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Investigation of classroom management skills by using eye-tracking technology

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Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this research is to show how wearable eye-tracking technology can be employed to assess and enhance classroom management skills by analyzing the instructors' eye movements in a university. The research also aimed to evaluate the instructors' gestures by recording with a video camera synchronized with the eye-tracking data. The findings showed that the wearable eye tracker gives informative feedback about the visual attention of the instructors. It provided meaningful data by video recordings and Retrospective Think Aloud sessions. Also, it demonstrated how the instructors interacted with classroom technology. Consequently, the wearable eye tracker and video-camera together could be used by Teaching/Learning Centers to improve instructors' classroom management skills and to observe their interaction with instructional technologies.
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Investigation of classroom management skills
by using eye-tracking technology
Atakan Coskun
1
&Kursat Cagiltay
2
Received: 27 August 2020 /Accepted: 23 October 2020/
#Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to show how wearable eye-tracking technology can be
employed to assess and enhance classroom management skills by analyzing the
instructorseye movements in a university. The research also aimed to evaluate the
instructorsgestures by recording with a video camera synchronized with the eye-
tracking data. The findings showed that the wearable eye tracker gives informative
feedback about the visual attention of the instructors. It provided meaningful data by
video recordings and Retrospective Think Aloud sessions. Also, it demonstrated how
the instructors interacted with classroom technology. Consequently, the wearable eye
tracker and video-camera together could be used by Teaching/Learning Centers to
improve instructorsclassroom management skills and to observe their interaction with
instructional technologies.
Keywords Higher education .Classroom management .Eye-contact .Eye-tracking
1 Introduction
1.1 Classroom Management in Higher Education
Since classroom management plays a vital role in learnersachievement, for productive
learning and teaching experience, instructors should improve his/her skills in this
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10368-0
*Atakan Coskun
atakancoskun45@gmail.com
Kursat Cagiltay
kursat@metu.edu.tr
1
Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Middle East Technical University, Çiğdem
Mahallesi 1585. Sokak No:7/6 Mahmut Oğuz Apt, 06530 Çankaya/Ankara, Turkey
2
Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Middle East Technical University, ODTÜ,
Bilgisayar ve Öğretim Teknolojileri Eğitimi Bölümü, 06800 Çankaya/Ankara, Turkey
Published online: 3 November 2020
Education and Information Technologies (2021) 26:2501–2522
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... This study reported that current lecturers initially had higher scores on professional vision compared to future lecturers. Recently, mobile eye tracking recording has been used to elicit teachers' comments about classroom management (Coskun and Cagiltay, 2021). This study showed that teachers could gradually become aware of where they allocated their attention and attempted to deliberately change the amount of attention to students. ...
... The recording produced with the help of a mobile eye tracker shows a first-person view with a gaze overlay. Such recordings have been used as a data collection tool to study teacher professional vision in action; however, they have only recently been used directly in relation to teacher professional development (see Cortina et al., 2018;Coskun and Cagiltay, 2021;Keller et al., 2021). Using mobile eye tracker recordings for teacher self-reflection poses several advantages over other forms of classroom recordings, such as stationary cameras. ...
... The objective part of the data-the gaze cursor in the mobile eye tracker recording and its aggregated visualization on the heatmap images-was a source of insight for the participants in the present research. Similar to the study by Coskun and Cagiltay (2021), university teachers could recognize the amount of gaze on students in the classroom and reflect on its meaning for student engagement and classroom management. By eliciting teachers' reflections about their own gaze behavior and gaze distribution, this study further developed the possibility of using teacher gaze as objective feedback in teaching situations (Cortina et al., 2018;Keller et al., 2021). ...
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This study was based on the concept of teacher professional vision, in which professional reasoning plays a crucial role, and investigated how video with gaze overlay and heatmaps from the mobile eye tracker can support teachers’ professional self-reflection and professional vision development in higher education. Four university teachers wore a mobile eye tracker in a segment of one lecture. Their gaze distribution on classroom targets was analyzed together with their reflective comments when watching the recordings of their own behavior in the lecture. The results showed that mobile eye tracking data provided feedback on the distribution of teacher attention in different areas in the classroom and between students. Visualization of gaze distribution as heatmaps allowed teachers to reflect on how they perceived their gaze allocation and most of them realized that sometimes there was a difference between how they perceived their gaze allocation and how it was captured by the eye tracker. The study revealed where teachers most often diverted their attention, which encouraged them to reflect on why this happened, to think about their professional reasoning, and to analyze opportunities for improvement. Therefore, the heatmap analysis based on the data collected with the mobile eye trackers could be used to develop the professional vision of teachers in different educational contexts for engaging students through more balanced attention to every student in the classroom. Implications for using mobile eye tracker recording and gaze distribution heatmaps in video-based professional development for teachers are discussed.
