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Abstract and Figures

Creatine has become highly popular supplement among athletes. Contemporary research also suggests that there is also a large number of potential therapeutic applications of creatine. Aim of this systematic overview is to test the effects of CR to muscle strength and body composition on the basis of the collected data and analysed papers published in the period 2018–2020. Literature research was performed in the following data bases: PubMed, Scholar Google and DOAJ. Papers were selected according to multiple criteria and they suggest that CR in combination with an exercise program produces results in increase of muscle mass and strength and it reduces time required for execution of a specific activity. Changes in body composition were observed in increase of total mass and muscle mass, as well as amount of water in body composition. Use of CR in amount of 10–20 g per day and frequency of 4–5 days a week is an efficient tool used for increase in sport performances and positive changes in body composition.
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ISDN 1840-152X
UDK 796
Sport i Zdravlje, No. IX, Volume II, Year 2020
Bojan Bjelica1,
Borislav Cicović1,
Nikola Aksović2,
Radica Alempijević3,
Milan Zelenović1
Ivan Dragović4
1Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, university of East Sarajevo
2Faculty of Sport and Physical Educytion, University of Niš
3Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade
4Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of East Sarajevo, Master studies student
Abstract: Creatine has become highly popular supplement among athletes. Contemporary
research also suggests that there is also a large number of potential therapeutic
applications of creatine. Aim of this systematic overview is to test the effects of CR to
muscle strength and body composition on the basis of the collected data and analysed
papers published in the period 20182020. Literature research was performed in the
following data bases: PubMed, Scholar Google and DOAJ. Papers were selected according
to multiple criteria and they suggest that CR in combination with an exercise program
produces results in increase of muscle mass and strength and it reduces time required for
execution of a specific activity. Changes in body composition were observed in increase of
total mass and muscle mass, as well as amount of water in body composition. Use of CR in
amount of 1020 g per day and frequency of 45 days a week is an efficient tool used for
increase in sport performances and positive changes in body composition.
Key words: weight, bench press, 1RM, body, BIA, supplements
1. Introduction
According to manuscripts human race has always reached for the most efficient
non-hormonal supplements for amplification of physical abilities and possibilities. The
firs written data originates from the Olympic games in Greece in 776 BC. (Grivetti &
Applegate, 1997). Use of supplements is widespread all over the world. In addition to
common food products designed for athletes and physically active people, many
companies developed supplements, mostly claiming that the sport effect can be increased.
Supplements used for the purpose of increasing effects of exercise and sport
performances come in various shapes, including pills, capsules, liquids and powders.
Many of the aforementioned products also contain variety of ingredients in different
combinations and percentages. The most common ingredients are amino acids, proteins,
Sport i Zdravlje, No. IX, Volume II, Year 2020
creatine and caffeine (LaBotz & Griesemer, 2009). There is a large number of studies
observing the influence of supplementation to physical abilities (El Khoury & Antoine,
2012; Morrison, Gizis, & Shorter, 2004; Rocha & Pereira, 1998; Pereira, Jajolo, &
Hirschbruch, 2003; Gomes, Degiovanni, Garlipp, & Chiarello, 2008; Goston & Correlia,
2010; Oliver, Leon, & Hernandez, 2008) amnd changes of body composition (Earnest et
al., 1995; Kreider, Ferreira, et al., 1998; Kreider, Klesges, et al., 1996; Vandenberghe et al.,
1997). CR is also a part of diet and is mostly found in meat and fish and when consumed
98% is deposited in the muscles and the remaining part in the brain, heart and other
organs, while the excess is processed by kidneys and excreted in the form of creatinine
(Cannan & Shore, 1928). CR is one of most commonly used supplements for increase of
exercising effects and sport performances (Kreider, et al., 2017). It facilitates the
production of ATP and delivers energy into muscles, especially in case of short-term
activities (Salomons, et al., 2010). CR may have four-fold positive effects to muscle
performances: by increasing the cells of phosphocreatine which is used for generating the
ATP at the start of intensive exercise, by increasing the speed of phosphocreatine re-
synthesis after exercising, by depressing the degradation of adenine nucleotides and
accumulation of lactates and/or by increasing the glycogen depositing into skeletal
muscles (Salomons, et al., 2010). Oral ingestion of CR increases the creatinine and PCR
(Polymerase Chain Reaction) content of human skeletal muscles (Casey, et al., 1996;
Febbraio, Flanagan, Snow, Zhao, & Carey, 1995; Greenhaff, Bodin, Soderlound, Hultman,
1994; Harris, Soderlund, & Hultman, 1992; Vandenberghe, et al., 1997). Typical protocol
for the start of CR intake for adults, regardless of sex and body size, consists of the loading
phase in the period of 57 days when CR is consumed in the amount of 20 g/day divided
into four parts (5 g), followed by the maintenance phase of 35 g/day (Cooper, Naclerio,
Allgrove, & Jimenez, 2012). Impact of CR to strength and changes to body composition
were also mentioned in other studies (Haff, et al., 2000; Meyer, et al., 2000). Regarding the
fact that strength is one of the most important motoric factors, it was defined many times.
