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Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning: A Defined and Cohesive Educational Foundation for P-12 Engineering

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Download @ https://www.p12engineering.org/framework - Engineering touches every aspect of human life, from providing access to clean drinking water to 5G telecommunications and vaccine development. Yet few young people ever encounter the subject in school or graduate with the foundational skills and knowledge to pursue engineering studies and careers. Now more than ever, we must inspire and prepare our students to grow into the informed designers and innovators the world needs to solve the tough challenges facing us today and in the future. In short, engineering learning is essential for every child in every school, town, city, and county in the country. Many of us within the P-12 education community recognize that there is something special about engineering learning. When given the opportunity to engineer, students of a variety of ages and backgrounds are motivated and eager to tackle difficult problems. They work together. They communicate. They are critical and creative and resourceful. We’ve seen it with our own eyes, experienced it as teachers and professional development coordinators, and advocated for it at parent/teacher nights, school board meetings, and legislative briefings. We know that engineering should be taught in parallel with science and math to ensure an equitable, authentic, relevant, and exciting STEM education experience. However, there have been minimal efforts at the state and local level toward adopting engineering as a distinct component of every child’s schooling. The Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning is a step toward changing that status quo and democratizing engineering learning across all grade levels, preschool through high school. The framework was developed with teachers, school administrators, and researchers working in concert with leaders of the Advancing Excellence in P-12 Engineering Education (AE3) research collaborative and the American Society of Engineering Education. It provides practical guidance by identifying common P-12 engineering learning goals that all students should reach to become engineering literate. The document will add structure and coherence to the P-12 engineering community by serving as a foundation for the development of any and all engineering programs in schools, informing state and national standards-setting efforts, and providing researchers with a common starting point to better investigate and understand P-12 engineering learning. The framework is envisioned as both a practical guide and critical first step in a national movement to make engineering a part of every child’s educational experience. Whether you are a state education policy leader, district administrator, teacher, researcher, industry partner, or educational company, we invite you to join us in our mission.
... Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning, codeveloped through a collaborative partnership between the Advancing Excellence in P-12 Engineering Education (AE3) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), aims to establish coherence to P-12 engineering education [21]. This framework offers the opportunity to have a synergistic vision and guide to inform local and state decisions for refining the coherent and equitable engineering teaching practices and learning throughout the nation. ...
... This is key to understanding the Framework's vision for engineering learning. This vision, which is to guarantee that throughout numerous years of school, every student will have the chance to (1) position their thought processes through the development of engineering habits of mind, (2) build skills with an active engagement in engineering practices, and (3) inform these engineering practices with the appropriate and relevant application of the concepts of engineering, which are mathematical, scientific, and technical in nature [21], is crucial in the promotion of a diverse and well-prepared engineering workforce with the confidence and ability to address the challenges of our future and thrive in the society of tomorrow. ...
... Therefore, the objective of this project, titled Revolutionizing Engineering for P-12 Schools (REPS), is to conduct the research necessary for states, school systems, and other organizations to establish a coherent and equitable approach to building engineering standards, curriculum, instructional materials, assessment tools, and professional learning experiences. It is our hope that, with this knowledge, we can better address democratizing engineering learning throughout all grade-levels and realize the vision presented within the Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning [21]. Our goal will be achieved by employing a design-based implementation research (DBiR) model consisting of a series of modified Delphi studies, focus groups, and school implementation feedback to address three main objectives. ...
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The REPS project seeks to investigate how to best implement engineering learning as defined by the Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning. As put forth in the framework, “associated grade-band specific implementation guides will leverage the content of this report to describe and propose appropriate engineering learning across the grades for all children to engage in rigorous and authentic learning experiences to think, act, and learn like an engineer". The Framework set the conceptual organization for P-12 engineering learning and provided preliminary Engineering Literacy Expectations and Engineering Performance Matrices for high school learners. Leveraging this roadmap provided in the Framework, REPS completes the vision by adding the Preschool (P)-Grade 8 components. The REPS project engages the broader P-12 engineering education community in articulating expectations for engineering learning for early learning, elementary, and middle school students to serve as the connecting elements necessary for authentic engineering learning efforts across the grades. The REPS project brings to bear the combined expertise of educators, professional engineers, and researchers in the field of engineering education to refine and complete a consensus on the nature of engineering literacy development for all students from preschool through high school.
... In a continued effort to develop and provide well-informed engineering literate citizens, the Advancing Excellence in P12 Engineering Education research collaborative, in partnership with American Society of Engineering Education and a range of national experts, set forth to create and develop a Framework for P12 Engineering Learning that would help inform and reform standards, curriculum and enhance engineering literacy [1,2]. Beyond the P-12 curricular experience are outreach efforts facilitated by many colleges and universities. ...
... The scholarship, including guidance on professional development for P-12 teachers of engineering and an organization of engineering topics relevant and age-appropriate for students, have been published by the American Society of Engineering Education and were developed by the engineering education research community as a way to ensure engineers and engineering educators have an avenue to influence how and what is being taught within concern to engineering to the nation's youth. Below, we have briefly summarized the "take-aways" from the Framework for P- [1]. ...
