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The Utilization of Flashcards in Children Information Literacy The Utilization of Flashcards in Children Information Literacy
Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga
Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga
Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga
Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga
Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga
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Harisanty, Dessy; Srirahayu, Dyah; Kusumaningtiyas, Tiara; Anugrah, Esti; Permata, Islahun; and Anggraeni,
Dian, "The Utilization of Flashcards in Children Information Literacy Development" (2020).
Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)
The Utilization of Flashcards in Children Information Literacy
A Flashcard is one of the media to develop student information literacy in which its application
includes activities of analyzing, writing and telling stories. Storytelling is a process of reading
that is useful to increase the courage to appear in public. This research used descriptive method.
For preliminary research, we used experiments, making flashcards as learning media for
elementary students. After that, the students were interviewed. The results of this study indicate
that students are very enthusiastic to start a flashcard game that they think is fun. The benefits of
a flashcard game include improving language skills, increasing the ability to compose stories,
remembering and memorizing, analyzing a problem, and enriching vocabulary. Apart from the
cognitive side, the benefits of a flashcard game can also increase self-confidence, develop good
and effective communication, and enhance creativity. The concept of a flashcard is a learning
medium by playing. The advantages of flashcards include fun learning media, and simple and
attractive shapes as they are pictorial and colorful.
Keywords: information literacy, learning media, games, flashcards, students
The discussion on the literacy issue is still often held in various groups, from government
agencies, private sector to large or small communities that have the literacy movement. It is
unsurprising since until now the level of literacy of Indonesians is still low. Based on the survey
"Most Literate Nations in the World" conducted by Central Connecticut State University in
2016, Indonesia ranked 60th out of 61 countries under study (McLaughlin, 2016). When
compared with neighbouring countries, Singapore and Malaysia, the level of literacy of the
Indonesian people is still far below. The Indonesian Human Development Index (HDI) is 14.5%,
while Malaysia and Singapore are still superior, 28% and 33% respectively. While in Indonesia
itself according to the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2016, the province with the lowest
literacy level is East Java Province. Out of 5.9 million illiterate Indonesians, 1,458,184 East Java
residents are known to be unable to read and write, followed by Central Java with 943,683
people, West Java with 604,378, Papua with 584,441 people, South Sulawesi with 375,221, and
West Nusa Tenggara with 315,258 people.
Whereas when each citizen has good information literacy, there will be a lot of benefits
obtained for daily life (Martin, 2011; Audunson, & Nordlie, 2003), given that the current
production of information is very large or commonly called the "flood of information" in which
true and false information is difficult to distinguish because it is mixed into one. If each
individual has the ability of information literacy, they can sort and analyze the validity of
information (Freeburg, 2017; Anna & Harisanty, 2019; Yanto, Anwar, & Lusiana, 2017). In
addition, this ability is also needed in the working environment since it helps to solve work
problems being faced (Zang, Majid, & Foo, 2010; Abiolu, & Okere, 2012). Most importantly,
this information literacy ability is a life long learning (Solmaz, 2017). Thus, it must be possessed
by all groups of people, both from high and low levels of social status.
Indonesia is placed in the lowest rank among 52 countries in East Asia. The IEA Study of
Reading Literacy reports that the ability of primary school children in Indonesia is still very low.
The low literacy interest in early childhood is also caused by the lack of encouragement and
motivation given by parents to their children. To read, parents prefer to introduce gadgets rather
than introducing reading books in early childhood (Zati, 2018). Indonesia ranks 30th in the lack
of reading literacy. Early childhood education is the level of education before entering the level
of primary education which is a coaching effort aimed at children from birth until six years
conducted through the provision of educational stimuli to help physical and spiritual growth and
development so that children have readiness to enter further education, which is held on formal,
informal and informal channels. Early childhood education in Indonesia is regulated in the
Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia No. 137
Regarding Early Childhood Education Standards and Regulation of the Minister of Education
and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia Number 146 of 2014 concerning the 2013 Curriculum
of Early Childhood Education.
Through learning in elementary schools, it is expected to be able to improve aspects of
child development including morality, physical motor, cognitive, language, social emotion, and
art. Elementary school education is taken for 6 years. Primary schools are usually grouped into
two groups, namely low class and upper class, where the low class consists of class 1.2.3 while
the upper class consists of classes 4.5 and 6. Low class groups have characteristics such as
concrete, playing, happy to do or feel, while high class groups have characteristics such as
starting to understand the meaning of time. First-year students of primary school are the final
stage for children in passing through childhood, where they are more likely to always play.