Maximum strength is the maximal ability of muscle or a group of muscles to produce
force. It is frequently measured by one-repetition maximum (1RM), which is operatively
defined as the maximum amount of weight that a person can possibly lift for one
repetition in provided time and in technically correct manner (Pereira & Gomes, 2003).
With this systematic overview we will try to point out benefits of supplementation by CR
in terms of increase in strength, all changes in body composition shall also be followed.
Jose & Ciccone (2013) examined the effects of CR (5g/day) to strength and body
composition in their study. Research was conducted on 19 participants who did body
building aged 23.1±2.9. Over the course of four weeks five trainings were applied. In
addition to body composition one-repetition maximum (1RM) was also tested at bench
press and 3 repetitions at leg press. Significant differences were noted in increase of
muscle mass, while the increase of total fat and body weight was not significant. Increase
in strength was noted in all applied variables. Similar research results were obtained by
Cribb, & Hayes (2006). CR consumption before and after training results in higher gain in
Sport i Zdravlje, No. IX, Volume II, Year 2020
fat body weight, size of muscle fibers and muscle strength. Similar results were obtained
in other research (Soderlung, Balsom, & Ekblom, 1994; Hultman, Soderlung, Timmons,
Cederblad, & Greenhaff, 1996; Volek, 1997; Bemben,et al., 2010). Aim of the systematic
overview is to test the effects of CR to muscle strength and body composition.
2. Method
Electronic databases PubMed, Scholar Google and DOAJ were used for the purpose
of obtaining data for this research. Search for papers was performed in the period 2018
2019. Following key words were used in the search: weight training, muscle mass, 1RM,
placebo, BIA, supplements. Found titles of the research papers, abstracts and full texts,
were then examined and analysed. Research paper had to meet two criteria in order to be
accepted for final analysis: the first criterion is in connection with the issues related to
creatinine monohydrate and the second one to conducting analysis of papers issued in the
defined period. Research that met the criteria was then analysed and represented through
the following parameters: reference (first letter of the author, publishing year, year when
the research was performed), sample (age, number of participants and groups of
participants), exercise program, duration of program and research findings.
3. Results
Procedure of data collection, analysis and elimination is presented graphically
(Graph 1). Using the key words 136 papers were obtained. Number of research
immediately eliminated on the basis of title, double papers, and publishing date (before
2018) was 94, while 42 papers proceeded to further analysis which resulted in
elimination of 35 papers according to various criteria: abstract, because they were
systematic overviews and lack of adequate information relevant to our research.
Remaining seven papers (Table 1) met the criterion that it was issued in period 2018
In four papers the research was performed on around 133 male participants istraživanja
(Amirsasan, Nabilpour, Pourraze, Curby, 2018; Wang, Fang, Lee, & Yang, 2018; Vilar-Neto
et al., 2018; Bjelica et al., 2020), in two papers research participants were 54 women. In
the paper by Mills et al. (2020) it was combination of male and female participants. All the
participants used creatinine monohydrate as supplement to regular diet, in addition to
activity. Program duration varied. In the research performed by Farah & Dos Santos
(2018) CR treatment was performed in the course of 5 days, and in case of Atakan,
Karavelioğlub, Harmancıb, & Bulut (2019) it was seven days.