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The Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning was developed through a synergistic collaboration of teachers, school administrators, and researchers alongside the leaders of the Advancing Excellence in P-12 Engineering Education (AE3) research collaborative and the American Society of Engineering Education. The framework provides practical guidance by identifying common P-12 engineering learning goals that all students should reach to become engineering literate. The Framework aims to add structure and coherence to the P-12 engineering community by serving as a foundation for the development of any and all engineering programs in schools, informing state and national standards-setting efforts, and providing the research community with a common “starting point” to better investigate and understand P-12 engineering learning. Key among the implementation targets for the Framework is educational outreach programs at schools and colleges of engineering throughout the country. These outreach programs reach thousands of students in every state and territory in the United States. Many of these programs, such as University of Colorado's TeachEngineering initiative, provide services to P-12 schools including high quality teacher professional development and access to curricular resources. The following paper will describe how the Framework and documents such as the Standards for Preparation and Professional Development for Teachers of Engineering can advance outreach efforts currently being carried out by engineering schools and colleges.
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Engineering education has slowly been making its way into schools with the aim of promoting engineering literacy, which is central to learning and working in a technology-oriented society. Educators and policy makers advocate the need for developing students’ understanding of the nature of engineering (NOE); yet, there is an ongoing debate on the heuristics that should be applied. In this article, we review and discuss current studies on engineering education in schools and the integration of engineering into the science curriculum. We describe four aspects of engineering fields: Structures, Machines, Materials, and Data, each uniquely characterized by the technology used and the artefact produced. We discuss the application of the Family Resemblance Approach (FRA) to the characterization of NOE, focusing on the cognitive and epistemic domain. Accordingly, we describe NOE through four categories: Aims & Values, Engineering Practices, Methods & Methodological Rules, and Engineering Knowledge, which can guide teaching and learning about NOE. Building on the FRA, this paper provides a framework for a continuous discussion on NOE and the theoretical and practical relationships between science and engineering.
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The project allowed students to see how literacy, technology, and engineering concepts could all play a role in many different aspects of academic and everyday life.
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This article, focused on Engineering in Action, presents a socially relevant lesson designed to intentionally teach elementary students engineering concepts related to the practices of Engineering Design and Quantitative Analysis as well as provide opportunities for them to develop Engineering Habits of Mind. The lesson also situates learning within the contexts of computation and medical/health-related technologies as described in Standards for Technological and Engineering Literacy (2020) and addresses the standards focused on design (STEL-Core Disciplinary Standard 7) and technological innovation/impacts (STELCore Disciplinary Standard 4). The lesson example includes (a) class discussions to engage students in a socially relevant problem (children’s hydration and clean water access) and (b) a design activity to help students develop Engineering Habits of Mind (i.e., Systems Thinking, Creativity, and Persistence) as well as learn concepts related to Engineering Practices (i.e., Computational Thinking and Prototyping). At the end of this lesson, students are expected to (1) design health-related technology for their own water bottle, (2) explore methods of programming a timer using a Micro:bit (See Figure 1), and (3) create a working prototype (including both digital and physical elements) of their design. Additionally, students should be able to showcase as well as reflect on their engineering habits.
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Background Understanding the nature of engineering is important for shaping engineering education, especially precollege education. While much research has established the pedagogical benefits of teaching engineering in kindergarten through 12th grade (K–12), the philosophical foundations of engineering remain under-examined. Purpose This conceptual paper introduces the honeycomb of engineering framework, which offers an epistemologically justified theoretical position and a pedagogical lens that can be used to examine ways engineering concepts and practices are taught in precollege education. Scope/Method The honeycomb of engineering was developed as a descriptive framework by examining existing literature over a wide range of related disciplines such as the philosophy of engineering and technology, as well as design thinking and practice. The pedagogical translation of the framework was then developed to examine published precollege engineering curricula. Results The framework categorizes the multiple goals of engineering using an ontological classification of engineering inquiries anchored in the central practice of negotiating risks and benefits (i.e., trade-offs). This framework also illustrates the adaptability of design methodology in guiding six inquiries: (1) user-centered design, (2) design-build-test, (3) engineering science, (4) optimization, (5) engineering analysis, and (6) reverse engineering. The published curricula represented these inquiries with varying degrees, with design-build-test lessons seeing the most representation followed by user-centered design. Conclusions The honeycomb of engineering framework delineates variations in engineering education based on an epistemological explanation. The pedagogical translations offer guidance to educators, researchers, and curriculum designers for differentiating curricular aims and learning outcomes resulting from participation in different engineering inquiries.
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Engineering learning, a three-dimensional construct that includes Engineering Habits of Mind, Engineering Practices, and Engineering Knowledge, has been well established and defined at the post-secondary level (Reed, 2018). Meanwhile, engineering within pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (P-12) classrooms continues to grow steadily. Changes introduced by A Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013) have started to place engineering within secondary science education, just as the inclusion of engineering design in Standards for Technological Literacy did within technology education classrooms at the turn of the century (International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, 2000/2002/2007). More and more students are now exposed to engineering learning prior to graduating from high school in a variety of courses like technology, science, and career/technical education classrooms, as well as informal learning programs. Nevertheless, engineering in its own right often remains a missing or minimal component of the learning experience for many students (Change the Equation, 2016; Miaoulis, 2010). To include engineering in a more prominent manner, the Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning (2020) has recently been published as a practical guide for developing coherent, authentic, and equitable engineering learning programs across schools. This guidance includes a definition of the three dimensions of engineering learning, principles for pedagogical practice, and common learning goals. The framework can support the development of in-depth and authentic engineering learning initiatives and provide building blocks toward the 2020 Standards for Technological and Engineering Literacy. As a component of the framework, engineering practices are detailed by describing core concepts that can support performing these practices with increased sophistication over time. Examples include making data-informed design decisions based on material properties and employing computational tools to analyze data to assess and optimize designs. In this Engineering in Action article, we introduce a freely available, open-source computer-aided design (CAD) software called Aladdin and discuss how it can support authentic engineering practice within secondary classrooms. Earlier works have suggested that Aladdin is an effective tool for implementing Next Generation Science Standards (e.g., Chao et al., 2018; Goldstein, Loy, & Purzer, 2017). Similarly, we make a case for using Aladdin in secondary engineering education and discuss how recommendations of the Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning map to specific features of the software.
