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Reasons for customers reluctance to use electronic payments – A study in Ho Chi Minh City

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This study aims to investigate reasons why customers are reluctant to use e-payment and how these reasons explain their impacted values, with the following research objectives: (1) to identify characteristics of electronic payment generating the resistance of customers to this E-payment; (2) to explore the connections between those characteristics and values of individuals through the consequences of these characteristics; (3) to propose suggestions for service providers and financial institutes to develop appropriate strategic plans to motivate e-payment in Vietnam. To address these research objectives, the means-end chain (MEC) theory is employed with hard laddering interviews as data collection methods. Then, the collected data are analyzed by the Association Pattern Technique (APT) and used to build the Hierarchical Value Map (HVM). The HVM indicates five main reasons which bar customers from using e-payment: (1) lack of information about e-payment and its benefits, (2) security vulnerabilities in online payment systems, (3) unavailability of legal laws to protect e-payment users, (4) unpopularity of e-payment, and (5) transaction fees and no discount for e-payment. The Value map also revealed that Safety is the most crucial value explaining why most customers are unwilling to use e-payment. Besides, the respondents also care about the Economy and the Convenience of e-payment. From these findings, the study offers some suggestions for banks and service providers to increase the popularity of e-payments.
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Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43 25
Reasons for customers reluctance to use electronic
payments - A study in Ho Chi Minh City
Le Thi Thanh Xuan1*, Tran Tien Khoa2, Nguyen Thi Kha1
1Hochiminh City University of Technology - VNUHCM, Vietnam
2International University - VNUHCM, Vietnam
*Corresponding author: lttxuan@hcmut.edu.vn
ARTICLE INFO
ABSTRACT
DOI:10.46223/HCMCOUJS.
econ.en.9.2.155.2019
Received: February 26th, 2019
Revised: April 19th, 2019
Accepted: August 15th, 2019
Keywords:
e-payment, hard laddering
interview, hierarchical value
map (HVM), means- end chain
(MEC) theory, resistance
This study aims to investigate reasons why customers are
reluctant to use e-payment and how these reasons explain their
impacted values, with the following research objectives: (1) to
identify characteristics of electronic payment generating the
resistance of customers to this E-payment; (2) to explore the
connections between those characteristics and values of
individuals through the consequences of these characteristics;
(3) to propose suggestions for service providers and financial
institutes to develop appropriate strategic plans to motivate e-
payment in Vietnam. To address these research objectives, the
means-end chain (MEC) theory is employed with hard
laddering interviews as data collection methods. Then, the
collected data are analyzed by the Association Pattern
Technique (APT) and used to build the Hierarchical Value Map
(HVM). The HVM indicates five main reasons which bar
customers from using e-payment: (1) lack of information about
e-payment and its benefits, (2) security vulnerabilities in online
payment systems, (3) unavailability of legal laws to protect e-
payment users, (4) unpopularity of e-payment, and (5)
transaction fees and no discount for e-payment. The Value map
also revealed that Safety is the most crucial value explaining
why most customers are unwilling to use e-payment. Besides,
the respondents also care about the Economy and the
Convenience of e-payment. From these findings, the study
offers some suggestions for banks and service providers to
increase the popularity of e-payments.
1. Introduction
Vietnam is considered a high potential market for e-payment. According to the World
Bank data, Vietnam has had a growth rate of 6.46 percent per year since 2000, one of the highest
rates in the world. The majority of its population is under 35 accounting for 57% (Loi, 2017),
and they are the most tech-savvy group contributing to more than 50% of internet users in
26 Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
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Vietnam and high e-commerce increase of average 22% growth year on year (E-commerce
revenue went up 22% in 2017). Vietnam is a developing country with high internet use rate of
52 percent, which is ranked 15th in the globe (VietnamBriefing, 2017; VietNamNews, 2017). The
rate is increasing at 9 percent per year. The percentage of smartphone and mobile Internet users
is also high. The number of mobile subscriptions has increased to 131.9 million with smartphone
ownership reaching 72 percent and 53 percent in urban and rural areas, respectively. Vietnamese
people use mobile Internet for many activities, such as surfing social networks. However, they are
not familiar with electronic payments and Vietnam is still a cash dominated economy with 90
percent of all transactions conducted in cash (VietnamBriefing, 2017).
The Vietnamese government has developed a plan to reduce cash transactions and
improved electronic payment methods to support government initiatives to become a cashless
economy by 2020 (Fintechnews, 2017). With a plan to equip all supermarkets, shopping malls,
stores, and distributors with facilities to accept credit cards, it is expected that cash payment
would account for less than 10% of the total market transactions. In addition, various utility
providers such as electricity, water, telecommunication, internet, etc., are accepting electronic
payment methods and trying to make e-payment easier and more popular to Vietnamese people.
