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An Exploratory Study of Women Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium Enterprises in India

  • Ismail National Mahila PG College Meerut

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AbstractThe entrepreneur is one of the most important inputs used in the production process and Entrepreneurs play an important role in building new companies. They also contribute most in promoting the creation of a new economic technology in the markets, so that the pace of economic development, various opportunities for employment, and increase in other economic parameters would prove to be a milestone in the development of markets by many products, processes and services. If seen, women also play an important role in the social and economic development of any country. It was another thing when the women of traditional India were confined within the walls of their homes, but in today’s modern India, women started to grow step by step in establishing themselves in the field of business by accepting the alternative challenges of growth and development. From traditional to modern, rural to urban, single to joint venture, unorganized to organized, small to large industries every enterprise sector, women are strengthening their own foundation and at the same time guiding young women to become successful. Women are beginning to realize their presence in the male dominated society. This paper is being dedicated to women entrepreneurs. In line with the main objective of this study, it is to understand the proportion of women entrepreneurs and to study women’s participation in small-scale industries (SSI) nearby. In this paper, campaigns and programs run by the Government of India to promote and other institutional support for women entrepreneurs are highlighted.Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Women, Small Scale Industries, Job Opportunities, Productivity, Economic Development, India
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Volume 6, No. 2, July-December, Twelveth Issue 19 ISSN : 2395-1737
1. Introduction
Through entrepreneurship, basic employment
opportunities can be expanded in all societies and at the
same time economic development can be made dynamic.
Entrepreneur is a French word meaning “to begin” or
“to undertake”. It can generally apply to any individual
or individual who starts a new business or project, or
organizes and manages any enterprise with a competent
and positive initiative or risk. The term entrepreneur
refers to the qualities of leadership, initiative and
innovation in new enterprise design.
Women make up about 50% of the entire world’s
population and about 49% of India’s population. The
main purpose of this research paper is to promote the
status and impact of women entrepreneurs in India and
to demonstrate women’s participation in small-scale
industry (SSI).
1.1. Concept of Women Entrepreneurs
Put simply, the process by which women organize all
aspects of production, run a business eciently, take
multiple risks, protect economic uncertainty and provide
employment opportunities for others, is called women’s
The Indian government has dened women as
entrepreneurs in the sense that, a woman entrepreneur
can be dened as a business where the ownership and
management of a business is wholly owned by women
and has a minimum nancial interest of 51% capital. And
at least 51% of women should be given job opportunities.
An Exploratory Study of Women Entrepreneurship in
Small and Medium Enterprises in India
Diksha Rani
industries everyenterprisesector, womenarestrengtheningtheir ownfoundationand atthesametime guiding
paperisbeingdedicatedtowomen entrepreneurs.Inlinewiththemainobjectiveofthisstudy, itistounderstandthe
proportionof womenentrepreneursandtostudywomen’sparticipation insmall-scaleindustries(SSI)nearby.Inthis
IJAR&D An Exploratory Study of Women Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium Enterprises in India
Volume 6, No. 2, July-December, Twelveth Issue 20 ISSN : 2395-1737
According to The European Commission “A woman
entrepreneur is one who has set up a business in which
she has a large stake and is interested in taking risks
in current circumstances, making decisions in dicult
situations and managing today’s era.”1
1.2. Women Enterprise
In terms of ownership, SSI or SSSBE is paid by one or
more women entrepreneurs with legitimate concern, or
when they do not have a budget of less than 51% per
person or jointly. Only members / shareholders and
directors of private companies or co-operatives are
known as women entrepreneurs.
2. Functions of women Entrepreneurs
As the work status of every work says, before doing
any work, its process should be thoroughly tested.
Similarly, a woman entrepreneur must complete all
the duties involved in starting a business and running
a business in a smooth manner. These mainly include
the consolidation and screening of ideas, careful
determination of objectives, observational preparation
of projects, testing of products, layer of ideas on the N
nature of the organization, fullment of promotional
formalities, collection of funds, manpower, machine and
Procurement of materials as well as operation of business
is also included.
Five works of a female entrepreneur are highlighted by
Frederick Harbison (1956)2 :
1. Exploring all possibilities to start a new venture.
2. Investigate and deal with all the economic
uncertainties involved in business etc. by
continuously reducing the risks.
3. The introduction of new things or the imitation of
new things.
