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Blockchain-based Data and Energy Trading in Internet of Electric Vehicles - Thesis Presentation

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Blockchain-based Data and Energy Trading in Internet of Electric Vehicles - Thesis Presentation

Abstract

MS Final Presentation
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Blockchain-based Data and Energy Trading
in Internet of Electric Vehicles
Ayesha Sadiq
(FA17-RIS-004)
Department of Computer Science
(Date: 22/09/2020)
Supervisor: Dr. Nadeem Javaid
Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science
COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad Pakistan
Outline
Preliminaries
Introduction
Literature Review
Problem Statement
Proposed System Model
Proposed Methodology
Security Analyses
Results and Simulations
Conclusion
Future Work
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Preliminaries
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Blockchain
It is a chain of blocks forming a distributed digital ledger to stores a series of records without relying
on any central controlling entity [1].
Ledger is synchronized with all nodes in the network via consensus algorithm.
Each block consists of
A hash that is a digital print or a unique identifier
Time-stamped batches of valid transactions
Hash of previous block
It is decentralized ― data is not stored at single point but distributed across the network among
nodes
It is Immutable ― once data is added to blockchain, it cannot be altered or removed
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
4
Preliminaries (1/5)
[1] Nakamoto, Satoshi. “Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system.” Bitcoin.–URL: https://bitcoin. org/bitcoin. pdf (2008).
Accessed 20 November 2019.
Blockchain
Types of blockchain
Public Blockchains (permission-less)
Private Blockchains (permissioned)
@ Consensus algorithm used in blockchain
Proof of work (PoW)
Proof of Authority (PoA)
Proof of Stake (PoS)
Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS)
Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT)
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
5
Preliminaries (2/5)
Smart Contract
Self-executing set of rules and conditions among buyer and sellers to speed up transactions on
blockchain [2].
Once created, all transactions in the network will be executed in terms of contract.
It can send, receive and store money and interact with other smart contracts or any computational
systems connected to the internet.
It provides
Autonomy
Transparency
Speed
Trust
Precision
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
6
Preliminaries (3/5)
[2] Wang, Shuai, Liwei Ouyang, Yong Yuan, Xiaochun Ni, Xuan Han, and Fei-Yue Wang. “Blockchain-enabled smart contracts:
architecture, applications, and future trends.” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems 49, no. 11 (2019): 2266-2277.
InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)
It is a Peer-to-Peer (P2P), content addressable distributed file storage system [3, 4].
It acts as both client and server
It ensures long term availability of data
It supports concurrent access of data
It provides high throughput with secure storage
It distributes high volume od data with high efficiency
It uses distributed hash table to find the location of files
It provides reliable data storage and reduces huge storage cost
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
7
Preliminaries (4/5)
[3] Benet, Juan. IPFS - Content Addressed Versioned P2P File System. arXiv preprint arXiv:1407.3561 (2014).
[4] Naz, Muqaddas, Fahad A. Al-zahrani, Rabiya Khalid, Nadeem Javaid, Ali Mustafa Qamar, Muhammad Khalil Afzal, and Muhammad
Shafiq. “A secure data sharing platform using blockchain and interplanetary file system.” Sustainability 11, no. 24 (2019): 7054.
Bloom Filters
It is a probabilistic data structure with space and time efficiency [5].
It facilitates fast look up and detection of membership queries
It returns true if element is probably present in the set
It returns false if element is definitely not in the set
It exploits hash arrays with multiple hash functions
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
8
Preliminaries (5/5)
[5] Luo, Lailong, Deke Guo, Richard TB Ma, Ori Rottenstreich, and Xueshan Luo. “Optimizing Bloom Filter: Challenges, Solutions,
and Comparisons.” IEEE Communications Surveys \& Tutorials 21, no. 2 (2018): 1912-1949.
Parameters
m: total number of bits (array size)
k: number of hash functions
n: number of insertions
Trade-off
No of false positives with space and
efficiency in look up
Introduction
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Introduction (1/6)
Internet of Vehicles (IoV) enables communication and exchange of information.
Communication modes in IoV [6]
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V)
Vehicle- to-Infrastructure (V2I)
Electric Vehicles in IoV bring forth Internet of Electric Vehicles (IoEV).
Thus, IoEV involves Electric vehicles as well as Fuel Vehicles.
Fuel vehicles perform data trading
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are involved in energy trading
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
[6] Kaiwartya, Omprakash, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Yue Cao, Ayman Altameem, Mukesh Prasad, Chin-Teng Lin, and Xiulei Liu.
