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Health Benefits and Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)

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Health Benefits and Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)

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Green leafy vegetable have excellent nutritional value and can be used for medicinal benefits. Different photochemicals are present in green leafy vegetables including phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, polyphenols, glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, allylic sulfides, phytosterols, and monoterpenes. Green leafy vegetables mostly contain antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals, α-linoleic acid, and vitamins. It has different health benefits such as anti-diabetic properties, prevents CVD, anti-hypertensive, anti-carcinogenic, anti-anemic, and improves gut health.
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4213
ISSN 2286-4822
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EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH
Vol. VIII, Issue 7/ October 2020
Impact Factor: 3.4546 (UIF)
DRJI Value: 5.9 (B+)
Health Benefits and Therapeutic importance of
green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
TAHREEM ASLAM
1
MEHREEN MAQSOOD
IRAJ JAMSHAID
KIRAN ASHRAF
FARHEEN ZAIDI
SIDRA KHALID
Dr. FAIZ UL HASSAN SHAH
SABA NOUREEN
MARIA
University Institute of Diet and Nutrition
The University of Lahore, Pakistan
Abstract
Green leafy vegetable have excellent nutritional value and can
be used for medicinal benefits. Different photochemicals are present in
green leafy vegetables including phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids,
polyphenols, glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, allylic sulfides,
phytosterols, and monoterpenes. Green leafy vegetables mostly contain
antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals, α-linoleic acid, and vitamins. It
has different health benefits such as anti-diabetic properties, prevents
CVD, anti-hypertensive, anti-carcinogenic, anti-anemic, and improves
gut health.
Keywords: Green leafy vegetables, health benefits, dietary fiber,
antioxidant, flavonoids
INTRODUCTION:
GLVs (Green Leafy Vegetables) are vegetables whose young shoots,
leaves and flowers are edible1. They have excellent nutritional value
1
Corresponding author: tahreemaslam95@gmail.com
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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and can be used for medicinal benefits2. Concentration of functional
compounds vary according to the climate season, their growth phase
and their existence in particular plant part 3
Phytochemicals in Green leafy vegetables:
The phytochemicals present in green leafy vegetables includes phenolic
acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, polyphenols, glucosinolates,
isothiocyanate, allylic sulfides, phytosterols, and monoterpenes 4
Components of green leafy vegetables:
Green leafy vegetables mostly contain antioxidants, dietary fibers,
minerals, α-linoleic acid, and vitamins. Antioxidants reduce ferric ions
and mitigate oxidative stress. Dietary fiber delay absorption of
carbohydrates and improve insulin secretion. Minerals such as
magnesium and phosphorous protect against gestational diabetes. α-
linoleic acid determines composition of phospholipid bilayer and insulin
sensitivity within skeleton muscles. Vitamins such as α-tocopherol(Vit.
E), β-carotene (Vit. A), ascorbic acid (Vit. C) reduces oxidative stress.5
Figure 1
Health benefits:
Green leafy vegetables with phytochemicals and enormous
antioxidants have potential to work as: anti-diabetic prevents CVD,
anti-hypertensive, anti-carcinogenic, anti-anemic, improves gut
health6,7,8
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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Green leafy vegetables and anti-diabetic properties:
Diabetes Mellitus is spreading everywhere in the world and it is
categorized as a non-communicable disease. By 2025, it has been
proposed that approximately 300,000,000 people would be affected by
this disease.9 GLVs (Green leafy vegetables) contain decent quantity of
minerals, alpha tocopherols, vitamins, flavonoids, α-linoleic acid,
phytochemicals.10
It has been seen in one of the studies that females who consume
leafy green vegetables are at low risk to develop type 2 diabetes. Green
leafy vegetables can decrease the chance of developing type 2 diabetes
because of magnesium present in these vegetables as one of the
researches has proved that magnesium can decrease the risk of type 2
diabetes development.11
Green leafy vegetables and its cardio protective effects:
CVD includes the diseases related to heart and blood vessels 12 like
stoke, hemorrhage, heart failure.13It has been reported that about 80%
of males and 75% of females died annually due to cardio vascular
diseases.12 In Pakistan, 30 to 40 per cent of all deaths are due to CVD15.
The risk factors for CVD includes smoking, age, physical inactivity,
alcohol consumption, obesity, family history, diabetes mellitus, high
blood cholesterol level, poverty and inadequate vegetables and fruits
consumption.
