Roller Skating Promotes the Physical Health of Children and Adolescents: A
Systematic Reviewand Metaanalysis
College of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing Normal University
Changquan Wang ( firstname.lastname@example.org )
College of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing Normal University
College of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing Normal University
Keywords: Roller skating, children and adolescents, physical health, meta-analysis
License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Read Full License
Background:Thismeta-analysis aimed to systematically analyse the inuencing factors of roller skating on the physical health of children and adolescents
and to discuss the intervention effect of roller skating on the physical health of children and adolescents.
Methods: Taking "Roller Skating", "Children", "Youth", "roller-skating", "minors", "childhood", and "adolescent" as the subject words, a combination of subject
words and free text was used to perform a comprehensive search of 7 electronic databases: China Knowledge Network (CNKI), WanFang and Weipu
Periodicals, Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. We searched for randomized controlled trials of roller skating with respect to promoting
the health of children and adolescents. We searched from inception to 31 December 2019, with no language restrictions.
Results: Sixteen studies with 1296patients were included. Pooled analysis showed a favorable effect of Roller Skatingin total effectiverate.Balance ability
(SMD=0.86,95%CI:0.72-1.01;Z=11.94,P < 0.0001),Lower Limb power(SMD=0.52,95%CI:0.33-0.70;Z=5.55,P<0.0001),Speed quality(SMD=0.17,95%CI:0.14-
0.20;Z=11.67,P<0.01),Social adaptability(SMD=0.68,95%CI:0.32-1.04;Z=3.67,P<0.01)andEndurace quality(SMD=-0.24,95%CI:-0.38-0.10;Z=3.42,P<0.01)while
no signicant differences were found in Bodyheigh(SMD=0.13,95%CI:-0.01-0.27;Z=1.79,P>0.01),Flexibility(SMD=0.05,95%CI:-0.09-
0.19;Z=0.65,P>0.01),Sensitive quality(SMD=0.64,95%CI:-1.13-2.41;Z=0.71,P>0.01) and Vita capacity(SMD=1.92,95% CI:0.17-3.67;Z=2.15,P>0.01)between the
Conclusion:The current evidence shows that roller skating effectively promotes balance, lower limb strength, speed quality, body endurance and social
adaptability in children and adolescents; the improvement in male endurance was lower than that in females in the adolescent stage. However, the
improvement in male lower limb strength was greater than that of females, and there was no improvement in the exibility and agility of males or females in
these two periods.
Nowadays, the pace of modern life is accelerating. A sedentary lifestyle combined with a lack of physical activity is becoming an increasingly serious health
problem, especially for children and adolescents. Due to a lack of interest in physical exercise, most children and adolescents in China have little time for
physical exercise and cannot form good exercise habits. The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made a major decision-making
arrangement for the implementation of a healthy China action strategy, emphasizing adherence to prevention, advocating a healthy and civilized lifestyle, and
preventing and controlling major diseases. The strategy promotes a change from treating disease as central to people's health and clearly raises concerns
about the physical and mental health of young people. A number of cross-sectional surveys by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) found that
the incidence of obesity among children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years is as high as 4 to 17%, and that the obesity rate of children and adolescents in
Asia in recent years has also shown a rapidly upward trend, leading to early stages of various chronic diseases, directly threatening the physical and mental
health problems of children and adolescents.
As an important part of ensuring a healthy life, sport not only promotes health and improves the body's ability to resist diseases but also regulates people's
psychological activities towards health. In recent years, roller skating has been favoured by the majority of children and adolescents. Some studies have
shown that roller skating can fully exercise the muscular system and small joints, thereby playing a positive role in the balanced development of various parts
of the body[3,4]. Roller skating exercises impose high requirements on muscle strength and endurance of the participants' upper and lower limbs, waist and
abdomen, as well as the exibility of the hips. Principal component analysis in many experimental studies has shown that the main physiological factors
that are affected by roller skating training are strength, aerobic capacity and body fat percentage. However, there has been no systematic review and meta-
analysis of the effect of roller skating on the improvement of children and adolescents' physical health. Therefore, it is necessary to use the meta-analysis
method to extract and combine research results, to prove the reliability of the research results.
