ArticlePDF Available

Chemical compounds and health benefits of Tremella, a valued mushroom as both cuisine and medicine in ancient China and modern era

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

For many years, traditional Chinese medicine has used mushrooms to treat various ailments. Tremella mushroom is also famous as snow mushroom, silder ear mushroom, snow fungus or white jelly mushroom. This review is focused on pharmacological and pharmaceutical uses of Tremella in modern and traditional sciences. Tremella fuciformis is a species of fungus; it produces white, frond-like, gelatinous basidiocarps. The most important tremella mushroom benefits are anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, lower cholesterol, combat obesity, protect nerves and may fight cancer. The most powerful nutritional constituents of Tremella are amino acids, vitamins, minerals, polysaccharides, Glucurmomannan 1,3-alpha-glucan, Epitope 9beta-D-glucuronosyl), Glucuronic acid, Glucurmic acid, Glucuronoxylomannan, N-acetylglucosamine, Flavonoids, Polyphenols, Alkaloids and Organic acids. Functional foods are making inroads into Chinese diets with their promises to improve health and nutrition. Chinese consumers should choose nutritional and healthy food to maintain general health and reduce the risk of health problems. Nutrition therapy on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine such tremella is quite effective at treating common diseases.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Amazonian Journal of Plant Research ©2017 Universidade Federal do Pará
This paper is available online free of all access charges Faculdade de Engenharia Agronômica
https://www.ajpr.online - Amaz. Jour. of Plant Resear. 4(3):692-697. 2020
Mini Review
Chemical compounds and health benefits of Tremella, a valued
mushroom as both cuisine and medicine in ancient China and
modern era
Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian1, Wenli Sun1, Hong Shen3, Qi Cheng1,2*
1 Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
2 College of Life Sciences, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei, 071000, China; Global Alliance of HeBAU-CLS&HeQiS for
BioAl-Manufacturing, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China
3 NMPA Key laboratory for Testing and Risk Warning of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Biological Inspection Department, Zhejiang Institute
for Food and Drug Control, Hangzhou 310052, China
Received: 08 June, 2020. Accepted: 18 July, 2020
First published on the web November, 2020
Doi: 10.26545/ajpr.2020.b00077x
Abstract
For many years, traditional Chinese medicine has used mushrooms to treat various ailments. Tremella
mushroom is also famous as snow mushroom, silder ear mushroom, snow fungus or white jelly mushroom.
This review is focused on pharmacological and pharmaceutical uses of Tremella in modern and traditional
sciences. Tremella fuciformis is a species of fungus; it produces white, frond-like, gelatinous basidiocarps.
The most important tremella mushroom benefits are anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, lower cholesterol, combat
obesity, protect nerves and may fight cancer. The most powerful nutritional constituents of Tremella are amino
acids, vitamins, minerals, polysaccharides, Glucurmomannan 1,3-alpha-glucan, Epitope 9beta-D-
glucuronosyl), Glucuronic acid, Glucurmic acid, Glucuronoxylomannan, N-acetylglucosamine, Flavonoids,
Polyphenols, Alkaloids and Organic acids. Functional foods are making inroads into Chinese diets with their
promises to improve health and nutrition. Chinese consumers should choose nutritional and healthy food to
maintain general health and reduce the risk of health problems. Nutrition therapy on the basis of traditional
Chinese medicine such tremella is quite effective at treating common diseases.
Key-words: Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tremella, Ancient Beauty, Super-Food
Introduction
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has
played a positive role in the management of so
many diseases (Ogbaji et al., 2019; Shahrajabian et
al., 2018; Shahrajabian et al., 2019a,b,c; Sun et al.,
2019). TCM is an empirical healthcare system
based on human experience dating back several
thousand years ago and stands out as the only one
with long history among the worlds traditional
medical system (Ogbaji et al., 2013; Soleymani and
Shahrajabian, 2018; Shahrajabian et al.,
2019e,f,g,h). The most important parameter is
providing healthy diets for the decades to come in
a world with rapid population growth (Soleymani
and Shahrajabian, 2012; Shahrajabian et al.,
2019i,j; Shahrajabian et al., 2020a,b,c; Sun et al.,
2020a,b,c). Tremella mushroom is also famous
Qi Cheng
E-mail: chengqi@caas.cn
692
Horticulture
Amaz. Jour. of Plant Resear.., 2020 4 (3): 692-697
693
snow mushroom, silder ear mushroom, snow
fungus or white jelly mushroom. According to
Chinese history, the use of Tremella as a fountain
of youth goes back to the Tang Dynasty, and in
traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it is believed
to have various benefits for the body. Tremella
fuciformis is a species of fungus; it produces white,
frond-like, gelatinous basidiocarps. Tremella is
commercially cultivated and is one of the most
important fungi in the cuisine and medicine of
China. The aim of this review is survey on
traditional use of Tremella by Chinese and other
Asian herbalists and its role in modern
pharmaceutical science.
