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Abstract

Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.

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Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Article
Full-text available
We compared the density and spatial distribution of four small mammal species (Microtus ochrogaster, Peromyscus maniculatus, Sigmodon hispidus, and P. leucopus) along with general measures of an old field plant community across two successional phases (1984-1986 and 1994-1996) of an experimental study of fragmentation in eastern Kansas. During the early phase the plant community was characterized by little spatial or temporal variance across patch size, consistent with spatially neutral models of succession. In contrast, there was a strong, species-specific effect of patch size on small mammal species distribution and abundance. The lack of variance in vegetation structure across patch size during the early seres suggests that small mammal distributions were responding in large part to features of the system other than variance in vegetation structure and composition across patch size. As succession proceeded, the colonization of the system by woody p1an.t species precipitated a series of patch size effects on plant community composition. Differential habitat selection by small mammals at the patch scale tracked these changes in plant distribution. For example, M. ochrogaster and S. hispidus shifted their distributions away from less fragmented patches toward smaller patches, where retarded plant succession had maintained an earlier sere. P. leucopus successfully colonized and maintained high densities only on large patches, where plant succession had progressed most rapidly toward a woody species dominate community. Our results highlight the role of landscape structure in long-term community dynamics and indicate that some of the complexity observed in successional systems may result from the structure and composition of the landscape mosaic. In general, our results suggest that to fully understand long-term change within communities, the influence of landscape structure on patterns of heterogeneity in both vegetation and consumer dynamics must be understood. Moreover, the long-term and landscape-scale perspectives afforded by our study provide insight into community dynamics that might otherwise be missed.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Chapter
Conservation of mammals in the coniferous forests of western North America has shifted in recent years from species-based strategies to community- and ecosystem-based strategies, resulting in an increase in the available information on mammalian communities and their management. This book provides a synthesis of the published literature on the role of forest mammals in community structure and function, with emphasis on their management and conservation. In addition to coverage of some of the charismatic megafauna such as grizzly bears, gray wolves, mountain lions, elk and moose, the book also provides a thorough treatment of small terrestrial mammals, arboreal rodents, bats, medium-sized carnivores, and ungulates. The unique blend of theoretical and practical concepts makes this book equally suitable for managers, educators, and research biologists who will find it a valuable reference to the recent literature on a vast array of topics on mammalian ecology.
Article
Results suggest that winter flights may not be induced by onset of starvation (and hence the need to feed) or by dehydration (and hence the need to drink). Rather, at typical winter temperatures P. auritus may fly frequently, almost daily, to try and ensure that neither energy nor water reserves approach critically low levels. Only during a prolonged cold period (mean night temperature <4°C) might many days pass without a winter flight. -from Authors
Article
I analyse and summarize the empirical evidence in mammals supporting alternative benefits that individuals may accrue when committing nonparental infanticide. Nonparental infanticide may provide the perpetrator with nutritional benefits, increased access to limited resources, increased reproductive opportunities, or it may prevent misdirecting parental care to unrelated offspring. The possibility that infanticide is either a neutral or maladaptive behaviour also is considered. I devote the second half of this article to reviewing potential mechanisms that individuals may use to prevent infanticide. These counterstrategies include the early termination of pregnancy, direct aggression by the mother against intruders, the formation of coalitions for group defence, the avoidance of infanticidal conspecifics, female promiscuity, and territoriality. I evaluate the support for each benefit and counterstrategy across different groups of mammals and make suggestions for future research.
Article
At the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in Campeche, Mexico, the prey spectra of sympatric jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) were studied by examination of their scats. 10 vertebrate species were identified for jaguars and 7 for pumas, mainly mammals and some birds. Based on these diet analyses, we conclude that jaguars and pumas coexist at Calakmul by means of different food habits.
Article
A study was made of the viability of white spruce, Picea glauca, seed obtained from seven cone caches of red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. Habits of the red squirrel, relation of seed viability to cone-caching activities and the relation of viability of seed obtained from the cached cones to the cones on the trees are described.Viability of see from cached cones does not vary between the time squirrels began to cache cones in quantity and the time the last cones are cached. Seed from the cached cones showed a higher percentage of viability than seed of cones collected from trees, because some of the mature seed had fallen from the partially open cones on the trees resulting in an increase in the percentage of undeveloped seed in progressive cone collections.