Sport i Zdravlje, No. IX, Volume II, Year 2020
Graph 1.Procedure for collection, analysis and elimination of obtained papers
In the research by Vilar-Neto et al. (2018) experimental treatment was in duration of 35
days. In a large number of studies were emphasised positive effects of short-term use of
CR (57 days) to performing of exercises. In majority of studies it was suggested that
creatine supplementation can significantly amplify strength, power, performances such as
sprint or activities where a large number of muscle groups is engaged (Williams & Branch,
1998; Kraemer & Volek, 1999; Kreider, 1999; Balsom, Soderlund, & Ekblom, 1994;
Hultman, Soderlund, Timmons, Cederblad, & Greenhaff, 1996; Greenhaff, 1997). Other
authors mentioned significantly longer duration of experimental treatment, specifically in
case of Wang et al. (2018) it was four weeks, Mils et al. (2020) six weeks, Amirsasan et al.
(2018) eight weeks, Bjelica et al. (2020) sixteen weeks. CR intake was in range 0.1g/kg
0,3g/kg or in total 520g per day. At weekly level CR intake was 47 times a week.
Seven accepted papers that met the required criteria are presented in Table 1. The
research is comprised of contemporary research which dealt with the selected topic.
References in the table are represented in the following manner: first author, age, sex and
division of groups, type of treatment, scope, duration of experimental protocol and results
of each study respectively.
Electronic databases search
results: 136 papers
94 papers were eliminated
as double papers and papers
issued in the period before
2014 (2018??)
42 papers proceeded to
further analysis on the basis
of abstract and text
7 papers met the criteria
Screening of
Sport i Zdravlje, No. IX, Volume II, Year 2020
4. Discussion
Many studies which dealt with the effects of CR confirmed that the body weight
increases after a period of oral ingestion (Fairman, Kendall, Hart, Taaffe, Galvao, &
Newton, 2019; Vilar-Neto, et al., 2018; Earnest, Snell, Rodriguez, Almada, & Mitchell,
1995; Hultman, Sijderlund, Timmons, Cederblad, & Greenhaff, 1996; Kreider, Ferreira, &
Wilson, 1998). Previous studies confirm that 1020g of CR at daily level with the
frequency of five days a week is sufficient for increase in strength and number of
repetitions (Urbanski, Loy, Vincent, & Yaspelkis, 1999; Izquierdo, Ibañez, & González-
Badillo, 2002). Such statements are in line with the selected research papers presented in
the systematic overview (Amirsasan et al., 2018; Farah et al., 2018; Wang et al. 2018;
Atakan et al., 2019; Bjelica et al., 2020). The research papers have confirmed that with
Table 1.Overview of the analysed papers
Amirsasan et al.
Football players
InBody 300
8 weeks,
In EG+CR, increase 1RM, TT,
MM, reduction in TM compared
to EG+PG.
Farah et al. 2018
size, TT,MM,
resistance (W/Kg)
5 days,
MD; 4x10g; KG=/
EG1+EG2-changes in TK,
increase in MS, TT, TM. KG
without significant changes.
Wang et al. 2018
EG=15 ; PG=15
SG=20 ± 2yo
EG/PG - squats 5RM,
jumps, TK, sprint 30m
4 weeks, EG=20g
CR+ 2g dex. PG - 5g
Increase of 1RM in EG, improved
MMS and faster recovery after
Vilar-Neto et al.
SG=22,5 ± 4,3yo
1RM/BP, PU/1min.,
35 days, PG, EG1-3g
CR, EG2-5g CR
In EG1-Eg2 increase of 1RM,
endurance only in EG2
Atakan et al.
