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Aloe vera is one of the oldest medicinal plants in human history. It exhibits 200 or more different biologically-active substances and has attracted many researchers into its potential applications. Researchers have also noted that Aloe vera has fewer adverse effects on human health than other alternative herbal medicines. Aloe vera leaves contain acemannan which is the key functional component. Acemannan is a long-chain polymer consisting of randomly acetylated linear d-mannopyranosyl units and has immune modulation, antibacterial, antifungal and antitumor properties. Due to this functional attribute, the Aloe vera plant is known as a “healing plant”. Researchers claim that Aloe vera treatment can speed wound healing, offer UV protection, and has anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties. Historically, Aloe vera has been used for a variety of medicinal purposes. Aloe vera contains a moisturizing agent for which it is used in cosmetics. Aloe gel is also used in computer memory hardware to reduce electronic waste. Recently Aloe vera are extensively used to prepare the different types textile composite which are involved in the field of wound healing, tissue engineering, medical textile, health care textiles, curative garments, cosmetotextiles, UV protective textiles, wearable electronic textiles and so on. Aloe vera is used in pre-treatment and printing due to its succulent enzymatic and gummy characteristics. Aloe gel also contains a salty substance that allows its use in natural, eco-friendly dyeing. This review considers the many actual and potential applications of Aloe vera based textile composite materials for therapeutic and other purposes. Graphic Abstract
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Journal of Polymers and the Environment
Functional Applications ofAloe vera onTextiles: AReview
Md.IbrahimH.Mondal1· JoykrisnaSaha1· Md.AshadurRahman2
Accepted: 14 October 2020
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020
Aloe vera is one of the oldest medicinal plants in human history. It exhibits 200 or more different biologically-active sub-
stances and has attracted many researchers into its potential applications. Researchers have also noted that Aloe vera has fewer
adverse effects on human health than other alternative herbal medicines. Aloe vera leaves contain acemannan which is the
key functional component. Acemannan is a long-chain polymer consisting of randomly acetylated linear d-mannopyranosyl
units and has immune modulation, antibacterial, antifungal and antitumor properties. Due to this functional attribute, the
Aloe vera plant is known as a “healing plant”. Researchers claim that Aloe vera treatment can speed wound healing, offer UV
protection, and has anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties. Historically, Aloe vera has been used for a variety of medici-
nal purposes. Aloe vera contains a moisturizing agent for which it is used in cosmetics. Aloe gel is also used in computer
memory hardware to reduce electronic waste. Recently Aloe vera are extensively used to prepare the different types textile
composite which are involved in the field of wound healing, tissue engineering, medical textile, health care textiles, curative
garments, cosmetotextiles, UV protective textiles, wearable electronic textiles and so on. Aloe vera is used in pre-treatment
and printing due to its succulent enzymatic and gummy characteristics. Aloe gel also contains a salty substance that allows
its use in natural, eco-friendly dyeing. This review considers the many actual and potential applications of Aloe vera based
textile composite materials for therapeutic and other purposes.
* Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal;
1 Polymer andTextile Research Lab, Department ofApplied
Chemistry andChemical Engineering, University
ofRajshahi, Rajshahi6205, Bangladesh
2 Pabna Textile Engineering College, Pabna, Rajshahi,
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
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Graphic Abstract
Keywords Aloe vera· Medicinal plants· UV protection· Anti-oxidant· Anti-microbial· Biologically-active substance·
Functional properties
Naturally-occurring materials for human use, as medicine
and in industry, have become increasingly popular in recent
times. Such materials have less negative side-effects for
human health and produce less waste to damage the environ-
ment or contribute to global warming. Aloe vera is perhaps
the best-known of these.
Many Aloe species are found throughout the world. Aloe
vera has been used as human medicine for centuries. The
Greek scientists considered the Aloe vera plant to be a
medicinal panacea [1]. The American Indians called Aloe
‘the wonder of heaven’ [2].
Aloe vera is known as a “healing plant”, with beneficial
effects in wound healing, UV protection and for anti-oxidant
and anti-microbial purposes [35]. Aloe vera is also regarded
as a traditional medicinal plant for long years ago.
Over the last decades, the use of Aloe vera gel has gained
popularity in numerous therapeutic applications. This gel
has been proven effective as an anti-bacterial, a laxative, an
agent for UV protection against radiation, an anti-oxidant,
and anti-inflammation and immuno-stimulation purposes
[68]. The Aloe leaf contains a wide range of pharmaco-
logical properties due to its polysaccharides. 10% of the dry
weight of Aloe gel is these polysaccharides [9].
Almost 90% of Aloe vera’s beneficial ingredients are
accumulated in the white-opaque, fleshy, jelly-like interior.
The inner gel consists of 99% water and 1% solid materials.
The 1% solid materials include vitamins, polysaccharides,
essential amino acids, glucomannans, minerals, lipids, major
polypeptides, proteins and antioxidants [10, 11]. Aloe vera
also contains monosaccharide and polysaccharide sugars
which combine into acemannan, polymannose glucose, cel-
lulose, mannose, pectic substances, acetylated glucoman-
nan and mannan. The chemical structure of acemannan is
shown in Fig.1. These sugars are also called mucosaccha-
rides, since they are plant-derived, and have anti-inflam-
matory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-allergic and anti-microbial
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
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properties, as well as retarding the progression of tumors
Sixteen distinct enzymes have been found in Aloe vera.
These are lipase, oxidase amylase, carboxypeptidase, cata-
lase, superoxide dismutase, cyclo-oxygenase, anthranol,
barbaloin, alkaline phosphatase, smodin, resistannol, phos-
phoenolpyruvate carboxylase, chrysophanic acid, brad-
ykinase and cellulase. The above-mentioned enzymes are
widely employed as anti-bacterials, anti-fungals, anti-virals,
anti-inflammatory agents and analgesic agents. In addition,
some of these enzymes are involved in the breakdown of
sugars and fats for digestion. 20 of 22 essential amino acids
required by the human body and seven of eight amino acids
that our body cannot synthesize naturally are present in Aloe
vera. The amino acids present in Aloe vera are essential to
reconstruct damaged tissues during the process of wound
healing. In addition, lectin (a protein), present in Aloe vera,
is reported to promote cell proliferation [13]. Vitamin B12,
folic acid, choline, B (thiamine), B2 and B6in Aloe vera are
utilized as effective anti-oxidant and anti-cancer agents. A
few vital vitamins, necessary in the daily human diet, such as
vitamins A (betacarotene), B1, C and E are also available in
Aloe vera. On the other hand, salicylic acid (a component of
aspirin) and hormones such as auxins and gibberellins, pre-
sent in Aloe vera, possess anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial
and anti-fungal properties [1418].
Aloe vera was first proven to have been used for human
healing as far back as 2100 BC [19]. A detailed descrip-
tion of Aloe vera’s medicinal value and ability to cure both
external and internal ailments of Aloe vera was found in an
Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge from 1550
BC [20]. Egyptians called Aloe vera a “Plant of Immor-
tality” [21]. Further, a piece of detailed information about
Aloe vera flora and their vital role in treating wounds was
found in Greek, dated 70 AD [22, 23]. The first clinical use
of Aloe vera for the treatment of radiotherapy burns and
mucous membranes was reported in 1930 [24]. Aloe vera
has been used in several cultures for the treatment of skin
injuries [25].
Aloe gel contains valuable ingredients that are used in
cosmetic products like skin moisturizers, fragrance prepa-
rations, baby lotions and wipes [26]. Aloe vera extracts are
used in ice cream, candies, yogurt, instant tea granules, alco-
holic beverages and many more products. It is also used as
a food supplement [27, 28]. The Aloe vera leaf’s inner gel is
full of a gummy substance and contains an enzyme and salt.
As a result, it is used in textile wet processing [29].