However, these efforts are not strong enough to motivate the Vietnamese to accept electronic
payment.
According to Ram and Sheth (1989), there are many reasons for customer resistance to
changes. This resistance is normal and customers will not adapt to changes unless such reasons
are addressed thoroughly. Therefore, to motivate Vietnamese customers to adopt e-payment, it is
necessary to investigate why they are resistant to electronic payment. Accordingly, this paper
aims (1) to identify characteristics of e-payment generating customer resistance to its use; (2) to
explore the connections between those characteristics and values of individuals through the
consequences of these characteristics; (3) to propose suggestions for service providers and
financial institutes to develop appropriate strategic plans to motivate e-payment in Vietnam.
2. Literature review
Innovation Resistance Theory (IRT)
The meaning of Innovation Resistance (IR) is the resistance by the consumers due to
possible changes in current satisfactory state or difference from their idea of innovation (Ram &
Sheth, 1989). According to this theory, consumers do not easily accept innovations. Two types
of resistance to innovation adoption are functional and psychological barriers.
Means-end chain theory
Means-end chain (MEC) theory was designed by psychologist Tolman (1932) and
economist Abbott (1955) (as cited inter Hofstede, Audenaert, Steenkamp, & Wedel, 1998), who
recognized that consumers choose a product not for its own sake but for the value and benefits
brought about by that product. According to Reynolds and Gutman (1988), consumers select a
product or service when its attributes can help them achieve the desired values or benefits from
using such a product.
In the MEC theory, consumers relate to products by a hierarchical cognitive structure
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Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43 27
of three interlinked levels: product attributes, consequences of product use and personal values
(Grunert & Grunert, 1995; Hofstede et al., 1998; Reynolds & Gutman, 1988). Three concepts
form the content of consumer knowledge, whereas the structure is created from the linkages
among them. The linkage will then help to explain consumer decision making to translate
product or service characteristics or attributes and consequences of use into personal self-
relevant values as the desired ends. Attributes are tangible and intangible characteristics of a
product (Reynolds & Gutman, 1988). Consequences are defined as any result (physiological or
psychological) accruing directly and indirectly to the consumer (sooner or later) from their
behavior (Gutman, 1982). It reflects the benefits or consequences related to product attributes.
Values are the intangible and desired-ends value of consumers which represent their most
fundamental needs.
Laddering interview
Reynolds and Gutman (1988) stated that laddering is the most widely applied technique
to reveal means-end structures. Two approaches for laddering interview include soft and hard
laddering interviews. The soft-laddering interview allows freedom in customer answers and
their natural flow of speech. The hard-laddering interview, on the other hand, allows less
freedom in consumer answers and navigate consumers to follow questions set up in advance and
let them choose the best answer from a defined list.
Previous studies on E-payment
In his study conducted in Iran, Yassaman (2009) used MEC theory to explore why Iran
customers do not use Internet banking (IB). The findings showed 10 attributes (A) from such
reasons including (1) No computer/No Internet connection, (2) Internet Environment, (3) IB
account creation procedure, (4) IB payment procedure, (5) Enter billing and card information,
(6) Lack of a receipt, (7) Limited IB services, (8) Lack of bank staff presence, (9) Previous
unsuccessful experience, and (10) Not being widely used. Those attribute lead to 5 personal
values (V): (1) Convenience, (2) Security, (3) Economy, (4) Compatibility, and (5) Resistance
to Change.
Hongxia, Xianhao, and Weidan (2011) conducted a study in China to investigate both
drivers and barriers of mobile payment acceptance. The research findings revealed two keys
barriers namely the perceived risks and the costs. The perceived risk means the security concern
due to the infancy of the market and uncertainty of the mobile payment environment and the
costs involve direct transaction fees, access cost and new mobile phone cost.
Issahaku (2012) found 4 main groups of challenges for implementation of electronic
payment in Ghana, including Security with PIN for debit cards authentication, Infrastructure
in term of connectivity and cost,
Legal, regulatory and Socio-cultural issues
with a high
illiteracy rate and highly unbanked
population which requires more training for customers to
understand and adopt e-payment. From the research findings of Okifo and Igbunu (2015),
customer resistances to adopt the electronic payment system in Nigeria are due to: (1) lack of
awareness of and information about the benefits of e-payment system, (2) fear of risk, (3) unwell
trained personnel in the key merchants & organizations, (4) cash habit, (5) people resistance to
28 Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43
new payment mechanisms, (6) security (disclosure of private information, counterfeiting and
illegal alteration of payment data), (7) low literacy rate, (8) high internet cost, and (9) unreliable
power supply. In addition, the e-payment systems are also seen as an imposition, such as lack
of uniform payment platforms, lack of adequate infrastructure, platform security and lack of
seriousness by banks.