There is very low data available on the effect of vegetables and
fruits in lowering the risk of heart diseases. One of the researches
conducted to observe the effect of consumption of fruits and vegetables
in lowering risk of heart diseases. It was observed that people who
consume fruits and vegetables especially leafy green vegetables have
low risk to develop CVD as compare to those who does not consume
them.16
In another study researchers studied the mechanism of green
leafy vegetables related to the protection against heart diseases.
Researchers noticed that inorganic nitrate present in green leafy
vegetables was converted to nitric oxide and nitrite in oral cavity which
were seen to have vasodilation property and tissue pro tective effect,
thus lowers the risk of CVD.17
In different Indian areas, a clear difference has been seen in the
prevalence and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. An
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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investigation was done to examine the importance and numerous
dietary factors and other variables in everyday life to describe the
variation death rate of cardiovascular disease. Survey results showed
that death due to cardiovascular disease was linked with literacy level,
smoking, prevalence of overweight and obesity, prevalence of stunted
growth at 3-years, dietary consumption of calories, adult mean body
mass index, green leafy vegetables, cereals and pulses, roots, milk and
milk products, tubers and other vegetables, sugar, jaggery and fats and
oils. A noteworthy negative link of cardiovascular disease mortality
with green leafy vegetable intake was seen. On the contrary, a positive
link between cardiovascular disease mortality with intake of milk and
milk products, sugar and prevalence of obesity was observed. 18
A meta-analysis was done to see that intake of GLVs (green
leafy vegetables) as well as cruciferous vegetables considerably
decreases the incidence of CVD (cardiovascular disease). 8 studies
examined the positive correlation between the intake of GLVs (green
leafy vegetables) and occurrence of CVD (cardiovascular disease) and
met the encompassing criteria.19
With different constituents of minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber,
bio-active phytochemicals and carotenoids, vegetables and fruits make
a heterogenous food group. A research was done to study the
association between stroke risk in Swedish men and women and spcific
intake of fruits and vegetables subdivisions. This study was restricted
to persons without High blood pressure (hypertension). Results
concluded that risk of stroke is negatively associated with intake of
fruits and vegetables especially intake of green leafy vegetables and
pears and apples was negatively linked with stroke.20
Components that prevent CVD
The components that prevents from CVD are flavonoids21, Dietary
Fiber22, Niacin23
Role of flavonoids:
Flavonoids provide protection against low density lipoprotein oxidation
by two mean firstly by free radical scavenging effects and secondly by
activates cellular antioxidants.(21,24) Gel like substance present in
dietary fiber (soluble) helps in decreasing dietary fiber absorption and
also help in fecal secretion of cholesterol.(25) Niacin present in green
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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leafy vegetables produces reactive oxygen species and decrease the LDL
oxidation and also low the monocyte adhesion to endothelial cell which
lowers the chances of atherosclerosis.
Figure 2
Green Leafy vegetables and anti- hypertension effect:
Bioactive component of green leafy vegetables that prevent from
hypertension includes alpha-tocopherol27, Carotenoids27,28,
coumarins27,29 , omega-3-fatty acids27,30 .The antioxidants present in
green leafy vegetables helps in protection against cardiovascular
diseases by free radical scavenger, Induction EpRE/ARE response
element, and increasing NO which helps in lowering oxidize LDL,
lowering blood pressure, and lowering blood glucose level. (27,28)
(27,28)
Figure 3
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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Green leafy vegetable, that are rich source of dietary nitrate and
defensive against stroke and cardiovascular diseases are suggested by
Epidemiological studies. The major risk factor of stroke is High blood
pressure (BP) and the use of inorganic nitrate has shown to lessen the
blood reassure. Analysis of the theory that vegetables containing high
nitrate diets would enhance plasma nitrate and concentrations of
nitrate whereas in healthy women reduce blood pressure was aim of
the study.29
The high omega-6: omega-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in typical
Western dietary pattern may aggravate the possibility of chronic
disease. Contrarily, disease risk has been reducing by the intake of
green leafy vegetable (GLVs). The study explores special effects of
orange flesh, collard greens (CG), sweet potato greens (SPG), purslane
(PL) of disease risk measure in rats fed. The results suggest that
possibilities of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been reduce by SPG,
CG and PL that are linked with the intake of foods that have high
omega-6: omega-3 fatty acid ratios.30
Nitric oxide and nitrite circulation is boost by an increase
nitrate intake. This may attend to improved vascular function and
lower blood pressure. The rich source of nitrate containing green leafy
vegetable is spinach. In order to evaluate severe sound effects on
arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy male and females of a
nitrate rich meal containing spinach a study was conducted. Spinach
ensure in a sevenfold enhance in nitrate in saliva and an eightfold
enhance in nitrate in saliva levels from pre-meal to 120 min post meal.