This review article focuses on the application of Aloe
vera to textiles for therapeutic purposes, for an anti-bacterial
and for UV protection, in wet processing and manufacture
of cosmetics, as well as in high technology industries. We
also consider the use of Aloe vera in textiles for the capture
of free radicals. Different functional properties of Aloe vera
treated textiles are shown in Fig.2
Anti‑microbial Ecacy ofAloe vera inTextile
Anti-microbial textile materials play a vital and crucial role,
not only in the health care and medical sectors but also in
hotel administration, in homes and in other environments
where hygiene is required. Pathogenic and non-pathogenic
microbes are always present in our environment. Microbes
include a wide range of microorganisms such as bacteria,
fungi, algae and viruses, which cause disease [30]. New
strains of bacteria and viruses always appear, making the
disease more likely. Microorganisms are everywhere in hos-
pitals, being emitted by sick people. In hospitals, surgical
gowns and masks, surgical head ware and foot ware, surgical
Fig. 1 Antimicrobial ingredi-
ents of Aloe vera (acemannan)
Fig. 2 Application of Aloe vera finished textile materials
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
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drapes, bed sheet, bedding, towels, and the clothing of all
the people present in the hospital, can carry microorganisms
and thus spread disease. For all these situations, textiles with
anti-microbial properties are needed.
Massive proliferation of microbes was found on the
untreated cotton surface (Fig.3a). But a remarkable decline
in S. aureus microbial adhesion was observed on the Aloe
vera- treated cotton fabric, as shown in Fig.3b. The Aloe
vera gel contains active components that act as an effective
bactericidal agent on the fabric and hinder the growth of S.
aureus gram-positive bacteria [31].
Microbes were visible on the untreated cotton surface
(Fig.4a). Aloe vera-treated cotton fabric contained fewer
microbes than untreated fabric in Fig.4b. But the microbe
cells became larger before destruction [31], as shown in
Ibrahim etal. [32] found that Aloe vera-treated cotton
exhibited excellent anti-microbial activity against Staphy-
lococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli).
The Aloe vera treated cotton fabric shows more resistivity
against microbes and no propagation was found in the sur-
rounding treated fabric surface. It is assumed that Aloe vera
bleeds different components from the treated fabric which
are responsible for inhibition and kills the microbes.
Aloe anthraquinone was applied to the cotton fabric and
its antibacterial efficacy tested against E. coli and S. aureus.
Antifungal efficacy testing has also been carried out for C.
albicans. The Aloe anthraquinone-modified fabric showed
better antibacterial properties than the untreated sample.
Almost 91% of bacterial inhibition was found for treated
fabric against both E. coli and S. aureus bacteria. Further-
more, fungi reduction was found up to 69% for C. albicans.
C. albicans showed a lower inhibition rate than did E. coli
and S. aureus bacteria. This is attributable to the cationic
nature of Aloe anthraquinone, which adsorbs the anions of
the bacterial cell wall and cracks the peptide polysaccharides
quickly. On the other hand, the fungi cell wall is made of
amylase, which is different from the walls of bacteria [33].
Testing of the antimicrobial efficiency of the untreated
and Aloe vera-treated fabric was performed by a quantitative
method. Different solution concentrations, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5g/l
of Aloe vera gel were applied to the fabric. The bacterial
reduction rate of Aloe vera’s finished fabric varied with the
concentration of Aloe vera. The reduction rates of bacteria
colonies gradually increased with increasing the solution
concentration. Fabric treated with 5g per litre of Aloe vera
exhibited a high level of anti-microbial activity [34].
5g/l Aloe vera treated cotton bleached fabric showed
15 and 17mm zone of inhibition against gram-positive
bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis) and gram-negative bacte-
ria (E. coli) respectively by agar diffusion method. How-
ever, Aloe vera treated fabric exhibited more than 70%
of its initial antibacterial property even after 20 washing
[35]. Ghayempour etal. [36] studied the anti-bacterial
Fig. 3 SEM image of a
untreated sample and b Aloe
vera treated sample [31]
Fig. 4 TEM images of a
Untreated cotton fabric and b
Aloe vera treated cotton fabric
against S. aureus gram-positive
bacteria [31]
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
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and anti-fungal activities of Aloe vera-treated cotton fab-
ric. The bacterial and fungal reduction percentages of the
treated fabric were found to be 75, 80 and 81%, against
E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The ace-
mannan, anthraquinone, and salicylic acid components
of Aloe vera extract may be the basis for its anti-bacterial
and anti-fungal properties.
Figure5b demonstrates that Aloe vera-treated cot-
ton fabric showed a clear zone of inhibition against S.
aureus bacteria but no zone of inhibition was found in
an untreated sample, as shown in Fig.5a [37]. Khurshid
etal. [38] found that the combined application of Aloe
vera and Neem extracts on cotton fabric showed excellent
antimicrobial properties against E. coli and Aspergillus
niger, as compared to the application of either Aloe vera
or Neem extracts alone.
40% Aloe vera gel concentration showed a higher zone
of inhibition, of about 29 and 23mm, respectively, com-
pared, to 20% gel treated fabric, at 19 and 17mm, respec-
tively, against S. aureus and E. coli. Thus, the bacterial
reduction rate of 40% Aloe vera-gel-treated cotton fabric
was higher than that of 20% Aloe vera gel-treated cotton
fabric. The bacterial reduction percentage for S. aureus
was greater compared to that for E. coli bacteria [39].
Selvi etal. [40] evaluated the zone of inhibition, as well
as bacteria reduction, of three categories of microorgan-
isms: gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungi, using Aloe
vera gel. The zone of inhibition range for gram-negative
bacteria was found to be 12 to 32mm. Gram-positive bac-
teria and fungi showed a 21 to 31mm zone of inhibition
range and a 17 to 30mm zone of inhibition, respectively.
The bacterial reduction rate of the three types of micro-
organisms was nearly the same, i.e., 90%, 89% and 82%,
15% concentration of Aloe vera-treated silk fabric
showed 98% bacterial reduction against gram-positive
(S. aureus) and gram-negative (Kl. pneumonia) bacteria.
These anti-microbial properties of 15% Aloe vera finished
fabric was retained after 5 cycles of dry cleaning, indicat-
ing that the treatment was durable [41]
Wound Healing Activity
Aloe vera is an ancient medicinal plant. The cultivation
of Aloe vera has been done mostly in Asian countries like
China, Japan and India, as well as in the Caribbean region,
because of its medicinal functionality [22]. In 1930, Aloe
vera gel was first used in the USA to burn to heal. After
that, the Aloe vera leaf gel and latex have gained popularity
today for their medicinal uses [42]. Aloe vera gel is used in
the treatment of burns, skin abrasion and veterinary medi-
cine [43].
Wound healing is the method of repair and rejuvenation
of dermis and epidermis that follows injury to the skin and
other body tissues. Skin generation involves cell prolifera-
tion collagen lattice formation and inflammation [44]. Aloe
vera, curcumin and chitosan coated fabric samples were
tested for its wound healing efficacy. The coated fabric has
been applied over the wound surface of the rat. The wound
recovery was studied for 5th, 12th and 17th days. After 17th
days, wound sign was not visible at all, for treated fabric as
shown in the Fig.6. New tissue developed within 12days
and the rabbit’s wound was fully-healed within17 days [45].
Galehdari etal. [46] applied a combination of several
plant materials, including Aloe vera, on diabetic and non-
diabetic rats. Again, the good wound-healing property of
Aloe vera was demonstrated.
Aloe vera contains mannose, which is responsible for
increased macrophage activity and accelerated wound
healing properties. Macrophages produce rapid fibroblast
proliferation, which enhances the growth of tissue [47,
48]. The mannose-6-phosphate of Aloe vera is, directly- or
indirectly-involved in activating collagen production which
Fig. 5 Zone of inhibition of a Untreated cotton and b Aloe vera
treated cotton [37]
Fig. 6 Wound healing pattern of Rat [45]
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
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is responsible for wound healing. The skin cells (fibroblasts)
are responsible for the synthesis of collagen. The colla-
gen plays a vital role in fibre formation in the wound area
and repairs the wound by protein synthesis and associated
enzyme activity. On the other hand, the activity of Aloe vera
increases the presence of oxygen in the wound area, causing
improved microcirculation and enhanced proliferation and
migration of epithelial cells, which are also involved in the
wound-healing process [23].
A biocompatible fibres mat was developed by an
electrospinning technique, containing hydroxypropyl
methylcellulose for wound dressing. In this mat, Aloe
vera was used as a water retention agent and wound heal-
ing agent, respectively. When the concentration of Aloe
vera increased, the porosity of the mats also increased
as shown in Fig.7. Porosity is one of the principal fac-
tors required for wound dressing materials, as it permits
oxygen and moisture to penetrate the wound, which assists
wound healing. Furthermore, 6% of Aloe vera was very
much suitable for wound dressing mats, as it was the most
porous [49].