At this level students will begin to learn to think in every lesson that is given. This
transition period must be understood correctly by educators because children who are
accustomed to playing and learning start know and recognize objects around them in the form of
images and symbols. Things that can be done to increase students' interest in reading include the
teacher's role in motivating students to love books from an early age. In the learning process
teachers should be able to relate to reading activities and create an atmosphere of discussion in
the classroom (Triatma, 2016). This can motivate and encourage children to increase reading
interest. The low literacy in early childhood is dependent on factors that cause a lack of mastery
of reading and writing abilities. Learning methods that do not see the characteristics of children
can also cause a lack of literacy of children at an early age (Hotimah, 2010). Teaching children
that does not use media or fun methods is considered less able to optimize the psychological,
physical and sensory functions of children who are in the growth of rapid development (Hapsari,
Ruhaena, & Pratisti, 2017). Reading is an activity to get meaning from what is written in a text.
It is also a matter that can make someone broad-minded, and it is very important if someone can
read and understand the reading text.
Language is an important aspect for developing children's basic abilities. Children's
language skills are very important to develop because through language children can
communicate with the surrounding environment. Through language, children can understand
words and sentences and the relationship between spoken language and early pre-written writing.
One of the development of language skills in early childhood is early reading. Beginning reading
is the initial reading given to children as a basis for subsequent learning. It is given to children so
they can read simple words and sentences. One method of learning to read that is fun and can
increase children's interest in reading is by using flashcards. Flashcard is graphic media that
promotes the sense of sight. This media is a medium that presents visuals in the form of symbols,
numbers, ideas with words and images (Herlina & Dewi, 2017). Flashcard games can create a
fun and exciting atmosphere. Through the flashcard game method the child does not realize that
he is enriching his or her vocabulary. Flashcard games can also be used as a means to bring
children to children and children and teachers closer. Not only is the media approach between
children and teachers but also one of the effective media in education which is a visual resource
and an approach to ensure the learning process becomes meaningful learning for children or
students. Through this flashcard game method in the learning process, it is expected to be able to
improve the ability to begin reading of elementary school children (Umiyati & Zuhdi, 2014). The
learning model using the modified game method can have a very important influence on a child's
motor skills so that the learning process is more fun and participatory (Basyiroh, 2017).
Therefore, it is suggested to provide the opportunity for children to develop the ability to read
optimally in accordance with their interests and age through the planning of reading interest
development programs in elementary schools.
Based on this background, this study aims to determine the effectiveness of flashcard
games in the development of elementary school student information literacy so that it can be
used to formulate literacy culture development policies.
The development of information literacy for children is very important as a tool for
children to live their life stages. Information literacy for children includes language, reading and
writing (Dennis & Horn, 2011). Many ways can be used to improve children's information
literacy skills. As research conducted by Schryer, Sloat & Letourneau (2015), developing
children's literacy can use animated books containing vocabulary, numeric and basic knowledge.
The results of the study indicate that animated books are feasible and effective for teaching early
reading skills. How to develop information literacy in children can also be done with HeadsUp!
Reading (HUR) as showed in a study conducted by Jackson et.al. (2006). HUR focuses on
literacy practices, explicit exposure to key concepts of information and reinforcement of reading
and writing. The results showed that HUR can effectively support the process of literacy
programs in school. The use of flashcards is also one way for increasing information literacy in
children (Lin, McDaniel, & Miyatsu, 2018). Flashcard is a learning media in the form of small
cards containing pictures, text, or symbolic signs that can remind or guide students to do
something related to the picture (Kupzyk et. Al., 2011). Flashcard is a learning media in the form
of a 25 cm x 30 cm picture card. The pictures on a flashcard are a series of messages that are
presented in the form of information on each picture (Hatiningsih & Adiyati, 2018). The
advantage of using a flashcard as a media literacy is that it can be taken anywhere and is used
Many people use flashcards to improve children's vocabulary (Nikoopour & Azemi,
2014). According to Erbey, Mclaughlin, Derby and Everson (2011), flashcards are used to teach
letters, words, numeric sounds. The results also show that some students are more successful
using flashcards than others. Baleghizadeh and Ashoori (2011) demonstrated that flashcards are
used to improve the vocabulary learned by students. Komachali and Khodareza (2012) also
examined the use of flashcards to improve student vocabulary. The results of the study showed
that students in the experimental group outperformed students in the control group in their
vocabulary knowledge. Therefore, it was concluded that the contribution of flashcards in
teaching vocabulary to students led to an increase in vocabulary at a higher level.
Besides increasing student vocabulary, flashcards can also be used to improve foreign
language understanding. Students often experience difficulties while in English class lessons.