Tremella
Origin, Chemical Constituents and Health
Benefits
Tremella is a genus of fungi in the family
Tremellaceae. Over 100 species of Tremella are
currently recognized worldwide (Han et al., 2015).
Two species, Tremella fuciformis and Tremella
aurantialba, are commercially cultivated for food.
It is rich in polysaccharides, triterpenoids, protein,
dietary fiber, vitamins and chitin (Zhang et al.,
2011). Tremella was one of the original genera
created by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of
1753. The name comes from the latin tremere
meaning to temble (Liu and Wu, 2019). Linnaeus
placed Tremella in the algae, including within it a
variety of gelatinoud growth, including seaweeds,
cyanobacteria and myxomycetes as well as fungi
(Ruan et al., 2018). Tremella fuciformis is one of
the great superfood mushrooms and longevity tonic
herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is
use dates back as far as 200 A.D. when it was
including in one of the earliest TCM classics- the
material by Shen Nong ben Cao Jing, the father of
Chinese medicine. In ancient times, like many of
the other revered medicinal mushrooms such as
Reishi and Cordyceps sinensis, Tremella was only
reserved for royalty, ruling family members or for
rich people who could afford this highly valued
superfood (Wu et al., 2019). Tremella mushroom
belongs to the jelly fungus family and has many
different names. In Chinese, it is called silver ear
mushroom, white wood-ear mushroom and in
Japanese, it is called shiro kikurage which
translates to white tree jellyfish. It is also
commonly known as snow fungus, and the beauty
mushroom. Tremella has been a popular staple of
Chinese cuisine for centuries, rich in dietary fibers,
protein, minerals, antioxidants, and high in vitamin
D. Its used in China in a variety of dishes from anti-
aging soups to desserts. Tremella has traditionally
been used by Chinese and Japanese herbalists as a
potent Jing and Chi (Qi) tonic for thousands of
years. It is believed to nourish the lungs, kidneys,
heart, brain, stomach, and acts as a powerful tonic
for the immune system. Tremella has been
clinically used to help clear heat and dryness,
replenish fluids in the body (Yin deficiency), to
treat chest congestion, asthma, constipation,
balance blood sugar levels and cholesterol (reduces
LDL), and lower inflammation. Its rehydration and
fluid replenishment qualities may be the best
reasons to support its claims as one of the best
beauty foods for the skin. In ancient China, Yang
Guidei was one of the Four Great Beauties, an
imperial concubine that is considered one of the
most beautiful women in Chinese history. She used
it regularly to maintain her glowing complexion
and youthful skin. Tremella ,s polysaccharides also
stimulates the production of superoxide dismutase
(SOD) in the brain and liver. SOD is one of the
most important super antioxidant enzymes in the
body. SOD helps to protect and regenerate skin and
effectively prevent wrinkling and sagging of the
skin. Tremella consists of lots of vitamin D, lots of
protein, and also contain other vitamins, minerals,
immune boosting polysaccharides, trace minerals,
carbs, and a little fat (Kuot et al., 2015). Wang et
al. (2015) reported that Tremela polysaccharides
(TP) are the major component and activity unit of
Tremella. Park et al. (2007) concluded that T.
fuciformis might potentially be used as a
precautionary agent in neurodegenerative disease,
such as Alzheimer disease. Shen et al. (2017)
indicated that Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide
(TFPS) alleviated hydrogen peroxide-induced
oxidative stress and apoptosis in skin fibroblasts
via upregulation of SIRT1 expression, indicating
that TFPS may act as a potential therapeutic agent
for oxidative agent for oxidative-stress-associated
skin diseases and aging. Results of the GC-MS
analysis of the constituent oil from T. fuciformis is
shown in Table 1. Composition of Tremella
Amaz. Jour. of Plant Resear.., 2020 4 (3): 692-697
694
polysaccharides is presented in Table 2. The most
famous beauty and skin enhancing properties of
Tremella mushroom is presented in Table 3.
Proven health benefits of Tremells is shown in
Table 4.
.
Table 1. Results of the GC-MS analysis of the constituent oils from T. fuciformis (Ohiri, 2017).