The wound healing patterns are shown in Fig.8 for
untreated cotton and Aloe vera treated cotton fabrics. In this
study, the migration of fibroblast cells was investigated after
0h and 24h on cotton fabric with and without Aloe vera
treatment. The cell migration rate in Aloe vera treated cot-
ton fabric was almost 88% after 24h in Fig.8d. Yet the cell
migration rate in the untreated cotton fabric was very low
after 24h in Fig.8b [36].
Aloe vera extract contains polysaccharides, vitamins,
enzymes, and phenolic compounds, such as a-bisabolol,
that help to accelerate the wound healing process. a-bisab-
olol acts to lower fever and reduce wound healing time. It
has a positive effect on the migration of surrounding cells
to the wound [50]. Applications of Aloe vera to textiles
helps them to produce useful wound-dressing materials.
Fig. 7 SEM image of the electrospun fibres containing a 2% Aloe vera, b 4% Aloe vera and c 6% Aloe vera [49]
Fig. 8 Cell migration in a 0h
for untreated cotton fabric, b
24h for untreated cotton fabric
and c 0h for Aloe vera treated
cotton fabric and d 24h for Aloe
vera treated cotton fabric [36]
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
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Vitamins, enzymes, polysaccharides and phenolic com-
pounds of Aloe vera are closely related in wound healing
Aloe vera, mixed with polyethylene oxide, carboxy-
methyl cellulose and poly (vinyl alcohol), was prepared
and applied to the non-woven polyester fabric which was
used as a wound dressing. This Aloe vera-treated dress-
ing showed anti-microbial attributes, significant swell-
ing properties, and good drug release activity [52]. To
prepare a composite wound dressing, Aloe vera and cur-
cumin were mixed with oxidized pectin–gelatin matrices
and applied to non-woven cotton fabric. The drug release
activity of the prepared wound dressing again demon-
strated that the use of Aloe vera in wound dressing led
to more-speedy wound healing [53]. Anjum etal. [54]
prepared a wound dressing composite from Aloe vera,
curcumin and nanosilver nanohydrogels. Oxide/carboxy-
methyl cellulose polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene was also
used for coating obtained antimicrobial wound dressings.
Among the combinations, Aloe vera treated fabric showed
the best wound healing activity with minimum scratching.
Aloe vera consists of many components, like cytokines,
which are responsible for the stage of wound healing
that destroys the edges of the wounded cells’ walls.
After applying Aloe vera gel, fibroblasts migrated to the
wound and induced new cell growth [5558]. Davis etal.
[59] conducted an experiment consisting of two types
of Aloe vera: (1) whole extract and (2) decolorized Aloe
vera (with its anthraquinone removed). Both Aloe vera
extracts were applied to mice and rats. Decolorized Aloe
vera showed a better result in wound healing than did the
whole extract.
Acemannan is the major functional component of Aloe
vera. Acemannan can contribute to macrophage activa-
tion, which assists in wound healing [60]. Acemannan can
also accelerate the wound healing process and hard tissue
regeneration by inducing cell proliferation and stimulat-
ing both Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and
type I collagen synthesis. VEGF accelerates endothelial
cell proliferation and migration speed [61]. The acetyl
group in acemannan is one of the most important func-
tional groups which are responsible for cell proliferation.
There is a relationship between acemannan acetyl groups
and the expression of VEGF and type I collagen. Deacety-
lated acemannan showed a reduction in the expression of
VEGF and type I collagen expression in fibroblasts [62].
Acemannan also stimulated fibroblasts present in wound
granulation tissue and secretion of collagen [63]. Aloe
vera gel contains α-bisabolol and strong antioxidant ele-
ments likeα-tocopherols which are responsible for the fast
wound healing process by re-establishing the new cells
around the wound [50, 51, 64, 65].
Cosmetic Textiles (Cosmetotextiles)
Textiles can possess skincare properties; they are called cos-
metotextiles [66]. Cosmetotextiles are textiles which contain
carriers with active substances, these carriers, generally by
polymeric nature release their active compounds when in
contact with the human body [67]. In order to obtain cosme-
totextiles one strategy is to employ the microencapsulation
technique. Microencapsulation can be used in the applica-
tion of fragrances, skin softeners substances, phase-change
materials (that help the thermoregulation of the body), anti-
microbial agents and drug delivery systems among others
[68] as it shows in Fig.9.
A new terminology, so-called ‘cosmetic textiles’, has
now opened up new target groups and sustainable markets
in the textile industry. Cosmetic textiles, an industry that
has grown along with consumer interest in wellness and
well-being, currently includes a wide range of microencap-
sulated ingredients such as Aloe vera, vitamin E, retinol, and
caffeine, said to offer moisturizing, firming, or slimming
benefits. Cosmetic textiles indicate the functional textiles,
especially garments, underwear which comes in direct con-
tact with the skin through the process of microencapsulation.
Cosmetic textiles currently offered on the market claim to be
moisturizing, perfumed, cellulite reducing and body slim-
ming. Upon contact with skin, skin-caring fibrous materials
are designed to transfer an active substance for cosmetic
purposes. The thought is accomplished by basically giving
the bioactive agents into wearable textiles so that with the
normal movement of the body, the skin is gradually sup-
plemented and revived [6972]. Another important issue
for cosmetic textiles is biological safety. The biological
safety means, the cosmetic textiles did not release any toxic
ingredients to the human skin. In terms of their influence on
the human body, cosmetotextiles can be classified, and it is
shown in the Fig.10.
Fig. 9 Types of cosmotextiles containing different active principles
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
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Cheng etal. [73] were used the commercially available
cosmetic textile agent containing Aloe vera for skin-caring
benefits for the development of cosmetic textiles by microen-
capsulation technique. Cosmetic textile agent treated textile
materials did not cause any deaths of cells in the cytotoxic-
ity test, indicating that it was non-cytotoxic to the fibroblast
cell line (NIH-3T3). In addition, formaldehyde content was
not found in the cosmetic textiles. Hence, both the cosmetic
textile agent and cosmetic textiles are believed tbe biologi-
cally safe to consumers. Microcapsulated cosmetotextiles is
shown in Fig.11
Aloe vera Based Composite forFoods
Active, bio-friendly and natural-based materials are one of
the innovative concepts in the field of research on packag-
ing materials. The development of systems involving the
employment of completely biodegradable polymers and nat-
ural bioactive components is currently a major challenge for
plastic processing plants and packaging manufacturers. Due
to its antimicrobial components, such an active packaging
material can be an effective way to protect food or other per-
ishable products against accelerated biodegradation caused
by the activity of microorganisms that colonize the product
Novel biodegradable composites based on starch modified
with chitosan, Aloe vera gel and glycerol as a plasticizer with
reproducible properties were obtained. Films with Aloe vera
gel gain increased resistance to microbial activity, which is
beneficial for packaging applications in food, cosmetics and
pharmaceutical industries. Such materials will be able to
provide a longer shelf life or usability of packaged products;
and as they are made of completely biodegradable materials,
they do not pose a threat to the natural environment [74].
Mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation)
of Aloe vera based films showed a significant increase with
increasing Aloe vera content in the blend for all films pre-
pared. The edible films produced had the desirable proper-
ties of a soft surface, clear, transparent, homogenous and are
flexible. Thus, the edible film formed from Aloe vera with
the incorporation of cinnamon oil met the essential require-
ments for application on fruits and vegetables. The findings
of this study are beneficial to farmers, retailers and consum-
ers as the edible films can replace the synthetic coatings that
have raised many controversies on food safety [75].
Edible films composite prepared from Aloe vera gel, bees-
wax and chitosan. These films exhibited superior mechanical
properties and lower water vapor permeability. In addition,
cost analysis of the films proved them reasonable to be used
as an alternate of synthetic packaging materials [76].
Starch-based edible films containing Aloe vera showed
excellent antifungal properties with six fungi causing plant
diseases and controlling the weight loss of tomatoes. This
natural, biodegradable, nontoxic film can be used as an alter-
native to synthetic fungicides for preservation for fruits and
vegetables [77].
Use ofAloe vera Gel foranElectronic Device
Disposal of electronic waste (“e-waste”) is a major prob-
lem in these times of the electronic home. “E-waste” comes
from the jargon of information technology, but, if we look
in our homes, we will find many more electronic products
than the humble computer. After their period of usefulness
has passed, putting them into landfills causes a pollution
hazard and health hazard, as hazardous metal wastes seep
out from them into the land, water and air. There have been
campaigns for re-purposing, recycling, and re-selling old
electronic machines but these measures cannot solve the
e-waste problem [78]. For the earth and for its people, we
need better solutions.