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This Engineering in Action article presents a socially relevant lesson designed to intentionally teach secondary students core engineering concepts related to the practices of Engineering Design and Quantitative Analysis [presented in the Framework for P-12 Engineering Learning (2020)]. This lesson also situates learning in the context of computation and automation as described in Standards for Technological and Engineering Literacy (ITEEA, 2020) and addresses the standards focused on human-centered design and technological innovation/impacts. The lesson example includes (a) class discussions to engage students in a socially relevant problem (the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic) within the context of safety in public settings and (b) a design activity to help students learn and apply core concepts related to Engineering Practice (i.e., Computational Thinking, Prototyping, and Systems Analytics) as well as knowledge related to communication technologies. At the end of this lesson, students are expected to (1) design a social distancing lanyard for public events (See Figure 1), (2) explore methods of measuring distances between people via radio signals, (3) ideate several designs that meet the needs of their identified user, and (4) create a working prototype (including both digital and physical elements) of their chosen design. Additionally, students should be able to showcase their engineering practices as well as how knowledge of their user and communication technologies informed their design.
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This study examined the design cognition and achievement results of both kindergarten and fourth grade students engaged in engineering design-based instructional activities. Relationships between design cognition and student grade level, as well as quality of student work, were investigated. 30 concurrent think-aloud protocols were collected from individual primary students as they worked in groups to design and make a solution to a design task. The concurrent think-aloud protocols were examined and coded to determine the duration of time the participants devoted to a pre-established set of mental processes for technological problem solving. Significant differences between kindergarten and fourth grade participants were found in the amount of time various cognitive processes were employed. Fourth grade students dedicated significantly more time to the mental processes of Creating, Defining Problems, Measuring, and Testing than kindergarten students. In addition, when examining the think-aloud protocols along with the evaluations of the participant’s design work, it was found that more time devoted to the cognitive process of Managing could be a significant predictor of lower design achievement. These findings can highlight potential areas for improving educational practice based on the cognitive abilities of students at different grade levels and the quality of their design work. As engineering design-based activities become more prevalent for the teaching of STEM-related content and practices, the results of this research, and the employed methodology, may demonstrate a promising practice for better understanding and assessing such education efforts.
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This study investigated the design cognition and performance results of secondary and post-secondary engineering students while engaged in an engineering design task. Relationships between prototype performance and design cognition were highlighted to investigate potential links between cognitive processes and success on engineering design problems. Concurrent think-aloud protocols were collected from eight secondary and 12 post-secondary engineering students working individually to design, make, and evaluate a solution prototype to an engineering design task. The collected protocols were segmented and coded using a pre-established coding scheme. The results were then analyzed to compare the two participant groups and determine the relationships between students' design cognition, engineering experience level, and design performance. Significant differences between participants with secondary engineering experiences and those without were found in regards to the amount of time various cognitive processes were employed to complete a design task. For the given design scenario, students with secondary engineering experiences achieved significantly higher rubric scores than those without. Improved design performance was also found to be significantly correlated with more time employing the mental processes of analyzing, communicating, designing, interpreting data, predicting, and questioning/hypothesizing. Important links between educational experiences in engineering design, prior to college, and student success on engineering design problems may indicate necessary shifts in student preparation.
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This article presents a culturally situated and socially relevant lesson for intentionally teaching secondary students the fundamental engineering concepts related to Problem Framing and Project Management. This lesson includes: (a) class discussions to engage students in a socially relevant problem (food waste and sustainability) within a culturally situated context (connection between food and culture) and (b) an experiential, team-based design activity to provide students with opportunities to learn and apply two fundamental core concepts of engineering design (Problem Framing and Project Management). At the end of this lesson, students are expected to be able to develop a problem statement by identifying explicit and implicit goals, determining the constraints involved in a given problem, and considering multiple perspectives regarding the design scenario to help eliminate any perceived assumptions that unnecessarily limit the problem-solving process. Additionally, students will be able to plan and manage a design project by applying a variety of project management strategies.
