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Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training: Revised edition

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... How working from home or from a hub could affect interpreters' performances has not been extensively studied. Understandably, the SI performance of interpreters is subject to an array of source language problem triggers (Cheung 2001;Gile 2009), such as unfamiliar accents (Cheung 2003(Cheung , 2015, numbers, and proper names; delivery rate (Rosendo and Galván 2019); information density (Hild 2015); intelligibility (Reithofer 2020); sentence complexity (Liu et al. 2004); and word order (Cheung 2012). These factors and more could lead to such issues as omission (Cheung 2011), disfluency (Song and Cheung 2019), and interference (Ma and Cheung 2020), among other problems. ...
... Numbers are common problem triggers in SI (Cheung 2008(Cheung , 2009Gile 2009;Pinochi 2009) and "are particularly vulnerable to incompleteness and inaccuracy" (Mead 2015: 286). Some interpreters working between signed and spoken languages also find numbers to be challenging (Chew and Cheung 2022). ...
... It is therefore crucial that interpreters develop coping techniques for numbers that require mental conversion. As Gile (2009) cautioned, "[T]ranslate [a number] fully or just indicate its general order of magnitude, any such local decision may have significant implications on cognitive load and determine success or failure" (70). ...
Book
This book presents the latest developments in translation and interpreting (T&I), which has been at the forefront to face the challenges brought by COVID-19. The contributions in the book contain both quantitative and qualitative empirical studies as well as personal accounts of the impact and opportunities T&I has faced in the global pandemic, covering topics including metaphor translation, delivery of and access to T&I services during COVID-19, renewed perspectives on T&I practice and profession, and technological applications in the T&I classroom. The various themes in the book, through examining the role and many facets of T&I against the backdrop of COVID-19, have demonstrated that T&I as a vital means of intercultural communication is assuming immense importance at a time of uncertainties and disruptions. As one of the books addressing crucial issues of T&I at a time of global crisis, this edited book is of interest to many T&I professionals, researchers, teachers, and students who have been impacted by the pandemic and yet showed a continued interest in T&I and its future emerging practice in the post-pandemic era.
... How working from home or from a hub could affect interpreters' performances has not been extensively studied. Understandably, the SI performance of interpreters is subject to an array of source language problem triggers (Cheung 2001;Gile 2009), such as unfamiliar accents (Cheung 2003(Cheung , 2015, numbers, and proper names; delivery rate (Rosendo and Galván 2019); information density (Hild 2015); intelligibility (Reithofer 2020); sentence complexity (Liu et al. 2004); and word order (Cheung 2012). These factors and more could lead to such issues as omission (Cheung 2011), disfluency (Song and Cheung 2019), and interference (Ma and Cheung 2020), among other problems. ...
... Numbers are common problem triggers in SI (Cheung 2008(Cheung , 2009Gile 2009;Pinochi 2009) and "are particularly vulnerable to incompleteness and inaccuracy" (Mead 2015: 286). Some interpreters working between signed and spoken languages also find numbers to be challenging (Chew and Cheung 2022). ...
... It is therefore crucial that interpreters develop coping techniques for numbers that require mental conversion. As Gile (2009) cautioned, "[T]ranslate [a number] fully or just indicate its general order of magnitude, any such local decision may have significant implications on cognitive load and determine success or failure" (70). ...
Chapter
The use of remote simultaneous interpreting (RSI) would probably continue post COVID-19 pandemic, and RSI could take place either from a hub or home. Does RSI quality vary from setting to setting? In an experiment that focused on numbers, the RSI quality of English into Mandarin Chinese by interpreters working from a hub was compared to that of interpreters working from home. Specifically, we compared the renditions of numbers in two segments, segment 1 began slightly more than 3 min after the start of the source language, and segment 2 began after more than 20 min. Using the Paas scale, the participants also indicated their perceived cognitive load for their task. The performance of numbers in segment 1 between the two groups was almost identical. However, while both groups struggled with numbers that required mental conversion when interpreting into Chinese, the hub group adopted the approximation strategy more extensively than did the home group. The hub group also had a lower Paas scale than the home group. The results suggest that interpreters can be more strategic in the hub setting probably because of a lower perceived cognitive load.
... The use of different interpreting strategies has been widely explored in Interpreting Studies. Research has shown that interpreters use strategies and tactics to deal with processing constraints (Riccardi, 2005;Kalina, 1998;Gile, 2009). In this study, a strategy refers to an intentional, planned, goal-oriented problem-solving procedure employed by interpreters to deal with processing constraints (Kohn, 1990;Gile, 2009;Li, 2015;Barakat, 2018). ...
... Research has shown that interpreters use strategies and tactics to deal with processing constraints (Riccardi, 2005;Kalina, 1998;Gile, 2009). In this study, a strategy refers to an intentional, planned, goal-oriented problem-solving procedure employed by interpreters to deal with processing constraints (Kohn, 1990;Gile, 2009;Li, 2015;Barakat, 2018). By contrast, the term tactic is used to refer to actions taken in face of an immediate problem and with an immediate objective (Gile, 2009). ...
... In this study, a strategy refers to an intentional, planned, goal-oriented problem-solving procedure employed by interpreters to deal with processing constraints (Kohn, 1990;Gile, 2009;Li, 2015;Barakat, 2018). By contrast, the term tactic is used to refer to actions taken in face of an immediate problem and with an immediate objective (Gile, 2009). Thus, the present study aims at adding to the discussion of the use of strategies/tactics by interpreters when dealing with processing constraints which appear during the performance of an interpreting task. ...
Chapter
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The study aimed at investigating the frequency, cognitive impact, and underlying norms of simultaneous interpreting strategies in the English-Brazilian Portuguese language pair as used by undergraduate translation students at Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (Brazil). Participants performed a simultaneous interpreting task from English into Brazilian Portuguese. Their sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed from a cognitive perspective. The results pointed out that the students employed tactics, rather than strategies (Gile, 2009). They also revealed that: 1) the most frequently employed tactics were omission, chunking, morphosyntactic transformation and transcoding, 2) most of the tactics used were related to participants’ cognitive effort, and 3) most of the tactics were related to interpreting norms.
... Cecília Franco Morais e Igor A. Lourenço da Silva, em "Estratégias de interpretação simultânea entre estudantes brasileiros", investigam a frequência, impacto cognitivo e normas subjacentes das estratégias de interpretação simultânea, utilizadas no par linguístico inglês-português brasileiro por estudantes de tradução. Os resultados revelam que, em vez de estratégias, táticas (Gile, 2009) foram frequentemente empregadas com esforços cognitivos, seguindo as normas de interpretação. ...
... Suas sessões foram gravadas e transcritas, e os dados foram analisados de uma perspectiva cognitiva. Os resultados apontaram que os estudantes empregaram táticas, não estratégias (Gile, 2009). Também mostraram que: 1) as táticas mais utilizadas foram omissão, segmentação, transformação morfossintática e transcodificação; e a maioria das táticas estava relacionada 2) ao esforço cognitivo despendido e 3) normas de interpretação. ...
... Their sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed from a cognitive perspective. The results pointed out that the students employed tactics, rather than strategies (Gile, 2009). They also revealed that: 1) the most frequently employed tactics were omission, chunking, morphosyntactic transformation and transcoding, 2) most of the tactics used were related to participants' cognitive effort, and 3) most of the tactics were related to interpreting norms. ...
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O Lincog - Simpósio Mundial sobre Linguagem e Cognição é um evento de caráter internacional criado com o objetivo de acolher discussões situadas na fronteira de áreas do conhecimento. Ele foi gerado como resultado de um brainstorming nas reuniões científicas realizadas sob a coordenação do Grupo de Pesquisa Linguagem e Cognição, sediado na Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas, da Universidade de São Paulo (Brasil). Os textos congregados neste volume traduzem o foco de interesse de pesquisadores de variadas instituições de ensino e pesquisa. Reúnem-se em torno de temáticas relevantes para a conexão entre linguagem e cognição.