Chemically, the problem is that electronic machines are
mostly made of inorganic materials. By definition, they are
Fig. 10 Function of cosmetotextiles on the human body
Fig. 11 Microcapsulated cosmetotextiles
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
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not biodegradable. They persist in the environment for a
lengthy, if not indefinite, period. These inorganic raw materi-
als are the main source of the e-waste problem. Their num-
ber is growing exponentially, as they persist in the short-
term while new pieces are added, but the space available to
dispose of them is declining as more and more free land is
used for housing and agriculture. Thus, the field of organic
electronics has grown, using organic materials to make field-
effect transistors, organic light-emitting devices, organic
field-effect transistors and organic memories [79, 80]. Some
natural organic materials like potato tissues, hibiscus leaf,
apple leaf, avocado lead, carrot leaf, and chicken albumen
have been used as dielectric layers in organic thin-film tran-
sistors [81, 82]. Recently, Aloe vera gel has been used as
another kind of organic dielectric layer in thin-film tran-
sistors: Aloe vera has been shown to have good insulating
properties. The group found a dielectric constant of ~ 3.4 for
a screenprinted Aloe vera layer. Aloe vera as an active layer
in electronic devices is cost-efficient, easy to process, and
suitable for biodegradable and biocompatible devices [83].
Aloe vera gel has also been shown to have low mobility and
poor electrical conductivity, so it was used as a dielectric in
electronic memory devices [84].
Lim etal. [85] develop organic-based memory devices by
using Aloe vera gel and indium tin oxide (ITO) on a glass
substrate. Here Aloe vera gel was used as an active layer in
memory devices.
Rana etal. [85, 86] observed that Aloe vera gel consists
of fully-organic particles, whether or not it is contaminated
with some foreign inorganic materials. Aloe gel’s properties
were measured by the X-ray diffraction method. The thick-
ness of an aluminum layer was 9720nm but the Aloe vera
gel layer was 33.2nm. The analysis showed that Aloe vera
can be used as a natural organic dielectric material, instead
of silicon dioxide. Aloe vera was applied to microelectronic
devices. The resistance of the aluminum layer was 2W and
the resistance of the Aloe vera layer was 2.5W, as shown by
a four-probe station. The resistance of the Aloe vera layer
was shown to be very close to the resistance level of other
dielectric materials. Therefore, Rana etal. [86] conclusion
were that Aloe vera has good dielectric properties. This sug-
gests that Aloe vera gel has good potential to be used as an
active layer in organic memory devices.
For developing an ntype organic fieldeffect transistor
(OFET) based on C60, where natural Aloe vera paste and
SiO2 nanoparticles were used as gate dielectric, 100-nm
thick aluminum layer acting as a gate electrode on a glass
substrate. The schematic design of the OFET is shown in
Fig.12. The SiO2 nanoparticles were introduced to enhance
the compatibility of the semiconductor, C60 with the Aloe
vera gel [87].
With new advances in high-mobility organic semiconduc-
tor, solution-processing and device architectures of organic
field-effect transistor (OFET), opportunities emerge for the
integration of flexible and compliant OFET-based capacitive
tactile sensor arrays. By utilizing highly compliant polymer
and introducing micro/nano-engineering for one of the key ele-
ments of OFET, the dielectric layer, we aim to realize highly
sensitive OFET pressure sensor, ready to be further fashioned
into tactile sensor pixels, which are of great utility for elec-
tronic skin and sensing tools for a variety of applications [88].
The organic electronic devices for tactile sensing applications
are shown in Fig.13.
An organic field-effect transistor (OFETs) are commonly
used in flexible electronics. The use of OFETs in a textile sub-
strate has been proposed and different configurations exam-
ined. To build up wearable OFETs consists of fabricating such
devices on flexible substrates, from which they can be easily
removed, and then transferring them onto a textile substrate. In
this case, the Authors took pentacene-based OFETs on a flex-
ible substrate made of a thin film of poly (ethylene terephtha-
late), acting both as substrate and gate dielectric. The devices
were subsequently transferred onto wearable substrates (such
as gloves, belts etc.) and used as sensors to monitor physiologi-
cal parameters of body functions [89]. OFETs on fibre have
also been disclosed [90, 91], but their realization on to fibres
is a complex process, since micropatterning of source, drain
and the gate electrode is needed. A different approach has been
disclosed [92, 93] making use of micrometer-sized organic
electrochemical transistors (OECTs). Wiring fibre OECTs may
prove to be an easier route to weaving electronics directly into
fabrics to implement Universal logic operations [94] but every
major obstacles exist in making these prototype working in the
real world, as well as all these procedures, are incompatible
with current textile technology.
UV Resistivity ofAloe vera Treated Fabric
The wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is higher than that
of X-rays. The range of UV radiation is 41nm to 400nm
with energy level from 3 to 124eV. The UV rays ranges are
Fig. 12 The schematic design of the OFET
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
1 3
differentiated into three categories: UV-A (320 to 400nm);
UV-B (290 to 320) nm; and UV-C (200 to 290) nm. UV-C
rays are safe for human beings. UV-C rays do not reach the
Earth because these rays are absorbed in the ozone layer of
the atmosphere. UV-B rays are harmful to human skin, as
these rays reach the Earth without absorption, but UV-A rays
are more dangerous to human skin [95].
Xu and Deng [33] have studied the UV-protection prop-
erties of Aloe-anthraquinone-treated cotton fabric. The
modified Aloe-anthraquinone- treated cotton fabrics have
been shown to have good anti-ultraviolet protection proper-
ties and the UV transmittance value of modified fabric is
very low compared with that of the untreated sample. The
Aloe-anthraquinone, fixed on to the fabric’s surface, might
completely absorb UV radiation. The ultraviolet protection
factor (UPF) of Aloe-anthraquinone-modified cotton fabric
was approximately 57, but the UPF value of untreated cotton
fabric was 14.
Bleached cotton fabric was shown to have the greatest
transmittance value. Note that the higher the UV trans-
mittance value, the greater the health risk. The transmit-
tance value of Aloe vera-treated fabric is lower than that of
untreated cotton fabric. This indicates that the UV protec-
tion capacity of Aloe vera-treated fabric was greater than
that of bleached cotton fabric. UV resistivity of Aloe vera
treated fabric is shown in the Fig.14. The polyphenols of
Aloe vera may help to block and absorb the UV rays [96,
97]. The UPF rating of Aloe vera treated fabric was eight
times higher than that of untreated fabric [37]. Improved
UPF value was also found after treating the reactive dyed
cotton fabric with Aloe vera [98].
Fig. 13 OFET-based sensor design integration into applications for electronic palpation in biomedicine, wearable computing, and robotics [88]
Fig. 14 UV resistivity of Aloe
vera treated fabric
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
1 3
Antioxidant Activity
Antioxidants are composed of molecules that hinder the
oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reac-
tion that can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), or
free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage
genetic material, accelerate aging and enhance the threat
of melanoma in humans. A free radical is an atom that has
at least one unpaired electron. Free radicals are released
during normal metabolism, as a by-product [99], as well
as by pollution, smoking, radiation, air pollution, alcohol
intake, toxins, high blood sugar levels etc.
Thus, the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species
(ROS) have recently drawn the attention of the health- and
hygiene- conscious public. ROS, including free radicals
such as hydroxyl radicals (OH-), superoxide anion radicals
), and non-free radical species such as H2O2 and sin-
glet oxygen (1O2), are various forms of activated oxygen.
ROS are continuously produced during normal metabolism
reactions and they can easily initiate the peroxidation of
membrane lipids, leading to the accumulation of lipid per-
oxides. The main responsible factor for oxidative stress is
ROS [100]. The sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
and its effects are shown in Fig.15.
In nature, there are many antioxidant agents that coun-
teract the effects of ROS. The role of the antioxidant agent
is shown in Fig.16. Phenol compounds can trap free radi-
cals directly or scavenge them through a series of coupled
reactions with antioxidant enzymes [12]. The abundance
of the integral phenolic OH in Aloe vera extract contrib-
utes to its antioxidant activity [101]. Recently ‘antioxidant
therapy’ has been proposed, as a new medical treatment,
to reduce the amount of reactive oxygen free radicals in
humans [102].