Football players
EG=15; PG=15;
SG=19.83 ±
SP 10,20,30m,
7 days, EG= CR 0.25
g/kg; PG=MD
In EG improved AGL, SP
10,20,30m, no increase in TT.
Bjelica et al
Body builders
EG=6; PG=8
1RM/BP, 1R;/BS,
SB/max, TK-Tanita bc-
16 weeks,
Changes of TK in EG, increased
MM, reduced TM, increased W.
Increase of strength in all
Mills et al. 2020
Physically active
population ♂♀
CR=13; PG=9;
SG=26 ± 4 yo
BK; 1RM/BPmax;
6 weeks,
EG= CR/0.1g x kg−1
x d−1
PG=CR/0,0055g x
kg -1
Changes in TK, increased
strength in variable 1RM/BP,
1RM/BS. PG with no significant
MM muscle mass,; MT body mass; CR creatinine monohydrate; EG experimental group; KG control group; 1RMone-
repetition maximum; PG placebo group; , dex.dextrose; SG age group; MMS maximum muscle strength; MD maltodextrine;
TK body composition; MS muscle strength; TT body weight; TM body fat; MM muscle mass; BP Bench press; BS barbell
squats; PUpush-ups; SU sits-ups; SP speed; AGL agility; W water; VS vertical jump; BK ball throw.
Sport i Zdravlje, No. IX, Volume II, Year 2020
aging changes start to occur in overall body composition and that the level of water
(fluids) also drops (Ritz, et al., 2001). One should keep in mind that human body consists
of 5070% of water (Sawka & Coyle, 1999). In the research performed by Bjelica et al.
(2020) increase in body water was detected in both groups of participants (CR and
placebo), which was the result of physical stress caused by applied training with load.
Although there is small number of research papers where body water level was observed,
all the data is in favour of training on platform of aerobic exercising or training with load
leads to increase in body fluids (water) in human organism (Francaux & Poortmans, 1999;
Ho et al., 2012; Davidson et al., 2009; Church et al., 2010; Park & Randone, 2003). Muscle
mass, as an integral part of overall mass is significantly increased with CR
supplementation. In some papers it was noted that there is also increase in total mass in
range 0.71.6 kg after short-term CR intake in combination with exercises with load
(Becque, Lochmann, Melrose, 2000; Earnest, Snell, Rodriguez, Almada, & Mitchell, 1995;
Vandenberghe, Van-Hecke, Leemputte, Vanstapel, & Hespel, 1999). LaBotz & Griesemer
(2009) established significant increase of body mass of 0.84 kg in CR group, in relation to
the control group. It is important to note that no changes occurred in fat percentage in any
of the groups of participants, which is an additional confirmation that CR affects only
increase of muscle mass and to certain extent body water levels. Such findings were
noted in other studies (Aedma, Timpmann, Lätt, & Ööpik, 2015; Soderlund, Balsom, &
Ekblom, 1994; Saab, Marsh, Casselman, & Thompson, 2002; Abdi, et al., 2012; Ferneti, et
al., 2018). Studies on supplementation by creatinine show positive effect on performances
and strength in duration of short-term maximum exercising intensity measured in one-
repetition maximum and effect on mscle endurance and speed (Becque, Lochmann, &
Melrose, 2000; Volek & Rawson, 2004; Vandenberghe, 1997; Vandenberghe et al., 1997;
Volek & Rawson, 2004). Increased strength on bench press after CR supplementation was
mentioned in some of the papers (Amirsasan et al., 2018; Vilar-Neto et al., 2018; Bjelica et
al., 2020; Mills et al., 2020). Other research demonstrated similar improvements in bench
press performances (Camic et al., 2014;Kilduff et al., 2002; Rawson & Volek, 2003).
Regardng sports which require combination of aerobic and anaerobic sources with
participation of strength and endurance, fatigue may occur and hence efficiency reduces.