... Mankauskiene's (2016) model and Gile's (2009) CAI tool, as a better problem-solving strategy than the traditional ones. ...
... In addition, he describes the problems that face interpreters in each of the three aforementioned models and the strategies and tactics used. (Gile, 2009) Ingram, 1985Gile(2009 divides the process of consecutive interpreting into two phases, namely listening and reformulation. The efforts of the two phases are as follows: ...
... In addition, he describes the problems that face interpreters in each of the three aforementioned models and the strategies and tactics used. (Gile, 2009) Ingram, 1985Gile(2009 divides the process of consecutive interpreting into two phases, namely listening and reformulation. The efforts of the two phases are as follows: ...
Thesis
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Consecutive interpretation of the medical and economic discourses is a stressing task where interpreters face several difficulties like the time limit for retrieving technical terms, numbers, long sentences, the speed of the speaker in addition to the stress and anxiety which could affect the interpreter’s attention. Thus, interpreters tend to use strategies for solving such problems like omission and approximation. Despite such strategies are frequently and commonly used by interpreters, yet they cannot deliver the accurate and sometimes incorrect meaning. Consequently, some computer tools were introduced to reach a better result, though they still cannot help solving some of the mentioned difficulties. This study introduces a prototype of a CAI tool, namely Daftar - ،دفتر designed specifically for consecutive interpreting. This tool is proposed to be a strategy for solving some of the difficulties that encounter consecutive interpreters like retrieving and taking down technical terms and numbers and the quick speed of the speaker. To illustrate this, the study starts by reviewing the different difficulties that face consecutive interpreters in the economic and medical discourses then the traditional strategies used by interpreters for solving such difficulties and problems. The theoretical framework of the study is based on Baddeley’s model of working memory (2009) and Dalia Mankauskiene’s model (2016) and Gile’s tactics (2012). The present study assumes that this CAI Tool helps relieve retrieving and taking down the accurate terminology numbers, abbreviations, and proper names particularly in technical interpreting domains requiring an accurate and correct delivery of terms in the medical and economic discourses, in addition to long sentences and quick speed of the source speech. The study experimentally investigates Daftar - دفتر ’s efficiency in reaching a better result than the traditional strategies in English into Arabic consecutive interpreting by experimenting the suggested features of the tool on a group of E/A junior consecutive interpreters in the economic and medical fields who would use it as a problem-solving strategy separately then the combined features together.
... Model úsilí je didakticky mimoriadne dobre uchopiteľný a umožňuje učiteľovi vhodne vysvetliť študentom príčiny chýb a zlyhaní v tlmočení. Gile (1993Gile ( , 1995 totiž považuje za príčinu zlyhaní v procese tlmočenia práve zvýšené nároky na kognitívne procesy tlmočníka. Tlmočník v procese tlmočenia disponuje mentálnou energiou, t. j. procesuálnou kapacitou, ktorej množstvo je obmedzené. ...
... automatických a neautomatických mentálnych operáciách. Neautomatické operácie (Richard 1980, In: Gile 1995 sú mentálne procesy, ktoré si, na rozdiel od automatických, vyžadujú pozornosť a tým aj určitú mentálnu energiu. Túto čerpajú z obmedzených zásob a v prípade, že je mentálna energia potrebná pre určitú čiastkovú činnosť nedostatočná, tlmočnícky výkon sa zhoršuje. ...
... Rovnako, ak analýza východiskovej reči v systéme porozumenia alebo plánovanie reči v systéme produkcie trvajú dlhšie, vyžiadajú si presun (prepnutie) pozornosti z iných aktivít, ktoré mali byť dokončené v určitom časovom limite a hrozí tak zlyhanie tlmočenia (Mizuno 2005). Výsledok tohto efektu dĺžky úlohy teda môže byť identický so situáciou nasýtenia procesuálnej kapacity, ako ju opisuje Gile (1995). ...
Book
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Not every student can and wants to become an interpreter. It is based on individual personality traits, motivation and abilities, but it is also related to the quality of education, the influence of teachers and other role models. Last but not least, market demands also determine the employability of the interpreter in his/her profession, and other times, coincidental life events may play a crucial role. The monograph looks at the academic training of future interpreters through the prism of the interdisciplinary empirical research findings in the field of cognitive functions and personality traits and abilities. We attempted to interpret the presented conclusions in the context of their significance for interpreting training or rather training of future interpreters for their profession, but also in the context of student personality shaping in general. In the structure of cognitive skills and personality, there are some aspects that can be relatively well shaped in the educational process. Others, on the other hand, are relatively stable and resistant to the process of education and selfeducation. To determine the extent to which the selected aspects can be influenced by training, it is necessary to identify and characterize the various levels of the cognitive processes and personality structure. In the monograph, we focused on cognitive skills, cognitive style, character traits, motivational structure and personality skills that are applied in the interpreting process. Cognitive skills can be understood as partial cognitive mechanisms controlled by the central executive of working memory (or activated long-term memory). Similarly to the existence of capacity and time limits related to working memory, the mental energy we have as interpreters is also limited (Gile 1995). And since we often work at the limit of saturation of this mental energy in the interpreting process, it is crucial to effectively regulate limited cognitive resources so that interpreting performance does not deteriorate. Research suggests that the automation of partial processes relieves mental capacity since automated processes (as procedural memory) do not require intense attention. Simultaneity as a parallel realization of cognitive and linguistic processes can be largely automated and is applied in both basic modes of interpreting. However, compared to simultaneous interpreting, processes related to the ability to abstract, the ability to understand more complex contexts, the ability to organize and structure information in long-term memory and their efficient recalling are to a larger extent applied in consecutive interpreting. In simultaneous interpreting, the ability to react quickly and promptly and flexibility in regulating the fluctuation range of attention under conditions of cognitive and linguistic processes taking place parallelly are likely to be applied to a larger extent than in consecutive interpreting. /118/ The basic cognitive equipment of interpreting students (i.e. cognitive skills and mental abilities) undoubtedly affects the effectiveness of training and the related interpreting performance. However, many of these skills and abilities, e.g. working memory coordination processes, mental flexibility or perceptual speed, or even fluid intelligence, can be developed during training (Macnamara & Conway 2016). At the same time, however, there are mechanisms that are key to interpreting, but are more resistant to training in terms of academic training lasting several semesters. One of them is, for example, the ability to deal with interference and disturbing elements. In this case, it is a characteristic that may be related to the cognitive style of the individual, representing field dependence/independence as a component of the personality responsible for the overall organization of information (Nakonečný 1997). The cognitive style of impulsivity/reflexivity is probably to some extent related to décalage and error rate in interpreting. Speech production, less prone to interference losses, is also likely to be part of the interpreter’s expertise (Moser-Mercer 2000), which he/she acquires by overcoming automation (Ericsson 2000) during long-term, systematic and intensive training. Interpreting performance, but also the speed and efficiency of acquiring and developing skills and abilities during training are influenced by both internal and external factors. Important internal determinants of performance are, among other things, motivational aspects of personality (performance motive, orientation of motivation), physical and mental predispositions. In relation to motivation, it seems that an increased level of motivation (performance motive) is needed to mobilize performance-oriented forces. At the same time, it is an important finding that the advantage belongs to those interpreters or students who experience anxiety in a particular interpreting task (state anxiety), but do not suffer from high trait anxiety, or individuals who are anxious but master effective strategies for managing this anxiety in the interpreting process (Kurz 1996, Hodáková 2020). External determinants include environmental and social impacts (e.g. training quality). An appropriate combination of all these influences can subsequently relatively reliably predict the readiness of students for the interpreter profession. In the monograph, we also dealt with stress factors that affect professional interpreters and interpreting students. And although the nature and intensity of stressful situations are quite different in these two groups, for the long-term successful performance of the interpreter profession but also overall satisfaction in the professional and private life, it is important to master coping strategies and principles of mental hygiene. In our opinion, the academic training of future interpreters can also offer room for such a comprehensive development of students’ personalities. /119/ When reflecting the research findings in the training of interpreting students, it is also important to address the question of whether and how the final thesis, which is one of the prerequisites for successful completion of studies, can be useful for students preparing for the practical interpreting profession and not primarily for an academic career. In this context, it can be stated that in the conditions of Slovak universities, there is a tradition of elaborating final theses on the topic of interpreting. We also tried to integrate some interesting findings of student theses into individual chapters of the monograph. Such theses provide students with the opportunity to develop their thematic competence and broaden their competence profile, which increases the chances of their employability on the market. At the same time, taking part in the research in the role of participants can provide them with effective feedback on their strengths and weaknesses and opportunities to develop their own potential. Effective practical interpreting training based on relevant research findings can also help them to a significant extent. In all these cases, the teacher of interpreting can have a positive effect on students by his/her own practical experience with the interpreting profession (as a role model), the ability to translate the conclusions of empirical research into the didactic process (as a facilitator of cognitive and personal development), and last but not least, by his/her own passion for research (as a leader).