According to the PICO model, the subject terms of the research content were graded. This study used "roller skating", "children", "teenagers", "impact",
"rollerskating", "child", "minors", and "adolescent" as the subject words. We used a combination of subject words and free words, supplemented by literature
tracking. The subject words and free text of the research were searched, screened and determined from the CBM, PubMed and Weipu databases. Relevant
Chinese and foreign language documents are searched using the Chinese literature search platforms HowNet, Wanfang and Weipu Journals and the Web of
Science, PubMed, psycINFO, and SPORTDiscus foreign language databases. Articles published through 31 December 2019 were searched. On the basis of
strict paper retrieval requirements and publication times, the papers that met the research conditions were imported into literature reading and management
software, and human-machine combination screening was performed on the document titles, abstracts and full-text reading methods. The retrieval process is
shown in (Fig 1)
The meta-analysis-based literature incorporation is based on the PICO method of evidence-based medicine, which considers ve factors (participants,
interventions, control groups, research results and research design) to determine the following inclusion criteria: 1) The research subjects are healthy and well-
developed children and adolescents without organic lesions and obvious physiological defects, regardless of gender; 2) the study complies with the
requirements of randomized controlled studies and non-simultaneous controlled trials of non-randomized controlled studies; 3) the result measurement index
is the content of 3 dimensions of physical tness; 4) the test is blinded or not; and 5) the length of the intervention is no less than 4 weeks.
We determined the criteria for excluding literature based on the "Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Priority Report Entry: PRISMA Statement" :1)
Duplicate literature; 2) Systematic review, conference report, or meta-analysis; 3) Research content does not match, no data literature; and 4) Experimental
method design is not rigorous, the outcome index gap is large. and RevMan 5.3 software is used to draw the literature process Figure.
To ensure the quality of the rst time the literature is included, the literature search, screening, and data extraction were arranged by two researchers. If the
statistical results and opinions differed, a third party's suggestions were sought to and adopted. The basic characteristics of the included literature included:
rst author, year of publication, age of subjects, sample size of EG and CG groups, intervention plan design and test index data.
A randomized controlled trial Cochrane risk bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included literature. The quality assessment
included the following 7 aspects: random allocation method, concealment of allocation scheme, blinding method, blinding method of result evaluation,
completeness of result data, selective reporting of research results, and other sources of bias. A total of 7 points, satisfying a score of 1 point, classies the
quality evaluation statistical results: satisfying 6 points or more indicates a low degree of bias risk; 4 to 5 points indicates moderately biased risk, and 3 points
or less indicates highly biased risk.
According to the meta-analytic scientic method to summarize the classication requirements of the effect quantity, the Q-test or I2 test were used to evaluate
heterogeneity. When the result of the Q-test indicated that the heterogeneity was signicant (I2 ≥ 50%), the random effect model was used, otherwise the xed
combination and calculation of effect model data were used. If the heterogeneity was too large, we used descriptive analysis.
To ensure the heterogeneity test of the extracted data, it is necessary to select at least the data obtained from the two groups of experiments in the pretest and
posttest to calculate the effect amount of the test data, to calculate the effect size of the selected variable and to generate a forest map[9,10].
The data in this study were continuous variables, the effects were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) or standard deviation (MD), and a 95%
condence interval was calculated. The heterogeneity test between the studies used the consistency coecient I2 and P test, P<0.1, I2≥50%, using RevMan 5.3
software to analyse and merge the amount of research included[11,12].
Study selection. We retrieved 83 articles through the database search. After repeated literature elimination, title reading and abstract screening to exclude non-
RCTs, rigorous experimental design and unsuccessful research data, 16 articles were ultimately included, including 14 Chinese articles and 2 English articles.
There were a total of 1296 experimental participants.
Characteristics of the exercise interventions
The literature inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria generated a total of 16 studies. We recorded the study characteristics of the author, the year of
publication of the article, the type of study, the frequency and duration of intervention.