With CR supplementation it is possible to prevent loss of strength due to aerobic and
anaerobic activity of the athlete. Earnest, Snell, Rodriguez, Almada, & Mitchell (2005)
established that creatine supplementation (20 g / day x 4 days and 10 g / day x 6 days)
improves activity performances to exhaustion in two cycles in duration of approximately
90 seconds. Smith, Stephens, Hall, & Jackson (1998) established that creatine
supplementation (20 g / day x 5 days) increases the time of performance of exercises
which last 90600 secons, mostly in short, more intensive activities. Nelson et al., (2000)
established that cretaine supplementation (20 g / day x 7 days) reduces sub-maximal
number of heart pulses and oxygen intake volume (VO2), while the ventilation anaerobic
threshold increases (VANT) as well as total time to exhaustion during maximum
exercising program in 36 adults. Rico-Sanz & Mendez (2000) established that creatinine
Sport i Zdravlje, No. IX, Volume II, Year 2020
supplementation (20 g / day x 5 days) increases time to exhaustion (29,9 ± 3,8 do 36,5 ±
5,7 min), simultaneously reducing the ammonia levels (marker of adenine nucleotides
decomposition) in cycling to30% and 90% from maximum load threshold. Upon the
literature overview, it was established that CR, in combination with an exercising
program, results in increase of muscle mass (Hultman, Sijderlund, & Timmons, 1996;
Harris, Soderlund, & Hultman, 1992), strength (Birch, Noble, & Greenhaff, 1994;
Vandenberghe, et al., 1997), and that it reduces time required for performing an activity
(Balsom, Soderlund, & Ekblom, 1994).
5. Conclusion
Results of this study suggest that CR supplementation in combination with any form
of training may be efficient in improving sport performances of male and female
population of participants. However, additional research is required in order to test the
long-term effects of supplementation. CR in combination with an exercising program
results in increase of muscle mass and strength, and it also reduces time required for
performing an activity. Changes in body composition are observed in increase of total
mass and muscle mass, as well as in body water levels. CR supplementation in amount of
1020g at daily level with the frequency of 45 days a week is an efficient tool for
improvement of sport performances and positive changes in body composition.
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Caffeine is a compound found in the leaves, seeds and fruits of plants such as coffee and guarana. The aim of the systematic review was to determine the influence of caffeine on cardiorespiratory functions and physical performance. The method was the collection of relevant literature in the period from 2011-2022, and their analysis. The results clearly show the benefit and positive influence of caffeine on both investigated areas. The recommended consumption of caffeine should be higher than 75mg in order to expect positive changes and effects. Also, doses above 600mg should not be exceeded due to side effects, especially on the heart. It is necessary to consume caffeine for at least 45 minutes before the planned activity to ensure complete absorption. Caffeine is a very powerful supplement, it is only necessary to take care of the method and amount of dosage.
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The purpose was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation during resistance training sessions on skeletal muscle mass and exercise performance in physically active young adults. Twenty-two participants were randomized to supplement with creatine (CR: n = 13, 26 ± 4 yrs; 0.0055 g·kg−1 post training set) or placebo (PLA: n = 9, 26 ± 5 yrs; 0.0055 g·kg−1 post training set) during six weeks of resistance training (18 sets per training session; five days per week). Prior to and following training and supplementation, measurements were made for muscle thickness (elbow and knee flexors/extensors, ankle plantarflexors), power (vertical jump and medicine ball throw), strength (leg press and chest press one-repetition maximum (1-RM)) and muscular endurance (one set of repetitions to volitional fatigue using 50% baseline 1-RM for leg press and chest press). The creatine group experienced a significant increase (p < 0.05) in leg press, chest press and total body strength and leg press endurance with no significant changes in the PLA group. Both groups improved total body endurance over time (p < 0.05), with greater gains observed in the creatine group. In conclusion, creatine ingestion during resistance training sessions is a viable strategy for improving muscle strength and some indices of muscle endurance in physically active young adults.
