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Nutrient composition and sensory properties of wheat- African bread fruit composite flour cookies

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The nutrient composition and sensory properties of wheat-African bread fruit composite cookies were investigated. The wheat flour (WF) was blended with African bread fruit flour (ABFF) in the ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 and used for the production of cookies. The cookies produced were evaluated for proximate composition, vitamin content and sensory qualities using standard analytical methods. The proximate composition of the cookies showed that the protein, fat, ash and crude fibre contents of the samples increased significantly (p≤0.05) with increasing level of African bread fruit flour while carbohydrate decreased. The vitamin content of the samples revealed that the ascorbic acid, niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, folic acid and vitamin A contents of the cookies ranged from 2.22±0.00-4.13±0.04mg/100g, 2.47±0.01-3.72±0.05mg/100g, 28.77±0.78-42.22±0.85mg/100g, 9.64±0.04-12.68±0.06mg/100g, 7.30±0.08-10.20±0.11mg/100g and 0.92±0.00-2.11±0.01mg/100g, respectively. The control (wheat flour cookies) and the cookie samples with 50% African bread fruit flour substitution had the least and highest values. The sensory properties of the cookies also showed that the level of likeness of the sensory attributes: colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability reduced with increasing substitution of African bread fruit flour. The nutrient composition and sensory qualities of wheat-African breadfruit composite cookies observed revealed that African bread fruit flour could be used as a partial replacement for wheat flour at the levels of 10 to 50% in the production of cookies.
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Discourse Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences
www.resjournals.org/JAFS
ISSN: 2346-7002
Vol. 5(2): 21-27, May, 2017
Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of
Wheat-African Yam Bean Composite Flour Cookies
Okoye, J.I.1 and Obi C.D2
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B 01660,
Enugu, Nigeria.
2Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Email for Correspondence: okoyejoseph6@gmail.com
Abstract
The proximate composition, mineral content and sensory properties of wheat African yam bean
composite cookies were determined. African yam bean flour (AYBF) was prepared and used at varying
replacement levels (10-50%) for wheat flour (WF) in the preparation of wheat-African yam bean cookies.
The increase in African yam bean flour substitution resulted in increase in the protein, fat, ash and
crude fibre contents of the composite cookies. The protein, fat, ash and crude fibre contents of the
cookies ranged from 9.87 ± 0.02-13.06 ± 0.10 %, 3.84 ± 0.03 4.63 ± 007 %, 4.84 ± 0.03 5.21 ± 0.06 %
and 3.84 ± 0.03 4.22 ± 0.04 %, respectively. The control (wheat flour cookies) and the cookie samples
substituted with 50% African yam bean flour had the least and highest values. The carbohydrate
content of the cookies ranged from 67.69 ± 0.11 to 72.86 ± 0.06 % with the control having the highest
value compared to the samples substituted with African yam bean flour. The mineral content of the
cookies showed that the calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron contents of the
samples increased significantly with increasing substitution of African yam bean flour. The sensory
properties of the samples also revealed that the cookies made with 100% wheat flour used as control
were the most acceptable by the panelists and also differed significantly (p0.05) from the other
samples in taste, flavour and texture. However, the cookie samples substituted with 50% African yam
bean flour were rated highest (6.86± 0.06) in colour. The nutrient composition and sensory properties of
wheat-African yam bean cookies observed showed that African yam bean flour could be used as a
partial substitute for wheat flour at the levels of 10 to 50%, thus providing an alternative means of
diversifying the use of non-wheat flour.
Keywords: African Yam bean, cookies, proximate composition, mineral content, sensory properties.
INTRODUCTION
The high cost of animal protein has directed interest towards several leguminous seed proteins as potential sources of
vegetable protein for human food and livestock feed. Legumes or pulses are good sources of protein in human and
animal food and are protein complements to cereals (Onimaivo and Asugo, 2004). They are relatively richer in protein
than the cereal grains and many diets formulated from legume-cereal mixtures are known to be nearly completed in
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essential amino-acid content (Okaka et al., 2006). The complementary role of legume protein and increased cost of
animal protein for human food has made legumes important as alternative and cheap sources of dietary protein in
human nutrition. Among the plant species, grain legumes are considered as the major source of dietary proteins. They
are consumed worldwide, especially in developing and under developed countries where the consumption of animal
protein may be limited as a result of economic, social, cultural or religious factors (Enwere, 1998; Eke, 2002). However,
the use of legumes as protein source is limited by the presence of anti-nutrients which interfere with digestive processes
and prevent efficient utilization of their proteins. Some of the anti-nutrients present in legumes are protease inhibitors,
heamagglutinins, saponins, oxalates, phytates and flatulence factors (Udensi et al., 2010; Ojokoh et al., 2013). To
improve the nutritional quality and organoleptic acceptability of leguminous seeds, processing techniques such as
soaking in water, boiling at high temperatures in water, alkaline or acidic solutions, germination, autoclaving, roasting,
dehulling, microwave treatment, steam blanching and fermentation have been employed to reduce or destroy the anti-
nutrients present in them. (Ugwu and Okaka, 2008; Nzelu, 2008). African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is one of
the lesser known and underutilized legumes that is very rich in protein, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals (Wokoma
and Aziagba, 2001). The protein of African yam bean is made up of over 32 percent essential amino acids, with lysine
and leucine being predominant. African yam bean seeds can be roasted and eaten with palm kernel as snacks or boiled
and eaten with local seasoning, starchy root crops and fruits (Eneche, 2006). African yam bean seeds can be also
processed into flour which can be used for the production of bakery and confectionary products such as breads, biscuits,
cookies, doughnuts, pie crust and cakes.