All included studies reect the effects of roller skating on children and adolescents in terms of their body shape, physiological function, physical tness and
adaptability(Table 1). The most frequently used evaluation indicators, balance ability and explosive force, are used to measure changes in neuromuscular
control of movement after participating in roller skating; secondary evaluation indicators include speed, endurance, sensitivity, exibility, vital capacity, and
Table 1. Four aspects of physical health consisting of 9 Variables
Body Shape Body Height
Physical Fitness Speed, Lower limb Strength, Endurance, Sensitivity, Balance, Flexibility
Physiological Function Vital Capacity
AdaptiveCapacity Social AdaptiveCapacity
In the 16 articles included in this study, a total of 1296 participants with mixed genders, age range of 4 to 21 years and experiment range from 8 weeks to 36
weeks. There were large differences in the intervention programmes among the studies. The duration of a single intervention ranged from 15 to 120 minutes,
and most concentrated on 30 to 60 minutes. The frequency of interventions ranged from 1 to 7 times per week, and the intervention cycles also varied greatly.
The shortest cycle was 8 weeks, and the longest cycle was 36 weeks. Table 2 lists the basic characteristics of each study.
Table 2. Summary of the observed data from the included studies n=1296
Exercise intensity Intervention
ID1 Chen Siping
 15-16 43/43 20 wk —— 4 min 3 times/week ↑, ↑, ↑, ↑, →,
ID2 Chen Siping
 15-16 43/43 20 wk —— 4 min 3 times/week ↑
ID3 Fan Peng 19.21±0.37
19.34±0.37 F:48/50 36 wk Medium/high
intensity 90 min 3 times/week ↑
ID4 Han Qi  19.15±1.6 20 16 wk Medium/high
intensity 90 min 4 times/week ↑
ID5 Hu Jiayi 20.1±0.6 20/20
12 m —— 90 min 1 times/week ↑, ↑, →, ↑
ID6 Jing Xiaowei
 20-22 23/40 18 wk —— 90 min 1 times/week ↑, ↑, →, ↑
20/20 16 wk medium intensity 50 min 1 times/week ↑, ↑, ↑, ↑
ID8 Liu Lexing  4—6 25/27 20 wk —— —— —— ↑, ↑, , ↑, ↑, ↑
ID9 Liu Zhongxi
 4—6 20/20 12 wk —— —— —— ↑
ID10 Qi Hongchun
 19. 21±0. 37
19. 34±0. 37
50/50 36 wk medium intensity 90 min 1 times/week ↑, ↑, ↑, ↑, ↑
ID11 SunChao  11±2.3 12/12 18 wk High intensity 40 min 3 times/week ↑, ↑
ID12 Wang Hai  20±0.3 F40/40 15 wk medium intensity 90 min 1 times/week ↑
ID13 You Yang  19-20 271/280,
16 wk medium intensity 90 min 2 times/week ↑, ↑, ↑, ↑, ↑,
ID14 zhang Jian 21.32±0.78
42/37 12 wk —— 90 min 3 times/week ↑, ↑, ↑
ID15 Zhou You 5-6 20/20,
24 wk —— --- ↑, ↑, ↑, →, ↑
8 wk —— 105 min —— ↑→, ↑
Abbreviations: F=female; EG=experimental group; CG=control group; Balance ability, Flexibility, Sensitivity, Lower limb strength, Speed quality, endurance,
Body Height, Vital capacity, Social Adaptabilit
Methodological quality and risk assessment of bias
Using the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool for randomized controlled trials, the evaluation results of the included 16 studies showed that there were 1 low-
risk study, 14 medium-risk studies, and 1 high-risk study(12). In Fig 2, "+" means compliance, "-" means failure, and "?" means that the text has not been
described in detail. Figure 3 is a statistical chart of the proportion of each item of methodological assessment.
The full text reading of the 16 included documents revealed that the focus of the studies on the effect of roller skating on the improvement of children and
adolescents' physical health varied. The performance of the same indicator used different test methods, and some research subjects had different genders. A
comprehensive analysis of the 9 indicators identied in the 16 studies involved independent analysis of each indicator to analyse the effect size heterogeneity
and research publication bias. The results are as follows.
The meta-analysis of the balance ability of children and adolescents included 17 sets of test data from 11 studies involving 960 participants[13-23]. It
included 4 sets of independent men and women, and 2 sets of dynamic and nondynamic balance ability test data[14-17,22-23]. After the heterogeneity test,
I2=93%, and Q-test P<0.1, suggesting that there is strong heterogeneity between the selected studies, and random effects were selected for meta-analysis. The
data from this study strongly suggest that the source of heterogeneity was inconsistent test methods. Random effects meta-analysis results showed that the
experimental group's balance ability improved by 1.29, Z=11.94, P<0.01, indicating that roller skating has a positive effect on improving the balance ability of
children and adolescentsFig 4.