“Internet of vehicles: Motivation, layered architecture, network model, challenges, and future aspects.” IEEE Access 4 (2016): 5356-5373
10
Data Trading
Continuous real-time data generated by vehicles
Several Future benefits with vehicle generated data
Data trading in IoEV can benefit business entities [7]
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Trading Data may include
Road conditions
Congestion statuses
Environmental conditions
Vehicles' usage data
Vehicle’s technical details
Malfunction reports
How trading data can be helpful?
Handling vehicular traffic
Defining new driving regulations
Remote services booking
Proactive safety measures
Navigation services with virtual assistance
Live road and environmental conditions
[7] C. Chen, J. Wu, H. Lin, W. Chen and Z. Zheng, “A Secure and Efficient Blockchain-Based Data Trading Approach for
Internet of Vehicles,” in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 9110-9121, Sept. 2019.
Introduction (2/6)
11
Introduction (3/6)
Energy Trading
EVs are involved in energy trading
EVs have bidirectional charging and communication capabilities
EVs can play role of both energy consumer and suppliers
Facilitate in balancing energy demand and supply during peak hours [8]
Overcome the Renewable energy Sources overgeneration problem
EVs can trade their surplus energy with other EVs through V2V communication
Energy trading is done for better management of energy
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
12
[8] Kang, Jiawen, Rong Yu, Xumin Huang, Sabita Maharjan, Yan Zhang, and Ekram Hossain. “Enabling localized peer-to-peer
electricity trading among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using consortium blockchains.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Informatics 13, no. 6 (2017): 3154-3164.
IoEV enabled data trading and energy trading faces trust issues due to
Mobile nature
Dynamic topology
Unstable communication time
Centralized controlling authorities cause
Bottleneck issues
Latency problems
Risk of data exposure
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Introduction (4/6)
13
Storage Problems in IoEV data trading
Limited computational power and storage capacity in vehicles [9]
Data Duplication
Second-hand sharing of data
Privacy issues in IoEV
Data linkage attacks
Data modification
Vehicle identity exposure
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
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[9] Xu, Yang, Guojun Wang, Jidian Yang, Ju Ren, Yaoxue Zhang, and Cheng Zhang. “Towards secure network computing services
for lightweight clients using blockchain.” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing 2018 (2018).
Introduction (5/6)
Blockchain as a Solution
It maintains trust in trustless environment of IoEV and provides.
Decentralization
Immutability of trading records
Transparency in trading actions
Traceability
Tamper-resistance
IPFS as distributed storage
Ensures long term availability of data
Provides reliable data storage
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
15
Introduction (6/6)
Literature Review
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
[10] C. Chen, J. Wu, H. Lin, W. Chen and Z. Zheng, “A Secure and Efficient Blockchain-Based Data Trading Approach for Internet of Vehicles,”
in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 9110-9121, Sept. 2019.
[11] J. Kang et al.,“Blockchain for Secure and Efficient Data Sharing in Vehicular Edge Computing and Networks,” in IEEE Internet of Things
Journal, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 4660-4670, June 2019.
[12] X. Zhang and X. Chen, “Data Security Sharing and Storage Based on a Consortium Blockchain in a Vehicular Ad-hoc Network,”
in IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 58241-58254, 2019.
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
17
Technique (s) Achievement (s) Limitation (s)
Iterative Double Auction [10] - Data trading using IDA to maximize
social welfare and to obtain optimal
data pricing
- Off-chain payment can cause
disputes among buyers and
sellers
Three Weight Subjective Logic
(TWSL) [11]
- Secure data sharing and data storage
- TWSL is used to choose a reliable
data source.
- High storage cost
- Data duplication
Batch verification [12] - Provides secure data sharing and
storage based on consortium blockchain
- Data credibility
Literature Review (1/4)
Technique (s) Achievement (s) Limitation (s)
Lexicographic Merkle Tree [13] - Privacy-preserving authentication scheme
- Trust reputation evaluation
- Transmission Delay
Proof of Event [14] - Identification of malicious vehicles
- Prevention of fake messages distribution
- Transmission Delay
- Scalability issues
Logistic Regression,
PoW [15]
- Conditional privacy
- Auditable and scalable scheme
- Latency
Literature Review (2/4)
[13] Lu, Zhaojun, Wenchao Liu, Qian Wang, Gang Qu, and Zhenglin Liu. “A Privacy-Preserving Trust Model Based on Blockchain for VANETs.”