Arango-Arango and Suarez-Ariza (2017) conducted a study in five main Colombian
cities: Barranquilla, Bogota, Bucaramanga, Cali, and Medellin with 2 surveys on consumers and
merchants to understand reasons for low electronic payments usage. The study found that
factors impeding the growth of electronic payments come from both consumers and merchants.
For the consumer side, there are 2 key areas: access to transactional services and the use of
electronic payment instruments. For accessibility, the main reasons are low levels of income,
wealth and education, privacy and inadequate product design and high costs against operation
cash. The instruments are impacted by a high preference for cash: speed, price discounts, and
budgetary control and low acceptance by merchants (only 13% chance of electronic payment
being accepted by merchants). For merchants, the reasons include high costs and low perceived
gains relative to cash payment, unbanked population and worry about informality status and
low perceived demand of e-payments by clients.
Sivathanu (2018) uses the IR Theory to explain why customers are reluctant to use e-
payment in India. The study found five key barriers that should be broken down to make e-
payment systems more applicable and user-friendly to customers. They are usage barriers, value
barriers, risk barriers, traditional barriers, and image barriers.
Dinh, Nguyen, and Nguyen (2018) provide insights into motivations and barriers
affecting consumer behaviors toward mobile payments in Vietnam. The study highlights the
main barriers that still inhibits mobile payment usage in Vietnam. Generally, Vietnamese
consumers show a lack of trust in mobile payment technology and service providers. In
particular, they concerned much about privacy, security, fraud of bank accounts and card
numbers, and payment transaction errors from the e-payment system. Another inhibitor is low
availability with limited opportunities to use mobile payment services. The perceived
complexity due to users’ lack of knowledge and unclear instructions are other barriers. The last
inhibitor is the cash habit of Vietnamese people.
All barriers from the above studies are inherited for this research and are used as the
foundation for the initial study. However, they are classified into the Attribute/ Consequence/
Value levels to enable laddering interviews in a qualitative study. In total, there are 14 attributes
of e-payment, 10 of consequences, and 6 of personal values.
3. Methodology
Method
The main purpose of this study is to investigate reasons preventing customers from
accepting and using electronic payment by employing MEC theory with hard-laddering
interviews to collect data. There are 2 stages in the study. In the first stage, based on attributes
(A), consequences (C), and values (V) from previous studies, soft-laddering interviews were
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Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43 29
conducted with 02 specialists in electronic payment (01 is Customer Center Director in one
commercial bank and the other is Head of Product Development Division in another commercial
bank) and 03 customers to modify the A-C-V list that matches with the context of Ho Chi Minh
City. After 05 soft-laddering interviews, 15 attributes (A) of e-payment (01 new A added), 12
Consequences (C) (02 new Cs added) and 6 Values (V) are used for the hard-laddering
interview, totally. The finalized list of A-C-V is presented in Table 1.
Table 1
Finalized A-C-V
No
Stakeholders
From previous studies
Finalized after interviews
Code
1
Internal
factors:
Users
Cash habit
Cash habit
A1
2
Lack of information about
electronic payment and its
benefits
Lack of information about electronic
payment and its benefits
A2
3
Need to have a bank card
Need to have a bank card
A3
4
No computer / no
smartphone/ no Internet
connection
Need to have connected
laptop/smartphone
A4
5
Enter billing and
card information
Need to enter billing and card
information
A5
6
Lack of a receipt
Lack of a sealed receipt
A6
7
Electronic money is not
real
Electronic money is not real
A7
8
Previous unsuccessful
experience
Previous unsuccessful experience
A8
9
External
factors:
1. Banks or
Financial
institutions
2.Services
providers
3.
Merchants
4.