Superoxide radicals are one of the worst reactive oxy-
gen species for human health. They contribute to tissue
damage and accelerate various diseases. Conversion of
superoxide radicals into more-reactive species (viz. the
hydroxyl radical) has been suggested as another of their
detrimental effects [103].
Ray etal. [101] worked with Aloe vera during different
growth periods and seasons, Aloe vera extract, prepared
from 2-, 3- and 4-year-old-plants of the summer season were
assigned as S2M, S3Mand S4M, respectively. The extract
prepared from three-year-plants during rainy and winter
seasons were designated as R3M and W3M, respectively.
The three extracts from the summer season (S3M) Aloe vera
showed the highest scavenging activity against superoxide
radicals. Conversely, S2M exhibited a poor capacity to scav-
enge superoxide radicals, compared to the other gel extracts.
Aloe vera extracts showed good scavenging properties
against 2,2-di-phenyl 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radi-
cals. The action of antioxidant agents against DPPH free
radicals is shown in Fig.17.
The effect of antioxidants in DPPH radical scavenging
was thought to be due to their hydrogen-donating ability.
The reduction capability of DPPH radicals is determined
Fig. 15 The sources of reactive
oxygen species (ROS) and its
Fig. 16 The role of an antioxidant agent
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
1 3
by the decrease in absorbance at 517nm, induced by anti-
oxidant components of Aloe vera [104]. Aloe vera extract
can reduce Azoxymethane (AOM), which causes oxida-
tive stress and results in the presence of noxious chemi-
cals in the human liver [105]. Aqueous extract of Aloe
vera contains several antioxidant components: phenols,
flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and α- tocopherol
[106]. Vitamin E (also known as α-tocopherol) is a very
well-known antioxidant agent, recognized to shut out haz-
ardous oxygen and applied on textiles for anti-aging pur-
poses [107]. Microencapsulated vitamin E significantly
increases skin moisture and elasticity, thereby reducing
skin wrinkles and roughness. Despite having numerous
advantages, its direct application into textiles is hindered
by its low stability to heat and oxygen [108, 109]. Micro-
encapsulation has been devoted as the main technique for
the incorporation of active substances into the textiles.
It can be achieved by an array of methods in which the
release of the active ingredient from the microcapsules
occurs following heat, biodegradation, friction, or pres-
sure between the body and fabric during use, breaking the
capsules into fragments and releasing the encapsulated
active ingredients [110, 111].
Curative Garments
Recently curative garments have been gained considerable
attention, as they have no side effects as well as being non-
toxic and environment-friendly. On the other hand, all oral
medicines and ointments have side effects. At present, dif-
ferent natural plant extracts are used to develop curative gar-
ments. Wearing curative garments is an effective treatment
for different skin diseases like scabies, inflammatory skin
disease, seasonal skin disease, urticaria and eczema.
Krishnaveni and Aparna [39] worked on Aloe vera
enriched curative garments as a treatment for atopic derma-
titis. They developed a skin-tight T-shirt and pajama to cure
erythema-like skin disease using 20% and 40% Aloe vera
gel. Clinical trials were conducted for 8weeks. The effect of
the curative garments was evaluated once in every week. The
curative garments were worn by the patients for 10h once
per week, during sleep. To determine the performance of
curative garments in treating the patients, a Scoring Atopic
Dermatitis (SCORAD) calculator was used. Scoring atopic
dermatitis is the clinical tool for evaluating the severity of
atopic dermatitis. The 20% and 40% Aloe vera gel-treated
cotton (t-shirt and pyjama) garments showed (22.89% &
26.33%) and (35.25% and 41.34%) reductions of erythema,
respectively. The untreated garments, as a control group,
showed no reduction at all, as shown in Fig.18a and b.
Fig. 17 The action mechanism
of the antioxidant agent on 2,2
di-phenyl 1-picryl hydrazyl
(DPPH) free radicals (R: H
represents antioxidant)
DPPH (purple color) DPPH-H (color less)
Fig. 18 a Human skin before
the patient wore the Aloe gel
treated garment, b reduction of
erythema on the same human
skin after wearing Aloe gel
treated garments [39]
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
1 3
Ganesan etal. [112] worked on microencapsulation of
Aloe vera imparted curative finished garments. Microcap-
sules were produced using Aloe vera herbal extract as the
core material and acacia gum as the capsule’s wall mate-
rial. The microencapsulated Aloe vera extracts exhibited
a very good level of resistance to microbes. The microen-
capsulation of Aloe vera was applied to a single jersey-
knitted fabric using a pad-dry-cure technique. The gar-
ments were made from this encapsulated fabric. Field trial
results showed that the Aloe vera enriched garment cure
inflammatory skin disease successfully.
Aloe vera inTextile Wet Processing
A huge amount of inorganic chemicals are used in pretreat-
ment-dyeing, printing and finishing of textiles, to meet
customer demand. However, the use of these chemicals
produces a huge amount of effluent. To protect the envi-
ronment from this water pollution, researchers have been
trying to use eco-friendly products like Aloe vera instead
of inorganic chemicals for these purposes. Aloe vera is
suitable for such pretreatment because it contains a large
number of enzymes, salt and gummy substances which are
essential for textile wet processing.
Jothi [113] worked on a bio-scouring process of single
jersey knitted fabric with a lipase enzyme extracted from
the Aloe vera plant. The lipase enzyme was applied to
100% cotton knitted fabric at various concentrations (1%,
2% and 3%) at various temperatures (40°C, 60°C and
70°C) for 30min, 60min and 90min. Bio-scoured fabrics,
using the Aloe vera extract, showed better dye levels, bet-
ter dye uptake, better light fastness, better wash fastness,
and better-rubbing fastness for dark reactive colors than
did conventionally scoured fabric. Bio-scouring reduced
the volume of effluent as well as COD, TDS and pH and
saved a substantial amount of thermal energy (50%) and
electrical energy (40%). Bio-scouring wastewater has
40–50% less COD and 60% fewer TDS than conventional-
scouring waste water does.
Amanuel and Teferi [29] discussed the desizing process
using Aloe vera gel instead of inorganic chemicals. Aloe gel
contains many important enzymes and organic components
like peroxidase, carboxypeptidase, amylase and alkaline
phosphatase. The aloe gel showed outstanding results for
desizing with controlled temperature and pH.
Firstly, the active enzyme of Aloe vera enters into the
substrate and forms chemical bonds with the substrate, as
shown in Fig.19. The enzyme acts as a catalyst and forms
an unstable middle compound with the substrate, called an
“enzyme–substrate-complex” by a ’lock and key’ mechanism
which was introduced by German chemist Emil Fischer in
1907 [114]. Later, the catalyst weakened the bonds between
the substrate and the sizing materials. Consequently, the siz-
ing ingredients were separated from the substrate.
Amanuel and Teferi [29] also discuss broadly the natural
dyeing process. Aloe vera consists of salt, acid, enzymes and
many components that are essential to the dyeing process.
During the dyeing process, Aloe vera gel was used instead
of salt in a reactive dyeing process. The garment developed
different several depths of shade, according to the different
concentrations of Aloe gel used. In the dyeing bath, fabric
treated with 100% Aloe gel developed an excellent depth of
shade. But lower concentrations of Aloe vera gel showed
more-dull shades. At 80% and 60% concentrations of Aloe
vera in dyeing, the fabric showed a medium and dull depth
of shade, respectively. These results can be explained by
noting that a high concentration of Aloe vera contains more
salt than dye does. This higher salt content increases the
depth of color. However, using Aloe gel did not damage the
wash fastness, tearing strength or drapability of the fabric.
Aloe vera leaf also used as a natural dye and mordant-
ing agent. The leaf can be easily applied to protein-cationic
fibres like silk and wool, due to their functional amino group
in an acidic medium. Aloe vera leaves are not suitable for
Fig. 19 Desizing with Aloe gel
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
1 3
dyeing of cotton fibre, however, because cotton contains an
anionic group [115].
Aloe vera gel is used in the printing process as a thickener
in the reactive and pigment-printing process. Water-soluble
Aloe vera gel is one of the cheaper sources of natural thick-
ener, which contains polysaccharide and poly-mannose. Due
to the thickening nature of the polysaccharide, Aloe vera gel
has been used as a thickener recently. In the concentration of
30–40% Aloe gel and 2% binder, used in printing as a thick-
ener, the gel showed excellent results. When Aloe gel and
synthetic thickener were applied to fabric for printing, the
gel showed similar results to the synthetic in wash fastness
and colorfastness. Using Aloe vera gel as a printing paste
is easy to prepare and preserve. Aloe gel is eco-friendly,
economically cheap (as it is found everywhere) and easy to
cultivate [29].