Lower Limb Power
The meta-analysis of the strength and quality of children and adolescents was based on seven studies and 17 sets of test data involving 502
participants[13,16-17,19-21,23-24], including 3 independent test data for men and women. After heterogeneity testing, I2=78%, and Q-test P<0.1, suggesting
that there was strong heterogeneity between the selected studies, and random effects were selected for meta-analysis. There is strong evidence that the
source of heterogeneity is the inconsistency of strength evaluation methods and test methods. Random effects meta-analysis results showed that Z=5.55,
P<0.01, indicating a signicant difference between the experimental group and the control group, which shows that roller skating can improve the strength and
quality of children and adolescentsFig 5 .
Meta-analysis data on the effect of roller skating on the height of children and adolescents comes from 9 sets of data involving 866 participants[16,19,23-26],
including 3 sets of independent data sets for men and women[16,24,26]. The height data of the experimental group and the control group increased after
exercise intervention testing. The total SMD value was 0.13, the 95% condence interval was [-0.01, 0.27], Z=1.79, P>0.05, the data were not statistically
For studies of roller skating on improvement in the exibility of children and adolescents, we performed analysis of 6 studies and 9 groups of balance ability
test data, involving 771 participants[13,17,21-25], including 6 independent test data for males and females[13,17,23]. The heterogeneity test showed I2=87%,
and in the Q-test, P<0.1, suggesting that there is strong heterogeneity between the studies, and random effects were selected for meta-analysis. A total of 2
articles were left out of the sensitive analysis process, and the remaining 4 articles showed no heterogeneity (I2=0% and Q- test P>0.1); then, the combined
xed effect was used. The results showed that the exibility of the experimental group was increased by 0.05 compared with the control group; however, the
results were not statistically signicant (P=0.52>0.01),indicating that the effect of roller skating on the exibility of children and adolescents is not obviousFig
A meta-analysis of the effect of roller skating on children’s and adolescents' speed and quality included data from 8 sets of data involving 810 participants in
5 studies[13,17,23-25], and three separate data sets for male and female students[17,23,25]. After exercise intervention, the speed quality of the experimental
group and the control group improved (95% CI,[0.14 to 0.20], Z=11.62, P<0.01), indicating that roller skating can improve the speed ability of children and
adolescentsFig 8 .
Meta-analysis data on the relationship between roller skating and children’s and adolescents’ sensitive qualities came from 5 studies involving 6 sets of data
from 276 participants[13,16,18,19,21], including 1 group of independent data set of males and females. The total SMD value was 0.64, and the 95%
condence interval was [-1.13,2.41], with Z=0.71 and P=0.48>0.05. The studies showed that the effect of roller skating on the sensitivity of children and
adolescents is not signicantFig 9.
The meta-analysis data of the relationship between roller skating and the vital capacity of children and adolescents comes from 9 groups of data involving
770 participants from 5 studies[16-17,24-26], two independent data sets of 3 groups of males and females were included[16,17,26]. The heterogeneity test
I2=99% and Q-test P<0.1 indicates that the included studies showed strong heterogeneity, and the random effect of the combined effect size was selected.
Based on the overall study of the included studies, it is highly suspected that the heterogeneity source test methods were inconsistent. The results showed that
the total SMD value was 1.92, the 95% condence interval was [0.17, 3.67], and it was statistically signicant (Z=2.15, P=0.03<0.05), suggesting that roller
skating can improve the cardiopulmonary function of children and adolescentsFig 10 .
For meta-analysis of the social adaptability of children and adolescents affected by roller skating, the data were derived from 5 sets of information involving
298 participants in 5 studies[17,18,20,27,28]. Overall, the total SMD value was 0.68, and the 95% condence interval was [0.32 to 1.04], and was statistically
signicant (Z=3.67, P=0.0002<0.05). Studies showed that roller skating can effectively improve the social adaptability of children and adolescentsFig 11.
3.4.9 Endurance quality
For meta-analysis of the effect of roller skating on children and adolescents' endurance quality, data were from 5 studies involving 5 groups of information
from 803 participants. The heterogeneity test showed I2=32%, and the Q-test P>0.1; there was no heterogeneity among the studies involving endurance quality,
and the xed effect of the combined effect amount was selected. The results were Z=3.42 and P<0.01, suggesting that roller skating can signicantly improve
the endurance quality of children and adolescentsFig 12.