Policymakers
Not being widely used
Not being widely used
A9
10
E-payment market is
immature (lack of adequate
infrastructure and uniform
payment platforms)
E-payment market is immature (lack
of adequate infrastructure and
uniform payment platforms)
A10
11
Transaction fee/No special
discount for E-payment
A11
12
Complicated payment
procedure
Complicated payment procedure
A12
13
Internet Environment
Information security system is not
good
A13
14
Not timely support
services, including
Not timely support services,
including unwell trained staff
A14
30 Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
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No
Stakeholders
From previous studies
Finalized after interviews
Code
unwell trained staff
15
Unavailable
regulators to protect
users
No legal to protect users
A15
CONSEQUENCES
1
Do not want to know/learn about EPS
No need to learn about e- payment
C1
2
Feel uncomfortable, unclear when
using e- payment
Not clearly understand
C2
3
Time-consuming
Time-consuming
C3
4
Purchase computer/phone
Costly/ no discount
C4
5
Make mistakes by users
Possibility of making mistakes by
users
C5
6
No transaction evidence
No transaction evidence
C6
7
Feel insecure
No trust
C7
8
Usage difficulty, including password
required for the transaction
Usage difficulty
C8
9
Not all merchants accept E-
payments
C9
10
Payment transaction errors
Payment system errors
C10
11
Possible internet threats: Fraud of bank
accounts and card number
Risk of disclosing personal
information, card and account
C11
12
Risk of losing money
C12
VALUES
1
Economy
Using E-payment is not
economical
V1
2
Security
Using E-payment is not safe
V2
3
Convenience
Using E-payment is not
convenient
V3
4
Control
Using E-payment doesn’t bring
financial control
V4
5
Efficiency
Using E-Payment is not efficient
V5
6
Change resistance
I’m not willing to use E-payment
V6
Source: The researcher’s data analysis
Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
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Then, in the second stage, Association Pattern Technique (APT) is followed to build the
questionnaire for hard-laddering interview including two matrices (A-C and C-V) of internal
factors so that respondents will select the attributes, associated consequences, and values that
make them reluctant to e-payment (See Table 2 & 3). Similarly, external factors will be explored
in the last two questions.
Table 2
Matrix of attributes (A) and consequences (C)
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
Source: The researcher’s data analysis
Table 3
Matrix of consequences (C) and values (V)
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
32 Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
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C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
Source: The researcher’s data analysis
Sampling
Because of the unpopularity of hard- laddering survey, respondents easily get confused
when answering the questionnaire. Therefore, each respondent was approached individually in
person and asked appropriate questions to target the right person for the survey. The
requirement to be a surveyor is that (1) Customers know about electronic payment but do not
use and they conduct most of their transactions by cash, or (2) Customers who had used
electronic payment before but no longer use it, or (3) Customers limit the use of e-payment in
their transactions. Then, each respondent needs from 15 to 20 minutes to complete the
questionnaire.
Costa, Dekker, and Jongen (2004) proposed a sample size of 50 for a study using a
hard laddering interview technique. Therefore, the minimum sample size of this study should
be ≥50. After the data collection, there were 203 qualified questionnaires used for analysis.
Data analysis
In order to analyze the means-end data from laddering interviews, Hofstede et al. (1998)
proposed and validated a survey-based study named Association Pattern Technique. There are
three steps in the APT (Reynolds & Gutman, 1988): (1) Finalize the list of three groups of
attributes (A), consequences (C) and values (V); (2) Create the association pattern matrices
from the first results where respondents are supposed to mark in a cell and a linkage is
perceived; and (3) Construct the Hierarchical Value Map (HVM) by analyzing the links
between elements from the two A-C and C-V matrices.
In order to construct the HVM, the first step is to quantify the A-C and C-V matrices
according to the APT model. The responses for the 2 above matrices are “Yes” or “No”. If the
answer is “Yes”, there will be a linkage for A-C or C-V and 1 point will be given. On the
contrary, if the choice is “No”, there is no linkage between them and a score of 0 will be given.
Summarizing all points of each cell will show how many times the linkage is mentioned. The
quantitative results of two relational matrices are used to construct the HVM. A HVM is a map
in which all linkages among Attributes, Consequences, and Values (A-C-V) are expressed in
the form of a chart to provide a visual look at the results of this study and to help them focus
on the issues that need to be addressed.
The next step is to balance the amount of information from the two relational matrices
and retain A/C/V elements and their linkages to create a final, clear and simple map with
sufficient information for an explanation. This balance depends on the quantity of sample size
Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43 33
and the uniformity of information from respondents. It is often expressed by the cut- off point
which indicates the minimum number that a link must have to appear in the hierarchical value
map. For example, if the cut-off point is 4, those linkages that appear smaller than 4 will not be
retained in the HVM. The purpose of the cut-off is to distinguish the important linkages and
omit the rest in order to achieve useful and interpretable HVMs. Kang, Kang, Yoon, and Kim
(2014) suggested a cut-off point of 5% of the total cell number of the A-C matrix and the cut-
off point for the C-V matrix is suggested to be 3 to 5 linkages. The HVM covers 3 levels of
abstraction. The Attribute (A) is the lowest level of abstraction and located at the bottom, the
value (V) is the highest level and at the top of the map. A possible HVM for the study of barriers
to e-payment adoption is illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 1. An example HVM for the study of barriers to e-payment adoption
4. Research findings
Data description
Table 4 summarises characteristics of the sample, including: age, gender, and payment
methods. Based on the qualified questionnaires, 55% of the respondents are under 35 and this
echoes the information in the article of Loi (2017) mentioned in the Introduction. A majority of
the population is under 45 (171 out of 203 respondents) and around 80 % of them mostly or
totally use cash in daily transactions. Therefore, the sample meets the requirements of the
proposed target population.