S/N
Compound
Retention
time (min)
Percentage of
the total
Molecular
weight (g/mol)
1
9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-
20.766
32.681
468.754
3-ol, (3.beta)-
24.672
2
Lanosterol
21.079
17.845
426.710
23.034
3
Acetic acid, 7-
Isopropenyl-1,4a-
22.42
21.334
294.390
dimethyl-3-oxo-
2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-
octahydronaphthalen-2-yl
ester
4
2(1H)Naphthalenone,
3,5,6,7,8,8a-
22.560
9.609
218.335
hexahydro4,8a-dimethyl-
6-(1-methylethenyl)-
5
Lupeol
22.825
18.531
426.729
23.230
Table 2. Composition of Tremella polysaccharides (Khondkar, 2009).
Protein
Protein
content (%)
content (%)
Organism
Moisture
Ash content
a
b
Acetyl group
Carbohydrate
content (%)
(%)
content (%)
content (%)
T. fuciformis
11.4 (±0.1)
3.4 (±0.2)
5.7 (±0.2)
0.8 (±0.1)
2.9 (±0.1)
76.6 (±0.0)
(TFU)
Table 3. The most famous beauty and skin enhancing properties of Tremella mushroom.
1- Nourishes Skin
2- Naturally Moisturises
3- Improves Elasticity
4- Slows Skin Aging
5- Brightens Complexion
6- Deeply Hydrates Inside and Out
Amaz. Jour. of Plant Resear.., 2020 4 (3): 692-697
695
Table 4. Proven health benefits of Tremella mushrooms.
1- Creates youthful skin
2- Improved memory and learning capabilities
3- Lowers Cholesterol
4- Neurological Damage Repair
5- Lowers Blood Sugar
6- Anti-inflammatory for the Skin and Whole Body
7- Great for Chronic Coughs
8- Cancer
9- Protects the Liver
10- Prevents Osteoporosis
11- Stomach Health
12- Intestinal Health
13- Weight Loss
14- Protects the Circulatory System
15- Anti-Aging Agent
Conclusion and recommendation
Traditional Chinese medicine is an important
part of the health care system in most Asian
countries, relies on natural products and has been
playing a significant role in health protection and
disease control for many years. Tremella use dates
back as far as 200 A.D. when it was including in
one of the earliest TCM classics- the material by
Shen Nong ben Cao Jing, the father of Chinese
medicine. Tremella has been a popular staple of
Chinese cuisine for centuries, rich in dietary fibers,
protein, minerals, antioxidants, and high in vitamin
D. Its used in China in a variety of dishes from anti-
aging soups to desserts. Tremella has traditionally
been used by Chinese and Japanese herbalists as a
potent Jing and Chi (Qi) tonic for thousands of
years. It is believed to nourish the lungs, kidneys,
heart, brain, stomach, and acts as a powerful tonic
for the immune system. Tremella has been
clinically used to help clear heat and dryness,
replenish fluids in the body (Yin deficiency), to
treat chest congestion, asthma, constipation,
balance blood sugar levels and cholesterol (reduces
LDL), and lower inflammation. Traditional
Chinese Medicine included fruits and herbs are
increasingly and extensively used by a substantial
part of the population. Jujube has numerous
important pharmacological activities and it can be
considered as a valuable source of nutraceuticals.
Conflict of interest: The authors declared that there
was no conflict of interests regarding the publication of
this paper.
References
Han CK, Chiang HS, Lin CY, Tang CH, Lee H,
Huang DD, Zeng YR, Chuang TN, Huang YL.
2015. Comparison of immunomodulatory and
anticancer activities in different strains of
Tremella fuciformis Berk. Am J Chin Med
43(8):1637-1655
Khondkar P. 2009. Composition and partial
structure characterization of Tremella
Polysaccharides. Mycobiol 37(4):286-294
Kuot CC, Chen HH, Chiang W. 2015. Adlay (yi yi;
soft-shelled job ,s tears; The seeds of Coix
lachrymal-jobi L. Var. Ma-yuen stapf) is a
potential cancer chemopreventive agent toward
multistage carcinogenesis processes. J Tradit
Complement Med 2:267-275
Liu FJ, Wu XZ. 2019. Advances in research on
anti-tumor of Coix seed. Precis Med Res;
1(2):37-43
Ogbaji PO, Shahrajabian MH, Xue X. 2013.