IEEE Access 6 (2018): 45655-45664.
[14] Yang, Yao-Tsung, Li-Der Chou, Chia-Wei Tseng, Fan-Hsun Tseng, and Chien-Chang Liu. “Blockchain-Based Traffic Event Validation and
Trust Verification for VANETs.” IEEE Access 7 (2019): 30868-30877.
[15] Liu, Xingchen, Haiping Huang, Fu Xiao, and Ziyang Ma. “A blockchain-based trust management with conditional privacy-preserving
announcement scheme for VANETs.” IEEE Internet of Things Journal 7, no. 5 (2019): 4101-4112.
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
18
Technique (s) Achievement (s) Limitation (s)
PoW and PoS [16] - A blockchain based decentralized
trust mechanism
- PoW and PoS used to calculate the
trust values
- Privacy leakage
- Computationally expensive
Proof of concept [17] - Privacy Preservation of shared data
- Auditing anonymous transactions
- A reliable payment mechanism
- Energy demand and supply factor
is neglected
- No encouragement for EV users
Credit-based solution [18] - Transaction verification delay
- Secure Payment mechanism
- Expensive
Literature Review (3/4)
[16] Yang, Zhe, Kan Yang, Lei Lei, Kan Zheng, and Victor CM Leung. “Blockchain-Based Decentralized Trust Management in Vehicular Networks.”
IEEE Internet of Things Journal 6, no. 2 (2018): 1495-1505.
[17] Gao, Feng, Liehuang Zhu, Meng Shen, Kashif Sharif, Zhiguo Wan, and Kui Ren. “A blockchain-based privacy-preserving payment mechanism for
vehicle-to-grid networks.” IEEE network 32, no. 6 (2018): 184-192.
[18] Li, Zhetao, Jiawen Kang, Rong Yu, Dongdong Ye, Qingyong Deng, and Yan Zhang. “Consortium blockchain for secure energy trading in
industrial internet of things.” IEEE transactions on industrial informatics 14, no. 8 (2017): 3690-3700.
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
19
Technique (s) Achievement (s) Limitation (s)
Reputation-based scheme[19] - Scheduling of EVs’ charging and discharging
- Prevention of internal and external attacks by
adversaries
- Computationally expensive due to
PKI approach
Iterative double auction [20] - Social welfare maximization
- Auditing and verifying transaction records
- Balancing energy demand and response
- Secure and trustful energy trading model
- Energy demand and supply factor
is neglected
- No encouragement for EV users
Dynamic pricing scheme [21] - Optimal charging station selection
- Location privacy preservation
- Scalability problem
Literature Review (4/4)
[19] Wang, Yuntao, Zhou Su, and Ning Zhang, “BSIS: Blockchain-based secure incentive scheme for energy delivery in vehicular energy network.”
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 15, no. 6 (2019): 3620-3631.
[20] Kang, Jiawen, Rong Yu, Xumin Huang, Sabita Maharjan, Yan Zhang, and Ekram Hossain. “Enabling localized peer-to-peer electricity trading
among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using consortium blockchains.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 13, no. 6 (2017): 3154-3164.
[21]. Knirsch, F., Unterweger, A., & Engel, D. “Privacy-preserving blockchain-based electric vehicle charging with dynamic tariff decisions.”
@Computer Science-Research and Development,@33(1-2), 71-79, 2018.
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
20
Problem Statement
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Efficient and secure trading mechanisms are required to trade data and energy in IoEV. In [10, 20], double auction
mechanisms are proposed for trading among buyers and sellers in IoV. However, a trusted mediator is required to
tackle the possible trading disputes in market. Moreover, the privacy of sellers is not preserved. In [17], a privacy
preserving payment mechanism is proposed in V2G network. The proposed scheme provides privacy preservation,
reliable payments with secure data sharing. However, tracking of vehicles' real identity and auditing their behavior
involves a registration authority, which makes the proposed scheme partially decentralized. Moreover, some
vehicles act maliciously to get benefits, e.g., sharing old or fake data. So, a lookup mechanism is required to
prevent repetition in data storage and trading. In [20], a reputation-based data sharing scheme with TWSL is
developed to choose a more reliable data source. However, the data duplication and second-hand sharing is not
prevented, which can cause high storage cost and unfair data trading.
Problem Statement (1/2)
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
22
[10] Chen, Chuan, Jiajing Wu, Hui Lin, Wuhui Chen, and Zibin Zheng. “A secure and efficient blockchain-based data trading approach for Internet
of vehicles.” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 68, no. 9 (2019): 9110-9121.