Therefore, utilization of a nitrate-rich food can reduce systolic pulse
pressure and systolic blood pressure and enhance large artery
conformity intensely in well women and men. Only if encourage, these
sound effects could provide to improved heart condition.31
The risk of undesirable cardiovascular measures has been
reducing by diets that are rich in vegetables and fruits. On the other
hand, the component accountable for this consequence has not been
finely demonstrated. Lately, with evidence vegetables with high nitrate
content may signify a resource of vasoprotective nitric oxide. The
limited use of spinach has been assumed; a high dietary nitrate content
containing vegetables can influence the central and peripheral blood
pressure (BP) and arterial waveform analytical of arterial stiffness. 27
healthy candidate were erratically allocate to obtain either a low-
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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nitrate or high-nitrate soup, by using a placebo-controlled, crossover
design. The result show that vegetable-rich diet may contribute
beneficial hemodynamic effects of dietary nitrate from spinach and
underline the elevated BP the mangemant.32
Through the nitrite - nitrate NO pathway, evidence for the
positive attribute of nitrate is accumulating in dealing with function of
heat in people with good health. Increased intake of nitrate from green
leafy vegetables has the same vascular effect as those at risk for high
blood pressure, this is not clear. The aim is to assess the effects of short-
term regular consumption of nitrate from greens on hypertension and
arterial stiffness in people with high-blood pressure. High-nitrate
dietary intervention led to at least a fourfold increase in saliva and
plasma nitrate and nitrate. There is no difference between high-nitrate
diet and diet low in nitrate in slight active, home-based and workplace
arterial vision and blood pressure. Nitrate intake and increased risk of
hypertension in people may not be an effective short-term strategy to
reduce blood pressure. 33
Green leafy vegetables and anti-cancerous properties
Bioactive component of green leafy vegetables that prevent from cancer
includes beta carotene27, phenyl isothiocyanate28, sulphoraphane34,
selenium35. The mechanism through which it works is explain in the
figure as below
Figure 4
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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The low incidence of many long-lasting illnesses, for example
cardiovasular diseases and cancer, has been linked to the intake of
vegetable-rich diets and has been confirmed by in vitro, clinical and
pre-clinical research. Crucified family members are planted and
consumed worldwide on regular bases. The main vegetables include
banana, broccoli, radish, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts and
watercress which can be fresh (salad), steamed or cooked. In addition
to nutrients, these vegetables also have health-beneficial secondary
metabolites, including S-methylcysteine sulfoxide and sulfur-
containing flavonoids, glucosinolates, anthocyanin, coumarin,
carotenoids, and other antioxidant enzymes. Some specific mechanisms
of cancer prevention include NRF2, anti-inflammatory, polymorphism,
inhibition of histone deacetylase activity, and effects on estrogen
metabolism. 36
"Bioactive compounds" are extra-nutritional components that
usually happen in minor amounts in food. Their benefits on health are
studied comprehensively. The epidemiology of this scientific research
has resulted in numerous epidemiological studies showing the heart
healthy benefits of a plant based diet on cancer and heart disease.
Several bio active compounds have been found. These bio active
compounds don’t have same functional and structural activities and can
be characterized correspondingly.
A research was conducted to study the phenolic compounds,
their subtypes, flavonoids and other components of all plants that are
present in legumes, grains, vegetables, nuts, fruits, olive oil, red wine
and teas. Most of phenolic compounds contain antioxidant potentials,
and few studies have shown positive impact on promotion, coagulation
and tumor genesis. While few epidemiological studies have reported
positive link between bioactive compounds and heart diseases and
cancer, results of other studies have not shown these links. Soy
contains numerous phytoestrogens, but also in linseed oil, cereals,
vegetables and fruits. Some studies have shown positive effects on
other comorbidity factors of heart disease and in cancer as they have
antioxidant properties. The potential impact of phytoestrogen on cancer
is complex as it acts as partial estrogen and antagonists. The phenolic
which is present in olive oil and olive, hydroxytyrosol is a effective
antioxidant. The wine and nuts contain resveratrol which inhibits
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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carcinogenesis and have anti-oxidative, antithrombotic and anti-
inflammatory properties.