They realize that poor understanding of English vocabulary will hinder communication in
English (Abbasian & Ghorbanpour, 2016). Currently the way students learning English
vocabulary is only by writing words into a notebook then writing the meaning of the word next
to it. Flashcard is used to understand the meaning of words and their pronunciation in English
(Milles & Ehri, 2017; Herlina & Dewi, 2017; Daulay, 2016). Teachers find it very helpful when
using flashcards during English lessons, and students find it easier to understand the material
presented (Hamer & Rohimajaya, 2018). Research by Khodashenas, Farahani and Alishahi
(2014) aims to investigate the benefits of using a flashcard compared to educational cartoons on
learning English vocabulary. After giving a vocabulary pre-test, all 44 research respondents were
randomly selected to form an experimental group and a comparison group. In the experimental
group, participants were taught through the use of flashcards, while participants from the
comparison group were taught using education cards. After the post test was given to the two
groups, the results showed that there were statistically significant differences between the two
groups. Therefore, it is concluded that the use of flashcards can improve students' vocabulary.
This research uses descriptive method. For preliminary research, we used experiments,
namely making flashcard for learning media. A Flashcard is a game product in the form of a
picture card that can enhance the ability of students to read and retell stories by writing stories
contained in the picture on the flashcards.
After making flashcards, this media is implemented in 4th grade elementary school
students, 120 students. After that an interview was conducted to find out the description of
elementary school students' perceptions in the use of flashcard games and the effectiveness of the
use of flashcard games for the development of information literacy.
This flashcard game product can be made by using a picture card size of 25x30 cm or
8x12 cm, the size can be adjusted to the age of the respondent. First, provide thick cardboard as
the base of the story page to make it look stiff. The size is adjusted to each story that will be
presented. Second, attach the story sheets that will be presented on the cardboard as the base of
the story sheet. The cards are presented in the form of pictures. The picture is a series of
messages that are presented with randomly illustrated patterns and then arranged and made into a
short story. The materials that the authors use to make flashcard games are as follows: paper
scissors, illustrated stories, thick cardboard paper, and glue.
Data collection techniques used in this study include primary data collection conducted
by interviewing elementary school students and secondary data collection by doing a literature
review of various books, articles, news and reports on the results of previous research. After that
the researchers analyzed the data.
A flashcard is a group of cards that have instructions and contain information, such as
words or numbers on one side that are usually used to practice independently or in groups in a
class (Abbasian, 2016). The game using flashcards is one of the media that can attract the interest
of children. Using flashcards as learning media is considered a very helpful strategy because of
its benefits. The benefits of the flashcard itself are: (a) with flashcards, the teacher can stimulate
the activities of his or her students in order to carry out the implementation of activities involving
the ability in the field of linguistics, (b) flashcards can improve the ability of students to practice
good and effective communication by implementing language skills in expressing opinions, (c)
then with increased individual language skills, they will have no difficulty in telling a story, and
they can improve the quality of individual identification of the problems given on the flashcard
(Pradana & Gerhani, 2019). Besides being used by students, teachers can also use this flashcard
to explore information and new vocabulary (Sitompul, 2013). A flashcard is in a small shape so
it is easy to carry anywhere and has a variety of images and colors that make students interested
in using it.
Randomly arranged flashcards are given to students and then students arrange the
flashcards so they can describe a story. Students write a story and then tell it.
Figure 1. Flashcard design
Students are very enthusiastic to start a flashcard game that they think is fun. This is
illustrated when an arrangement of picture cards is issued, they scramble with each other to get
an image of the card that they think is interesting because the flashcard presents colorful and
funny pictures. The image is an object to provide code to stimulate other memories that are
verbal. The image itself has the nature to be easily remembered and stored in memory compared
to words that are abstract (Fitriyani & Nulanda, 2017). Children will be easy in learning if the
media used is packaged as attractive as possible so that curiosity to use and understand it arises.
This flashcard media is representative of the utilization of the right brain and balances it
with the left brain where it is very effective in improving a child's ability (Maryanto &
Chrismastianto, 2018). The activities that utilize flashcard media is expected to be able to
improve the ability to compose stories, memorize, analyze a problem, and enrich vocabulary
because elementary school age is an early literacy stage in which literacy activities are not only
based on writing and reading ( Permatasari, Inten, & Mulyani, 2017).