[11] Kang, Jiawen, Rong Yu, Xumin Huang, Maoqiang Wu, Sabita Maharjan, Shengli Xie, and Yan Zhang. “Blockchain for Secure and Efficient
Data Sharing in Vehicular Edge Computing and Networks.” IEEE Internet of Things Journal 6, no. 3 (2018): 4660-4670.
[17] Gao, Feng, Liehuang Zhu, Meng Shen, Kashif Sharif, Zhiguo Wan, and Kui Ren. “A blockchain-based privacy-preserving payment mechanism
for vehicle-to-grid networks.” IEEE network 32, no. 6 (2018): 184-192.
[20] Kang, Jiawen, Rong Yu, Xumin Huang, Sabita Maharjan, Yan Zhang, and Ekram Hossain. “Enabling localized peer-to-peer electricity trading
among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using consortium blockchains.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 13, no. 6 (2017): 3154-3164.
In [22, 16], PoW consensus is performed by vehicles, whereas joint PoS and PoW is used in [16] to build trust
among vehicles. However, PoW is difficult to implement on mobile nodes because length of stable connection or
meetup time is very short and PoW requires greater computational efforts. Moreover, transaction verification delay
is another issue. Authors in [18] provided a credit-based solution for reducing transaction verification delay. This
credit-based scheme involves central bank authority which helps in managing payments and reducing the
transaction confirmation delay time. However, the proposed blockchain-based scheme needs to be integrated into
each client module for a payment transaction that may cause privacy issues, e.g., data linkage attacks. To address
the privacy related issues of EVs, authors in [21] proposed a blockchain-based charging scheme for limited
number of EVs. However, the proposed scheme is not scalable when the number of EVs is increased.
Problem Statement (2/2)
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
23
[16] Yang, Zhe, Kan Yang, Lei Lei, Kan Zheng, and Victor CM Leung. “Blockchain-Based Decentralized Trust Management in Vehicular
Networks.” IEEE Internet of Things Journal 6, no. 2 (2018): 1495-1505.
[18] Li, Zhetao, Jiawen Kang, Rong Yu, Dongdong Ye, Qingyong Deng, and Yan Zhang. “Consortium blockchain for secure energy trading in
industrial internet of things.” IEEE transactions on industrial informatics 14, no. 8 (2017): 3690-3700.
[21] Knirsch, Fabian, Andreas Unterweger, and Dominik Engel. “Privacy-preserving blockchain-based electric vehicle charging with dynamic tariff
decisions.” Computer Science-Research and Development 33, no. 1-2 (2018): 71-79.
[22] Shrestha Rakesh, Rojeena Bajracharya, Anish P. Shrestha, and Seung Yeob Nam. “A new-type of blockchain for secure message exchange in
VANET.” Digital Communications and Networks 6, no. 2 (2020): 177-186.
Proposed System Model
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Fuel Vehicle
Electric Vehicle (EV)
Trusted Authority (TA)


Roadside Unit (RSU)
IPFS Storage

Blockchain
Blockchain Data


Data Trading


Uploading Data


Energy Trading


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
 
 !" 
"#$  
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"#'#
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-$
25
"1'-
Fig. 1.
Proposed
System
Model
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Proposed System Model (1/2)
System Model Entities
Trusted Authority
Responsible for registration of vehicles in IoEV
Vehicles
Include fuel and EV and act as both buyer and seller
Smart Meters
Integrated with charging poles to record traded volume of energy
RSUs
Act as data and energy broker and handle trading requests and data uploading to IPFS
Blockchain
Implemented on RSUs with PoW consensus to achieve trading transparency
IPFS
Used to store data for its long-term availability
26
Proposed System Model (2/2)
Design Goals
Transparency
Traceability
Data Duplication
Reliable and Efficient Payments
Privacy Preservation of Trading Trends
Effective Audit of Anonymous Transactions
Attacker Models
Linkage attacks
Privacy Disclosure
Unreliable Payments
Denial of Payment Transfer
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
27
Proposed Methodology
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Proposed Methodology (1/3)
A. System Initialization
Using bilinear mapping through elliptic curve digital signature scheme
System parameters initializations
B. Registration
Pseudo id assignment to vehicles in IoEV network
Vehicles’ real id mapping with pseudo id
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
29
Proposed Methodology (2/3)
C. Data Trading and Storage
Data Trading Request
Data trading request by vehicle to RSU
Data Duplication
Data hash computation by RSU
Data hash comparison with previously stored hash-list
Efficient data lookup using bloom filter
Transaction Verification and Consensus
Distributed ledger shared by all RSUs
Pow consensus is performed by RSUs
Verified transaction stored in blockchain
Data Storage in Interplanetary File System (IPFS)
Valid trading data uploaded to IPFS
30
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Proposed Methodology (3/3)
D. Energy Trading among EVs
Energy Trading Demand Request
Energy demand request from buyer EV to RSU
Energy Trading Response Request
Energy buying request forwarded to EV pool
Energy supply request from seller EV to RSU
Request Matching
Energy supply and demand request matching on the bases of energy demand volume and energy price
Energy Trading and Account Generation
Decision to transfer coins in seller account
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
31
Account Mapping Scheme
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
32
New account
required?