... (declarative and semantic knowledge)" (p.4). In addition to the acquisition of these knowledge types, an interpreter is also expected to have procedural knowledge which refers to the knowledge of applying the acquired knowledge to the interpreting process (Gile, 2009a;Kalina, 2000). ...
... However, Kalina (2000) believes that "there are a number of similar or related factors at work in the two subdisciplines that can be pursued within the scope of an integrated approach" (p.19). In the same manner, Gile (2009a) lists the components of Translation competence that should be acquired by interpreters as follows; ...
... In this list, Gile (2009a) particularly emphasizes the importance of high-level language knowledge required by conference interpreters, who are expected to interpret diplomats, scientists, and intellectuals and speak at their level under the time-constraint factor of the interpreting profession. Knowledge of themes and subject matters is also a significant component as interpreters have to deal with specialized subject areas and topics. ...
Thesis
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The literature in the field of translation and interpreting indicates the intensification of constructivist approaches underpinning the efficiency of collaborative learning, situated learning, and project-based learning, particularly on the part of translator training. Tracing the reflections of the shift to constructivist pedagogy in interpreter training, this thesis aims to scrutinize the general pedagogical tendency of interpreter trainers, main practices applied, along with possible problems and solutions to overcome them, and thus contribute to improve interpreter training in Turkey at the undergraduate level. To serve this purpose, a qualitative research design was used to reach the experiences and views of trainers in-depth, and discuss the obtained data within the theoretical framework of theories of learning, interpreting skills, interpreting competences, competence models, main training, and assessment practices of interpreter training. Within the scope of the first data collection method, interviews were held with 26 interpreter trainers who serve in T&I programs at the undergraduate level in Turkey. Among qualitative data analysis methods, (Reflexive)Thematic Analysis was used for the analysis of the interview data. To this end, thematic coding was conducted via MaxQda software, and 862 codes were created under 3 main themes. In the second step of the data collection, 4 different interpreting courses were observed by the researcher in terms of course content, class participation of students, constructivist activities applied in the class, and trainer feedback. The observational data were interpreted and discussed against the interview data by indicating parallelism and contradiction between the two datasets. It was found that the trainers adopt both behaviorist and constructivist approaches in different aspects of the training based on varying criteria such as the elective/compulsory status of the course, physical means, students’ language levels, and contact hours among others. The targeted skill and competence acquisitions highlight the idea that undergraduate interpreter training targets basic interpreting skills rather than training professional interpreters. The most commonly encountered challenges in interpreter training and recommendations of the trainers to overcome them for now and the future are also listed at length. Key Words : interpreter training, interpreting skills, interpreting competences, behaviorism, constructivist approach, thematic analysis.
... Therefore, interpreters generally resort to note-taking to release the pressure on their short-term memory. Serving as a "bridge connecting the gap between the interpreter's memory and the production" (Chuang, 2008, p. 95) of the target speech, note-taking is considered to be an important factor of CI quality (e.g., Gillies, 2005;Gile, 2009). Gile (2020, p. 13) clearly points out that most errors and omissions in CI can be traced back to the comprehension phase because of the "strong cognitive pressure" caused by the "cognitive and mechanical aspects of note-taking during comprehension". ...
... In addition, interpreters had poorer interpreting accuracy and higher interpreting fluency in the L2-to-L1 interpreting than in the other direction. Although Chen (2020b) did not differentiate the cognitive effort of notereading from that of other operations in the reformulation phase of CI, such as the production of target speech (Gile, 2009), her results imply that the cognitive effort of note-reading, which constitutes a part of the interpreters' effort at the reformulation stage, could relate to CI quality. Chen et al. (2021) specifically measured interpreters' cognitive effort of reading notes in different categories with a variety of eye-tracking indicators. ...
... Overall, we observe a few weak (r < 0.50) significant correlations between the interpreters' notetaking behaviour and CI quality, which corroborates previous findings of no close or clear relationships between many aspects of note-taking and interpreting performance (e.g., Chen, 2017;Dai & Xu, 2007;Wang et al., 2010). This suggests that note activities as subtasks in CI (e.g., Gillies, 2005;Gile, 2009) are not closely related to CI quality. After all, "note-taking is just a means, and not the end, of CI" (Viezzi, 2013, as cited in Russell & Takeda, 2015. ...
Article
This paper explores relationships between consecutive interpreting (CI) performance on the one hand, and interpreters' note-taking effort, note-taking product and note-reading effort, on the other hand. 20 professionals and 29 students consecutively interpreted two easy segments and two difficult segments in an English (L2) speech, with their eye fixations on the notes and handwriting on the digital pad being registered through eye-tracking and pen-recording methods. Both groups' CI performance showed positive but weak correlations with their note quantities in the easy segments, but not in the difficult ones. Almost no significant correlations were found between the students' interpretation quality and effort of note-taking, whereas the professionals' CI performance was negatively correlated with their cognitive effort of note-taking. Significant but weak correlations were observed in both groups between their note-reading effort and interpreting performance, but the students' correlations were mainly found in the difficult segments, and the professionals' correlations were mostly detected in the easy ones. Overall, the in-terpreters' note-taking behaviour was not closely associated with their interpretation quality, and the associations varied across interpreter groups and task difficulties. These findings suggest that note-taking should be taught more judiciously in interpreter training programs and applied more prudently in interpreting practice.
... The EMs were proposed and developed by Gile (1983Gile ( , 1995Gile ( , 2009Gile ( , 2020b. According to the EMs (Gile, 2009), interpreting is a multi-tasking activity where interpreters allocate their attentional resources appropriately to achieve a dynamic balance between listening and analysis, memory, production, and coordination. ...
... The EMs were proposed and developed by Gile (1983Gile ( , 1995Gile ( , 2009Gile ( , 2020b. According to the EMs (Gile, 2009), interpreting is a multi-tasking activity where interpreters allocate their attentional resources appropriately to achieve a dynamic balance between listening and analysis, memory, production, and coordination. Different extra attentional resources are involved depending on the mode (note-taking and note-reading in consecutive interpreting but reading in simultaneous interpreting with text). ...
... One reason is that they do not help answer the research questions. This means that Gile (2009) and Lederer and Seleskovitch (1989), though both masterpieces for interpreter trainers, were excluded in the current analysis. Another reason to exclude the two masterpieces is that they may introduce bias. ...