34 Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
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Table 4
Sample’ description
Description
Total
Age
18-25
26-35
36-45
46-55
>55
No.
51
61
59
23
9
203
Gender
Male
Female
No.
98
105
203
Payment
methods
100% by cash
Mostly by cash
Same ratio
No.
37
124
42
203
Source: Data analysis result of the research
Implication matrices
The matrix in Table 5 illustrates the attributes that make consumers not willing to use E-
payment and the consequences of those attributes. Each cell in the matrix represents a link. There
are 126 and 54 links, which are mentioned and not mentioned, respectively. The mostly-mentioned
links are (A1, C1) at 86, (A11, C4) at 85 or (A13, C11) at 81. On the other hand, there are also links
with a minimum occurrence at 1, such as (A3, C5), (A5, C1) or (A7, C4). The attributes A9 and
A10 have linkages to most of the consequences while A11 is only linked to a few consequences.
All attributes are associated with the consequence of C9, whereas C6 and C11 are less linked to
attributes.
Table 5
A-C matrix about reasons why customers are unwilling to use E-payment
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
A1
86
42
20
12
22
11
26
15
28
0
0
0
A2
17
70
11
4
8
2
16
11
16
0
0
0
A3
2
6
76
19
1
2
6
7
8
0
0
0
A4
4
3
13
33
8
0
4
16
43
0
0
0
A5
1
3
20
0
47
0
2
8
17
0
0
0
A6
0
0
0
0
3
50
8
2
1
0
0
0
A7
4
4
1
1
0
3
20
3
2
0
0
0
A8
0
4
15
2
15
1
17
8
13
0
0
0
A9
48
35
6
5
0
0
20
23
55
10
16
10
A10
13
24
18
1
0
0
36
21
41
41
31
33
A11
0
8
2
85
0
0
0
0
5
1
0
3
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Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
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C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
A12
3
6
39
2
0
0
10
35
23
17
6
12
A13
2
3
0
0
0
0
41
1
5
44
81
70
A14
2
8
24
2
0
0
21
7
30
9
4
17
A15
4
7
1
0
0
0
21
1
9
17
35
58
Source: Data analysis result of the research
The matrix in Table 6 demonstrates the relationship between consequences (which are
from the main reasons making consumers not willing to use E-payment) and underlying values
affected by those consequences. Similar to the above analysis, the number of occurrences of a
link between consequence (C) and value (V) is also represented by numbers in the matrix. There
are 3 pairs (C, V) not forming the relationship since the number of cells in the matrix is zero (0).
The number in the cell (C9, V3) is 118 and this is the largest number of occurrences in this
matrix. Most of the consequences are associated with 6 values except C6 and C11, in which C6
only links to 4 values. Columns V2, V3, and V4 do not contain zero (0) meaning that all 12
consequences affect these three values of the respondents.
Table 6
C-V matrix about reasons why customers are unwilling to use E-payment
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
C1
23
49
33
21
10
51
C2
17
77
43
24
25
14
C3
25
14
76
5
69
12
C4
115
16
16
30
21
4
C5
4
64
17
18
10
8
C6
2
47
4
16
0
0
C7
1
11
12
33
10
17
C8
4
32
72
12
23
15
C9
4
36
118
17
32
14
C10
5
71
20
13
21
7
C11
0
102
11
20
13
11
C12
11
95
7
41
15
10
Source: Data analysis result of the research
Hierarchical Value Map
The HVM is created by constructing the link among attributes, consequences, and
values or A-C-V links from the results of two relational matrices. As mentioned in
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Methodology, this paper uses the method suggested by Kang et al. (2014). The selected cut-off
value is 5% of the total cell number in the A-C matrix. The matrix in Table 5 has a total of 180
cells (15A*12C); therefore, 9 cells (5%*180) with the highest number of occurrences are
selected. Those cells in bold and underlined are retained in Table 5. From that, 50 is the cut-off
value for A-C matrix. Table 7 below shows in detail 9 important links retained.