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Technology and Engineering Teacher, 77(7), 16-20
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Broadening participation in STEM education programs and boosting the STEM workforce, specifically increasing interest in engineering, has been a growing focus of the education system in the United States (Lawrence & Mancus, 2012; Strimel, Grubbs, & Wells, 2017). The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects the overall STEM employment to grow by 8.9% from 2014 to 2024 which is compared to just 6.4% of non-STEM occupations—with careers related to engineering being one of the fastest growing areas (Noonan, 2017). However, this is happening while the interest in and preparation for post-secondary engineering studies have continued to struggle (Becker, 2010; Change the Equation, 2016). Furthermore, females have typically been the least engaged in STEM careers—often as a result of societal and cultural influences—and therefore, underrepresented in engineering careers (Girl Scout Research Institute, 2012). The National Research Council (2013) reported that only 12% of practicing engineers are women. The American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) (2016) reported a total of 664,911 students, both full-time and part-time, were enrolled in an engineering major in 2015 with only 21.4% of those students being women. Additionally, ASEE stated that only 12.5% of those enrolled in an engineering technology program were female. As a result, gender is heavily skewed in some of the highest-earning undergraduate majors that are required for the critically needed STEM jobs. As Mason (2010) states, structural barriers exist across all levels of education that discourages underserved populations from pursuing pathways towards the STEM fields. And, just as the engineering workforce in the United States includes relatively few women, it also lacks the benefits of the participation of underserved minorities. This was emphasized in the results of the first National Assessment of Educational Progress in Technology and Engineering Literacy which uncovered that low-income and underserved minority students lagged the farthest behind in regards to engineering proficiency as their exposure to engineering at the P-12 level is completely left to chance (Change the Equation, 2016). These concerns are occurring at a time when the demand for high-quality engineering professionals continues to rise as the economy is increasingly dependent upon a skilled STEM workforce (Change the Equation, 2016). As a result, the United States is theoretically missing out on the full potential and gender/cultural benefits of all populations to meet the nation’s critical workforce needs (Lawrence & Mancuso, 2012). In reaction to these economic concerns, programs such as Project Lead the Way, Engineering is Elementary, Girls in Engineering, and many others try to encourage a diverse range of students to become interested in engineering by providing opportunities to learn about engineering at a young age and at no cost to the students. Yet, engaging all students can be a challenge when they each have different backgrounds, motivations, and goals for their learning. Therefore, more work is necessary to reach students who may not view engineering as an engaging opportunity to obtain their goals. For example, students who are interested in healthcare, nursing, physical therapy, or generally helping people and other seemingly non-engineering pursuits such as athletics may be influenced by the ethics of care and social responsibility contexts provided through the field of biomedical engineering. Many students express interest in helping people by exploring the healthcare field. However, some students may find certain elements of the field that are not engaging to them (i.e. working with blood, needles, terminally ill patients, severe injuries). Nevertheless, biomedical engineering offers a positive alternative by allowing people to be directly involved in the care of others while still being removed enough from the patient to make the job more appealing to them personally. Additionally, some students may express a greater interest in athletics. Biomedical engineering can also offer the opportunity to be involved in athletics in a way that makes them safer and improves the athletic experience. Here, the authors introduce biomedical engineering through current issues involving athletic concussion injuries, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis. This may provide a way to engage students interested in healthcare, athletics, or generally helping people who may typically be unengaged with the thought of engineering or technical careers.
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Cultivating students’ design abilities can be highly beneficial for the learning of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts, and development of higher-order thinking capabilities (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council, 2014). Therefore, examining students’ strategies, how they distribute their cognitive effort, and confront STEM concepts during design experiences, can help educators identify effective and developmentally appropriate methods for teaching and scaffolding design activities for students (National Research Council, 2010). Yet, educational researchers have only recently begun examining students’ engineering design cognition at the P-12 level, despite reports such as Standards for K-12 Engineering Education? (2010) designating this area of research as lackluster. Of the recent studies that have investigated engineering design cognition at the P-12 level, the primary method of investigation has been verbal protocol analysis using a think-aloud method (Grubbs, 2016). This methodology captures participants’ verbalization of their thought process as they solve a design challenge. Analysis is typically conducted by applying a predetermined coding scheme, or one that emerges, to determine the distribution of a group’s or an individual’s cognition. Consequently, researchers have employed a variety of coding schemes to examine and describe students’ design cognition. Given the steady increase of explorations into connections between P-12 engineering design cognition and development of student cognitive competencies, it becomes increasingly important to understand and choose the most appropriate coding schemes available, as each has its own intent and characteristics.Therefore, this article presents an examination of recent P-12 design cognition coding schemes with the purpose of providing a background for selecting and applying a scheme for a specific outcome, which can better enable the synthesis and comparison of findings across studies. Ultimately, the aim is to aid others in choosing an appropriate coding scheme, with cognizance of research analysis intent and characteristics of research design, while improving the intentional scaffolding and support of design challenges.
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Interest in engineering at the P-12 level has increased in recent years, largely in response to STEM educational reform (Strimel, Grubbs, & Wells, 2016). One of the driving forces is to expose young people to the field of engineering, in an effort to cultivate a pipeline for a STEMcapable workforce (NAE & NRC, 2009). Another motivator, is to engage all students in more meaningful and authentic activities, to spark their curiosity, and develop their critical thinking skills (Grubbs & Strimel, 2015; Kaplan-Leiserson, 2015). Simply, engineering is viewed as beneficial to student learning and success in life, not just for workforce preparation. Consequently, engineering, as a process, is increasingly being utilized across all P-12 school subjects (e.g. Next Generation Science Standards, Standards for Technological Literacy, K-12 Computer Science Framework) and other outreach efforts (e.g. Maker Spaces and Maker Movements). Despite greater attention to the value, importance, and use of engineering for teaching and learning, the educational community has engaged minimally in the deliberate and coherent study of it (NAE & NRC, 2014). Specifically, few efforts have been conducted to examine the engineering content and skillsets that are developmentally appropriate for P-12 education (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, & Medicine, 2017; NRC, 2010). Yet, the recent report, Increasing the Roles and Significance of Teachers in Policymaking for K-12 Engineering Education: Proceedings of a Convocation (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, & Medicine, 2017), recommends, that there needs to be greater awareness of what engineering content knowledge teachers need to address different grade bands. Furthermore, experienced teachers, could work with content experts to “develop a framework or taxonomy for engineering education in different contexts” (p. 15). As there have been no updates to the Standards for Technological Literacy (ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007), despite adding the word engineering to the profession’s title in 2009, the school discipline of Technology and Engineering Education (TEE), can lead this charge. Action would align, with the notion that the STLs were recommended as not being “static and immutable”, rather, they “as is true for all good standards will undergo periodic reassessment and reevaluation. It is very much a living document." (ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007, pg. vi). Thus, an update, including a more focused and in depth attempt to illustrate engineering and design as a content base and way of thinking, is necessary, and timely, given the recent release of the Next Generation Science Standards, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Technology and Engineering Literacy (TEL) assessment results, American Society of Engineering Education Professional Development Standards, and upcoming Advanced Placement Engineering course. Consequently, preliminary attempts have been conceived and proposed by the authors of this article to provide a curricular framework for the coherent study of engineering, in relation to the currently existing discipline. The frameworks proposed within, are meant to be working documents, reviewed by stakeholders within and external of our own professional community, with the purpose of more explicitly detailing the experiences of P-12 students, their development of engineering literacy, and the subsequent learning progressions associated with said development. Lastly, given the vague nature of the term engineering education, and historical misconception of Technology Education (e.g. Dugger & Naik, 2001), an interpretation of what P-12 engineering education is, and is not, will also be discussed.