When Aloe vera was applied to fabric, the fabric showed
low viscosity and poor sharpness. On the other hand, when
the Aloe vera gel was combined with sodium alginate, con-
taining a 50% concentration of gel and chemical, the treated
fabric showed high viscosity and high sharpness [116].
Pradhan etal. [117] evaluated the printing of cotton fabric
with reactive dye using Aloe vera gel as the printing thick-
ener. They applied Aloe gel as a thickener on cotton fabric
and got excellent wash fastness and lightfastness.
Eect ofAloe vera Treatment onPhysical
Properties ofTextiles
When Aloe vera is applied to the fabric to develop its anti-
microbial, anti-oxidant and wound healing properties, physi-
cal properties like crease recovery angle, bending length,
drape co-efficient and strength also change. The Aloe vera
finished fabric had a higher crease recovery angle (CRA),
a higher bending length and a lower whiteness index, com-
pared to untreated fabric. The Aloe vera-treated fabric also
loses its tensile strength, measured at only 44% [31]. Bend-
ing length of Aloe vera treated fabric decreases as does stiff-
ness but softness increases. Also, the coefficient of static and
dynamic fiction increases even though the whiteness index
slightly decreases [32].
The Aloe anthraquinone modified fabrics showed
improved wrinkle recovery angle, although breaking
strength slightly decreased. The moisture adsorption of fab-
rics was almost unchanged compared to the control sample
[33]. Mondal & Saha [37] evaluated the physical proper-
ties of Aloe vera treated textiles. They found that the white-
ness index, air permeability and tensile strength decreased
but water vapor permeability and crease recovery angle
increased, respectively. Meanwhile, the Aloe vera treatment
did not show any detrimental effect on the abrasion resist-
ance of finished fabric but thermal conductivity decreased
After treatment of cotton fabric by Aloe vera, crease
recovery and abrasion resistance increased, but moisture
regain, breaking strength and flexural rigidity decreased
when compared to control fabric [41]. The drape co-efficient
of Aloe vera treated printed fabric decreased and the fabric
became softer [117]. The air resistance of Aloe vera-treated
fabric was increased when compared to the control cotton
fabric. The decrease in air permeability was possibly due to
the impregnation of cotton fabric with microcapsules. The
coated microcapsules would fill the gap between yarns. As
a result, airflow did not pass easily through the fabric. Also,
the treatment decreased the whiteness value of the fabric by
about 4% [73].
Silk is a natural protein fibre, which is the main source of
microorganisms. Silk fabric is very soft and its appearance
is also excellent. But, in damp weather, silk is attacked by
microbes. To protect the fabric from microbes, Aloe vera
treatment is essential. However, such treatment produced a
30–40% loss in strength [118].
The versatile uses of Aloe gel for numerous purposes have
been proved over the years. The number of useful attributes
is being expanded day-by-day with new, innovative scien-
tific and technological developments. In modern civiliza-
tion, Aloe gel is proving to be essential, with its natural,
biodegradable and eco-friendly products that are safe for our
health. More than 200 bioactive components are present in
Aloe gel. Polysaccharides and acemannan are well-known as
the main components of Aloe vera that are responsible for its
antimicrobial, antioxidant, wound healing and personal care
product suitability. However, the mode of action of the other
components such as anthraquinones, vitamins, enzymes and
salt is also very effective for manifold purposes.
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... At this point, cosmetic textiles, which is a rapidly growing and developing link of functional textiles used in the health sector recently come into prominence. Cosmetic textiles are products that release a specific substance or solution to the human body, especially to the skin, at certain time intervals and are claimed to have properties such as slimming, cleansing, moisturizing, perfuming, changing appearance, revitalizing, anti-aging, and protection [1][2][3][4]. These products, which are also defined as "cosmetotextiles" in CEN/TC 248 Document N576, combine textile and cosmetics and provide consumers the benefits of both of them. ...
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This study aims to develop a systematic research method consisting of subjective and objective measurement methods to determine the effectiveness of cosmetic textiles on human skin. For this purpose, first of all, the expected properties of the cosmetic textile product were considered and the methods to be used for testing these properties were determined, and finally, a research method was created. Leggings, a cosmetic textile product, was selected to validate the method and a 28-day wear trial was carried out with female subjects to observe the effects of the product on human skin. During the wear trial, the subjects were provided to wear leggings that were designed from different knitting structures and applied cosmetic microcapsules to ensure the optimal slimming, moisturizing, and anti-cellulite properties. Dermatological and anthropometric measurements were carried out at specified periods of the study and the obtained data were statistically analyzed. According to the results, it was determined that the cosmetic textile product developed is skin-friendly and helps to increase skin moisture. Additionally, it was observed to provide a slimming effect to the wearer after a period of regular usage, however, it was suggested as a supportive product for women only with early-stage cellulite. A survey was also conducted to evaluate the cosmetic textiles by using subjective user opinions. The output of the survey has shown a high rate of satisfaction with the comfort, visual and sensory properties of the cosmetic textile product. By introducing the research method developed, it will be possible to accurately determine the effectiveness of cosmetic textiles on human skin and to design, develop and produce new cosmetic textile products with high cosmetic efficacy.
... Aloe vera gel contains a salty substance that allows it to be used in natural and ecological dyeing (Mosaad, 2021;Ibrahim et al., 2017;Srivastava, 2011). Aloe vera is used in the dispersion of dye Ibrahim et al., 2017;Mondal et al., 2021;Nsangou, 2020;Hetal et al., 2020;El-Zairy, 2011;Srivastava and Shinvg, 2011 Sida rhombifolia Fig. 1(b) the active ingredients of Aloe vera bind with hydroxyl groups which is a cross-linking agent of macromolecules Nsangou, 2020 The same Table 1 shows that aloe vera is used in the pre-treatment and printing of cotton fabric because of its succulent enzymatic and gummy characteristics. But this result from Table 1 confirms the reaction of aloe vera on cotton and sida rhombifolia. ...
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During the dyeing process, the color is maintained over time due to the mordant that creates a strong bond between the dye and the fiber. The most common chemical mordants are potassium alum, tartar cream, tin chloride, cupric sulfate, ferrous sulfate and potassium dichromate. The current trend of increasing nature protection requires the use of clean products for the textile finishing sector and the biodegradability of textiles. Aloe vera is known to be a natural mordant. Based on data from the literature, the authors of this paper aimed to identify several behaviors between aloe vera gel and textiles. Aloe vera gel macerated on sida rhombifolia shows (with the residue in the oven) after IR analysis a disappearance of peak 1029 cm-1 which indicated the degree of CO -C bonds of cellulose present in the modification of sida rhombifolia. The active ingredients of Aloe vera have also been shown to bind to the hydroxyl groups of cotton, which is a crosslinking agent for macromolecules.
... Furthermore, textile materials are appreciated for their flexible structures, low costs, and porous and lightweight characteristics. Chemical modifications and surficial treatments consolidate the capability of textiles to protect against UVR [4,[9][10][11][12][13][14]. Various methods such as dyeing, printing, urethane finishing, de-lustering, or UV absorption treatment play a vital role in comfort and protection against the UVR to the skin while worn [5,15]. ...
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Technological advancement leads researchers to develop multifunctional materials. Considering such trends, this study aimed to conjugate dual functionality in a single material to satisfy aesthetic and functional necessities. We investigated the potentiality of polysorbate 20 to perform as an effective ultraviolet absorber to develop UV-protective fabric. Coumarin derivative (Benzoxazolyl type) disperse dyes are well-known as fluorescent colors. On the other hand, luminescence materials are conspicuous and viable for fashion trends. Deliberate utilization of this inherent property of the dye and incorporation of polysorbate fulfilled the need for dual functionality. In addition, the knitted fabric structure enhanced wearing comfort as well. The effect of polysorbate consolidated the PET fabric as an excellent UV absorber, exhibiting an ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) of 53.71 and a blocking percentage of more than 95% for both UVA and UVB. Surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with attenuated mode was used to investigate chemical modification. Moreover, X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigated the crystallography of the surface. Reflectance spectrophotometric analysis unveiled the color strength (K/S) of the dyed polyester fabrics. Finally, light fastness assessment revealed that the developed samples could resist a certain amount of photo fading under a controlled testing environment with the increment of ratings towards betterment.