Article
The usefulness of theory in interpreter training is widely recognized. Yet descriptive studies on which theories are used and how they are pedagogically treated in training are scant. This study aims at investigating which theories are covered and how they are pedagogically treated in interpreting textbooks. Content analysis was used to code 58 interpreting textbooks against a theory category framework for coverage. The results indicate that 14 theories and 33 categories of insights from the literature are covered in the textbooks. The two most popular theories are the Effort Model and Interpretive Theory, while the highly covered categories of insights from the literature concern the component skills of interpreting. Textbooks that cover the two most popular theories were coded against a pedagogical treatment framework. The results suggest that, although the theories are adequately treated in language presentation and information amount, they are poorly discussed in relation to practice, indicating that the textbooks fail to create situations for students to construct meaningful knowledge of theories from their own interpreting experiences, which is close to a transmissionist approach. Possible reasons for the two theories’ popularity and the impact of a transmissionist approach are discussed against the current literature.
... Ak sa cvičebnica využíva v rámci samoštúdia, je samozrejme možné zamerať sa len vybrané cvičenia a aktivity, v ktorých sa študent potrebuje zdokonaľovať. blok 1: slovná zásoba a všeobecný prehľad / vocabulaire et culture générale Veľmi dobrý všeobecný prehľad uvádzajú ako kľúčovú zručnosť v rámci kompetenčného profilu tlmočníka viacerí zahraniční aj domáci teoretici tlmočenia (pozri Keníž 1980, Gile 2009, Šveda 2015, Müglová 2018. Je preto logické, že rozvíjaniu tejto zručnosti by sa mala venovať dostatočná pozornosť aj v rámci prípravy študentov prekladateľstva a tlmočníctva. ...
... improvizáciu. Dobrú znalosť aktívneho pracovného jazyka zaraďuje Gile (2009) k primárnym kompetenciám tlmočníka. Podľa Švedu (2015, s. 19) možno znalosť cudzieho jazyka zaradiť k jazykových schopnostiam tlmočníka ako komplementárnu zložku znalosti materinského jazyka. ...
... Firstly, the tool is attuned to the intuitive observations of interpreters. Secondly, the rendering of both numbers and terms is more cognitively demanding and calls for the adoption of specific strategies on the part of interpreters (Gile, 2009;Setton & Dawrant, 2016). The tool reduces those loads and enables interpreters to focus on other cognitively demanding tasks. ...
... When one is interpreting with CAI tools, interpreters interact with both the speaker and the speech, as the real-time transcription of a speech is shown, and the language tends to be more colloquial than that which is found in written texts. The most widely cited cognitive models of interpreting, such as the effort model (Gile, 2009) and the cognitive load model of simultaneous interpreting (Seeber & Kerzel, 2012), do not, strictly speaking, apply to CAI tools, creating room for further research. Prandi (2018) advanced hypotheses on SI with CAI tools and suggested that eye-tracking measures or other process-related studies are necessary to gain further insights into the cognitive load. ...
Article
Full-text available
Computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) tools have the potential to benefit the interpreting profession and to improve its ecosystem considerably. Academic interest in this field has intensified in recent years. However, there have been no thorough analyses of the definitions and classifications of CAI tools or of the empirical studies on the subject. This study overviews CAI tools holistically. It describes advances as well as gaps that remain to be filled. It also provides an in-depth examination of the status quo and suggests potential avenues for improvement. The article begins by distinguishing between CAI tools in the broad sense and CAI tools in the narrow sense. By bridging the conceptual gaps between the two, we propose a unified description and a categorisation that reflects the main features of CAI tools. This comprehensive review analyses 27 empirical studies and examines the manner in which CAI tools affect interpreters’ performance. Since the influencing factors that have been identified in previous experiments vary between interpreters-related (e.g. interpreters’ profiles) and settings-related (e.g. reference information display modes), the contribution of CAI tools to overall interpreter performance can be different. Product-driven, practice-driven, and process-driven studies are identified as future trends in studies of CAI tools.
... An executive function that is less explored but also essential to the successful accomplishment of interpreting tasks is coordination or dual-tasking (Dong & Li, 2020;Gile, 1995Gile, /2009Strobach, Salminen, Karbach & Schubert, 2014). Although there are different types of interpreting (e.g., consecutive interpreting, simultaneous interpreting, sight translation, etc.), all of them involve multiple processes or subtasks (e.g., listening and comprehending, memorizing, note-taking, speaking) that have to be dealt with within a very limited time period. ...
... Although there are different types of interpreting (e.g., consecutive interpreting, simultaneous interpreting, sight translation, etc.), all of them involve multiple processes or subtasks (e.g., listening and comprehending, memorizing, note-taking, speaking) that have to be dealt with within a very limited time period. Completing an interpreting task requires interpreters to appropriately manage these processes or subtasks, and the management involves coordination (Gile, 1995(Gile, /2009). Interpreting training or experience may therefore exercise the ability of coordinating multiple processes, which may then result in an interpreter advantage in coordination. ...
Article
Despite extensive discussions on interpreter advantages in nonverbal abilities/skills, the advantage in coordination remains underexplored, with little evidence from interpreting students across different training stages. To fill the gap, the present study conducted two experiments with the Psychological Refractory Period dual-task consisting of two discrimination tasks presented either alone or together. Smaller dual-task costs in Task 1 and/or Task 2 are considered indices for better coordination (with smaller costs restricted to Task 2 further suggesting better bottleneck coordination). Experiment 1, focusing on the intermediate training stage, revealed a bottleneck coordination advantage for interpreting students over controls, which differs from the task instantiation and/or bottleneck access advantage found for professional interpreters in Strobach et al. (2015). Experiment 2, focusing on the beginning stage, revealed no group differences between controls and interpreting students with less/more training (Experiment 2a/2b respectively), suggesting no evidence for an interpreter advantage in coordination. Developmental changes are discussed.
... The dual input (auditory and visual) makes SIMTXT cognitively more demanding than SI with impromptu speech as well as STT with written text (Chmiel & Mazur, 2013;Čeňková, 2015). According to Gile's effort models for interpreting, the effort in SIMTXT is made up of the reading effort (R), listening and analysis effort (L), memory effort (M), speech production effort (P), and a coordination effort (C) that links to the resources needed to coordinate the former four efforts (SIMTXT = R + L + M + P + C) (Gile, 2009). Because of this, SIMTXT entails an extra R and a more complex C when compared to SI (SI = L + P + M + C), and an extra L and a more complex C when compared to STT (STT = R + M + P + C). ...
... Under the extreme cognitive load in SIMTXT, it is anticipated that interpreters choose strategically how to divide their attention between the spoken and the written inputs in order to reduce the information load and maximize their performance (Ivanov et al. 2014). Although theoretical and professional standards advise that interpreters should pay primary attention to the auditory channel and that the written channel should only serve to support the auditory input (Jiménez Ivars, 1999;Pöchhacker, 2004;Gile, 2009;Setton & Dawrant, 2016), recent empirical research reveals varied findings on this topic. Chmiel et al. (2020) hired 24 conference interpreters with Polish as their L1 and English as their L2 to carry out an SIMTXT experiment. ...
