ArticlePublisher preview available
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this research is to show how wearable eye-tracking technology can be employed to assess and enhance classroom management skills by analyzing the instructors' eye movements in a university. The research also aimed to evaluate the instructors' gestures by recording with a video camera synchronized with the eye-tracking data. The findings showed that the wearable eye tracker gives informative feedback about the visual attention of the instructors. It provided meaningful data by video recordings and Retrospective Think Aloud sessions. Also, it demonstrated how the instructors interacted with classroom technology. Consequently, the wearable eye tracker and video-camera together could be used by Teaching/Learning Centers to improve instructors' classroom management skills and to observe their interaction with instructional technologies.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Investigation of classroom management skills
by using eye-tracking technology
Atakan Coskun
1
&Kursat Cagiltay
2
Received: 27 August 2020 /Accepted: 23 October 2020/
#Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to show how wearable eye-tracking technology can be
employed to assess and enhance classroom management skills by analyzing the
instructorseye movements in a university. The research also aimed to evaluate the
instructorsgestures by recording with a video camera synchronized with the eye-
tracking data. The findings showed that the wearable eye tracker gives informative
feedback about the visual attention of the instructors. It provided meaningful data by
video recordings and Retrospective Think Aloud sessions. Also, it demonstrated how
the instructors interacted with classroom technology. Consequently, the wearable eye
tracker and video-camera together could be used by Teaching/Learning Centers to
improve instructorsclassroom management skills and to observe their interaction with
instructional technologies.
Keywords Higher education .Classroom management .Eye-contact .Eye-tracking
1 Introduction
1.1 Classroom Management in Higher Education
Since classroom management plays a vital role in learnersachievement, for productive
learning and teaching experience, instructors should improve his/her skills in this
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10368-0
*Atakan Coskun
atakancoskun45@gmail.com
Kursat Cagiltay
kursat@metu.edu.tr
1
Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Middle East Technical University, Çiğdem
Mahallesi 1585. Sokak No:7/6 Mahmut Oğuz Apt, 06530 Çankaya/Ankara, Turkey
2
Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Middle East Technical University, ODTÜ,
Bilgisayar ve Öğretim Teknolojileri Eğitimi Bölümü, 06800 Çankaya/Ankara, Turkey
Published online: 3 November 2020
Education and Information Technologies (2021) 26:2501–2522
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... In addition to the wearable data discussed above, there are several other types of data. For example, survey and interview (7.9%) data were used to obtain learners' demographic characteristics, behavioral motivations, and attitudes toward wearable devices (Zhou et al., 2020;Mangaroska et al., 2021;Coskun & Cagiltay, 2021). These data can also help teachers to understand the role of wearables in curriculum instruction and pedagogical innovation, to study the pedagogical effects as well as the drawbacks of using wearables, and to make some further suggestions for improvement. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wearable devices are an emerging technological tool in the field of learning analytics. With the help of wearable technologies, an increasing number of scholars have a strong interest in studying the associations between student data and learning outcomes in different learning environments. This systematic review examines 120 articles published between 2011 and 2021, exploring current research on learning analytics based on wearable devices in detail from both descriptive and content analysis. The descriptive analysis reviewed the included literature in five dimensions: publication times of the reviewed literature, wearable devices and data types used in studies, stakeholders, objectives, and methods involved in the analysis procedure. The content analysis aims to examine the literature covered in terms of three categorical domains of educational objectives: cognitive, affective, and behavioral, to investigate the practical applications and potential issues of learning analytics based on wearable devices. After that, based on the overall research content of the reviewed literature, a framework for learning analytics based on wearable devices is present, and its application process is summarized and analyzed for the reference of related researchers. At last, we summarize the limitations of existing studies and present several recommendations to further promote research and development in this field.
Article
Full-text available
Teacher’s position in the classroom depends on several aspects including the classroom s/he teaches in – whether s/he has the ability to move around – and the nature of the activities s/he is going to do in the class. As teacher's gestures including positioning and body posture bring the particular message to the students, the position whether a teacher should stand in front of the students, crouch down near them or sit with them on the floor needs to be considered when the teacher plans the lesson. This paper presents a discussion on how teachers of young learners position themselves in the classroom, the observed students’ behaviour during the lesson as the impacts of the positioning, and the teachers’ perspectives of the impacts of their positioning towards the students’ movement in the classroom. The study is done through observations towards an interview with two English teachers teaching classes of children of early years (4-5 years old), at a pre-school in Jakarta. It portrays a description of the teachers' position in the classroom and why they choose a particular position for a particular activity. The findings show that standing, sitting and kneeling in front of the students or among them is the most chosen position. Analysis on how students react to their lesson in relation to their position while teaching is also presented after a discussion on the reasons of teachers choosing their position in the classroom. As a final point, I elaborate the discussion on how teacher's positioning strategy can be implemented to help improving teacher's teaching practice. The presentation is envisioned for language teachers, language teaching researchers, teacher trainers, and those who are interested in the area of Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYL).
Article
Full-text available
Do pedagogical training courses for university teachers have desirable effects on the participants? We set out to answer this question by following a panel of 183 university teachers from Sweden’s six largest universities, who participated in pedagogical training courses. Our study reveals that the participants’ self-reported confidence in their role as teachers increased slightly, and their self-assessed pedagogical skills increased notably after they had finished their courses. Even though the courses were rather short, we could also observe some changes in fundamental approaches to teaching in some of the subgroups of respondents, both toward more student-centeredness and, perplexingly, toward more teacher-centeredness. Additionally, most respondents (7 out of 10) found the courses useful or very useful. Course satisfaction was most notable among participants with less than three years of teaching experience. Considering the fact that we find the positive effects of pedagogical training courses to be present mainly in the group of participants with less than three years of teaching experience, we discuss whether a policy of making these courses mandatory for all university teachers implies an overestimation of their impact.
Article
This chapter shares findings from a survey of teaching and learning centers on college and university campuses in the United States. Topics addressed include organizational infrastructure, assessment and accountability, factors/challenges contributing to successful implementation, and a list of junctions and program offerings found in teaching and learning centers across the country.
Article
We provide an overview of the definition, intention, and benefits from contemplative exercises, showing how these practices can build and sustain attention, deepen understanding of the material presented, support and increase connection and interrelatedness, and inspire inquiry and insight. Following that, we provide approaches to fostering these of sorts of practices through university teaching and learning centers. We also provide a cautionary note on possible problems with this approach. We hope that these descriptions will stimulate interest and inquiry into contemplative/introspective exercises and enable further investigation and discovery.