A powerful carotenoid, lycopene which is present in tomatoes
and other fruits inhibits the growth of tumor cells in animals and also
protect from prostate and other cancers. In experimental models, onion
and garlic contain organosulfur compounds, monoterpes in citrus
fruits, isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables, cherries and
monoterpes have cardioprotective effects as well as anti-cancer activity.
In short, on health many bioactive compounds have beneficial effects.
In order to make science-based dietary recommendations many
scientific researches needs to be conducted. However, there is ample
proof that bioactive compounds are rich in dietary sources. So it is best
to recommend whole grains, legumes, oils, nuts, fruits and vegetables
rich diets. 37
The minimum carcinogen threat and low toxins levels of fruits
and vegetables recommended that precise amount of antioxidants
agents from these food sources can cause anticancerous effects without
producing significant toxins. This review provides a comprehensive
overview on major findings from studies on the ef fects of dietary
antioxidants on lungs, skin, breast, prostate, and liver cancers for
example curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, lycopene, genistein,
lupole and pomegranate. 38
Green leafy vegetables as anti-anemic:
In anaemia body have not the adequate amount of healthy red blood
cells which carry appropriate amount of oxygen to the tissues of body.
The very common or induced types of anaemia are included
megaloblastic anaemia and Iron deficient anaemia. (40)
Iron Deficiency Anemia and green leafy vegetables:
A study was conducted in 2016 by Linnewiel- Hermoni K et,al. this
study was conducted to detect the Iron rich sources frequency (non-
vegetarian diet and green leafy vegetables),order of birth, food habits,
reading and writing ability level and anaemia interception
understanding are main factors on which anaemia prevalence depends.
For this purpose the groups of 317 adolescent female ages of 10-19 years
were taken. It was observed that the general prevalence was
established to be 58.4 %. (42)
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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Table 1
Iron rich green vegetables
Amount/ 100g
Feenugeek
30.41mg
Spinach
26.54mg
Asparagus
2mg
Broccoli
1mg
Leeks
2mg
Parsely
4mg
Another study was conducted to study the prevalence rate of mild,
moderate and severe anaemia was observed. For this purpose the
adolescent girls were taken for mild, moderate and severe anaemia
correspondingly and the all -inclusive prevalence rate was 28%, 24%
and 43%. WHO recommends 8mg-10mg/day iron consumption for this
age but those girls dietary expenditure for iron was much underneath
the suggested amount. (43)
Among childern iron deficiency anemia is widely prevalent and
more than 2 billion people globally affecting by malnutrition. Food-
based approach of Food multi-mix (FMM) idea involves nearby
accessible untreated resources in dissimilar extent and converting
them into ethnically suitable foodstuffs by means of usual methods of
preparations. For this reason, blending diverse amount of spinach,
fenugreek and multi-legumes flour were prepared by six food multi-mix
formulations along with control. Consequences about sensory valuation
showed that maximum number for breakability, appearance, flavor,
chewiness and generally suitability were obtained by T3 and T4. Based
on product acceptability, these best formulations i.e. T3 and T4 along
with control were selected for further efficacy studies in school aged
children, containing 8.93 mg/100g iron. Hence,in school nutrition
programs to decrease the severity of various problems foodstuffs ready
from legumes supplemented with parched green leafy vegetables . 44
Today high prevalence of anemia has been seen in many
countries in many developing countries, mostly in women who are
vegetarian. In vegetarian diet low bioavailability of nonheme iron is a
major cause. Forty-eight meals with combinations of roti is one of four
normally used green leafy vegetables (GLV) and one of the 6 cereals
along with 35 meals with cereal, roti, vegetable/legume and fruits were
experienced for standardized protocol with 59Fe as a tracer and their
in vitro dialysability of iron using simulated gastrointestinal
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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conditions. In GLV-based meals their average bioavailability of iron
was extensively elevated as adjacent to the worth in current cereal-
legume vegetable combination or cereal-fruit eating patterns.
Bioavailable iron density was identified having higher amount in 31
GLV-based meals. Green leafy vegetable based meal/day will enhance
the bioavailable iron intake in women who are vegetarian especially in
reproductive age which will help in meeting daily requirement of iron.
45
On the risk of developing anemia the control of vegetarian diet
among Indian women was tested and suggests advantages for
addressing diet-related iron-deficiency anemia. Daily consumption of
fish, meat, and egg for severely or moderately anemia was related after
controlling for household level socioeconomic characteristics and
individual-level factors, the chances of having iron-deficiency anemia
in Indian women can be reduced after studying the economic
characteristics such as having higher wealth, being in paid employment
and rural residence. The major public health problem in India is
vegetarian diets poor in iron for economic, cultural and religious
reasons supplementations and fortification of commonly used
vegetarian diet is not associable for all due to cost effective strategy.