Article
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Simultaneous interpreting with text (SIMTXT) is a hybrid form of spoken translation. In this mode, an interpreter simultaneously interprets (i.e., speaks out) the translation of an oral spoken signal (i.e., a speech) into a target language while having access to the written version of the ST. SIMTXT is generally seen as being cognitively more demanding than either simultaneous interpreting or sight translation, as the interpreter processes the source both, visually and auditorily, at the same time. This study explores attention patterns during SIMTXT by examining how visual and auditory information are processed (concurrently or independently) by interpreters. Nine professional interpreters were recruited, for interpreting six English STs into Chinese with text (SIMTEXT). The interpreters listened to the audio input while the transcribed text of the audio input was displayed on a computer screen(Translog-II). Eye movements were recorded (Tobii TX300) and interpretation output was recorded by Audacity. We categorized the visual and auditory attention patterns based on their ear-voice span (EVS), eye-voice span (IVS), and ear-eye span (EIS). We detected three types of attention patterns: the ear-dominant (ED), eye-dominant (ID), and ear-eye-balanced (EIB) type of SIMTEXT. ID-type interpreters produced the highest translation quality in terms of accuracy and the lowest quality in terms of fluency, while EIB-type interpreters were worst in accuracy and the ED-type best in fluency. Our results suggest that the distribution of attention has a significant impact on the quality of the produced translation.
... The problem of equivalence retrieval is one of the most challenging for trainee translators and interpreters. Numerous techniques have been proposed by translator trainers and theorists to help overcome memory-related issues (Gile 1995, Al-Hammadi 2012, Lörscher 2012. This paper proposed two teaching methods to be adopted by translator trainers with the aim of enhancing trainee proficiency, specifically concerning equivalence retrieval. ...
... It is claimed that trainees exposed extensively to the proposed semantic-breakdown method are expected to have increased retention and retrieval proficiency, in terms of both quality and speed due to reducing the mental load (see Gile's effort models, 1992 and1995). In other words, it enhances their ability to retain as well as retrieve or elect a suitable equivalent rapidly. Provided such an analytical approach towards more complicated abstract vocabulary is provided on a regular basis, the mental capacity of students is expected to increase, expanding their mental schemata pertaining to senses and propositions. ...
Article
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The problem of equivalence retrieval is one of the most challenging for trainee translators and interpreters. Numerous techniques have been proposed by translator trainers and theorists to help overcome memory-related issues (Gile 1995, Al-Hammadi 2012, Lörscher 2012, etc.). This paper proposed two teaching methods to be adopted by translator trainers with the aim of enhancing trainee proficiency, specifically concerning equivalence retrieval. The present article generally belongs to the cognitive paradigm. The proposed teaching methods, namely semantic breakdown and teaching-common-senses-first, take ‘meaning’ as their focus, basically drawing on ideas from schema theory, and relevance theory. A future empirical investigation of the two proposed teaching methods would help validate them.
... This poses a major hurdle to the successful integration of the latest technologies into the practice of interpreting. While technological support could potentially increase quality and productivity in interpreting by freeing up cognitive resources in a limited-capacity system (Baddeley 2012;Gile 2009;Seeber 2011), both researchers and professional interpreters have voiced caution due to the ergonomic and cognitive challenges brought by technology, particularly in telephone interpreting (e.g., Cunningham et al. 2008) and videoconference interpreting (e.g., Braun 2013). ...
... In this study, CACI offered an MT text in the target language for the participants to refer to, and the production process could involve the post-editing of the target language text rather than creating a translated speech from the source language text. This was combined with the additional benefit of a more complete record of the source speech, leading to reduced memory costs and freeing up resources for the target speech production (Gile 2009). A workload study by AIIC (2002) collected survey results from 607 professional interpreters and reported high levels of work-related fatigue, exhaustion, and mental stress. ...
Article
Facing a new technological turn, the field of interpreting is in great need of evidence on the effectiveness of computer-assisted interpreting. This study proposes a computer-assisted consecutive interpreting (CACI) mode incorporating speech recognition (SR) and machine translation (MT). First, the interpreter listens to the source speech and respeaks it into an SR system, creating an SR text which is then processed by an MT system. Second, the interpreter produces a target speech with reference to the SR and MT texts. Six students participated in training on CACI, after which they performed consecutive interpreting in both the conventional and the new mode. The study finds that CACI featured fewer pauses and reduced cognitive load. Moreover, the overall interpreting quality, especially the accuracy, was increased. The effectiveness of the new mode is found to be modulated by the interpreting direction.
... Este interés y acercamiento a las características de la voz nace con la conciencia de que es una de las competencias más importantes del intérprete, que tiene que prestarla al orador, metiéndose en su piel, modulando y controlando los rasgos sonoros que puedan irritar (Seleskvitch & Lederer 1989y Alexieva 1990. Se hace evidente, por lo tanto, la necesidad de sensibilizar y acercar el intérprete a los aspectos no verbales de la lengua y de la cultura a la que nos remite, puesto que la voz poco agradable opera un efecto "minimizador" del contenido de la interpretación (Gile 1995: 33, 2003: 112, y Bernstein & Barbier 2000. En la misma línea, estos estudios "impresionistas" también han subrayado cómo la voz "interconexiona con otros parámetros y no sólo los no verbales" (Iglesias 2007: 40). ...
... Una propuesta a la resolución de este problema es la que ofrece Iglesias (2007) cuando considera que habría que abordar la investigación sobre el efecto de la voz en la evaluación de interpretación, modificando las denominaciones de los parámetros no verbales en los cuestionarios (Marrone 1993; Iglesias 2007ª, apud Iglesias, en prensa). Estos, habría que remplazarlos con los que generen los usuarios en grupos de discusión (ibidem), to-mando como punto de partida la taxonomía que utiliza Gile (1995) en su estudio donde diferencia entre dos dimensiones no verbales: la prosodia ("delivery") y los rasgos no prosódicos ("voice"). ...
Article
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El siguiente estudio presenta un breve recorrido por las investigaciones que se han abordado en la calidad de la interpretación. Éstas, en un primer momento, se centraron en las perspectivas de los usuarios e intérpretes en cuanto a sus expectativas de calidad, para más tarde pasar a interesarse en la evaluación de la calidad de la interpretación.
... According to them, it turns out that the translator should get an idea only about the linguistic foundations of translation, which, in our opinion, is not enough due to the many studies on the communicative nature of translation. The idea of a communicative orientation of professional translation (Gile, 2009: 101) is extremely important for determining the content of training. We have already considered the problems of professional and educational translation and noted that the experience of educational translation is harmful for future professional translators, because forms a misconception about the nature of the translation process. ...
... When they begin to engage in professional translation, they hardly get used to the idea that changing the construction, "adding" or "removing" words in the process of translation does not mean violating the meaning or not accurately translating. Students are usually very conservative in making decisions and hardly use their analytical and creative potential to optimize their translation (Baldo , 2002: 7;Gile, 2009: 53, 60). J. Delisle is also sure that teaching to translate is teaching student interpreters to read original texts through the eyes of professionals: at the initial stage, it is necessary to find difficulties, then identify them, and, finally, solve them, specifying, if possible, the translation solution used. ...
... Some interviewees reported that they were already administering this type of activity. However, we believe that this formalised speed training had limited effect as it was not underpinned by process-oriented feedback on the methodologies followed by the student-and process-oriented assessment criteria that give credit to enhanced productivity (Gile 2009). ...
Article
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Novice translation graduates are often found to be slow translators. The fact that this deficiency is usually rectified through professional experience implies that initial performance issues are the outcome of a complex interplay of factors, which do not involve intrinsic abilities. Based on insights from cognitively oriented research on students' beliefs about language learning and the impact these beliefs have on students' performance, the present study posits that the beliefs students have towards the question of translation speed represent one of the factors that fashion their productivity. Targeting graduates from the English Language and Translation programme at a private university in an Arab Gulf State, a mixed method approach, including a survey and a semi-structured interview, was adopted to explore the beliefs students have towards the question of speed and to identify the sources of these beliefs in their training programme. Analysis reveals that productivity awareness among the investigated population is almost non-existent and points at the predominantly product-oriented approach that characterises their learning experience as the main source of this condition. This article argues that improving students' awareness of productivity requirements is not just a case of integrating timed activities, but calls for the adoption of multi-layered process-oriented training principles and practices at the level of delivery, feedback, and assessment criteria.