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Aim of research was to examine the effects of consuming CR to muscle strength and bodycomposition. Duration of experimental treatment was 8 weeks. Sample consisted of 14 participantsaged 24±6months divided into two sub-samples: 6 participants who consumed CR and 8 participantswho were placebo group. Strength was assessed using 3 tests: Bench Press 1RM, Leg Press 1RM, andBarbell Biceps Scott – maximum number of repetitions with 15kg load. Following parameters wereobtained for the purpose of assessment of body composition: Body mass, Muscle mass, Body Fat,Body Water. Assessment of body composition was performed using bioelectric impedance TANITA BC-545n. Differences between the groups were assessed by ANOVA test of repeated measures. Upontaking insight into the results we may conclude that CR influences changes in body composition: Bodymass (.000), Muscle mass (.039), Body Water (.010); effects to Body Fat are not statisticallysignificant. In placebo group changes were noticed only in variable Body Water (.007). Effects to bodystrength were confirmed in all three variables: Bench Press (.050), Leg Press (.041), Barbell BicepsScott (.003)., whereas no significant changes were observed in placebo group. CR is efficient dietarysupplement for both professional and amateur athletes. Citation. Bojan Bjelica , Borislav Cicović,Dalibor Stević, Rosario D'Onofrio , Tijana Perović , Radomir Pržulj , Nebojša Mitrović ; Effects ofcreatine monohydrate (CR) to muscle strength and body composition ; Ita. J. Sports Reh. Po.; 2020;7; 3; 1624 -1637 ; ISSN 2385-1988 [online] IBSN 007-111-19 - 55; CGI J OAJI 0,101)] (PDF) EFFECTS OF CREATINE MONOHYDRATE (CR) TO MUSCLE STRENGTH AND BODY COMPOSITION. Available from: [accessed Oct 12 2022].
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Creatine supplementation has an ergogenic effect in an acute complex training bout, but the benefits of chronic creatine supplementation during long-term complex training remain unknown. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of 4-week complex training combined with creatine supplementation on sport performances and muscle damage biomarkers. Thirty explosive athletes were assigned to the creatine or placebo group, which consumed 20 g of creatine or carboxymethyl cellulose, respectively, per day for 6 days followed by 2 g of the supplements until the end of the study. After 6 days of supplementation, subjects performed tests of one repetition maximum (1-RM) strength of half squat and complex training bouts to determine the optimal individual post-activation potentiation time. Thereafter, all subjects performed a complex training programme consisting of six sets of 5-RM half squats and plyometric jumps 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Body composition, 30-m sprint and jump performances were assessed before and after the training period. Moreover, blood creatine kinase (CK) activity was analysed at the first and the last training bout. After the training, the 1-RM strength in the creatine group was significantly greater than in the placebo group (p < 0.05). CK activity after the complex training bout in the creatine group was significantly reduced compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05). No differences were noted for other variables. This study concluded that creatine supplementation combined with complex training improved maximal muscular strength and reduced muscle damage during training.
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High-fat (HF) diets in combination with sedentary lifestyle represent one of the major public health concerns predisposing to obesity and diabetes leading to skeletal muscle atrophy, decreased fiber diameter and muscle mass with accumulation of fat tissue resulting in loss of muscle strength. One strategy to overcome the maleficent effects of HF diet is resistance training, a strategy used to improve muscle mass, reverting the negative effects on obesity-related changes in skeletal muscle. Together with resistance training, supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CrM) in the diet has been used to improve muscle mass and strength. Creatine is a non-essential amino acid that is directly involved in the cross-bridge cycle providing a phosphate group to ADP during the initiation of muscle contraction. Besides its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects CrM also upregulates IGF-1 resulting in hyperthophy with an increase in muscle function. However, it is unknown whether CrM supplementation during resistance training would revert the negative effects of high-fat diet on the muscle performance. During 8 weeks we measured muscle performance to climb a 1.1m and 80° ladder with increasing load on trained rats that had received standard diet or high-fat diet, supplemented or not with CrM. We observed that the CrM supplementation up-regulated IGF-1 and phospho-AKT protein levels, suggesting an activation of the IGF1-PI3K-Akt/PKB-mTOR pathway. Moreover, despite the CrM supplementation, HF diet down-regulated several proteins of the IGF1-PI3K-Akt/PKB-mTOR pathway, suggesting that diet lipid content is crucial to maintain or improve muscle function during resistance training.