... The other visualisation type, heatmaps, colour code areas are based on aggregated data from duration and/or number of fixations from one or several individuals (Drusch et al., 2014). Examples of heatmap usage in education studies include illustrating teacher's gaze over classroom (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) or identifying learners' approaches to tasks, such as when counting with the help of mathematical representations (Bolden et al., 2015). Presentation of the findings can be structured according to the research questions, themes or data sources, often including results of data triangulation. ...
... -Training pre-service teachers for classroom work through EMME and discussion of the model's gaze -Recording pre-service teachers' classroom video and eye-tracking data for assessment and reflection-guiding purposes (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) -Developing country-specific resources based on the findings from classroom eye-tracking research in relation to a certain teacher competence (Faiella et al., 2019) However, for eye-tracking application to have direct and solid implications on teacher training, it is important to be reminded by McMahon et al. (2019) on the perpetual tension between research on teaching and teaching practices in real life, where teacher training needs to construct life-long professional learning skills that would sustain effective practices within the ever-changing classroom. Teacher training cannot be simplified into a set of skills with routines to be re-enacted inside the classroom. ...
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... The other visualisation type, heatmaps, colour code areas are based on aggregated data from duration and/or number of fixations from one or several individuals (Drusch et al., 2014). Examples of heatmap usage in education studies include illustrating teacher's gaze over classroom (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) or identifying learners' approaches to tasks, such as when counting with the help of mathematical representations (Bolden et al., 2015). Presentation of the findings can be structured according to the research questions, themes or data sources, often including results of data triangulation. ...
... -Training pre-service teachers for classroom work through EMME and discussion of the model's gaze -Recording pre-service teachers' classroom video and eye-tracking data for assessment and reflection-guiding purposes (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) -Developing country-specific resources based on the findings from classroom eye-tracking research in relation to a certain teacher competence (Faiella et al., 2019) However, for eye-tracking application to have direct and solid implications on teacher training, it is important to be reminded by McMahon et al. (2019) on the perpetual tension between research on teaching and teaching practices in real life, where teacher training needs to construct life-long professional learning skills that would sustain effective practices within the ever-changing classroom. Teacher training cannot be simplified into a set of skills with routines to be re-enacted inside the classroom. ...
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... The other visualisation type, heatmaps, colour code areas are based on aggregated data from duration and/or number of fixations from one or several individuals (Drusch et al., 2014). Examples of heatmap usage in education studies include illustrating teacher's gaze over classroom (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) or identifying learners' approaches to tasks, such as when counting with the help of mathematical representations (Bolden et al., 2015). Presentation of the findings can be structured according to the research questions, themes or data sources, often including results of data triangulation. ...
... -Training pre-service teachers for classroom work through EMME and discussion of the model's gaze -Recording pre-service teachers' classroom video and eye-tracking data for assessment and reflection-guiding purposes (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) -Developing country-specific resources based on the findings from classroom eye-tracking research in relation to a certain teacher competence (Faiella et al., 2019) However, for eye-tracking application to have direct and solid implications on teacher training, it is important to be reminded by McMahon et al. (2019) on the perpetual tension between research on teaching and teaching practices in real life, where teacher training needs to construct life-long professional learning skills that would sustain effective practices within the ever-changing classroom. Teacher training cannot be simplified into a set of skills with routines to be re-enacted inside the classroom. ...
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... The other visualisation type, heatmaps, colour code areas are based on aggregated data from duration and/or number of fixations from one or several individuals (Drusch et al., 2014). Examples of heatmap usage in education studies include illustrating teacher's gaze over classroom (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) or identifying learners' approaches to tasks, such as when counting with the help of mathematical representations (Bolden et al., 2015). Presentation of the findings can be structured according to the research questions, themes or data sources, often including results of data triangulation. ...
... -Training pre-service teachers for classroom work through EMME and discussion of the model's gaze -Recording pre-service teachers' classroom video and eye-tracking data for assessment and reflection-guiding purposes (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) -Developing country-specific resources based on the findings from classroom eye-tracking research in relation to a certain teacher competence (Faiella et al., 2019) However, for eye-tracking application to have direct and solid implications on teacher training, it is important to be reminded by McMahon et al. (2019) on the perpetual tension between research on teaching and teaching practices in real life, where teacher training needs to construct life-long professional learning skills that would sustain effective practices within the ever-changing classroom. Teacher training cannot be simplified into a set of skills with routines to be re-enacted inside the classroom. ...
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... The other visualisation type, heatmaps, colour code areas are based on aggregated data from duration and/or number of fixations from one or several individuals (Drusch et al., 2014). Examples of heatmap usage in education studies include illustrating teacher's gaze over classroom (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) or identifying learners' approaches to tasks, such as when counting with the help of mathematical representations (Bolden et al., 2015). Presentation of the findings can be structured according to the research questions, themes or data sources, often including results of data triangulation. ...