Table 7
Retained A-C links with the cut-off value at 5%
No
Number of
occurrences
Coded link
Detailed Linkage
1
86
A1-C1
Cash habit make customers unwilling to use e-payment
because e-payment is more time consuming than cash
2
85
A11-C4
Need to pay a transaction fee or no discount for E-
payment --> Costly for using E-payment
3
81
A13-C11
The information security system of E-payment is not
good --> Risk of disclosing personal information, card
and account
4
76
A3-C3
Need to have a bank card for E-payment transaction -->
time consuming to create a bank card
5
70
A2-C2
Lack of information on E-payment and its benefits -->
Not clearly understand about E-payment
6
70
A13-C12
The information security system of E-payment is not
good --> Risk of losing money
7
58
A15-C12
No available legal to protect E-payment users --> Risk
of losing money
8
55
A9-C9
E-payment is not being widely used --> Not always
accepted by merchants
9
50
A6-C6
Lack of a sealed receipted for E-payment --> No
transaction evidence
Source: Data analysis result of the research
From the 9 A-C links retained above, there are 8 consequences of those links which are
further considered, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6, C9, C11, and C12. According to Kang et al. (2014),
the cut point of the C-V matrix is defined so that the common consequence elements of these
two matrices are from 3 to 5. Therefore, the cut-off value for C-V matrix is 77. Numbers in bold
and underlined in Table 6 represent the number greater than or equal to the cut-off value. With
the cut-point of 77, there are 5 consequences: C2, C4, C9, C11, C12 and 5 corresponding C-V
Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43 37
links: C2-V2, C4-V1, C9-V3, C11-V2, and C12-V2 are retained. From these 5 consequences,
it is possible to identify 6 A-C links containing these 5 consequence elements in the 9 A-C links
above. 6 A-C links along with 5 C-V links create 6 linkages A-C-V as presented in Table 8.
Table 8
Retained A-C-V linkages after defining cut-off values for A-C and C-V matrices
No
Number of
occurrences
Coded
C-V link
Detailed Link
Coded
A-C link
Coded A-C-
V linkage
1
118
C9-V3
Not always accepted by merchants -->
using E-payment is not convenient
A9-C9
A9-C9-V3
2
115
C4-V1
Using E-payment is costly --> using E-
payment is not economical
A11-C4
A11-C4-V1
3
102
C11-V2
Risk of disclosing personal information,
card and account --> Using E-payment is
not safe
A13-C11
A13-C11-V2
4
95
C12-V2
Risk of losing money --> using E-
payment is not safe
A13-C12
A13-C12-V2
A15-C12
A15-C12-V2
5
77
C2-V2
Not clearly understand about E-payment
-->Using E-payment is not safe
A2-C2
A2-C2-V2
Source: Data analysis result of the research
The six A-C-V linkages are used to construct the HVM, of which there are 3 levels from
the lowest abstraction level to the highest abstraction level A-C-V. The linkages between these
elements are represented by arrow-lines with the associated number of occurrences. Among 6
A-C-V linkages, there are only 2 links that started with the same A13: A13-C11-V2 and A13-
C12-V2. Attribute A13 has been associated with both C11 and C12.Therefore from A13, there
are two arrow directions to C11 and C12. Both Cs connect with V2, there should be two arrows
coming from C11 & C12 to V2. All numbers of occurrences will be attached to the
corresponding arrow lines. In that way, the linkages A13-C11-V2 and A13-C12-V2 are
represented in the Value map as below:
38 Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43
7
0
102
V2
C11 C12
Figure 2. The linkages A13-C11-V2 and A13-C12-V2 in HVM
Similarly, all A-C-V linkages are established by the same say to have the HVM as
presented in Figure 3 below. In order to read the HVM, we should start from a specific attribute
(A) and follows the arrow direction to the consequence (C) and then to the value (V). For
example, the linkage A11-C4-V1 in the Value Map shown in Figure 3 can be read like this:
Because “customers need to pay transaction fee or no discount for e-payment”, customers feel
it is costly to use e-payment method. “Being costly” makes them feel that using e-payment is
not economical.
Figure 3. HVM about reasons why customers are unwilling to use E -payment
There are two important issues when reading an HVM: the inter-link between elements
and the core elements of which there are many links leading to in the HVM. The numbers
attached to the link are the numbers of occurrences of linkages or the strong level of the links.
Based on Figure 3, the linkage between A11 and C4 is the strongest link with the highest
Consequence
81
Attribute
Value
A13
Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43 39
number of occurrences (85) among A-C links. The link between C9 and V3 is repeated 118
times representing the strongest C-V linkage.
In terms of Value element, V2 is obviously the only Value with 3 Consequences linked
to while the other two Values only have 1 link with the Consequence. Therefore, “Safety” is
the core value when considering A-C-V linkage explaining why consumers reluctant to use E-
payment.