... They act as catalysts, accelerating chemical reactions in highly specific and efficient ways while not altering or being consumed [121]. Different enzymes are already used in experiments for the textile industry, and they are able to impart specific functional features to treated textiles: chitosan [103], cyclodextrin [123], alginate [124], or plant-based bioactive materials (aloe vera) [125], essential oils (jasmine) [126], natural dyes extracted from different parts of plants such as bark, leaf, root, and flowers containing common coloring materials such as tannin, flavonoids, and quinonoids [127]. ...
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This study aims to provide an overview of the latest research studies on the use of biopolymers in various textile processes, from spinning processes to dyeing and finishing treatment, proposed as a possible solution to reduce the environmental impact of the textile industry. Recently, awareness of various polluting aspects of textile production, based on petroleum derivatives, has grown significantly. Environmental issues resulting from greenhouse gas emissions, and waste accumulation in nature and landfills, have pushed research activities toward more sustainable, low-impact alternatives. Polymers derived from renewable resources and/or with biodegradable characteristics were investigated as follows: (i) as constituent materials in yarn production, in view of their superior ability to be decomposed compared with common synthetic petroleum-derived plastics, positive antibacterial activities, good breathability, and mechanical properties; (ii) in textile finishing to act as biological catalysts; (iii) to impart specific functional properties to treated textiles; (iv) in 3D printing technologies on fabric surfaces to replace traditionally more pollutive dye-based and inkjet printing; and (v) in the implants for the treatment of dye-contaminated water. Finally, current projects led by well-known companies on the development of new materials for the textile market are presented.
Natural wound dressings extracted from Aloe vera leaves have gained greater recognition in the treatment of wounds due to their ability to accelerate wound healing and their nontoxic nature for humans and the environment. Treated wound dressing allows the removal of moisture and movement of gases to and from the wound area while the antimicrobial agent in it suppresses microbial growth. Extracted Aloe vera components can be applied directly into a fabric or they can be electrospun to nanoparticles that are incorporated into the fabric. Because biological antimicrobial agents like Aloe vera are not highly effective against high concentrations of microorganisms, chemical antimicrobial agents are still used even though they are harmful. Processing Aloe vera using methods like the thermal treatment method makes the Aloe vera lose some of its therapeutic benefits. Natural fabrics treated with Aloe vera can be used as an alternative to chemical agents used for wound treatment. Natural wound dressings treated with natural antimicrobial agents have the advantage of preventing microbial growth while at the same time promoting wound healing without activating the immune response as they are biocompatible.
Aloe vera rinds rich in anthraquinone ingredients are waste in the field of skin care products. This work describes a novel application of them in the antibacterial treatment of silk. The aloe anthraquinones (AA) was extracted from aloe vera rinds by ultrasonic method. Then the silk fabrics were treated with AA by linkage of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The results of their color characteristics, surface morphology, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectra, the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that β-CD and AA were treated on silk fabric successfully. Antibacterial activity and washing stability tests showed that the AA-treated silk fabrics exhibited excellent and durable antibacterial properties. The antibacterial rate of treated fabrics against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were 99.48% and 99.89% and remained higher than 89.14% and 84.18%, respectively, after being washed 30 times. Furthermore, cell compatibility tests results showed that the AA-treated silk fabrics had good biocompatibility.
The purpose of this work is to offer a novel approach to designing multifunctional technical cotton textiles by coating them with smart bio-materials. Two different ternary nanocomposites (NC1, NC2) comprising (ammonium-salicylidene) chitosan Schiff base (ASCSB), TiO2, and ZnO nanoparticles were in-situ prepared and applied for treating cotton fibers using the facile pad-dry-cure process to impart antimicrobial and ultraviolet protection characteristics. Notably, NC1 is TiO2-rich, while NC2 is rich in ZnO. The physicochemical and visual characteristics of the new nanocomposites and the treated fabrics were investigated by spectral, microscopic, and thermal methods. The as-prepared NC1 exhibited a more homogeneous distribution, higher depositing density and smaller mean nanoparticle size (48 nm) when compared to NC2 (56 nm). In contrast, NC2-treated fabrics showed a higher depositing density of nanoparticles than NC1-treated ones. The treated cotton fibers demonstrated strong and sustainable antimicrobial impacts on S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans pathogens, with more effective performance for NC2-treated textiles in comparison to NC1-treated fabrics. The NC2-remediated cotton fabrics demonstrated a higher UV protection factor (UPF) value (53) as compared to NC1-coated fabrics (35), indicating that the ZnO-rich nanocomposite endowed cotton fabrics with more ultraviolet protection than TiO2-rich nanocomposite.
Purpose This paper aims to prevent cotton textiles from fungi damage using eco-friendly aloe vera leaf extract, which was applied at a minimum amount, and cost-effective material. Design/methodology/approach Batch extraction method using methanol solvent; phytochemical analysis was investigated and three-level factorial design of experiment and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the optimization of 27 test runs. The finish was applied by pad-dry-cue at distinct concentrations, and the chemical property after treatment was studied. Colorfastness and coordinates are analyzed. Cotton fabrics were cultured with Fusarium oxysporum fungi and the anti-fungal property was examined and reported according to AATCC 30–2004 standard. Findings The maximum yield of extract was at an optimum volume of 200 ml, 65 °C for 120 min. The effective antifungal fabric was achieved with minimum concentrations. There was significant strength loss in warp and weft direction. The treatment results in yellow-colored cotton fabric with fastness grade 3. The antifungal effect is durable until fifteen washes as the tensile strength losses were less than 1%. Research limitations/implications The findings of this work were based on samples considered in the laboratory. However, it can be reproducible at the factory production scale the treatment has the potential of yielding yellow dyed cotton fabric with multifunctional finishing. Practical implications The treated fabric is against Fusarium oxysporum Fungi which is one of the vital antimicrobial properties of textile apparel products for various areas of application. Social implications The natural extract material applied to a textile material is eco-friendly effective against microbes of cotton seeds during cultivation and apparel end-uses. Originality/value The work application of fungi resistance on cotton fabric using aloe vera active component was original; this work provides extraction of the active agent from aloe vera leaf, which is optimized statically and successfully applied for anti-fungal activity on cotton fabric.
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The application of aloe vera in textile processing is gaining worldwide detection as one of the hopeful approaches to pollution issues and cost reduction. Aloe vera gel possesses some biological activities and unique properties such as colorless, transparent, and viscosity which meet the using as a printing thickener, mordant, antimicrobial for different fabrics and dyes. Aloe vera is used in pre-treatment such as scouring, desizing, softening, and printing due to its succulent enzymatic and gummy characteristics. Aloe vera gel also contains a salty substance that allows its use in natural, eco-friendly dyeing. Aloe vera gel also is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents.This state of art highlights the novel approaches of application of aloe vera in the textile coloration and industry covering both current types of research and pilot application.
Asphalt aging and fatigue cracking are common forms of distresses in flexible pavements. Microencapsulated rejuvenator has been generating significant interest in the feasibility and potentiality applications of asphalt materials self-healing over the past decade and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. Despite multiple attempts, the prerequisite is crack propagation through the microcapsules and resulting in the broken shell, which is a passive release. Strategies toward self-healing of uncracked aged asphalt by microcapsules remain a significant challenge. Herein, numerous successful applications of controlled release microcapsules in other fields, including biomedical engineering, food industry, agriculture, smart coating, textile industry, and cosmetics, are classified and referenced. Special attention is given to the mechanisms of release and their triggers, followed by recent advances of microencapsulation technologies with detailed experimental demonstrations. In particular, the challenges and promising solutions of novel controlled release systems for asphalt materials are proposed in detail for the first time. This review aims to present future directions for research in this field, which provides new ideas for the smart maintenance of asphalt pavements.