Changes in germination and primarily growth of
three cultivars of tomato under diatomite and soil
materials in auto-irrigation system. Int J Biol
5(3):80-84
Ogbaji PO, Li J, Xue X, Shahrajabian MH, Egrinya
EA. 2018. Impact of bio-fertilizer or nutrient
Amaz. Jour. of Plant Resear.., 2020 4 (3): 692-697
696
solution on spinach (Spinacea Oleracea) growth
and yield in some province soils of P.R. Chin.
Cecetari Agronomice in Moldova 2(174):43-52
Ohiri RC. 2017. GC/MS analysis of tremella
fuciformis (white jelly mushrooms) oil. Ukr
Biochem J 89(N3)
Park KJ, Lee SY, Kim HS, Yamazaki M, Chiba K,
Ha HC. 2007. The neuroprotective and
neurotrophic effects of Tremella fuciformis in
PC12h cells. Mycobiol 23(1):11-15
Ruan Y, Li H, Pu L, Shen T, Jin Z. 2018. Tremella
fuciformis polysaccharides attenuate oxidative
stress and inflammation in macrophages through
miR-155. Anal Cell Patho Article ID 5762371, 10
pages
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2018. A
review of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) in
traditional Chinese medicine as a promising
organic superfood and superfruit in modern
industry. Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants
6(12):437-445
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2019a. The
power of natural Chinese medicine, ginger and
ginseng root in an organic life. Middle-East
Journal of Scientific Research 27(1):64-71
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2019b.
Clinical aspects and health benefits of ginger
(Zingiber officinale) in both traditional Chinese
medicine and modern industry. Acta Agriculturae
Scandinavica, Section B- Soil & Plant Science
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2019c. A
review of ginseng species in different regions as
a multipurpose herb in traditional Chinese
medicine, modern herbology and
pharmacological science J Med Plant Res;
13(10):213-226
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2019d.
Modern pharmacological actions of Longan fruits
and their usages in traditional herbal remedies. J
Med Plants Stud 7(4):179-185
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2019e. The
influence of traditional Iranian and Chinese
medicine on western and Islamic countries. Asian
J Med Biol Res 5(2):94-99
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2019f. DNA
methylation as the most important content of
epigenetics in traditional Chinese herbal
medicine. J Med Plant Res 13(16):357-369
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2019g.
Tremendous health benefits and clinical aspects
of Smilax China. Afr J Pharm Pharmaco
13(16):253-258
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Zandi P, Cheng Q.
2019h. A review of Chrysanthemum, the eastern
queen in traditional Chinese medicine with
healing power in modern pharmaceutical
sciences Appl Ecol Env Res 17(6):13355-13369
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2019i. A
review of Astragalus species as foodstuffs,
dietary supplements, a traditional Chinese
medicine and a part of modern pharmaceutical
science Appl Ecol Env Res 17(6):13371-13382
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. 2019j.
Chinese star anise, magic herbs in traditional
Chinese medicine and modern pharmaceutical
science Asian J Med Biol Rese 5(3):162-179.
Shahrajabian MH, Khoshkharam M, Zandi P, Sun
W, Cheng Q. 2020a. The influence of
temperatures on germination and seedling growth
of Pyrethrum (Tanacetum Cineraiifolium) under
drought stress Int J Adv Biol Biomed Res; 8(1):
29-39
Shahrajabian, M. H., Sun, W., and Cheng, Q.
2020b. Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) and
pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium) as
natural alternatives for organic farming and
health care- A review. Australian Journal of Crop
Science 14(03): 517-523
Shahrajabian, M. H., Sun, W., Shen, H., and
Cheng, H. 2020c. Chinese herbal medicine for
SARS and SARS-CoV-2 treatment and
prevention, encouraging using herbal medicine
for COVID-19 outbreak. Acta Agriculturae
Scandinavica, section B- Soil & Plant Science.
DOI: 10.1080/09064710.2020.1763448
Shen T, Duan C, Chen B, Li M, Ruan Y, Xu D, Shi
D, Yu D, Li J, Wang C. 2017. Tremella
fuciformis polysaccharide suppresses hydrogen
peroxide-triggered injury of human skin
fibroblasts via upregulation of SIRT1. Mol Med
Rep 16:1340-1346
Soleymani A, Shahrajabian MH. 2018. Changes in
germination and seedling growth of different
cultivars of cumin to drought stress. Cercetari
Agronomice in Moldova 51(1):91-100
Soleymani A, Shahrajabian MH. 2012. Response
of different cultivars of fennel (Foeniculum
Amaz. Jour. of Plant Resear.., 2020 4 (3): 692-697
697
Cite this article as:
Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun, Hong Shen, Qi
Cheng. 2020. Chemical compounds and health benefits of
Tremella, a valued mushroom as both cuisine and medicine
in ancient China and modern era. Amaz. Jour. of Plant
Resear. 4(3): 692-697.