The popularity of a game among elementary school students is very influential on the
development of teaching and learning in the classroom. The attention of students has shifted to
prefer playing games rather than studying. However, from the popularity of this game, a positive
impact can be taken. Teachers can teach by using interactive game media to enhance students
'multisensors by adjusting students' learning abilities so as to stimulate student learning outcomes
(Nikoopour & Kazemi, 2014). Games using flashcards can be used in the classroom by adjusting
the learning rate of students and can be packaged by teaching and presenting information
visually or other learning styles. The teacher no longer explains by books but the teacher can
explain with other media such as this flashcard so that it can create an inner bond between
teacher and students and students can also easily understand the information provided by the
teacher. Another example of developing game media is Kinect. A study shows that new digital
technologies, such as the Kinect system, are promising media for developing games to support
children's literacy and language acquisition (Homer et al., 2014). Similar to Kinect, flashcard
media is also very influential on the level of children's literacy. When children play they are
actually learning, and when children are playing they are actually doing activities to record
events in the surrounding environment. Thus, indirectly flashcard media teach children to learn
with the concept of play (Khobir, 2009).
Based on the results of the study, the flashcard media have advantages and disadvantages
including: (1) getting ease to carry anywhere, because a flashcard does not have a large size; (2)
no hassle, where the teacher can use it without having to have special abilities and if you want to
use it, the teacher just do the arrangement in the order of the picture and after using, the card can
be tied or placed in a special box so it is not scattered; (3) easy to understand, because in this
media there are special messages that can make it easier for students to understand and
remember them; (4) fostering a sense of fun, because this media is a game so students can
compete according to the rules so they can enhance cognitive abilities and also train creativity
(Angreany & Saud, 2017).
There are 3 stages in using flashcards as learning media: 1. understanding, identifying,
and composing a story, 2. writing a story from the flashcard series, 3. telling the story in front of
the class. As storytellers, students have the opportunity to do everything from reading, writing,
listening to speaking. The relaxed and lively atmosphere of the environment around them created
by stories encourages students to talk and discuss with each other. They have fun experimenting
with sounds, facial expressions, emotions, and gestures that make the story "right" to tell. They
present their stories and the art of listening becomes a two-way street (Mokhtar, Farida, Halim,
Zurina, & Kamarulzaman, 2011). Students tend to be ashamed to come forward in class to tell
stories. This is due to the lack of support and encouragement from the environment. After using
this flashcard media, they are braver to move forward and tell the results of their stories. This
flashcard media can be used to instill a child's sense of confidence to communicate in public and
Literacy skill is very influential on one's success. Flashcard learning media really
connects the ability to write with the ability to read. An initial study of the reading-writing
relationship found that the reciprocal relationship with reading had an effect on writing and
writing had an effect on reading for students in grades 2 and 5. Yet, the effect of reading on
writing was stronger. In other studies, the effect of writing was stronger on reading than vice
versa. Thus, the ability to write and read of students can be measured based on the level of
reading and writing skills and the age of students (Calmar et al., 2018). Grade 4 students are very
fluent in writing and reading activities. They can identify one by one the images provided in the
flashcard media. In writing activities, children are required to have the ability to understand
meaning by building ideas individually and building ideas with the thoughts of others (Rojas-
drummond et al., 2017). Students have creative thinking. This is evidenced from the storytelling
worksheets in each group that they can work together between group members to build a story
using flashcard media. Drawing and writing require the same sensory motoric skills. Both
involve making images on a flat surface, and using tools. Therefore, both involve instrumental
motor movements including effectors on the hands, wrists, and arms. In addition, both are
motoric activities that are visually guided by hand-eye coordination, and visual feedback are very
important for accuracy in performance and results (Yuan & Brown, 2015). From the stages
possessed by this flashcard media game, it helps students in balancing the child's motoric sensory
so that children can use all their senses in carrying out an activity.
Flashcard media also have the benefit to enrich students’ vocabulary so that they have
good communication skills. Flashcards focus on memorizing definitions of terms and producing
examples of how these terms are applied to their daily life (Lin, Mcdaniel, Miyatsu, & States,
2018). Thus, the focus of using a flashcard is to instill and improve students' ability to enrich
vocabulary, enhance the ability to identify, understand a problem to get a solution, improve
writing and reading skills, practice communication skills and work together with others so that
they have good confidence.
From the use of this flashcard media, it can be seen that children at primary school age
prefer and are interested in media that are equipped with various images and have a variety of
colors. This is because a variety of pictures and colors makes them not bored quickly when using
them, which is different from books because most books only present one picture and are full of
writing so that children easily feel bored.
Information literacy is not only about writing and reading. This is reflected in flashcard
games where children are trained to be able to read, write, listen, and speak. The flashcard game
is effectively used to develop students' information literacy skills. The benefits include
improving language skills, increasing the ability to compose stories, memorizing, analyzing a
problem, and enriching vocabulary. Apart from the cognitive side, the benefits of a flashcard can
also increase self-confidence, develop good and effective communication, and enhance
creativity. The concept of a flashcard is a learning medium by playing. The advantages of
flashcards include fun learning media, simple and attractive shapes because they are pictorial and
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