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks resistance training with creatine supplementation on body composition and physical fitness indexes in male futsal players. Methods: 20 trained futsal players were selected based on convenience sampling from East Azerbaijan and assigned randomly either to Ex + Cr group (Exercise + Creatin, n = 10) or Ex + Pl group (Exercise + Placebo, n = 10). All of the subjects performed resistance training program for 8 weeks. The Ex + Cr group ingested 0.3 g/kg creatine during loading phase 0.1 g/kg in maintenance phase. Body weight, fat free mass, fat percent, muscular strength, speed, anaerobic power and flexibility were measured before and after training program. Paired t-test and independent t-test were used to analyze the data. Results: The results suggested that body weight and fat free mass were significantly increased in both groups with greater improvements in Ex + Cr group (P� 0.05). Moreover, Ex + Cr group demonstrated greater decrease in fat percent compared with Ex + Pl group (P � 0.05). Also, muscular strength increased to a greater extent in the Ex + Cr compared with the Ex + Pl group (P � 0.05). Finally, there was no significant difference between the two groups in speed, anaerobic power and flexibility (P � 0.05). Conclusions: In general, it seems that resistance training along with creatine supplementation lead to greater increases in body weight, fat mass and muscular strength as well as greater decrease in fat percent than resistance training alone in trained futsal players.
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Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection. Additionally, a number of clinical applications of creatine supplementation have been studied involving neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease), diabetes, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, aging, brain and heart ischemia, adolescent depression, and pregnancy. These studies provide a large body of evidence that creatine can not only improve exercise performance, but can play a role in preventing and/or reducing the severity of injury, enhancing rehabilitation from injuries, and helping athletes tolerate heavy training loads. Additionally, researchers have identified a number of potentially beneficial clinical uses of creatine supplementation. These studies show that short and long-term supplementation (up to 30 g/day for 5 years) is safe and well-tolerated in healthy individuals and in a number of patient populations ranging from infants to the elderly. Moreover, significant health benefits may be provided by ensuring habitual low dietary creatine ingestion (e.g., 3 g/day) throughout the lifespan. The purpose of this review is to provide an update to the current literature regarding the role and safety of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine and to update the position stand of International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN).
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Introducao : A procura por suplementos nutricionais esta tornando-se cada vez mais comum entre os frequentadores de academias de ginastica, muitas vezes sem uma orientacao adequada. Objetivo : O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o uso de suplementos nutricionais por praticantes de atividade fisica em academias de Ribeirao Preto-SP e seu impacto na composicao corporal. Metodos: Para realizacao da pesquisa foram aplicados questionarios em 102 individuos, do sexo masculino, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, em 10 academias de ginastica de Ribeirao Preto-SP. Apos o preenchimento do questionario, 30 individuos foram submetidos a avaliacao da composicao corporal e classificados em 3 grupos com 10 individuos: sem consumo de suplementos (GC), consumo exclusivo de suplementos proteicos (GP) e uso de suplementos proteico-energeticos (GPE). Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que 52% utilizam algum tipo de suplemento. A musculacao era praticada por 92% dos entrevistados, sendo o aumento de massa magra, o principal objetivo relatado. A quantidade proteica consumida por meio dos suplementos significava, em media, 47% e 48% respectivamente para GP e GPE, da proteina que seria necessaria por dia, considerando a recomendacao de 1g proteina por quilo de peso corporal. Enquanto o nutricionista e o profissional mais procurado para a orientacao de dietas, o instrutor de musculacao e o profissional mais requisitado pelos alunos para a utilizacao de suplementos. A avaliacao da composicao corporal mostrou percentual de massa magra e percentual de gordura corporal semelhantes entre os que faziam ou nao uso de suplementos. Conclusao : O consumo de suplementos pelos frequentadores de academias e elevado, muitas vezes sem uma orientacao especializada e adequada, e pelos metodos utilizados nao se verificou diferenca na composicao corporal com a utilizacao destes produtos.