Submit your manuscript at
https:// www.ajpr.online
vulgare) to irrigation and planting dates in
Isfahan Iran. Res Crops 13(2):656-660
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q. 2019. Anise
(Pimpinella anisum L.), a dominant spice and
traditional medicinal herb for both food and
medicinal purposes. Cogent Biol 5:1-25
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Huang Q. 2020a.
Soybean seeds treated with single walled carbon
naotubes (SwCNTs) showed enhanced drought
tolerance during germination. Int J Adv Biol
Biomed Res 8(1):9-16
Sun, W., Shahrajabian, M. H., Khoshkharam, M.,
Shen, H., and Cheng, Q. 2020b. Cultivation of
cotton in China and Iran with considering
biological activities and its health benefits.
Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova 1(181): 105-
120
Sun, W., Shahrajabian, M. H., Khoshkharam, M.,
and Cheng, Q. 2020c. Adaptation of acupuncture
and traditional Chinese herbal medicines models
because of climate change. Journal of Stress
Physiology and Biochemistry 16(1): 85-90
Zhang Y, Pei L, Gao L, Huang Q, Qi J. 2011. A
neuritogenic compound from Tremella
fuciformis. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
36:2358-2369
Wu YJ, Wei ZX, Zhang FM, Linhardt RJ, Sun PL,
Zhang AQ. 2019. Structure, bioactivities and
applications of the polysaccharides from
Tremella fuciformis mushroom: a review. Int J
Biol Macromole 121:1005-1010
Wang R, Cao H, Zhang J. 2015. Scientific
explorations of the snow fungus (Tremella
fuciformis Berk.) in republican China: A brief
review. Indian J Hist Sci 50(2):340-344
... Tremella fuciformis belongs to the order Tremellaces and the family Tremellacea. It is commonly referred to as, snow fungus, snow ear, silver ear fungus, white jelly mushroom and white auricularia, (Shahrajabian et al., 2020).Tremella are reported to be mostly found in dead trees in tropical areas (Kuo, 2018). The fruiting bodies of T. fuciformis are described to be white or light yellow in colour (Devash, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Different Mushrooms species prefer different substrates as growth medium. For example, medicinal mushrooms such as Shiitake, pearl and yellow oysters grow better on straws and gourmet. Reishi and Maitake grow better on sawdust and logs, whereas Agaricus mushrooms are grown on manure with the likes of button mushrooms, portobella mushrooms. As a result, mushrooms have gained interest around the world, not only because mushroom are easily cultivated using locally available agricultural waste, but also because mushrooms contribute to employment and reduce food scarcity, while meeting nutritional and health demands. In Namibia, mushroom cultivation is not well exploited due to various factors such as unfavourable climatic conditions and suitable mushroom strains. Different encroacher bushes and other related crop residues can be studied to establish the variation of mushroom nutrition and therapeutic properties as a result of mushrooms growing on different substrates. Therefore, the utilization of encroacher bushes locally could also contribute towards rangeland restoration and creating economic opportunities. This review aims at investigating the importance of mushrooms production at local levels using alternative materials as substrates in comparison to other countries as case studies.
... Salah satu spesies T. fusimormis terkenal sudah dibudidayakan dan memiliki manfaat yang baik bagi kesehatan. Jamur ini dikenal sebagai antiinflamasi, memiliki kolestrol yang rendah, anti-aging, dan diduga mampu melawan kanker (Shahrajabian et al., 2020). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Diponegoro University (UNDIP) is one of the campuses in Indonesia whose environment is still green and there are many trees. This condition strongly supports the growth of macrofungi. Fungi are important organisms for the surrounding ecosystem thanks to their role as decomposers. However, the diversity of macrofungi in the UNDIP environment has never been reported before. This study aims to explore the diversity of macrofungi in the UNDIP environment and provide a description of their fruiting bodies. The method used is purposive sampling on roadsides, parks, gardens, and around the UNDIP building. The fungi obtained were then identified based on macroscopic characters with some related literature. The results confirmed as many as 16 genus of fungi including Auricularia auricula-judae, Trametes sp., Daldinia sp., Cyathus sp., Lentinus sp., Ganoderma sp., Coprinus sp., Coprinellus sp., Marasmius sp., Marasmiellus sp., Schizophyllum commune, Oudemansiella sp., Tremella sp., Xylaria sp., Collybia sp., and Parasola sp. The results of this study indicate that the UNDIP campus environment has a high diversity of macrofungi. This report is the first information regarding the diversity of fungi in the UNDIP campus environment. Periodic monitoring efforts still need to be carried out in various other areas within the UNDIP campus.