Discussion
The HVM shows 5 main attributes of E-payment making customers unwilling to use E-
payment: (1) A2 - “Lack of information on E-payment and its benefits”; (2) A13 - “Information
security system of E-payment is not good”; (3) A15 - “No available laws to protect E-payment
users”; (4) A9 - “E-payment is not being widely used”; (5) A11- “Need to pay a transaction fee
or no discount for E-payment”. There are some points that can be easily recognized from the
HVM.
Firstly, A11 is the attribute selected by most of the customers. Secondly, these five
attributes make customers feel that E-payment does not bring them any economic benefits (V1),
safety (V2) and convenience (V3). Thirdly, it is obvious that most of the respondents are
interested in V2 and there are 3 per 5 linkages leading to this value. Lastly, 03 A-C-V linkages,
A11-C4-V1 (Need to pay transaction fee or no discount for E-payment Using E-payment is
costly Using E-payment is not Economical); A13-C11-V2 (Information security system of
E-payment is not good Risk of disclosing information, card and account Using E-payment
is not Safe); and A9-C9-V3 (E-payment is not being widely used Not always accepted by
merchants Using E-payment is not convenient) are the most-noticed linkages with high
number of occurrences by respondents.
Focusing on the consequence level, C12 (Risk of losing money) is the most significant
element with 128 occurrences. This consequence is related to the “Information security system
of E-payment is not good” (A13), and “No available laws to protect E-payment users” (A15) at
70 and 58 occurrences, respectively. In recent years, there were many cases of losing money in
the banking sector (in Vietcombank, Dong A Bank, Agribank, etc.) associated with the banking
security system including threats of viruses spread, a leak of information about account and card
numbers as well as the attack of hackers. Those cases show the weakness in the existing security
system which makes users feel unsafe and unwilling to use electronic payments. However, up
to date, there has not been a completed legal document regulating the process of providing e-
payment or e-banking services to create a coherent legal framework for the application of
technology. The cases also show that current legal laws are insufficient, out of date and
unadapted to the change of technology and the complexity of hackers. This unsafe feeling
makes clients reluctant to change from Cash payment to electronic payments.
The second significant consequence is C4 (Using E-payment is costly) with 85
occurrences from A11 (Need to pay transaction fee or No discount for E-payment). Most banks
in Vietnam today require bank fees for any online transactions but charge no additional fee for
cash transactions. The higher the amount of transaction, the higher the cost is applied for users.
Therefore, to motivate customers to switch from using traditional payment (cash) to e-payment,
40 Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43
a bonus or discount for e-payment transactions should be applied. In developed countries,
retailers pay a commission of 2 to 3% for electronic payments. This is really a good incentive
for users of electronic payments (cards, electronic wallets, etc.). However, these kinds of
promotions are still limited in Vietnam and do not encourage consumers to use e-payment.
The other consequences including C11, C2, and C9, which are linked from A13, A2 and
A9, at 81, 70 and 55, respectively. All linkages in the HVM show that the obstacles can come
from both customers (Lack of information on E-payment and its benefits) and external side (No
available laws to protect E-payment users or E-payment is not widely- used).
The HVM shows six A-C-V linkages (A11-C4-V1, A2-C2-V2, A13-C11-V2, A13-
C12-V2, A15-C12-V2, and A9-C9-V3) and the core value of V2 (Safety) linked from 274
occurrences (from C2, C11, C12, at 77, 102, and 95, respectively). Firstly, among the six
linkages, A11- C4-V1 is the most noticed linkage with the highest number of occurrences (85,
115). This means customers really care about additional cost and economic benefits/discounts
when adopting e-payment as a new payment method. The extra costs prevent them from using
e-payment as they impact their personal value of “Economy”. For these customers, “Economy”
is the underlying reason that resists their willingness to adopt e- payment.
Secondly, there are four A-C-V linkages that connect to the core value of “Safety”: A2-
C2-V2, A13-C11-V2, A13-C13-V2, and A15-C12-V2. The A2-C2-V2 linkage shows that
customers do not have a clear understanding of e-payment because of a lack of information
about e-payment and its benefits. They feel unsafe when trying a new and unfamiliar payment
method, and thus, avoid using it. When equipped with more information about e-payment, they
certainly will be confident in using the new service. The following two A13- C11-V2 and A13-
C13-V2 linkages show another important attribute of E-payment: the information security
system. The unsecured security system of E-payment can lead to many bad impacts including
the risk of card and account information disclosure (C11) and the risk of losing money (C13).