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There is much support in the research literature and in the standards for the integration of engineering into science education, particularly the problem solving approach of engineering design. Engineering design is most often represented through design-based learning. However, teachers often do not have a clear definition of engineering design, appropriate models for teaching students, or the knowledge and experience to develop integrative learning activities. The purpose of this article is to examine definitions of engineering design and how it can be utilized to create a transdisciplinary approach to education to advance all students' general STEM literacy skills and 21st century cognitive competencies. Suggestions for educators who incorporate engineering design into their instruction will also be presented.
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This mixed-methods study examines perspectives on failure in the classroom by elementary teachers new to teaching engineering. Study participants included 254 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade teachers who responded to survey questions about failure, as well as a subset of 38 of those teachers who participated in interviews about failure. The study's theoretical background examines failure in the contexts of engineering and education. Failure is positioned as largely normative and expected in engineering, whereas in education learning and failure have a more tenuous relationship. Identity, failure avoidance, failure as part of the learning process, growth and fixed mindset, resilience, perseverance and grit are addressed in a discussion of failure and education. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were utilized to examine how participants: reacted to the words failure or fail, reported allowing students to fail or revise their work, considered how failure should be avoided in education, considered how failure may be construed as a learning experience, and reported using the words failure or fail in their classrooms. Conclusions from the study include that: failure has a largely negative connotation within education and by teachers, which influences how teachers use the words fail and failure and create failure experiences for their students; many teachers practice resilience and perseverance and encourage similar practices in their students with respect to mistakes in the classroom, which serves as a helpful yet somewhat inaccurate analogue for failure in the engineering design process; and there is evidence that many teachers have adopted a growth mindset and encourage this mindset in their classrooms, however there are some challenges to a true adoption of this mindset by teachers.
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The past 30 years have yielded a mature body of research regarding effective professional development for teachers of science and mathematics, leading to a robust selection of professional development programs for these teachers. The current emphasis on connections among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics underscores the need for similar research into the nature of effective professional development for teachers of engineering. With this in mind, this paper completes a review of the literature concerning effective professional development for teachers of engineering, both as a unique discipline and as a context for teaching and learning in other subjects. The results of this review serve as the foundation for five research-based design standards for professional development initiatives in the field of engineering education, which have been published on the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) website along with a matrix that will enable providers and consumers of engineering professional development to determine the extent to which a given program focuses on each of those standards.
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Recent U.S. national documents have laid the foundation for highlighting the connection between science, technology, engineering and mathematics at the K-12 level. However, there is not a clear definition or a well-established tradition of what constitutes a quality engineering education at the K-12 level. The purpose of the current work has been the development of a framework for describing what constitutes a quality K-12 engineering education. The framework presented in this paper is the result of a research project focused on understanding and identifying the ways in which teachers and schools implement engineering and engineering design in their classrooms. The development of the key indicators that are included in the framework were determined based on an extensive review of the literature, established criteria for undergraduate and professional organizations, document content analysis of state academic content standards in science, mathematics, and technology, and in consultation with experts in the fields of engineering and engineering education. The framework is designed to be used as a tool for evaluating the degree to which academic standards, curricula, and teaching practices address the important components of a quality K-12 engineering education. Additionally, this framework can be used to inform the development and structure of future K-12 engineering and STEM education standards and initiatives.
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Within primary and secondary school technology education, engineering has been proposed as an avenue to bring about technological literacy (Dearing & Daugherty, 2004; Lewis, 2005).Different initiatives such as curriculum development projects (i.e., Project ProBase and Project Lead The Way) and National Science Foundation funded projects such as the National Center for Engineering and Technology Education (NCETE) have been developed to infuse engineering into primary and secondary education. For example, one key goal of the Technology Teacher Education component of NCETE is to impact the focus and content of the technology education field at the secondary level (National Center for Engineering and Technology Education, 2005). More specifically, the goal is to facilitate students’ learning relative to core engineering principles, concepts, and ideas. A number of activities have been developed by the center to facilitate these goals, including a series of teacher professional development experiences, research designed to identify core engineering concepts, development of engineering-related activities, engagement with faculty from the STEM disciplines, and interaction with technology education pre-service teachers. Through the efforts of NCETE, three core engineering concepts within the realm of engineering design have emerged as crucial areas of need within secondary level technology education. These concepts are constraints, optimization, and predictive analysis (COPA). COPA appears to be at the core of the conceptual knowledge needed for students to understand and be able to do engineering design.