... The Paas scale differs from Gile's efforts model (Gile 2009) in that the former seeks to indicate the total cognitive load involved in accomplishing the given task as reported by the participants while the latter seeks to attribute the occurrence of errors and omissions in the interpretation to cognitive overload. The Paas scale consists of two items: captioned segments and segments without captions. ...
Article
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Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) has been proposed as a means to enhance the performance of professional interpreters. This article reports the results of a pilot experiment that test the usefulness of ASR generated caption of an accented speech. This paper seeks to contribute to the theoretical debate on whether the text could aid or harm the SI process. The potential benefits of this technology were evaluated by applying an accuracy and fluency matrix and by investigating the users' subjective perceptions through the Paas scale and post-experiment interview. The results show that there are pros and cons of the ASR generated captions which improved accuracy but hampered fluencies in the renditions.
... Until that time, researchers had focused primarily on conference interpreting, particularly on the practice of simultaneous interpreting. Whereas early studies were experimental and conducted from a psychological perspective (e.g., Gerver, 1975), the foundations of empirical research on interpreting as a linguistic and cognitive communicative process were laid by Kade (1968), Chernov (1979Chernov ( /2002, Seleskovitch and Lederer (1989), and later consolidated by Gile (1995), Kurz (1996) and Moser-Mercer (1996), to name but a few researchers. As a result of the social turn (Pöchhacker, 2016) as well as of immigration flows in most western European countries, leading to a growing need for community interpreters, CI research gained importance. ...
... Using addition strategy, "大 /Dà/" (big) was added to the beginning of the" beetle". This is a strategy in which extra information is added to the original name, making it more comprehensible or perhaps more appealing to its target audience (Giles, 1995). Then rendition strategy was used to translate "beetle" into " 甲虫 /jiǎ chóng/". ...
Conference Paper
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t Translating proper names is often challenging, while exploring solutions to these translation problems is important for an in-depth understanding of the source and target languages and cultures. Rowling used proper names to create her wizarding world in ‘Harry Potter’ series. This study aimed at identifying the problems in the English to Chinese translation of proper names in Harry Potter according to Nord (1991)’s translation problems theory, and applied Fernandes (2006)’s model of translation solutions to suggest the possible solutions of the problems. A total of 400 proper names were first identified, and 34 excerpts containing proper names were purposefully selected from ‘Harry Potter’ series and analyzed. Nord’s (1991) translation problems theory was found effective for the translation of proper names from English to Chinese for this text. Transcription (29.2%), recreation (22.9%) and rendition (20.8%) were the most frequent translation strategies used to solve the translation problems. This study has several theoretical and practical implications for translators, instructors, and students in literary translation. Keywords: Chinese, English, Harry Potter problems, proper names, solutions, translation
... Defined as "a linguistic cue uttered by the speaker to signal the listener that s/he edits his/her sentence, and which is generally characterized by hesitation or pausing", e.g. a filled pause ('euh'), conjunctions('and', 'or', 'but'), and apologetic terms, ('sorry')(Magnifico & Defrancq, 2019, pp. 10ff). 2 As simultaneous interpreting entails a wide range of "concomitant processing capacities"(Gerver, 1975;Gile, 1995;Petite, 2005), the simultaneity and complexity of these cognitive processes were initially claimed to preclude any possibility of selfcorrection. ...
Article
This article investigates the phenomenon of self-repairs in simultaneous interpreting trainees, which has so far received only limited attention in interpreting research. Conference interpreters were long denied the ability to correct their performance (cf. Kade, 1968; Seleskovitch, 1968; Reiß & Vermeer, 1984). However, it was not until 1975 that Gerver described the importance of self-repairs as sufficient evidence of interpreters’ monitoring for both the source text perception and target text production. In this study, a qualitative method is used in the analysis of a corpus that comprises the interpreting performance of second-year MA students of English Studies at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin. The pilot study entailed recording the students’ output of two distinct speeches (interpreted from English into Polish) and analysing the transcript thereof. The results prove that trainee interpreters repair not only defects sensu stricto, but also attend to their outputs for a number of reasons (cf. Petite, 2005). The article will demonstrate both a preliminary taxonomy of translational self-repairs identified in novice interpreters and put forward significant didactic implications for interpreter training. Keywords: simultaneous interpreting, monitoring, self-correction, self-repairs, interpreter training
... (Gile, 2009, p. 163). Finally, the Coordination Effort is needed to enable the interpreters to distribute their capacity between the other Efforts (Gile, 1995;Gile, 2009). Barik (1971) was one of the first to put forward a classification of omissions, additions, substitutions, and errors. ...
Article
This paper aims to analyze and describe students’ strategies and errors in simultaneous interpreting performances in English and Turkish language pair and to explore the relationship between the effect of directionality on strategies and performance errors. A small-scale experimental study was conducted with 10 interpreting students and a control group of 4 professionals and involved triangulation of multiple sources of data. The study reveals that the student and professional participants resorted to omissions, additions, substitutions and made errors. With respect to directionality, it was observed that the students made significantly more comprehension /production omissions, delay omissions, mild phrasing changes and substantial phrasing changes while interpreting from Turkish into English compared to the opposite direction. The t-test and the self-assessments of the professional interpreters, on the other hand, indicated that interpreting direction had no effect on their strategies or errors. Keywords: Interpreting, Simultaneous Interpreting, Strategy Use in Simultaneous Interpreting, Omissions, Additions, Substitutions, Errors, Directionality
... Translation theorists from a cognitive perspective, such as Gutt (1991), Bell (1991), Lörscher (1991), Kiraly (1995), Gile (1995), Wills (1996), Snell-Hornby (1988), Shreve & Koby (1997), Jakobsen (2002), Hurtado & Alves (2009), O'Brien (2006, and Alves et al. (2011), among others, consider translation to be a communicative act that involves cognitive, linguistic, and sociocultural aspects that allow translators to analyze and understand a message delivered in a source language and culture with the purpose of producing a target text (hereinafter TT) complying with conditions of production and reception. ...
Article
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This paper presents a methodological proposal that integrates the translation process into studying the cognitive effort with the use of three instruments. Data triangulation accounts for such phenomena. Translation process research has used Translog to approach mental activities, such as cognitive effort. However, authors such as O’Brien (2006) suggest the use of complementary methods to have a comprehensive understanding of what occurs while translating. This paper aims to present a data collection model that includes the use of Translog as the main instrument to record the indicators of cognitive effort (time and typing pauses) during a translation process, a screen capture software that records the screen’s output, as well as retrospective interview to obtain verbal information from its users. In order to establish a relationship between cognitive effort and the translation process, a triangulation data method was used with the information collected from the aforementioned instruments, alongside conducting a semantic content analysis.
... Some proposals pertaining to the functioning of translation competence are indeed componential models, which are concerned with the description and clarification of components, i.e., subcompetences of translation. Among the scholars who belong to this camp are Wilss (1976), Bell (1991), Kiraly (1995), Gile (1995), Hurtado Albir (1996), Risku (1998), Presas (20002004), Neubert (2000), PACTE (2000;, Gonçalves (2005), Kelly (2005), Shreve (2006) and Alves and Gonçalves (2007). Other proposals deal with a particular functioning of translation competence as opposed to translation (Beeby, 1996;Campbell, 1998). ...