... -Training pre-service teachers for classroom work through EMME and discussion of the model's gaze -Recording pre-service teachers' classroom video and eye-tracking data for assessment and reflection-guiding purposes (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) -Developing country-specific resources based on the findings from classroom eye-tracking research in relation to a certain teacher competence (Faiella et al., 2019) However, for eye-tracking application to have direct and solid implications on teacher training, it is important to be reminded by McMahon et al. (2019) on the perpetual tension between research on teaching and teaching practices in real life, where teacher training needs to construct life-long professional learning skills that would sustain effective practices within the ever-changing classroom. Teacher training cannot be simplified into a set of skills with routines to be re-enacted inside the classroom. ...
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... The other visualisation type, heatmaps, colour code areas are based on aggregated data from duration and/or number of fixations from one or several individuals (Drusch et al., 2014). Examples of heatmap usage in education studies include illustrating teacher's gaze over classroom (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) or identifying learners' approaches to tasks, such as when counting with the help of mathematical representations (Bolden et al., 2015). Presentation of the findings can be structured according to the research questions, themes or data sources, often including results of data triangulation. ...
... -Training pre-service teachers for classroom work through EMME and discussion of the model's gaze -Recording pre-service teachers' classroom video and eye-tracking data for assessment and reflection-guiding purposes (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) -Developing country-specific resources based on the findings from classroom eye-tracking research in relation to a certain teacher competence (Faiella et al., 2019) However, for eye-tracking application to have direct and solid implications on teacher training, it is important to be reminded by McMahon et al. (2019) on the perpetual tension between research on teaching and teaching practices in real life, where teacher training needs to construct life-long professional learning skills that would sustain effective practices within the ever-changing classroom. Teacher training cannot be simplified into a set of skills with routines to be re-enacted inside the classroom. ...
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... The other visualisation type, heatmaps, colour code areas are based on aggregated data from duration and/or number of fixations from one or several individuals (Drusch et al., 2014). Examples of heatmap usage in education studies include illustrating teacher's gaze over classroom (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) or identifying learners' approaches to tasks, such as when counting with the help of mathematical representations (Bolden et al., 2015). Presentation of the findings can be structured according to the research questions, themes or data sources, often including results of data triangulation. ...
... -Training pre-service teachers for classroom work through EMME and discussion of the model's gaze -Recording pre-service teachers' classroom video and eye-tracking data for assessment and reflection-guiding purposes (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) -Developing country-specific resources based on the findings from classroom eye-tracking research in relation to a certain teacher competence (Faiella et al., 2019) However, for eye-tracking application to have direct and solid implications on teacher training, it is important to be reminded by McMahon et al. (2019) on the perpetual tension between research on teaching and teaching practices in real life, where teacher training needs to construct life-long professional learning skills that would sustain effective practices within the ever-changing classroom. Teacher training cannot be simplified into a set of skills with routines to be re-enacted inside the classroom. ...
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... The other visualisation type, heatmaps, colour code areas are based on aggregated data from duration and/or number of fixations from one or several individuals (Drusch et al., 2014). Examples of heatmap usage in education studies include illustrating teacher's gaze over classroom (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) or identifying learners' approaches to tasks, such as when counting with the help of mathematical representations (Bolden et al., 2015). Presentation of the findings can be structured according to the research questions, themes or data sources, often including results of data triangulation. ...
... -Training pre-service teachers for classroom work through EMME and discussion of the model's gaze -Recording pre-service teachers' classroom video and eye-tracking data for assessment and reflection-guiding purposes (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) -Developing country-specific resources based on the findings from classroom eye-tracking research in relation to a certain teacher competence (Faiella et al., 2019) However, for eye-tracking application to have direct and solid implications on teacher training, it is important to be reminded by McMahon et al. (2019) on the perpetual tension between research on teaching and teaching practices in real life, where teacher training needs to construct life-long professional learning skills that would sustain effective practices within the ever-changing classroom. Teacher training cannot be simplified into a set of skills with routines to be re-enacted inside the classroom. ...
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... The other visualisation type, heatmaps, colour code areas are based on aggregated data from duration and/or number of fixations from one or several individuals (Drusch et al., 2014). Examples of heatmap usage in education studies include illustrating teacher's gaze over classroom (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) or identifying learners' approaches to tasks, such as when counting with the help of mathematical representations (Bolden et al., 2015). Presentation of the findings can be structured according to the research questions, themes or data sources, often including results of data triangulation. ...
... -Training pre-service teachers for classroom work through EMME and discussion of the model's gaze -Recording pre-service teachers' classroom video and eye-tracking data for assessment and reflection-guiding purposes (Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021) -Developing country-specific resources based on the findings from classroom eye-tracking research in relation to a certain teacher competence (Faiella et al., 2019) However, for eye-tracking application to have direct and solid implications on teacher training, it is important to be reminded by McMahon et al. (2019) on the perpetual tension between research on teaching and teaching practices in real life, where teacher training needs to construct life-long professional learning skills that would sustain effective practices within the ever-changing classroom. Teacher training cannot be simplified into a set of skills with routines to be re-enacted inside the classroom. ...
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