... Kedua jamur ini diduga bersimbiosis (Kuo, 2008). Jamur ini dapat dimakan (edible) dan bermanfaat medis dan kosmetik (Shahrajabian et al., 2020). Hasil wawancara dengan masyarakat sekitar menunjukkan bahwa jamur ini belum dimanfaatkan bahkan tidak memiliki nama lokal. ...
Article
Full-text available
Jamur merupakan organisme yang sering terabaikan pada saat pencatatan keragaman hayati di Indonesia. Hingga saat ini, data mengenai diversitas jamur di Indonesia masih sangat rendah. Padahal, organisme ini memilki berbagai manfaat dan mudah ditemukan pada berbagai relung ekologi di Indonesia. Kawasan hutan di sekitar pemukiman perkotaan merupakan tempat yang jarang memiliki catatan keragaman dan potensi pemanfaatan jamur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyediakan informasi awal mengenai keragaman jamur di di Kecamatan Gunungpati, Kota Semarang, Jawa Tengah. Sebanyak10 jamur berhasil diidentifikasi dan dipertelakan pada penelitian ini. Seluruh jamur tersebut merupakan bagian dari filum Basidiomycota yang terbagi ke dalam 6 ordo dan 9 famili. Jamur-jamur tersebut adalah: Auricularia cf. nigricans, Tremella cf. fuciformis, Gymnopus sp., Coprinellus sect. Domestici, Macrocybe sp., Lycoperdon cf. curtisii, Ganoderma sp., Lentinus cf. sajor-caju, Mutinus cf. elegans, dan Geastrum sp. Beberapa jamur diketahui memiliki potensi sebagai bahan pangan (Auricularia cf. nigricans, Coprinellus sect. Domestici, Macrocybe sp., Lycoperdon cf. curtisii, dan Lentinus cf. sajor-caju) dan obat (Auricularia cf. nigricans, Ganoderma sp. dan Tremella cf. fuciformis). Laporan ini merupakan catatan pertama mengenai keragaman jamur di lokasi penelitian dan diharapkan mampu untuk dijadikan sebagai bahan diseminasi ilmu mikologi oleh berbagai pihak terkait.
Article
Full-text available
Chinese herbs and plants have been used as traditional medicine, immune system booster for human being for thousands of years in China and other parts of Asia. Seven coronaviruses are known to infect humans, three of them are serious which are SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome), and SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). In this mini-review article, we have mentioned the key role some of the most important plants with antiviral activities and herbs against SARS and SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine. ARTICLE HISTORY
Article
Full-text available
Botanical insecticides keep attracting more attention from environmental and small farmers worldwide as they are considered as a suitable alternative to synthetic insecticides. The outstanding properties of pyrethrum include rapid action, low mammalian toxicity, broad spectrum of activity, lack of insect immunity, lack of persistence and of course effective insect repellent. Pyrethrum is a natural insecticide which has many properties, but the most important are rapid action, very low toxicity for mammalian, lack of insect immunity, broad of activity, lack of persistence and quick degradation by UV-sunlight and very effective insect repellent. Using natural pesticide may lead to organic farming, and advantage of organic farming is more beneficial to biodiversity and the environment, which reduces dietary exposure to pesticides. Chinese star anise has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal characters. It is useful in treatment of diseases like asthma, bronchitis and dry cough. One of its most compounds is Shikimic acid which is used as a drug in curing influenza and flu virus. It also consists of Linalool which is good for overall health because of its anti-oxidants characters. Its seeds are good source of minerals like calcium, iron, copper, potassium, manganese, zinc, and magnesium. The seeds are a great source of essential B-complex vitamins such as pyridoxine, niacin, riboflavin and thiamin. Chinese star anise is also a good source of anti-oxidant vitamins such as vitamin-C and vitamin-A. The essential oil of Star anise contains anethole which has shown several functional properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and oestrogenic properties. Star anise primarily contains anethole and fatty oil. Its essential oil has a sweetish, burning flavor and a highly aromatic odor. Organic farmers may use these two ancient Chinese herbs which can lead to industrial sustainability.