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https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/jpeer/vol10/iss1/4/ Engineering education has increasingly become an area of interest at the P-12 level, yet attempts to align engineering knowledge, skills, and habits to existing elementary and secondary educational programming have been parochial in nature (e.g., for a specific context, grade, or initiative). Consequently, a need exists to establish a coherent P-12 content framework for engineering teaching and learning, which would serve as both an epistemological foundation for the subject and a guide for the design of developmentally appropriate educational standards, performance expectations, learning progressions, and assessments. A comprehensive framework for P-12 engineering education would include a compelling rationale and vision for the inclusion of engineering as a compulsory subject, content organization for the dimensions of engineering literacy, and a plan for the realization of this vision. The absence of such a framework could yield inconsistency in authentically educating students in engineering. In response, this study was conducted to establish a taxonomy of concepts related to both engineering knowledge and practices to support the development of a P-12 curricular framework. A modified Delphi method and a series of focus groups—which included teachers, professors, industry professionals, and other relevant stakeholders—were used to reach a consensus on engineering concepts deemed appropriate for secondary study. As a result, a content taxonomy for knowledge and practices appropriate for P-12 engineering emerged through multiple rounds of refinement. This article details the efforts to develop this taxonomy, and discusses how it can be used for standards creation, curriculum development, assessment of learning, and teacher preparation.
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The Framework for K‐12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards propose that students learn core ideas and practices related to engineering as well as science. To do so, students will need high‐quality curricular materials designed to meet these goals. We report an efficacy study of an elementary engineering curriculum, Engineering is Elementary (EiE) that includes a set of hypothesized critical components designed to encourage student engagement in practices, connect engineering and science learning, and reach diverse students. To measure the impact of the curriculum, we conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in 604 classrooms in 152 schools in three states. Schools were randomly assigned to either the treatment curriculum or to a comparison curriculum that addressed the same learning goals but did not include several critical components. Results show that students who used the treatment curriculum (EiE) regardless of demographic characteristics outperformed students in the comparison group on outcome measures of both engineering and science content learning. The results show that curriculum design affects student‐learning outcomes.
Chapter
The teaching of engineering in US schools has seen a surge in popularity since the turn of the twenty-first century, and as design is considered a defining characteristic of engineers, the practice of engineering design has become a critical component of technology education. Consequently, research related to design cognition in engineering/technology education has become more prevalent in the literature. However, there are often minimal discussions on bridging design research with practice. Therefore, this chapter will present a design cognition research methodology developed to help inform engineering/technology education practice, the results of a study employing this method, and the implications for teaching and learning.
Chapter
This chapter argues that engineering should be a part of the core K-12 curriculum because engineering enhances technological literacy, which should be considered an essential basic literacy. Engineering promotes problem solving and project-based learning, makes mathematics and science relevant to students, offers a wide range of high-paying career choices, and helps all students better navigate in a three-dimensional world. The National Center for Technological Literacy has played a role in K-12 engineering education advocacy, standards and assessment revisions, and curricula and professional development. Engineering standards have expanded from Massachusetts into the Next Generation Science Standards, creating new demand and opportunities for teacher professional development and student exposure to the engineering design process. While implementation challenges remain, the author remains optimistic that K-12 engineering is here to stay and proliferate.
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In the midst of discussions about improving education, teacher education, equity, and diversity, little has been done to make pedagogy a central area of investigation. This article attempts to challenge notions about the intersection of culture and teaching that rely solely on microanalytic or macroanalytic perspectives. Rather, the article attempts to build on the work done in both of these areas and proposes a culturally relevant theory of education. By raising questions about the location of the researcher in pedagogical research, the article attempts to explicate the theoretical framework of the author in the nexus of collaborative and reflexive research. The pedagogical practices of eight exemplary teachers of African-American students serve as the investigative "site." Their practices and reflections on those practices provide a way to define and recognize culturally relevant pedagogy.
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We report the results of a study focused on identifying and articulating an ‘‘epistemic foundation’’ underlying a pre-collegiate focus on engineering. We do so in the context of UTeachEngineering (UTE), a program supported in part by funding by the National Science Foundation and designed to develop a model approach to address the systematic challenges facing this work—from identifying learning goals, to certifying pre- and in-service teachers for engineering courses to developing a research-based high school engineering course. Given the systemic nature of the UTE approach, this model is positioned to serve as a starting point to further the conversation around two of the National Academy of Engineering Committee on Standards in K-12 Engineering Education (2010) central recommendations for future work in this area: (1) Identification of core ideas in engineering, and (2) creation of guidelines for instructional materials. Toward that end, project faculty and staff were interviewed and/or surveyed about their views on the goals and outcomes of engineering and engineering teacher education, as well as strategies design to reach these goals and the warrants for them. Data were analyzed following a grounded protocol. The results align well with previous efforts to identify ‘‘core engineering concepts, skills, and dispositions for K-12 education’’ (National Academy of Engineering Committee on Standards in K-12 Engineering Education, 2010, Annex to Chapter 3).
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This is Disciplinary Literacy presents an important shift in how we now think about literacy. It shows the move from a prescriptive approach "across the disciplines" to a discipline-specific model that allows teachers to use literacy as a tool for strategic thinking and reasoning in their content areas. It places an emphasis on doing: inquiry, collaboration, and project-based learning.
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We recommend using the term Computation in conjunction with a well-defined model of computation whose semantics is clear and which matches the problem being investigated. Computer science already has a number of useful clearly defined models of computation whose behaviors and capabilities are well understood. We should use such models as part of any definition of the term computation. However, for new domains of investigation where there are no appropriate models it may be necessary to invent new formalisms to represent the systems under study.