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Chronic supplementation with creatine monohydrate has been shown to promote increases in total intramuscular creatine, phosphocreatine, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and muscle fiber size. Furthermore, there is robust evidence that muscular strength and power will also increase after supplementing with creatine. However, it is not known if the timing of creatine supplementation will affect the adaptive response to exercise. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference between pre versus post exercise supplementation of creatine on measures of body composition and strength. Nineteen healthy recreational male bodybuilders (mean +/- SD; age: 23.1 +/- 2.9; height: 166.0 +/- 23.2 cm; weight: 80.18 +/- 10.43 kg) participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: PRE-SUPP or POST-SUPP workout supplementation of creatine (5 grams). The PRE-SUPP group consumed 5 grams of creatine immediately before exercise. On the other hand, the POST-SUPP group consumed 5 grams immediately after exercise. Subjects trained on average five days per week for four weeks. Subjects consumed the supplement on the two non-training days at their convenience. Subjects performed a periodized, split-routine, bodybuilding workout five days per week (Chest-shoulders-triceps; Back-biceps, Legs, etc.). Body composition (Bod Pod(R)) and 1-RM bench press (BP) were determined. Diet logs were collected and analyzed (one random day per week; four total days analyzed). 2x2 ANOVA results - There was a significant time effect for fat-free mass (FFM) (F = 19.9; p = 0.001) and BP (F = 18.9; p < 0.001), however, fat mass (FM) and body weight did not reach significance. While there were trends, no significant interactions were found. However, using magnitude-based inference, supplementation with creatine post workout is possibly more beneficial in comparison to pre workout supplementation with regards to FFM, FM and 1-RM BP. The mean change in the PRE-SUPP and POST-SUPP groups for body weight (BW kg), FFM (kg), FM (kg) and 1-RM bench press (kg) were as follows, respectively: Mean +/- SD; BW: 0.4 +/- 2.2 vs 0.8 +/- 0.9; FFM: 0.9 +/- 1.8 vs 2.0 +/- 1.2; FM: -0.1 +/- 2.0 vs -1.2 +/- 1.6; Bench Press 1-RM: 6.6 +/- 8.2 vs 7.6 +/- 6.1.Qualitative inference represents the likelihood that the true value will have the observed magnitude. Furthermore, there were no differences in caloric or macronutrient intake between the groups. Creatine supplementation plus resistance exercise increases fat-free mass and strength. Based on the magnitude inferences it appears that consuming creatine immediately post-workout is superior to pre-workout vis a vis body composition and strength.
Low muscle mass in individuals with cancer has a profound impact on quality of life and independence and is associated with greater treatment toxicity and poorer prognosis. Exercise interventions are regularly being investigated as a means to ameliorate treatment-related adverse effects, and nutritional/supplementation strategies to augment adaptations to exercise are highly valuable. Creatine (Cr) is a naturally-occurring substance in the human body that plays a critical role in energy provision during muscle contraction. Given the beneficial effects of Cr supplementation on lean body mass, strength, and physical function in a variety of clinical populations, there is therapeutic potential in individuals with cancer at heightened risk for muscle loss. Here, we provide an overview of Cr physiology, summarize the evidence on the use of Cr supplementation in various aging/clinical populations, explore mechanisms of action, and provide perspectives on the potential therapeutic role of Cr in the exercise oncology setting.
Performance-enhancing substances (PESs) are used commonly by children and adolescents in attempts to improve athletic performance. More recent data reveal that these same substances often are used for appearance-related reasons as well. PESs include both legal over-the-counter dietary supplements and illicit pharmacologic agents. This report reviews the current epidemiology of PES use in the pediatric population, as well as information on those PESs in most common use. Concerns regarding use of legal PESs include high rates of product contamination, correlation with future use of anabolic androgenic steroids, and adverse effects on the focus and experience of youth sports participation. The physical maturation and endogenous hormone production that occur in adolescence are associated with large improvements in strength and athletic performance. For most young athletes, PES use does not produce significant gains over those seen with the onset of puberty and adherence to an appropriate nutrition and training program.