Participation in physical activity is very important to improve the physical tness and body composition of children and adolescents, to improve
cardiopulmonary function, to reduce cardiovascular risk, to promote brain maturity and to improve cognitive function. The data included in this article
show that roller skating has an effect on improving the exibility, sensitivity and height of children and adolescents; however, the combined effect was not
statistically signicant. In this article, roller skating had a signicant effect on the improvement of children and adolescents' balance ability, strength, speed,
endurance, cardiopulmonary function, and social adaptability. One of the most important factors for participating in sports activities is the eciency of sports,
and studies have shown that children and adolescents with strong athletic ability can derive more fun from sports activities, so they have formed a lifelong
connection with this sport. A number of studies have shown that sensitivity and balance ability are important parameters that affect participation in
physical activity and participation satisfaction, which is consistent with the conclusion of this study on balance ability. Studies have also conrmed that
roller skating is associated with signicant improvements in the core strength and limb balance of sedentary children and adolescents. Moreover, different
sports have different demands on balance ability, and balance sensitivity is a basic ability that can be acquired through the acquired sports skill learning
process on a regular basis.
Roller skating can signicantly improve the strength of young people's lower limb muscles. Regarding strength, researchers determined muscle strength and
endurance by testing children’s and adolescents' upper extremity (tennis throw, grip), waist and abdominal strength (sit-ups, push-ups, curls), and lower
extremity strength (standing long jump). The research suggests that children’s and adolescents' mastering of motor skills can promote the development of
strength and quality. The combined effect size results reect the lack of specicity of the training design of current exercise programmes. The strength
improvement of children and adolescents may be due to improvement of lower limb strength caused by improvements of other body components during
running. Tracking the future development of children and adolescents should consider adding resistance-based coordinated movement exercises on the basis
of roller skating to help improve muscle tness.
Physical function refers to life activities engaged in by the whole person and each organ system that composes them. Children and adolescents who
participate in high-level physical activity are unlikely to be at risk for cardiovascular diseaseand will produce positive results in terms of weight regulation.
Studies have shown that appropriate physical activity has an important impact on the cardiopulmonary function of children and adolescents, and it is
believed that high levels of cardiopulmonary function may suppress the adverse effects of obesity caused by a sedentary lifestyle and a lack of exercise and
can promote the improvement of strength and muscle endurance. Cardiopulmonary endurance comprehensively reects the body's ability to ingest,
transport, and use oxygen, including the heart's pumping function, the lung's ability to take up oxygen and exchange gases, and the ability of the circulation
system to carry oxygen to provide more energy to the muscles. At present, cardiovascular diseases and endocrine diseases are gradually occurring at
younger ages, and unfavourable factors that threaten the physical health of children and adolescents are gradually increasing. In recent years, research shows
that there is a signicant, graded, and independent relationship between the level of cardiopulmonary endurance and cardiovascular outcomes and that the
level of cardiopulmonary endurance in children and adolescents is related to the incidence of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. A high level of
cardiopulmonary function can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular and other diseases. During roller skating exercise, participants often stretch muscle
bres, increase circulation and metabolism, and increase muscle oxygen absorption capacity, thereby maximizing the absorption of oxygen. Frequent
stretching of muscle bres may increase microcirculation and metabolism, thereby improving muscle aerobic capacity, muscle strength and ultimately
cardiopulmonary function .
A large number of early studies have conrmed that participation in exercise can increase sensitivity, exibility, self-condence and balance ability. In future
research, it will be necessary to arrange exercise duration and exercise load reasonably. The effect of the exibility index in this study is not obvious. The
reason for this analysis may be due to the neglect of warm-up before the activity and the relaxation content after the exercise. Some studies have also proved
that warm-up and relaxation before and after exercise, and the completion of the stretching exercise of the body can promote exibility. Another reason
may be that the muscles around the spine are strengthened, resulting in decreased exibility. The stronger the muscles, the greater the tension provided.