Calculate energy
trading Estimate
Transfer Coins
to new Account
Transfer Coins to
Current Account
Yes
No
Generate
New Account
Account Mapping
AnA2
A1
Fig. 2 Account Mapping
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Account Mapping & Threshold Detection
33
Mapping from Limitations to Proposed Solutions
Identified Limitations Proposed Solutions
L1: Vehicles in IoEV need to be registered to avoid
illegitimate vehicles
S1: TA is responsible for each vehicle registration and
credentials verification by using Bilinear pairing.
L2: Due to selfishness and for financial gain, EVs trade same
data for multiple times, which results in data
duplication
S2: Data hash computation and comparison with previously
stored data hash-list at RSU to prevent data duplication
L3: The second-hand sharing of data is caused by re-selling
of previously traded data
S2: At RSU a data hash-list is used to avoid second-hand
sharing of traded data
L4: Vehicles’ limited storage capacity to store real-time
vehicle generated data for longer period of time
S3: IPFS is used to ensure reliable and long-term
availability of traded data.
L5: Payment disputes and unfair trading among trading
entities
S4: Using smart contract for an efficient and reliable payment
mechanism to avoid trading disputes
L6: An efficient data lookup for data duplication S5: Bloom filters are used for efficient data lookup
L7: Data linkage attacks caused by linking trading records
information with publicly available datasets
S6: Using an account mapping scheme to hide trading trends
to ensure the privacy of vehicles
34
Security Analyses
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Security Analysis
Identity Privacy
Using pseudo ids of vehicles for anonymous communication
Data Integrity & Non-Repudiation
Digitally signed data by authenticated vehicles
Decentralization
Central controlling authority replaced by blockchain
Central storage system replaced by IPFS
Transparency
Trading transparency provided by blockchain using smart contracts
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
36
Vulnerability Analysis (1/3)
Using Oyente tool for vulnerability analysis of smart contracts against
following known attacks:
Integer OverFlow and UnderFlow
The overflow occurs when a variable is incremented until it exceeds the allowed limit. Similarly,
underflow works in the opposite direction.
Parity Multisig bug
Executing a function named initWallet to gain knowledge about address of wallet owner and the
required amount to make wallet inaccessible.
Call Stack attack
Whenever the call stack exceeds the maximum of 1024 calls, an external function call
may fail and result in throwing an exception.
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
37
Vulnerability Analysis (2/3)
Transaction Ordering Dependence
Gas price is modification by an attacker during the transaction processing before its
completion
Timestamp Dependency
Manipulation of timestamp for blocks and transactions by participating nodes
Re-Entrancy Vulnerability
The repeated calls made for the same function again and again for several times that the
execution of any other function is not possible
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
38
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Vulnerability Analysis (3/3)
39
Fig. 3 Account Mapping
Simulation Results
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Fig. 4. Computation Time Cost
Simulation Results (1/8)
Mapping of Limitation, Solution and Validation
L1: Vehicle registration
L2: Data Duplication
L3: Second-hand sharing of data
L1 S1
Registration and authentication of
vehicles by Trusted authority
L2, L3 S2
Hash computation and comparison
with hash-list using bloom filter
41
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Fig. 4. Computation Time Cost
Simulation Results (1/8)
S1, S2 V1
Fig. 4 shows vehicle registration,
hash computation and its comparison with
hash-list using bloom filter. Constant time is
required for hash computation. Whereas
comparison time varies in each iteration. Only
the time cost for vehicle registration is greater
because of the system parameter initialization.