Article
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The present paper addresses the evaluation of the cognitive dimension of translation considering the six phases proposed by Wilss (1996) in the decision-making process. Its importance springs from the fact that it is pivotal to view translation as a cognitive activity rather than a mere linguistic process and evaluate it by carrying out cognitive analysis based on the six phases propounded by Wilss (1996) in the decision-making process. This is particularly useful in understanding the mental processes operating in the cognitive system of the translator through the pitfalls he/she has in his/her translation, which epitomize the translation problems that he/she has encountered during the translation process. The paper seeks to answer the following main research question: how can the cognitive dimension of translation in light of the six phases proposed by Wilss (1996) in the decision-making process be evaluated? The paper draws on Wilss's model to provide a cognitive analysis of English-Arabic translation. The paper argues that any pitfall the translator has had in her translation typifies failure of identifying the translation problem cognitively, which is the first phase proposed by Wilss in the decision-making process. Hence failure of passing the first phase brings about failure of completing all the phases for cognitive analysis. The pitfalls that represent the translation problems can be categorized into five categories, namely: the use of inappropriate equivalence, culture-specific elements, translation by omission, translation by addition and the use of borrowing in a dialect of Arabic. Each category features the translation issue, the cognitive analysis conducted thereon and the recommended translation(s).
... 89-93) concerning these categories is intentionally high because this would be a preliminary construct for the future potential of a "cultural model" in interpreting pedagogy. It is high-level also because the students have yet to be regularly exposed to cultural studies theory, unlike the concepts of "cognitive load" (Gile, 2020(Gile, , 2009 or "deverbalization" (Seleskovitch, 1989) which are ubiquitous to a fault in classroom discourse (Seeber & Arbona, 2020). ...
Article
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Interpreting pedagogy has traditionally focused on the training of skills to fulfill market needs. Cultural Studies elements—in particular discourse on gender, identity, and power relations—have rarely been foregrounded in the teaching of interpreting, and even less so in conference interpreting programs. It is an industry-oriented pedagogical practice which has, on the more extreme end, fed into the glamorization of a profession which arguably should be more introspective on its complicity in upholding relations of power. With the aim of providing students with a more rounded education in interpreting, this article documents and discusses a preliminary attempt to introduce cultural studies discourse in a consecutive interpreting course conventionally positioned as a technical one, and one where students are commonly evaluated according to the criteria of accuracy, language, and delivery. By analyzing a real-world interpreting event—the US-China Anchorage talks—using the concepts of gender, power, and identity, the instructor attempts to counter institutional marketing claims of the profession being necessarily conducive to “intercultural communication.” Instead the analysis demonstrates that the claim masks what is in effect displays of power driven by domestic interests rather than target audience needs. It is an analytical account based on a cultural studies theoretical framework not meant to prescribe fixed methods or materials for the classroom. Instead it is offered as an example where alternative methods or materials can be introduced to initiate a line of inquiry for culturally-minded instructors who find the instrumentalist framework of accuracy, language, and delivery restrictive in explaining the dynamics between language and power. The role of the interpreter in the process of communication is thus problematized; the supposed agency the interpreter enjoys is also questioned. In fact, the analysis suggests that the higher the level of interpreting (i.e. high-level interpreting) the more the interpreter functions in service of power rather than an idealized notion of the common good, a reality that students deserve to understand.
... O trabalho em equipe e os tipos de apoioNeste trabalho, abordamos a atividade da interpretação de modo simultâneo, realizado em equipe em uma plataforma virtual de forma remota. SegundoGile (1995), a interpretação simultânea é uma atividade complexa que envolve diferentes aspectos como memória, processamento, compreensão, produção e a coordenação de tudo isso ocorrendo ao mesmo tempo. Além desses aspectos, o intérprete precisa lidar com diversos eventos ligados às situações da interpretação e uma variação significativa de público. ...
... En la Comisión, la interpretación simultánea de conferencias constituye la forma prototípica de la labor de interpretación. 2 Dado que el modo simultáneo en la interpretación de conferencias impone un esfuerzo mayor de procesamiento cognitivo (Gile, 1983(Gile, , 2009(Gile, , 2015, por cuanto se realiza de manera concurrente con las etapas de percepción y comprensión con YAÑEZ, Gabriela Luisa. Subjetividad y Género a Través de la Interpretación Simultánea de Conferencias en la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer (ONU un desfase de apenas segundos entre el discurso fuente y la interpretación (Pöchhacker, 2012(Pöchhacker, , 2016, se plantea que el rol social y el género de quienes interpretan serían menos prominentes que en la interpretación, por ejemplo, en los servicios públicos 3 (Magnifico & Defrancq, 2017). ...
Article
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This article seeks to explore the way interpretation, as a form of translation, may (or may not) contribute to the transnational processes of production and dissemination of a Latin American gender agenda. For contextualization purposes, some of the research carried out on gender in interpreting studies is briefly reviewed. Then, I examine the way subjectivity is materialized in simultaneous interpretation from Spanish into English at the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, one of the most prominent fora for the promotion of women’s political, economic, civil, social, and educational rights. Through a qualitative analysis of cases, I evidence how certain syntactic focalization procedures in interpreted discourse impact the way subjectivity is configured. The hypothesis underpinning this study is that focalization procedures operate actively in the (re)creation of institutionally ingrained and validated discursive practices. Results show that some focalization phenomena operate as attenuation mechanisms of a gender-based agenda for the fight against gender inequities and stereotypes adjusted to mainstream heteronormative and patriarchal schemes. Keywords: Transnational feminist translation. Simultaneous conference interpretation. Subjectivity. Latin America. Commission on the Status of Women.
... They will also include an even number of evenly distributed problem triggers, including numbers, proper names and low-frequency nouns. These have been found to increase cognitive load (Gile 2009), are frequently subject to boothmate assistance (Chmiel 2008) and will be used to measure interpreting accuracy. Since complexity of numbers influences their difficulty (Defrancq & Fantinuoli 2021;Jones 2002), numbers will be matched for difficulty based on the classification used by Kajzer-Wietrzny et al (2021) and extended by Rozkrut (2022). ...
Article
This paper presents methodological challenges in a study focusing on the impact of remote interpreting settings on interpreter experience and performance. In recent years, the practice of simultaneous interpreting has undergone a robust development with the quick uptake of remote interpreting technologies due to the global pandemic. In order to investigate remote interpreting, we created the Inside the Virtual Booth project encompassing a survey and an experimental study. We report on selected results of the survey that directly inform the experimental study design. We focus on challenges related to the compromise between experimental control and ecological validity, creation of materials and selection of dependent variables, including eyetracking measures that cannot be directly applied from reading studies to a study involving multimodal content typical for remote interpreting assignments. The paper may serve as a source of methodological guidance to scholars entering the field of experimental translation and interpreting studies.
... In spite of shared factors between two modes of interpreting, mode-specific constraints still exist. As Gile (2009) explained, CI is distinguished from simultaneous interpreting in the fact that the listening, memory and note-taking phase is separated from the note-reading and reformulation phase, which implies reduced pressure in the phase of listening comprehension in the CI. Interpreting students, therefore, are more confident in their B-into-A interpreting in the consecutive mode than in the simultaneous mode. ...
Article
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The impact of directionality on interpreting performance has been a long-term controversy in interpreting studies. The aim of this study is to investigate how directionality affects Chinese-English consecutive interpreting (CI) performance from the perspective of Chinese interpreting students. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to identify their perceptions of directionality and to compare their actual interpreting performance in two directions: from Chinese, their A language, to English, their B language and vice- versa. The research findings are as follows: 1) interpreting students were more fluent but less accurate in their B-into-A CI performance even though the majority of them were more confident in their B-into-A performance; 2) limited B language availability is identified as the major reason accounting for the information loss in the B-into-A CI performance while low availability of trans-linguistic correspondences is found to be responsible for the disfluencies in the A-into-B CI performance; 3) the lack of diversified use of interpreting strategies in B-into-A CI leads to huge information loss, mainly manifested as omissions in order to maintain fluency. The results imply differentiated focuses on the training of CI between two directions and highlight the significance of incorporating interpreting strategies into the training of interpreters.