4. Management, control and integration.
5. Beer supervision and eective leadership.
All these ve functions can be classied mainly into
three categories:
a) Risk Bearing
b) Organization
c) Innovation
Factors by which women entrepreneurs are aected
a) Achievement and sustainability of achievement
b) To achieve nancial success and protability
c) Due to certain traumatic events such as divorce,
discrimination arising during pregnancy, family life
or any other economic reason such as retrenchment.
d) In search of a bright future.
e) To create self-identity.
f) Due to ancestral occupation.
g) To get self-satisfaction.
h) Innovative, unique and creative thinking.
2.1. Participation of Women in SSI Sector
Small industries played a very important role in India’s
social and economic development. The participation of
women in the (SSI) sector is largely identied in three
dierent roles.
a) Owners Business owners,
b) Business executives
c) Employees.
The concept of each outstanding small business itself is
an entrepreneur who, in the words of Olagunju Y (2004),
is an all-inclusive business in creating and managing a
business for any one purpose. The purpose for which
a statement is made can be any or all of that person,
social or developmental. Everyone who participates in
this process is called an entrepreneur. Also, it is very
important to draw a line between entrepreneurs and
entrepreneurs. While business owners start and manage
their business for their own benet, entrepreneurs make
full use of high-prole ideas that create a business of
their own kind, community and development as a direct
3. Objectives of the Study
To study status of women entrepreneurs in India,
To explor the factors that make women aware and
encouraged them to become entrepreneurs.
To analyze the challenges and challenges faced by
women entrepreneurs.
4. Methodology
This paper is based on secondary information data.
The information is in separate journals, nationally and
internationally, books, MSME and other organizational
reports to consider the participation of women
IJAR&D An Exploratory Study of Women Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium Enterprises in India
Volume 6, No. 2, July-December, Twelveth Issue 21 ISSN : 2395-1737
Table 1: Women Involvement in Management
Ownership State-Wise in SSI Sector
No. Name of State Sort
No. of
No. of women
1Jammu &
Kashmir J & K 5640 5742
Pradesh H P 3515 3722
3 Punjab PUN 30190 29068
4 Chandigarh CCH G 2059 2243
5Uaranchal U K 8706 8804
6 Haryana HRY 10087 9620
7 Delhi DEL 13368 14383
8 Rajasthan RAJN 29785 36371
9Uar Pradesh UP 54491 72667
10 Bihar BIHAR 38170 49443
11 Sikkim SIKKIM 30 98
12 Arunachal
Pradesh ARU P 131 150
13 Nagaland NAGA 207 179
14 Manipur MAN 9168 10745
15 Mizoram MIZO 3076 3700
16 Tripura TRIP 631 863
17 Meghalaya MEGH 3658 3580
18 Assam ASSAM 11189 11757
19 West Bengal W B 71847 69625
20 Jharkhand JHAR 7271 7865
21 Orissa ORISSA 33274 38233
23 Madhya
Pradesh M P 62351 68823
24 Gujarat GUJ 55361 53703
Daman & Diu
& Dadra &
Nagar Haveli
D N 167 213
27 Maharashtra MAHA 80662 100670
28 Andhra
Pradesh A P 77347 77166
29 Karnataka KAR 101264 103169
30 Goa GOA 677 810
31 Lakshadweep LAKSH 61 67
32 Kerala KER 137561 139225
33 Tamil Nadu T N 130289 129808
34 Pondicherry PONDI 1089 1065
35 Andaman &
Nicobar Islands
& N 53 110
All India 983375 1053687
Note: Selected states are derived from the source
mentioned for analysis.
At the all-India level, the number of women-managed
enterprises is 983375 and the number of women-owned
enterprises is 1053687 according to the third census of
small industries conducted in 2001-02. Only 13% of
registered women’s businesses are in the SSI sector and
another 87% are in the unregistered SSI sector. In the
case of women-owned businesses, 11.5% were in the
registered SSI sector and 88.5% were in the unregistered
SSI sector. The share of female-headed units was 7.14 per
occupancy. Rent of Rs. The investment of one lakh in
female-owned units was 2.49.
In the provinces of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal, the
number of businesses owned and operated by women
was very high. Kerala is the state with the highest number
of women (137561) and women with SSI (139225).
Similarly, Sikkim is the state with the least number of
women (30) and women owned by SSI (98).
IJAR&D An Exploratory Study of Women Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium Enterprises in India
Volume 6, No. 2, July-December, Twelveth Issue 22 ISSN : 2395-1737
Dr. Kiran
Chairman and managing director of
Biocon Limited.
