhance ICT implementation and
promote user-friendliness in the library set up.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
This article discusses the background and results of the 2007 biennial survey of the continuing education interests of science and technology librarians conducted by the Science and Technology Section (STS) of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Africa has not been a huge success story in the 20th-century library and information world. What, if anything, can the rest of the developing world learn from the African experience? In many countries library and information services are more highly developed than in any countries of Africa. But others share many of the handicaps of library and information services development which characterize African countries. For librarians and information workers from such countries, the African experience may be quite close to home and it may offer some useful lessons.This paper attempts to outline the state of library development in Africa at the turn of the century in the context of the challenges and opportunities presented on the one hand by the world-wide developments in information technology, and on the other by the hoped for African Renaissance. Six promising responses to these challenges and opportunities are presented.Africa is a large and diverse continent. In this paper it is not possible to give a historical perspective on library development in Africa. Given limitations of the author's experience, the emphasis is on Anglophone Africa and on the countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and on public, university and national libraries.
COMPETITIVE PRESSURES FROM DIFFERENT INFORMATION providers; widely available information resources; rising costs of books, serials, and electronic resources; and emerging new technologies and services providing information to potential library users raise questions about the role of academic libraries in present times. There has been some deliberation about the necessity to better understand and define the needs and expectations of library users to provide the appropriate kind and levels of service to provide satisfaction and service quality: But whether satisfaction with services is likely to explain the use of actual facilities is a moot question-i.e., the link between user satisfaction and usage of the brick and mortar facilities may be tenuous. This study proposes and tests a model to explain the use of academic libraries. The explanatory factors include service quality factors, resources, and user characteristics. Students in three academic libraries were surveyed in Erie, Pennsylvania, over a period of three semesters. Of the 210 questionnaires that were distributed, 188 were returned. The model was significant and explained some of the variation in library usage.