... IPDR heavily focuses on the notion of why, and one of the ways to answer the question is by unpacking the source text to identify translation problems. Gile (2009) stated that the ideal translation steps start with carefully reading the source text and highlighting any elements within the text that can potentially hinder the translators from optimally delivering meanings in the target language. Nevertheless, sometimes the source text might be deemed too complex to analyze, as reported by the student translators for this study. ...
Article
Literary translation is considered an art, and it allows literary translators to have a certain degree of freedom to solve translation problems (Landers, 2001) creatively. For student translators who aspire to be literary translators, it is logical to learn about translation problems and solutions in literary translation rather than the accurate one-on-one equivalences of certain words or phrases. Nevertheless, the insights into how student translators identify and solve translation problems in literary works are lost during the assessment process. Gile (2004) proposed the retrospection model to elicit the student translators' perspectives on translation problems and solutions in written form to counter this issue, referred to as Integrated Problem and Decision Reporting (IPDR). However, it is unknown how the student translators, as one of the stakeholders in translator training, perceive the implementation of IPDR. This research then aims to fill the gap by analyzing the student translators' perception of the implementation of IPDR. The data source for the research is a literary translation class comprised of eleven student translators who study in the English department at a private university in Jakarta. To acquire the data, the researcher conducted a focus group discussion with seven student translators to elicit their perception of the implementation of IPDR. It was found that the student translators had a positive perception of the implementation, yet they also reported several challenges that they faced during the process.
... As the interpreting task tends to push interpreters close to the saturation of their working memory capacity (Gile, 2009), it is plausible to assume stronger correlations between interpreters' cognitive load and the DD of their interpretation, making DD a promising index to help investigate and quantify potential relationships between FLA and interpreting performance/learning. Because there is a universal tendency to reduce cognitive load, given the principle of least effort (Zipf, 1949), there is a tendency to syntactically restructure sentences to minimize the overall DD . ...
Article
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Foreign language anxiety (FLA) has been identified as a crucial affective factor in language learning. Similar to the situation in language classes, university students in interpretation classes are required to perform in a foreign language when their language skills are inadequate. Investigations are needed to determine the specific impact of FLA on interpretation learning. This study investigated the effects of the specific interpretation classroom FLA (ICFLA) on interpretation learning and dependency distance (DD) as an indicator of learners’ cognitive load. The participants were 49 undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in English–Chinese interpretation classes at a university in Hong Kong. The results showed a significant negative correlation between ICFLA levels and consecutive interpretation achievement scores. ICFLA was also negatively correlated with DD in consecutive interpretations. Four factors underlying ICFLA were identified. The findings of this study would provide useful insights for researchers and educators to understand the nature and effect of FLA in different settings.
... Third, he reformulates or expresses what he comprehended in a way that does not seem strange to the target hearer. Each of these phases needs attention or 'efforst' as Gile (1995) call it. The interpreter's cognitive load may be affected when, for instance, reading the original text, reading it with some sort of latency between the speaker and the transcription, or reading with about 5% WER in the transcription. ...
... As the process of VMI shares common subtasks with the process of on-site interpreting [12], some of the strategies summarised above can also be found in traditional on-site interpreting [8]. The following strategies for turn management, however, can be unique in remote interpreting, or play a more important role in remote interpreting than in on-site interpreting, since how information is delivered and what information one can receive in remote interpreting are not identical with the case in tradition face-to-face interpreting. ...
Article
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To better understand the empirical findings on video mediated interpreting (VMI) and accordingly offer pedagogical implications, a systematic and critical review was conducted on 27 relevant studies published in established journals from 2005 to 2022. Three major findings were obtained. First, VMI studies have increased in number steadily since 2017, and VMI issues have been explored by researchers from various fields, such as translation studies, sociology, and medicine. Second, the VMI studies during these 17 years had both strengths and potential problems in their research designs. Third, VMI research centered upon six issues, including (1) time, (2) financial cost and benefits, (3) physical and psychological costs, (4) communication quality and users’ satisfaction, (5) acceptance, and (6) strategies. Based on the existing findings on these issues, pedagogical implications for interpreter education were discussed, in particular the importance of VMI practice and the use of strategies that facilitate VMI-based communication.
... Van Dijk and Kintsch 1983) and balancing the accuracy (e.g. Gile 2009) and creativity (e.g. Horváth 2010) of the rendition while managing cognitive load (e.g. ...
Article
Consecutive interpreting (CI) is a mode of verbal translation between a source and target language (TL) which “involves listening to what someone has to say and then, when they have finished speaking, reproducing the same message in another language (Gillies, 2017, P. 5). Note-taking, a fundamental skill in the process of long CI, refers to the activity of jotting down a speech in a highly individualised style and then recreating the original speech by the help of a combination of notes, memory, and general knowledge (Albl-Mikasa, 2008; Gillies 2017). To better understand the expertise in the context of Turkey, the study examined the idea-identifying, note-producing, and note-reading patterns of 26 undergraduate Turkish students majoring in English Language Translation and Interpreting. The data for the study were obtained from three official exams. The results revealed a preference for the use of word note form over the other ones among the students. They also confirmed a better idea-identifying, note-producing, and note-reading performances among the high-level students. Moreover, it was found that note-reading patterns of the students were better than their note-producing ones. The findings of study are pedagogically useful for teachers in their classes and practically helpful for practitioners in the field.
Chapter
This study investigates the stance mediation of a Chinese and a British newspaper in (re)framing the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 with a focus on metaphor transfer in news headlines. The database includes 97 pairs of Chinese/English news headlines from The Global Times Editorial (GTE) and 77 pairs from The Economist Global Business Review (EGBR). Drawing on an analytical model that combines framing, corpus and Appraisal Theory, the study found that the conceptual metaphors, framing strategies and attitudinal graduation in GTE and EGBR differ significantly. Whereas GTE generally takes a pro-China and anti-US/West stance, EGBR adopts an anti-China and pro-West perspective. The study highlights stance mediation in non-political reports within news agencies that resort to self-translation and metaphor as a frame in stance mediation, a finding that may foster interdisciplinary collaborations between framing studies and journalistic and metaphor translation studies.
Chapter
In the age of COVID-19, a major change has been seen in the conferenceinterpreting industry and the teaching of interpreting, i.e., the online mode has become the new normal. Interpreting practitioners are facing an increasing demand for interpreting services online while interpreting trainers and trainees are balancing on-campus, online and mixed-mode teaching. This challenging change has been induced by the pandemic but potentiated by the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Due to COVID-19, computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) has begun to receive considerable attention. In a broad sense, CAI is defined as all interpreting activities conducted with the help of ICTs. In this article, CAI technologies are categorized into four groups: remote interpreting (RI), computer-assisted interpreting training (CAIT), pre-task tools, and in-task tools, especially automatic speech recognition (ASR). The article reviews the development of CAI technologies in the past two decades and briefly evaluates the state-of-the-art CAI technologies and presents their practical use in real-life scenarios.
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Shadowing is considered one of the important techniques in improving students’ language learning skills and simultaneous interpreting performance. The current study investigates the effectiveness of shadowing on simultaneous interpreting at the university level, identifies whether male or female participants perform better in post-test simultaneous interpreting, and highlights students’ perspectives shadowing technique. The participants of this study were 36 students from the department of translation, College of Languages, University of Duhok. Two tests, i.e. pre-test and post-test, and a questionnaire have been conducted for data collection. The study has found that shadowing exercises have a significant impact on students’ simultaneous interpreting performance. Moreover, there are significant differences between male and female participants in terms of their performance. Furthermore, students possess positive attitudes towards shadowing. In conclusion, the pedagogical implications recommend the adaptation of the shadowing technique to improve students’ simultaneous interpreting performance.
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