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Practicing engineers are hired, retained, and rewarded for solving problems, so engineering students should learn how to solve workplace problems. Workplace engineering problems are substantively different from the kinds of problems that engineering students most often solve in the classroom; therefore, learning to solve classroom problems does not necessarily prepare engineering students to solve workplace problems. These qualitative studies of workplace engineering problems identify the attributes of workplace problems. Workplace problems are ill-structured and complex because they possess conflicting goals, multiple solution methods, non-engineering success standards, non-engineering constraints, unanticipated problems, distributed knowledge, collaborative activity systems, the importance of experience, and multiple forms of problem representation. Some implications for designing engineering curricula and experiences that better prepare students for solving workplace problems are considered.
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Background: Design experiences play a crucial role in undergraduate engineering education and are increasingly important in K-12 settings. There are few efforts to purposefully connect research findings on how people design with what teachers need to understand and do to help K-16 students improve their design capability and learn through design activities. Purpose: This paper connects and simplifies disparate findings from research on design cognition and presents a robust framework for a scholarship of design teaching and learning that includes misconceptions, learning trajectories, instructional goals, and teaching strategies that instructors need to know to teach engineering design effectively. Method: A scholarship of integration study was conducted that involved a meta-literature review and led to selecting and bounding students' design performances with appropriate starting points and end points, establishing key performance dimensions of design practices, and fashioning use-inspired tools that represent design pedagogical content knowledge for teachers. Results: The outcome of this scholarship of integration effort is the Informed Design Learning and Teaching Matrix that contains nine engineering design strategies and associated patterns that contrast beginning versus informed design behaviors, with links to learning goals and instructional approaches that aim to support students in developing their engineering design abilities. Conclusions: This paper's theoretical contribution is an emergent educational theory of informed design that identifies key performance dimensions relevant to K-16 engineering and STEM educational contexts. Practical contributions include the Informed Design Teaching and Learning Matrix, which is fashioned to help teachers do informed teaching with design tasks while developing their own design pedagogical content knowledge.
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In this paper I will seek to identify and explain the primary rationale for having the field of technology education to direct its focus on engineering. The basis of this proposal stems from a combination of observations that I have had over a 25 year career as a teacher/teacher educator of industrial arts/technology education and a broad based review of the critical literature in the field. It is hoped that educators within technology education will appreciate the value of this rationale and begin to reorganize their curricula to focus on engineering. I consider the publication of the Jackson Mill Industrial Arts Curriculum Theory document (Snyder and Hales, 1981) as the starting point of the modern era of technology education. Of course there were other significant contributions that helped to set the stage for this document. William E. Warner's A Curriculum to Reflect Technology (1947), Delmar Olson's Technology and Industrial Arts: A Derivation of Subject Matter from Technology with Implications for Industrial Arts Programs (1957), Paul DeVore's Technology: An Intellectual Discipline (1964) and the development and implementation of the Industrial Arts Curriculum Project (IACP), the American Industry Project, and the Maryland Plan (1960's and 1970's) all created a progressive stimulus that paved the way for the field of technology education. However, it was the Jackson Mill's document that provided the needed systemic refocus of the curriculum formerly known as industrial arts. The 20+ contributors to Jackson Mill redefined industrial arts as "comprehensive educational programs concerned with technology, its evolution, utilization, and significance; with industry, its organization, personnel, systems, techniques, resources, and products; and their societal impact." (Snyder and Hales, 1981, pp. 1-2). Many other important events and milestones followed the Jackson Mill document; in March of 1985, the American Industrial Arts Association changed to the International Technology Education Association. During the summer of 1987 Michael Neden and Max Lunquist, middle school teachers in Pittsburg, Kansas, redesigned and reconfigured their teaching laboratory to reflect modular learning experiences in technology education. Their model classroom started a nation wide redesign in both physical characteristics of the technology education laboratory and the curricular format in the delivery of technology content. Ernest Savage and Leonard Sterry (1990) directed and edited the development of A Conceptual Framework for Technology Education which helped to clarify and extrapolate the applications of the technological methods identified in the Jackson Mill document.
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This article focuses on the teaching of culture through the lens of food. It discusses a course of food and culture, in which students considered various foodstuffs and traditions as means to explore various cultural areas, including subsistence and economic issues, gender and racial stratification, ethnic and nationalist identities, and more. Drawing on the results of an in-class survey and class discussions, the article highlights a wide range of ideas and beliefs as well as areas of emerging resistance to cultural diversity which became highly visible to the students because the topic of "food" seemed innocent and safe.
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Habits are automatic behavioural responses to environmental cues, thought to develop through repetition of behaviour in consistent contexts. When habit is strong, deliberate intentions have been shown to have a reduced influence on behaviour. The habit concept may provide a mechanism for establishing new behaviours, and so healthy habit formation is a desired outcome for many interventions. Habits also however represent a potential challenge for changing ingrained unhealthy behaviours, which may be resistant to motivational shifts. This review aims to provide intervention developers with tools to help establish target behaviours as habits based on theoretical and empirical insights. We discuss evidence-based techniques for forming new healthy habits and breaking existing unhealthy habits. To promote habit-formation we focus on strategies to initiate a new behaviour, support context-dependent repetition of this behaviour, and facilitate the development of automaticity. We discuss techniques for disrupting existing unwanted habits, which relate to restructuring the personal environment and enabling alternative responses to situational cues.