Customers feel unsafe to try new payment methods when they see so many cases of payment
fraud on the media due to weaknesses of the bank security system. The last A-C-V linkage
leading to the safety value is A15-C12-V2. The current legal framework is inadequate and
updated to protect users in case of disputes when they use such a new service as e-payment. The
risk of losing money when doing online transactions becomes more real when hackers are
stronger and more dangerous. Accordingly, customers decide to stay with traditional payment
methods and are reluctant to e-payment. From these four A-C-V linkages, it can be concluded
that “Safety” is the core personal value for customers to decide whether to adopt e-payment.
Lastly, in the A9-C9-V3 linkage, customers care about the convenience of using e-
payment. The fact that not all merchants are equipped with an e-payment system makes it unable
for customers to use this method widely. They have no choice but to go back to the traditional
cash method, not to mention that many merchants in Vietnam still prefer cash to other forms of
payment. No wonder why consumers still feel inconvenient about the new payment service. In
summary, “E-payment is not being widely used” links to the underlying personal value of
“convenience” that makes customers unwilling to adopt to e-payment.
Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43 41
5. Implications and conclusion
Based on the Means-End chain theory and hard-laddering interview, this study identifies
05 main attributes of E-payment regarded by Vietnamese customers as crucial obstacles from
using E-payment. These attributes are A2 “Lack of information about E-payment and its
benefits”, A13 “Information security system of E-payment is not good”, A15 “No available laws
to protect E-payment users”, A9 “E-payment is not being widely-used”, and A11 “Need to pay
a transaction fee or no discount for E-payment”. Among these 5 attributes, A11 is the one
selected by most of the respondents. In particular, A2, A12, and A15 are attributed driving to
03 significant consequences: C2 “Not clearly understand about E-payment”, C11 “Risk of
disclosing personal information, card and account” and C12 “Risk of losing money”, which
lead to V2 “Using E-payment is not safe”. The HVM of the study shows that Safety is the key-
value explaining why Vietnamese customer is unwilling to use E-payment.
Implications
The research findings show 03 important values including Safety, Economy, and
Convenience explaining why customers are not willing to use E-payment.
Firstly, the most concerned issue of Safety is that customers are afraid of losing money.
To tackle this security issue, building a strong data security system is of importance and a must.
IT infrastructure must be strong, the software must be upgraded and up-to-date with technology
change. Secondly, another safety solution is developing a risk management plan and business
continuity plan. Moreover, E-payment is a high-tech combination of Internet and banking
technology. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the knowledge and skill of technical staff to
meet the demand for operating the payment systems with high technology and advanced
security. The next reason for customers not using e-payment is their unawareness of E-payment
benefits and how to use the E-payment system. Therefore, banks and service providers should
inform customers more of e-payment. Such information should be conveyed through different
channels to approach as many customers as possible and should highlight key benefits for target
customers.
In terms of Convenience of E-payment, the payment procedure and other processes must
be simplified while still ensuring the security and reliability of the service. Banks and service
providers should cooperate to offer clients with standardized e-payment service and platform.
In addition, widening the E-payment network to have a high acceptance level by merchants
need to be addressed. The government and banks need to expand the ATMs and POS’s network
in rural areas for inclusive growth. Fintech firms (service providers), on the other hand, need to
diversify services by increasing their tie-ups with other service sectors such as utility bill
payments, online shopping payments on delivery, education, traditional markets, street shops,
etc.
Lastly, regarding the Economy of E-payment, banks, service providers and retailers
should have an incentive program or promotion for non-cash transactions, especially in e-
commerce and bill payment sectors. For example, in May 2018, Amazon offered to pass along
the discounts it gets on credit card fees to other retailers if customers use the online payment
42 Le Thi Thanh Xuan et al.
Ho Chi Minh City Open University Journal of Science, 9
(2), 25-43
service (Surane & Soper, 2018). Another option that was offered by some companies to
motivate credit customers to pay sooner to get an early payment discount. By offering free of
charge or the minimum fee, it definitely will not limit the usage of e-payment for daily
transactions and increase the total number of online transactions significantly.
Research limitations and further research
Even though all research objectives are addressed, this study also has some limitations.
Firstly, the size of 203 qualified samples
did not follow the sampling suggested by Gutman
(1982) for Association Pattern Technique (APT). Moreover, the matrix format questionnaire
used by the study is unpopular and hard for surveyors to answer because it requires a
facilitator to clarify how to do the survey. This limits the capability to have more sample
sizes from the online survey. Secondly, the scope of this research is limited to Ho Chi Minh
City only and is selected by convenience, and thus, its findings cannot be generalized to the
whole Vietnamese market.
From the above limitations, the following further research directions are recommended.
Firstly, increasing the sample size is necessary to verify the result of this study. Secondly,
widening the scope of this research by conducting the survey in different cities will enable
researchers to generalize the study to a larger area of Vietnam.
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