Article
Full-text available
China is the vast country which has the highest population and providing enough and stable food is a challenge in China and climate change is expected to exacerbate problems, and agricultural systems models play significant roles in identify strategies to support global food security and protecting the environment. Literature search was conducted in Medline, Research gate, Scopus, Pubmed and Google scholar databases. The keywords were climate change, acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine and health benefits. Climate Change will influence distribution of agricultural production, food supply and global markets in Asia and the world. The impact of climatic changes on agriculture can be divided into shift in climatic and agriculture zones, impact on plant growth and crop production, impact on agriculture soil such as soil organic matter, soil fertility, biological health of soil, soil erosion, soil water availability, and of course increase in number of pests, plant diseases and weeds. Traditional Chinese medicine uses five phase theory to describe the relationship between five zang and their physiological function, five zang and structure and function of various parts of the human body, and also the correlation between each part of human body and nature and society. Not only were the ancient Chinese scholars aware of Qi, the immaterial medium that connects between different parts of a body and speaks the intelligence of the body; they also recognized that nature, just like the human body, communicates between its different parts through its own Qi and the climate pattern. Farmers should adapt to climate change strategies which integrate traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific researches and government polices as key factors. Because of climate change, China will be more vulnerable to droughts, heavy rains and heat waves. Climate change will extend growing seasons for some crops and make shorter growing seasons for other crops in North part of China and will bring less reliable rains, soils that retain less water, the spread of dangerous pests and unwanted weeds. To maintain or increase qualitative production of Chinese herbal crops, adaptation strategies, particularly to increasing temperatures affecting irrigated wheat, or expanding the cropping area will be required.
Article
Full-text available
Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. f.) is an important herb in traditional Chinese medicine as well as traditional Asian medicine. The fruit is aromatic and has a strong, pungent and mildly sweet taste. Star anise is one of the many species that contain bioactive compounds as well as a number of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, having antioxidant, preservative and antimicrobial properties. All relevant papers in the English language from researchers of different countries were collected. The keywords of Chinese star anise, anise, traditional Chinese medicine and modern pharmaceutical science were searched in Google Scholar, Scopus, Research Gate and PubMed. Its seeds are good source of minerals like calcium, iron, copper, potassium, manganese, zinc, and magnesium. The essential oil of Chinese star anise contains anethole which has shown several functional properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and oestrogenic properties. Due to all positive characteristics, such as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant activities, anticancer and antimicrobial properties, both seeds and essential oils of anise is promising for safe use as super food supplements and raw constituents in the both pharmaceutical and food industries. Anise seed oil contains anethol, estragole, eugenol, pseudisoeugenol, methyl chavicol and anisaldehyde, coumarins, scopoleting, umbelliferon, estrols, terpene hydrocarbons, and polyacetylenes as the major compounds. The plant oil has both pharmacological and clinical effects. The pharmacological effects consist of antimicrobial, hepatopreotective, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, estrogenic, expectorant and insecticidal effects, and clinical effects such as nausea, constipation, menopausal period, virus, diabetes, obesity and sedative action. Combined with a nutritious diet, other traditional Chinese and Asian medicine, Chinese star anise and ansie seed may improve various aspects of health. More clinical studies are necessary to uncover the numerous substances and their effects in ginseng that contribute to public health.
Article
Full-text available
A review of chrysanthemum, the eastern queen in traditional Chinese medicine with healing power in modern pharmaceutical sciences-13355-APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 17(6):13355-13369. Abstract. Chrysanthemum is famous as the Queen of the East grown mainly in China and Japan. Chrysanthemum is the second most important plant in both the ornamental industry and traditional Chinese medicine. The most important chemical extracts of Chrysanthemum include flavonoids, betaine, choline and vitamin B1. Thirteen important compounds of chrysanthemum flowers are acacetin-7-0-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, acaciin, acacetin 7-0-(6 //-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-sophoroside, 3-0-caffeoylquinic acid, syringaresinol 0-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxychromone, uracil, p-gydroxybenzoic acid, 4-0-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxybenzoic acid, boscialin and blumenol A. The most outstanding health benefits of chrysanthemum tea are easing stress and anxiety, improving cardiovascular health, protect against oxidative damage, inhibit inflammation, support healthy immune function, improve eye health and lower risk for osteoporosis. In traditional Chinese medicine, chrysanthemum is a cold herb which helps dispel pathogenic heat, helps the liver, improves eyesight and aids detoxification. To conclude, treatment with natural Chinese herbal medicine especially chrysanthemum, non-synthetic drug is recommended for an organic life.