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An emphasis on doing science calls for rich descriptions of the kind of science that gets done in such informal educational contexts as science museums and science-focused after-school and summer programs. Described in this article is a study of an inner-city youth gardening program and of the kinds of learning opportunities that it supported and that emerged from youth-initiated actions and talk. In particular, there is an examination of the ways in which the garden environment and the experiential nature of the program gave support to the emergence of learning opportunities, while also making connections possible among science, community, and work. The description emphasizes the value of a science that emerges from participants' engagement in activities they deem valuable, meaningful, and authentic. In essence, the results of the study show that informal educational programs that do not have science as their primary goal may provide important insights into the development of learning communities in the classroom. The study highlights the educational value of a school science practice that is driven by its consumers, rather than being imposed on them, and that provides opportunities for the integration of science, work, and community. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 39: 164-184, 2002
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Engineering as a profession faces the challenge of making the use of technology ubiquitous and transparent in society while at the same time raising young learners' interest and understand-ing of how technology works. Educational efforts in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (i.e., STEM disci-plines) continue to grow in pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (P-12) as part of addressing this challenge. This article explores how engineering education can support acquisition of a wide range of knowledge and skills associated with compre-hending and using STEM knowledge to accomplish real world problem solving through design, troubleshooting, and analysis activities. We present several promising instructional models for teaching engineering in P-12 classrooms as examples of how engineering can be integrated into the curriculum. While the introduction of engineering education into P-12 classrooms presents a number of opportunities for STEM learning, it also raises issues regarding teacher knowledge and professional development, and institutional challenges such as curricular standards and high-stakes assessments. These issues are consid-ered briefly with respect to providing direction for future research and development on engineering in P-12.
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This paper reports on a 3-year study of a half-day urban magnet high school founded upon a desire to provide rigorous science, math, and technology experiences to students who would not otherwise have access to such educational opportunities. Using the theoretical lens of how a model of an educated person gets culturally produced within the school setting, I attended to: (1) the institutional construction of preferred student identity, (2) ways in which students in the school both took up and transformed this identity, and (3) how these student initiatives played a role in gradual institutional shifts in student expectations. Four constructs—learning, achievement, resistance, and success—were found to play significant roles in how the qualities of an educated person were negotiated through practice in attempts to create a culture of academic success in science and mathematics. These findings have implications for teaching and learning in other urban school settings. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Sci Ed, 89:392–417, 2005
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There are many ways to understand the gap in science learning and achievement separating low-income, ethnic minority and linguistic minority children from more economically privileged students. In this article we offer our perspective. First, we discuss in broad strokes how the relationship between everyday and scientific knowledge and ways of knowing has been conceptualized in the field of science education research. We consider two dominant perspectives on this question, one which views the relationship as fundamentally discontinuous and the other which views it as fundamentally continuous. We locate our own work within the latter tradition and propose a framework for understanding the everyday sense-making practices of students from diverse communities as an intellectual resource in science learning and teaching. Two case studies follow in which we elaborate this point of view through analysis of Haitian American and Latino students' talk and activity as they work to understand metamorphosis and experimentation, respectively. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this new conceptualization for research on science learning and teaching. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 38: 529–552, 2001
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Abstract— Mathematical concepts are often difficult to acquire. This difficulty is evidenced by failure of knowledge to transfer to novel analogous situations. One approach to this challenge is to present the learner with a concrete instantiation of the to-be-learned concept. Concrete instantiations communicate more information than their abstract, generic counterparts and, in doing so, they may facilitate initial learning. However, this article argues that extraneous information in concrete instantiations may distract the learner from the relevant mathematical structure and, as a result, hinder transfer. At the same time, generic instantiations, such as traditional mathematical notation, can be learned by both children and adults and can, in turn, allow for transfer, suggesting that generic instantiations result in a portable knowledge representation.
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The design of this study was a multiple case study conducted to examine the knowledge, pedagogical principles, and challenges involved in providing engineering-oriented professional development for teachers at the secondary school level. A set of criteria was used to identify five representative projects for analysis in the US. A variety of tools and processes were used to gather data including on-site observations, interviews, focus groups and document reviews. Results of the study indicate that engineering professional development tends to be based on work focused on curriculum development and implementation. Given the distinct design orientation of engineering, it is not surprising that the focus of engineering-oriented professional development tends to concentrate on engaging activities, with a primary focus on process rather than content. A key outcome of this study was an observed lack of a clearly formulated and articulated conceptual foundation for secondary level engineering. Regarding pedagogy, the researchers identified a heavy emphasis on modeling and applied learning. At the same time, the researchers observed a lack of emphasis on reflection and analysis of the pedagogical processes and techniques used to shape teachers’ ability to teach engineering to their students. The findings of the study also include concerns raised by teachers as they engage in engineering professional development. These include concerns about technical knowledge, particularly with the use of specialized software applications and other tools, as well as with practical issues such as time, resources, and availability of appropriate curriculum. KeywordsK-12 engineering education–Teacher professional development
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Investigated the effect of improvement of one mental function upon other functions allied to it. Six Ss were tested on a particular function and then trained to enhance another function, after which the first mental function was reevaluated, and its effect in the improvement estimated. Concluded that the senses evaluated could not be generalized or be considered within a narrow perspective. Improvement in any single mental function need not improve the ability in similar functions, it may injure it. Spread of practice occurred only where identical elements were concerned in the influencing and the influenced function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved), (C) 1901 by the American Psychological Association
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Four experiments explored participants' understanding of the abstract principles governing computer simulations of complex adaptive systems. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 showed better transfer of abstract principles across simulations that were relatively dissimilar, and that this effect was due to participants who performed relatively poorly on the initial simulation. In Experiment 4, participants showed better abstract understanding of a simulation when it was depicted with concrete rather than idealized graphical elements. However, for poor performers, the idealized version of the simulation transferred better to a new simulation governed by the same abstraction. The results are interpreted in terms of competition between abstract and concrete construals of the simulations. Individuals prone toward concrete construals tend to overlook abstractions when concrete properties or superficial similarities are salient.
Multicultural education: Characteristics and goals
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