42
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Fig. 5. Data Trading Rate
Mapping of Limitation, Solution and Validation
L2: Data Duplication
L3: Second-hand sharing of data
L2, L3 S2
Increased participation rate results in
trading growth
S2 V2
Trading rate is affected by invalid trading
requests. Trading rate increases with the increase in
participation of vehicles in trading. However, it may
vary due to invalid trading request even in the case of
increased vehicles and their participation in the network.
43
Simulation Results (2/8)
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Fig. 6. File Upload Time in IPFS
Simulation Results (3/8)
Mapping of Limitation, Solution and Validation
L4: Limited storage capacity of vehicles
L4 S3
Using IPFS to provide reliable and long-term
data storage
S3 V3
Fig. 6 shows Time cost for uploading data with
varying data size in IPFS. The data upload time is
minimal, i.e., it requires less time to upload data in
IPFS. Time varies linearly with the increasing data size
ranging from 500 to 5000 bytes.
44
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Fig. 7. Smart Contracts’ Deployment Cost
Simulation Results (4/8)
Mapping of Limitation, Solution and Validation
L5: Payment and trading disputes
L5 S4
Using smart contracts for efficient and
reliable payment transfers and trading
S4 V4
The smart contracts used in proposed scheme
require minimal resources for smart contract
deployment. The resource utilization is low and
manageable to trade data in real-time and store it in
IPFS.
45
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Simulation Results (5/8)
Mapping of Limitation, Solution and Validation
L5 S4
Using smart contracts for efficient and reliable
payment transfers and trading
S4 V4
The transaction and execution costs in smart
contract operation are presented in Table 1. Both costs
for varying data size ranging from 500 to 5000 bytes
increase linearly , which ensures the scalability of
proposed system.
46
Fig. 8. Time Efficiency of Bloom Filter
Simulation Results (6/8)
Mapping of Limitation, Solution and Validation
L6: Limited storage capacity of vehicles
L6 S5
Using bloom filters for efficient lookup
S5 V5
Time efficiency of data lookup with and
without using bloom filters is presented in Fig. 8.
It validates the efficiency of fast response in terms
of efficient lookup in hash-list that are stored
previously at RSUs.
47
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Fig. 9 (a). E-trading trends Without
Account Mapping Scheme
Simulation Results (7/8)
Mapping of Limitation, Solution and Validation
L7: Data linkage attacks
L7: S6
Using account mapping scheme to hide trading
trends
S6 V6
Fig. 9 (a) shows irregular trading trends without
using account mapping scheme. Irregular energy volume
of energy is traded by EVs at multiple iterations. Some
EVs with distinct traded energy volume are trading more
often with other EVs, which can breach their privacy.
48
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Mapping of Limitation, Solution and Validation
L7: Data linkage attacks
L7: S6
Using account mapping scheme to hide
trading trends
S6 V6
Fig. 9 (b) and Fig. 9 (c) shows seller EVs accounts
with and without mapping scheme, respectively. In
Fig. 6 (b) the textured bars show the EVs accounts to be
mapped correspondingly in Fig. 6(c). After account
mapping, EVs account with distinct traded energy
volume is uniformly distributed.
Simulation Results (8/8)
Fig. 9 (b). Seller EVs’ Accounts without mapping
Fig. 9 (c). Seller EVs’ Accounts With Mapping
49
Conclusion and Future Work
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
Conclusion
Consortium blockchain based solution for secure data and Energy trading in
IoEV
Smart contracts deployment to handle payment disputes.
Data duplication verification by RSU at the initial phase of data trading.
Bloom filters for efficient data lookup
IPFS is used ensure long-term availability of traded data,
Privacy-preserving consortium blockchain-based account mapping scheme for
energy trading in EVs to avoid data linkage attacks.
A security analysis for smart contracts is conducted to examine the code,
making it free of bugs, vulnerabilities and secure against known attacks.
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
51
Future Work
Consideration of hybrid vehicles along with fuel vehicles and EVs that can
perform both data trading and energy trading
Reliable and efficient service provisioning mechanism
Integration of rating-based reputation scheme in IoEV enabled data trading and
energy trading
MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
52
Conference Proceeding
[1] Sadiq, Ayesha, Nadeem Javaid, Omaji Samuel, Adia Khalid, Noman Haider, and Muhammad
Imran. “Efficient Data Trading and Storage in Internet of Vehicles using Consortium Blockchain.” In
2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC), IEEE (2020):
2143-2148.
53
MS synopsis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, 5th of March, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
References
Presented by Ayesha Sadiq
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
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MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
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MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
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MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
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MS thesis defense by Ayesha Sadiq, September 22, 2020
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad-Pakistan
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