The adverse effect of strength on exibility is obvious in many sports . Lida (2016) proposed that the effect on sensitivity has a relationship with the type
and intensity of exercise and is related to the duration of exercise. After repeated movements to stimulate the central and peripheral nervous systems, the
movement centre sends movement instructions to the muscles, and muscles that receive the signals correct the deviation of the centre of gravity to withstand
the anti-balance effect of the centre of gravity and shaking during running, jumping and ipping, realizing the control, optimization and development of
self-action. The window period based on the development of sensitivity qualitiy is 10 to 15 years old. Only 5 of the studies included in the sensitivity study
were conducted in the window period, and the ES of the experimental data was low. This suggests that follow-up research should focus on the type of
exercise, exercise intensity and exercise time in order to obtain the ideal test results. Vandendriessche et al. (2011) demonstrated the relationship between
exible tness and motor skills development using the seated body exion test and believed that children's motor skills are positively related to exibility .
The results of this study showed that roller skating has no signicant effect on exibility and sensitivity. This is mainly due to the existence of a sensitive
period for the development of physical tness of children and adolescents that determines the impact of research test indicators. Second, measurement errors,
sample size, differences in sample characteristics and different analysis strategies increase the possibility of inconsistency in the study. However, in the
analysis of the impact of the intervention environment on the physical health of children and adolescents in Salmon et al. and other studies have shown that
physical education, extracurricular activities, and after-school training on campus have a signicant impact , and the measured environment of the
selected research basically meets the requirements.
Heterogeneity and Deciency analysis
An original RCT meta-analysis shows inevitable differences between studies when the test indicators are combined and analysed. Therefore, heterogeneity
testing and analysis of the causes of heterogeneity are required. The author believes that this meta-analysis has the following 6 shortcomings. First, the
number of foreign journals included was slightly less, affecting the breadth of information to a certain extent. Second, four of the 16 RCTs included mainly
females, and only three of the other mixed trials of men and women explained the grouping and proportion of men and women. The difference in gender and
age of the test subjects are another reason for the heterogeneity of the meta-analysis. Third, due to the use of different standards and test methods, the ES
value and heterogeneity test results of the combined effect of various indicators included in the literature are not ideal. Fourth, the details of the sports
intervention plan for the impact of children's physical health have not been detailed, and the lack of information is more serious. To avoid the heterogeneity
problem caused by the intervention measures during meta-analysis, it is recommended that the exercise intervention target setting and evaluation be more
precise. Fifth, due to the obviousness of exercise intervention, it is dicult for such tests to achieve blinding on the part of experimenters and subjects required
by RCT, and this also increases the heterogeneity of meta-analysis methods. Finally, ve articles in the funnel graph of the meta-analysis bias test showed a
high risk of bias, which is also an inuencing factor on the heterogeneity of this meta-analysis.
Exercise intervention methods for physical health, physical and mental development, training performance improvement, sports injury and rehabilitation, and
chronic disease prevention and treatment are different from those of double-blind tests of clinical trials in RCTs. It is recommended that future researchers
fully consider the basis of the intervention environment from the optimization of experimental design, monitoring and data collection, evaluation and other
links, so that the research results and conclusions may be more scientic and practical.
Roller skating can effectively promote balance ability, lower limb strength, speed quality, physical endurance and social adaptability in children and
adolescents. In the adolescent stage, the improvement effect of male endurance quality was lower than that of females, but the improvement effect of male
lower limb strength was better than that of females. During both periods, males and females showed no improvement in exibility and sensitivity. Additionally,
due to the limitation of the quantity and quality of the included research literature and the obviousness of exercise intervention, it is dicult to achieve
completely blinded testing of the experimental staff and subjects required by Randomized controlled trial. This study still needs more authoritative research to
provide data support and verication.
BMI:Body mass index
RCT: Randomized controlled trial.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Consent for publication
Availability of data and materials
The data source of this paper is original literature research, which focuses on the references - in this paper. There are a total of 16 literatures, including
14 Chinese literatures and 2 foreign literatures.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests
No funding was obtained for this study.
Conceptualization: Wei ZHAO,Lijuan HOU.
Methodology: Changquan WANG,Lijuan HOU.
Software: Wei ZHAO.
Supervision: Changquan WANG.
Writing original draft: Wei ZHAO,Lijuan HOU.
Writing review & editing:Wei ZHAO,Changquan WANG.
We would like to thank the researchers who have done research on roller skating, and provide data support and help for the research of this paper.The authors
would like to thank all those who participated in the study.
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