Article
Full-text available
Aromatic plants such as anise seed have a long traditional use in both folk and conventional medicine and of course in the pharmaceutical industry. Important compounds found in anise seed include estragol, p-anisaldehyde, anise alcohol, acetophenone, pinene, and limonene, but the most important volatile oil that gives the charactersitic sweet, aromatic flavor to seeds is anethole. The recent studies have shown that anise seeds and essential oil have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, gastro-protective, antidiabetic and antiviral activities. Other important benefits of anise seeds are stimulant, carminative, expectorant, insecticide, vermifuge, digestive, antispasmodic, anti-rheumatic, antiseptic, anti-epileptic, anti-hysteric, culinary significance, keeps the heart strong by its importance role to control the blood pressure, one of the best gas-releasing agent, easing many hormonal problems in females, hair benefits, skin benefits and it may reduce symptoms of depression. Anise seed and its extract also use in savory dishes, baked goods, and different drinks in both ancient and modern time. Anise seeds are good source of many essential B-complex vitamins such as pyridoxine, niacin, riboflavin and thiamin. The seeds are also important source of minerals like calcium, copper, potassium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zink. Anti-oxidant vitamins such as vitamin C and A are also foundable in the spice. More clinical studies are necessary to uncover the numerous substances and their effects in ginseng that contribute to public health.
Article
Full-text available
Drought cause yield loss of soybean production is the major reason to yield losing of soybean. To improve the germination and growth of soybean seeds under drought stress. We studied the effect of the single walled carbon nanotubes (SwCNTs) material in seed germination and the physiological changes occurred under drought condition, performed SwCNTs treatments in soybean (Zhonghuang 35) seeds at PEG drought stress, evaluated the germination, root and shoot length, fresh weight, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the contents of maleic dialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA) and H2O2. The results showed that under osmotic potentials of 0,-0.3,-0.6 with PEG 6000, the germination percentage of SwCNTs-treated seeds was higher than the control treatment (SwCNTs-untreated seeds). The fresh weight of SwCNTs-treated seeds were evidently higher than that of the controls under the osmotic potentials of 0,-0.3,-0.6 MPa. The root and shoot length were also longer than control in SwCNTs-treated seeds at 0,-0.3,-0.6 MPa (P<0.05, P<0.01) and-0.6 MPa (P<0.01) respectively. Moreover, the MDA and H2O2 contents were lower but ASA content and activities of SOD, CAT, POD were higher in SwCNTs-treated seeds than control treatment under osmotic potentials of-0.3,-0.6 MPa. The results suggest that SwCNTs-treated soybean seeds showed improvement in tolerance to drought stress and the combined increases in SOD, CAT and POD activities in seeds may play an important role in the improvement of antioxidant capacity under drought stress.
Article
Full-text available
Cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) is one the most appropriate choice for investing in dry and semi dry areas. In order to analyse influence of drought stress on germination and seedling growth of two masses of cumin, an experiment was conducted in seed technology laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture of Islamic Azad University of Isfahan, in 2016. In this experiment, polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) at six levels (0, -0.144, -0.18, -0.216 and -0.288 MP) and NaCl at six levels (0, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 ds/m) and distilled water as control were applied to investigate the influence of dryness and salinity stresses on seed germination and seedling growth of two cultivars of cumin plant masses gathered from Mashhad-e-Ardahal and Kerman, then fulfilled in two separate factorial trials, on the basis of randomized design with four replications. Cultivar had significant influence on germination percentage, germination uniformity, radicle length, plumule length, fresh radicle weight, dry radicle weight, fresh and dry plumule weight. Drought stress impact on all treatments, except germination uniformity, fresh radicle weight and dry radicle weight was meaningful, but, just radicle length, plumule length, fresh plumule weight and dry plumule weight significantly affected by interaction between cultivar and drought stress. The rate of germination, germination percentage, as well as seedling growth and establishment were considerably lowered with the rise of stress levels using PEG. Control treatment had obtained the highest germination percentage, mean time of germination, radicle and plumule length, fresh plumule weight and seed stamina index. Taking all traits into account, this experiment found that Mashhad-e-Ardahal was most tolerant hybrid to water stress conditions.
Article
Tremella fuciformis is an important edible mushroom that has been widely cultivated and used as food and medicinal ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. In the past decades, many researchers have reported that T. fuciformis polysaccharides (TPS) possess various bioactivities, including anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-oxidation, anti-aging, repairing brain memory impairment, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic. The structural characteristic of TPS has also been extensively investigated using advanced modern analytical technologies such as NMR, GC–MS, LC-MS and FT-IR to dissect the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the TPS biomacromolecule. This article reviews the recent progress in the extraction, purification, structural characterization and applications of TPS.