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Aloe barbadensis miller is a naturally occurring biomolecule. This study has been undertaken to apply Aloe barbadensis miller solution on woven cotton textiles for antibacterial finish. With a view to understand the effect of various functional groups present in Aloe barbadensis miller, molecular characterisation was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Chemical groups responsible for antibacterial behaviour of Aloe barbadensis miller were evaluated. Characterisation of the chemical structure of this biomolecule was done through gas chromatography and mass spectrom-etry. Whiteness index of the treated cotton textiles decreases with increase in concentration of Aloe barbadensis miller. A larger zone of inhibition in Aloe barbadensis miller treated fabrics reveal that the antibacterial effect is more potent against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria at different levels of concentration. Cotton fabrics also generate fragrance after treatment with Aloe barbadensis miller solution. Fragrance intensity ratings of 200 respondents have been recorded and analysed. ARTICLE HISTORY
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Edible films based on potato starch, chitosan and Aloe vera gel (AV) as modifiers were evaluated towards their potential application in food or cosmetics industry. The films, with different AV gel concentration were prepared by casting method. The influence of UV radiation on samples chemical structure was analyzed. The surface morphology was observed with AFM method. The chemical structure and molecular arrangement of mixture components were analyzed with ATR–FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Hydrogen bond interactions among the film components, conformational rearrangements as well as changes in crystallinity degree were confirmed. A study of thermal resistance showed the delay of degradation observed together with an increase AV gel amount and after UV-irradiation. The hydrophilic character of the samples was proved. Water solubility slightly depends on the AV concentration in films, and it decrease after UV-irradiation. All the samples with AV gain the increase resistance to microbial action.
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Environmental consciousness as well as individual’s demand for ready to eat food, recently, has changed the trends in food packaging leading to the development of biodegradable and edible packaging. Emulsified edible films have better transparency, superior mechanical properties and provide barriers to water and other atmospheric gases. Edible films if not consumed, biodegrad chemically. In present study, edible films were, initially, prepared using Chitosan and Aloe vera at different concentrations. Films were then subjected to physical and mechanical testing. Films with 20% Aloe vera had low thickness as compared to films with no Aloe vera. These films also had superior mechanical properties and lower water vapor permeability. Films with 20% Aloe vera were, then, selected and beeswax was dispersed in Chitosan-Aloe vera solution at concentration upto 2.0% followed by film preparation through casting technique. Thickness and water vapor permeability were observed to be improved with increase in concentration of beeswax. Tensile strength of edible films was also improved 1.3 times when concentration of beeswax increased from 0.5 to 2.0%. Percentage elongation decreased with increase in beeswax concentration in the emulsified films. No change in particle size was observed with change in concentration of beeswax. Emulsions were also stable at room temperatures. Decrease in transparency of emulsified edible films was observed with increase in beeswax content in the emulsified films. In addition, cost analysis of the films proved them reasonable to be used as an alternate of synthetic packaging materials.
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Health and hygiene are the primary obligations for human beings to live comfortably and work with maximum safety. The aim of the present work is to develop environmentally friendly protective textiles. Aloe vera extract and chitosan on bleached cotton woven fabrics for medical and health care apparel. The modified fabric was tested for its resistance to the growth of gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The A. vera extract and chitosan were applied, alone or together, on cotton samples by the pad-dry-cure method, using critic acid as the cross-linking agent. The applications of 2 g/l chitosan and 2 g/l A. vera combinations on cotton fabric showed excellent antimicrobial resistance against gram-positive S. aureus bacteria. Bacteria were reduced by 81%, which was greater than the 6 g/l individually-treated result. After treatment, the tensile strength and whiteness index were tested. Thickness and crease recovery angle were increased. Soil degradation tests proved the bio-compatibility of the treated sample. The incorporation of chitosan and A. vera on the surface of the cotton fabric was investigated by FTIR, XRD and thermal analysis. The surface morphology of treated and untreated fabrics was evaluated using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Air permeability, water vapour permeability and thermal conductivity indicate thermal comfort that was not significantly affected by finishing treatment. Finished cotton fabric also showed a significant improvement in UV-protection.
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Advances have been made in flexible and stretchable electronics, functional nanomaterials, and micro/nano manufacturing in recent years. These advances have accelerated the development of wearable sensors. Wearable sensors with excellent flexibility, stretchability, durability and sensitivity, shows attractive application prospects in the next generation of personal devices for chronic dis-ease care. Flexible and stretchable wearable sensors play an important role in endowing chronic disease care systems with the capability of long-term and real-time track-ing of biomedical signals. These signals are closely associated with human body chronic conditions, such as heart rate, wrist/neck pulse, blood pressure, body temperature and biofluids information. Monitoring these signals with wearable sensors provides a convenient and non-invasive way for chronic disease diagnoses and health monitoring. In this review, the applications of wearable sensors in chronic disease care are introduced. In addition, this re-view exploits a comprehensive investigation onto requirements for flexibility and stretchability, and methods of nano-based enhancement. Furthermore, recent progress in wearable sensors including pressure, strain, electrophysiological, electrochemical, temperature and multifunctional sensors, are presented. Finally, opening research challenges and future directions of flexible and stretchable sensors are discussed.
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Aloe vera, a succulent plant that grows in arid and subtropical climates is best known for its medicinal properties and is used in Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic and Allopathic streams of medicine. It has been in use for a long time by people of varied cultures and traditional uses include applications to reduce perspiration, oral dosing for diabetes and to get rid of a range of gastrointestinal ailments. It is also used to treat burn wounds, minor cuts, genital herpes, and seborrheic dermatitis. The leaves of this wonderful medicinal plant contain numerous vitamins, minerals, natural sugars, enzymes, amino acids, and as well rich in various bioactive compounds that exhibit emollient, purgative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-helmenthic, antifungal, aphrodisiac, antiseptic and cosmetic values. Many cosmetic industries widely use this plant owing to its healing and nourishing properties. Keywords: Aloe vera, Medicinal Uses, bioactive compounds, Cosmetic industries
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There is a huge demand for the development of suitable materials for fruits and vegetable coating. Edible films such as those made from Aloe vera can be used as alternative coating materials for fruits and vegetables. The functionality and performance of edible coatings mostly depend on the production method of coating and the coating ability to adhere to the product surface. However, the development of edible films from Aloe vera should ensure that films are compatible to maintain the freshness of harvested fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable concentration of Aloe vera colourless hydro parenchyma and cinnamon oil for development of edible film strips. The film-forming solutions were prepared from 5% Aloe vera gel and 1% cinnamon oil at pH 5.7 with 2% glycerol as a plasticizer, followed by heating at 140°C for 15 min. Edible films were successfully prepared by drying the film-forming solutions at 40°C for 24 hrs. Mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) of Aloe vera based films showed a significant increase with increasing Aloe vera content in the blend for all films prepared. The edible films produced had the desirable properties of a soft surface, clear, transparent, homogenous and are flexible. Thus, the edible film formed from Aloe vera with an incorporation of cinnamon oil met the essential requirements for application on fruits and vegetables. The findings of this study are beneficial to farmers, retailers and consumers as the edible films can replace the synthetic coatings that have raised many controversies on food safety. © 2017, Malaysian Society of Applied Biology. All rights reserved.
Oxidative stress is implicated in a variety of human diseases. Reactive radicals derived from molecular oxygen (reactive oxygen species) and nitrogen (reactive nitrogen species) readily attack a variety of critical biological molecules, including lipids, DNA, and essential cellular proteins, cause alterations in normal cell and organ physiology, and activate and/or accelerate disease processes. Oxidative stress, an imbalance between the generation of free radicals and antioxidant defense systems, is also associated with cell response to a variety of toxicants. This chapter analyzes oxidative stress, its biomarkers, and the cell response to excitotoxicity, and also presents evidence of oxidative injury attenuation following exposure to deferent antioxidant systems.
Background: Wound healing is often impaired in diabetic animals and humans. Matrix metalloproteases act as pro-inflammatory agents in physiological wound healing pathways by stimulating cytokines including the interleukins, IL6, IL1A and IL1B, and the tumor necrosis factor and transforming growth factor beta1. Botanicals are traditionally used to assist healing of different types of wounds, because they produce fewer side effects. Our specific aim here was to develop a plant-based recipe supporting effective wound healing in diabetic animals. Methods: Plant materials from Adiantum capillus-veneris, Commiphora molmol, Aloe Vera, and henna were collected for this study, and oven-dried at 60 °C. The dried leaves and resins were then crumbled into a powder and mixed in equal parts with Vaseline as a preservative. This mixture was used as an ointment on wounds induced in 60 diabetic and non-diabetic rats that were divided into 6 subgroups receiving agent or control treatments. Necrotic tissue surrounding the wound was periodically removed during wound healing. RNA was extracted from the healing region of the wound at days 7, 14 and 21 for cDNA synthesis to monitor changes in Tgfb1, Mmp3, Mmp9, Il6 and Tnf α expression using real-time PCR.