The promotion of consumption of cheap iron-rich foodstuffs should be
encouraged. Urgently to control vegetarianism in India on iron
deficiency anemia large-scale cohort and intervention studies are
necessary. 46
In recent cross-sectional study shows that 240 women of
reproductive age from slum areas were carried out as the study
population, In Community Medicine department the field practice area,
to evaluate load of nutritional anemia and study its epidemiological
correlates. The early stage of iron deficiency anemia as shown by study
subjects normocytic hypochromic picture and had microcytic
hypochromic picture, indicate the dipmorphic/macrocytic hypochromic
anemia, iron deficiency anemia, implying folate/B12 vitamin deficiency
and iron deficiency correspondingly. Epidemiological factors made
known statistically shows that anemia is associated with socioeconomic
status, education of respondents, age, inadequate intake of green leafy
vegetables and pulses and history of excessive menstrual bleeding. 47
In India seasonally various types of unconsumed foods are
available but are not utilized to the amount they should actually use in
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
Khalid, Dr Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Saba Noureen, Maria- Health Benefits and
Therapeutic importance of green leafy vegetables (GLVs)
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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high nutritive value. The level of micronutrient malnutrition among
vulnerable section has been explored to overcome the nutritional
disorders. Practically, there is not significant intake of nutritious food
due to the lack of information available on underutilized foods in rural
areas. Therefore, from chosen areas of south Karnataka an attempt has
been made to categorize and evaluate various different unconsumed
vegetables for their nutrient content. In total 38 green leafy vegetables
iron content of same ranged between between 3.68 to 37.34mg/100g
has been identified, Calcium content is highest in Oxalis acetosella,
Chilikere greens (400g). Knol khol green, Brassica oleracea have the
highest content of ascorbic acid. Portulaca oleracea (37.34mg),
Nelabasale green has highest iron content. In chilikere greens calcium
content ranged Calcium content ranged from 73 to 400mg/100g. 48.
Folate and prevention of anemia:
The risk of chronic disease increases due to the deficiency of folate,
megaloblastic anemia. A study that is conducted in China shows the
link between the green leafy vegetables and their contribution in the
intake of folate. Similar results show that population that consume
green leafy vegetables have better source of folate than those who
consumes fruits and root vegetables. (49)
Table 2
Folate rich vegetables
Turnip green
Collard
Mustard Green
Lettuce
Celery
Spinach
Megaloblastic Anemia and green leafy vegetables:
70 out of 100 patients with megaloblastic anemia significantly were
delivered with green leafy vegetables in the 6 months more than in the
other half of the year. So the study showed that the higher incidence of
onset in winter and spring may be related to an
inadequate intake of folic acid due to seasonal low consumption of fresh
green vegetable. (50)
Tahreem Aslam, Mehreen Maqsood, Iraj Jamshaid, Kiran Ashraf, Farheen Zaidi, Sidra
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EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEA RCH - Vol. VIII, Issue 7 / October 2020
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Green leafy vegetables and gut health:
Dietary fiber is a major component of vegetables, coming in the form of
cellulose (polysaccharides and lignin).46 Two types of dietary fibers are
soluble and insoluble.
Insoluble dietary fiber and Constipation:
Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and is left intact as food moves
through the gastrointestinal tract.41The insoluble dietary fiber has long
been known to relieve constipation. Insoluble fiber adds bulk to the diet
and performs the role of cleansing the digestive tract40
Soluble dietary fiber:
Soluble dietary fibre absorbs water from the digestive tract and become
viscous and gelatinous in nature, thereby improves stool consistency 51.
Because of these properties of GLV helps to relief constipation and
hemorrhoids.52 Inulin is now also included in this class. 30-40% dietary
fibers come from green leafy vegetables.53
Green leafy vegetables and dietary fiber:
Gut health has been influenced by the dietary fiber comes from green
leafy vegetables, effecting the spread of disease causing bacteria. GLV
can protect against or else improve enteric infections, balance and
upheld with the metabolism and immune system and fermentation of
non-digestible dietary components in the large intestine.54
Benefits of dietary fibers:
A good intake of dietary fibers provides us benefits such as improves
the serum lipid concentration, blood glucose control, regularity gets
promote, lower the blood pressure, helps in losing the weight moreover
improves the immunity. 55
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