Article
The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus greater than or equal to under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required microenvironmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant cause of mortality with caged transplants exhibiting life spans that were 74 % longer overall than uncaged transplants. Emergence and survival of P. monophylla within the expanding woodland were dependent upon a complex set of interacting factors including growing season conditions, microhabitat characteristics. and animal species.
Article
Herbivores can directly increase nitrogen mobility by increasing the quality of organic matter entering the decomposition cycle, but they also may decrease nitrogen mobility by decreasing the biomass of high-nitrogen species in the plane community. We assessed effects of voles (Microtus) on nitrogen dynamics using exclosures in two riparian meadows (Crystal Bench and Blacktail Deer Creek) in Yellowstone National Park (USA). At both sites, the quantity of plant litter was decreased by herbivory following a vole population peak in 1992. At Crystal Bench, removal of voles caused a decrease in the nitrogen concentration and an increase in the C:N ratio of plant litter over the four years of the study. The higher quality litter produced in the presence of voles at Crystal resulted in a larger pool of potentially mineralizable nitrogen in soil from control plots relative to soils from plots that had not been accessible to voles. At Crystal, vole removal did not cause a change in plant community composition. However, at Blacktail, after several years of vole exclusion, legumes became more common in exclosures than in control plots that were accessible to voles. Selective herbivory on high-nitrogen legumes kept the litter quality outside exclosures low, whereas higher legume biomass caused a decrease in C:N ratio of plant litter inside exclosures. The removal of voles at Blacktail caused a 15% increase in the fraction of the soil nitrogen that was rapidly mineralizable. Our results show that voles increased nitrogen mobility, especially during and after population peaks. However, that increase was offset by decreases in nitrogen mineralization over longer periods when voles caused a decrease in high-quality plant litter produced by preferred forage plants, especially legumes: Thus, both the mechanisms by which voles affected nitrogen dynamics and the net effects of voles varied over time and space. The balance of direct and indirect effects may provide a general mechanistic explanation of whether herbivores increase or decrease the rate of nitrogen cycling.
Article
A 2.02 ha section of an old woods in the Edmund Niles Huyck Preserve, upstate New York, was mapped in 1978 and remapped in 1986. All individuals > 1 m high were located to the nearest 0.1 m. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. made up > 59% of total basal area and density both years. Average basal area loss by mortality (0.93%/yr) was less than average growth (1.50%/yr) resulting in increased stand basal area. Especially large increases were measured for Acer saccharum Marsh., A. rubrum L., and Quercus rubra L. Overall and for most species, mortality was very high for small stems, lowest for intermediate-sized stems (11-40 cm dbh), and somewhat higher for the very largest stems. Mortality was aggregated resulting in increasingly regular dispersion patterns of live stems, from 1978 to 1986 and with increasing stem size. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. continued to decrease due to beech bark disease though at a decreasing rate than earlier, based on past studies in the Huyck Preserve. Maximum Fagus survivorship was for stems 6-10 cm dbh. Where Fagus decreased in importance it was replaced primarily by Tsuga.
Article
Several studies have documented elevated rates of nest predation for passerines and grouse in small forest patches and near anthropogenic edges. We examined patterns of predation on artificial nests in aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodlots and fencerows surrounded by agricultural land in Alberta. Nests were intended to mimic those of ground-nesting grouse and shrub-nesting passerines. We evaluated the relative importance of factors at the nest site, the forest patch, and the landscape to risk of nest predation by different predators. Total predation rates were highest in fencerows. Among woodlots, predation rates did not differ with woodlot area except in 1992, when predation on ground nests was higher in large woodlots. Most shrub nests were depredated by birds (corvids and House Wrens [Troglodytes aedon]). Corvid predation on shrub nests was higher in smaller woodlots and was highest on nests closest to the woodlot edge. Predation by small mammals was highest in larger woodlots and woodlots closer to farms and showed no edge effect. House Wren predation of shrub nests did not vary by any woodlot feature, nest cover, or distance to edge. We suggest that corvids forage mainly at the edges of forest patches and can fully penetrate small patches and fencerows. Small mammals are present in all woodlots, but avian predators take the eggs in small woodlots before they are detected by small mammals. Nest predators living within woodlots, such as wrens and small mammals, may be equally or more important than those living outside of woodlots in determining nest-predation risk for birds in woodlots.