Indira Nooyi CFO and president of PepsiCo.
Ekta Kapoor Director of Balaji Television
NeelamDhawan Managing Director of Microsoft India.
Hussain Founder of Shahnaz Hussain Herbals.
Suchi Mukherjee
Founder and CEO of the women’s
online social media platform,
4.1. Issues highlighted by women entrepreneurs in
Male-dominated society and gender issues
Less or insucient education
social barriers and barriers
Shortage of raw materials and insucient productive
Lack of nancial support and problem in accessing
Dicult to survive in sti competition at every stop
High cost of production and low prot produced by
women entrepreneurs due to lack of technology
low risk carrying capacity
Limited mobility due to safety concerns, traditional
values and inability to drive vehicles, especially in
rural areas
Lack of entrepreneurial ability
Reimbursement of legal formalities and documents
in government oces and problems due to corrupt
practices and human thinking
Exploitation by middle men in the workplace
• Many responsibilities towards his family, society
and work.
Department of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises:
Women’s Services and Programs
Training of Women Entrepreneurs
• The National Institute
For Entrepreneurship
And Small Business
The center provided
training for 31,813 women
with approximately 25%
participation in their
various training activities
during the year (up to
December, 2014).
National Institute
For Micro, Small And
Medium Enterprises
In the year 2014-15 (up
to December, 2014), the
Institute provided training
to 2,393 women under their
various training programs.
The Indian Institute of
Entrepreneurship (IIE)
at Guwahati
For the year 2014-15 (up
to December, 2014), the
Institute provided training
for 8 226 women.
For the year 2014-15 (as
of December, 2014), NSIC
has provided training
for 25,897 women under
various training programs
B. Trade Related
Assistance And
Development (Tread)
Scheme For Women
The program aims
to empower women
economically by developing
their entrepreneurial skills
in non-farm work.
D. Mahila Coir Yojana
Mahila Coir Yojana
is a self-employed
women’s program in
the coir industry, which
provides self-employment
opportunities for women
working in rural areas
in coir ber producing
IJAR&D An Exploratory Study of Women Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium Enterprises in India
Volume 6, No. 2, July-December, Twelveth Issue 23 ISSN : 2395-1737
All enterprises owned and managed by women and run
by women are very helpful in the growth of economies in
almost all countries. India’s political rights for women of
India have been aimed at providing equal opportunities
in every eld. Financial support of women entrepreneurs
by establishing themselves in the enterprise sector looks
like a dierent approach. From enhancing nancial
success and protability to aaining achievement, Indian
women are enhancing their self-identity, supporting
family business, developing a sense of self-satisfaction,
increasing innovation and creative thinking, etc. giving
a core dimension to the denition of enterprise. As
India is a male dominated society, as a result, women
entrepreneurs face many dierent challenges and
challenges, mainly due to poor or inadequate education,
(or lack of complete education), lack of raw materials
for production etc., Lack of productive resources,
lack of nancial support, mobility in a major scope,
exploitation by middle men and responsibility of family
responsibilities etc. The women of the present era are
eager to face all these problems related to business
boldly. The government is also providing various
facilities such as term loans, concessions and subsidies,
training facilities by various institutions like term, DIC,
SIDBI, SFC, commercial banks etc. to encourage women
entrepreneurs in every possible way and to take care
of their amenities. This also seems to be growing as an
important step in the nancial sector.
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Economics, August 1956.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
The educated Indian women have to go a long way to achieve equal rights and position because traditions are deep rooted in Indian society where the sociological set up has been a male dominated one. Despite all the social hurdles, Indian women stand tall from the rest of the crowd and are applauded for their achievements in their respective field. The transformation of social fabric of the Indian society, in terms of increased educational status of women and varied aspirations for better living, necessitated a change in the life style of Indian women. She has competed with man and successfully stood up with him in every walk of life and business is no exception for this. These women leaders are assertive, persuasive and willing to take risks. They managed to survive and succeed in this cut throat competition with their hard work, diligence and perseverance. The present paper endeavors to study the concept of women entrepreneur-Reasons women become entrepreneurs-Reasons for slow progress of women entrepreneurs in India-suggestions for the growth of women entrepreneurs-Schemes for promotion & development of women entrepreneurship in India-Case study of a women entrepreneur of Ludhiana.
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