Cookies (soft type biscuits) are one of the bakery products that are widely accepted and consumed in many developed
and developing countries of the world (Giami et al., 2004). African yam bean flour can be used in composite with other
flours from cereals, legumes, nuts or root and tuber crops for the preparation of baked and confectionary products.
Composite flour is a mixture of different flours from roots and tubers, legumes, cereals or other raw materials that is
created to satisfy specific functional characteristics and nutrient composition. However, the term may mean mixing of
different flours from cereals, legumes or root and tuber crops into a composite with wheat for the preparation of baked
and fried products like breads, cookies, doughnuts, pie crust, burns and chin-chin. FAO (1990) reported that the
substitution of wheat flour with 20 percent non-wheat flour for the manufacture of bakery products would result in an
estimated savings in foreign exchange of twenty million US dollars for developing countries of the world. The utilization
of non-conventional flours, such as, African yam bean flour in the production of baked products can serve as an
alternative means of diversifying the use of non-wheat flour because it has the potential to increase farmer’s income by
adding value to the products, increase the protein intake of the consumers of the products, reduce wheat importation
and support food diversification and security. The objective of this study, therefore, is to determine the proximate
composition, mineral content and sensory properties of wheat/ African yam bean composite flour cookies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The African yam bean seeds (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) used for the study were purchased from Ogbete Market Enugu,
Enugu State, Nigeria. Commercial wheat flour and the other ingredients (fat, sugar, baking power, salt, eggs and
flavouring) used for cookie production were also purchased from the same market.
Preparation of Germinated African Yam Bean Flour
The germinated African yam bean flour was prepared according to the method of Eke (2002). During preparation, one
kilogramme (1kg) of African yam bean seeds which were free from dirt and other foreign particles such as stones, sticks
and leaves were thoroughly cleaned and soaked in 3 litres of potable water at room temperature (30 ± 20C) for 48 h with
occasional change of soak water at intervals of 8 h to prevent microbial fermentation. The soaked seeds were drained,
rinsed and spread on wet jute bag and allowed to sprout at ambient temperature for 96 h. During this period, the seeds
were sprinkled with water at intervals of 6 h to facilitate germination. The growth of the sprouted seeds was terminated
by drying the seeds in a hot air oven (Model 10-D1390) at 600C for 24 h with occasional stirring of the seeds at intervals
of 30 min to ensure uniform drying. The dried seeds were cleaned manually and rubbed in between palms to remove the
sprouts and the hulls. The dehulled seeds were milled in a locally fabricated attrition mill and sieved through a 400
micron mesh sieve. The flour produced was packaged in an airtight plastic container, labeled and stored in a freezer
until needed for further use.
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Flour Blend Formulation
Wheat flour (WF) was blended with African yam bean (AYBF) in the ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 in a
Kenwood mixer (Model Nx908G, Kenwood, Britain, UK) to produce wheat-African yam bean composite flours. The
composite flours produced were packaged individually in an airtight plastic container, labeled and stored at room
temperature (30±20C) until needed for cookie production.
Preparation of Cookies
The cookies were prepared according to the method of Okpala and Okoli (2011). The recipe used for the preparation of
cookies contained 100% flour, 40% sugar, 80% fat, 2% baking powder, 2% salt, 5% beaten egg and 5% vanilla flavour.
During preparation, the flour, sugar, baking powder and salt were hand mixed in a plastic bowl. This was followed by the
addition of fat and further mixing by hand until a bread crumb-like mixture was obtained. The mixture was transferred
into the food processor (Homeluck). The beaten egg and vanilla flavour were then added and the mixture was mixed
thoroughly at medium speed for 5 minutes to obtain the dough. The dough was manually rolled out on a flat and smooth
floured board into sheets of uniform thickness of 4cm and cut with a circular cookie cutter with diameter of 4cm. The cut
doughs were transferred into baking trays lined with grease proof paper and baked at 1800C for 20 min in a domestic
oven (Camara, Italy). Thereafter, the cookies were cooled at room temperature (30±20C) and divided into two (2) lots.
The first lot was subjected to sensory evaluation after 24 h. The second lot was milled and used for chemical analyses.
In addition, the cookies made with 100% wheat flour were similarly prepared and used as control.
Chemical Analysis
The moisture, crude protein, fat, ash and crude fibre contents of the cookies were determined in triplicate according to
standard analytical methods (AOAC, 2006). Carbohydrate was obtained by difference of moisture, protein, fat and ash
from 100% (Onwuka, 2005). The potassium and iron contents of the cookies were determined after ashing by the use of
a flame photometer (Model 405, Corning, UK) according to the method of Ndie et al. (2010). The calcium and
magnesium contents of the samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model
1033, Norwalk, CT, USA) according to the method of AOAC (2006). Phosphorus was determined by the
vanadomolybdate colorimetric method of Giami (2005).
Sensory Analysis
Semi-trained consumer taste panelists comprising of twenty (20) staff and students selected from the University
Community were used to evaluate the sensory attributes of the cookies. During the sensory test, the cookies were
individually coded and served in white ceramic plates of uniform sizes to the panelists at room temperature (30±20C)
with cold water for rinsing. The panelists were asked to taste, assess and rate the samples for attributes of crust colour,
taste, flavour, texture and overall acceptability using a nine-point Hedonic scale with 1 and 9 representing dislike
extremely and like extremely, respectively (Okaka, 2010).
Statistical Analysis
The data generated were analyzed statistically by the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and difference between
means separated. A completely randomized block design was used in this experiment. SPSS software (Version 16.0)
was used to determine significant differences (p0.05) among the sample means. Significant means were separated
using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Proximate Composition
Table 1 shows the proximate composition of wheat African yam bean composite cookies. The moisture content was
between 8.59-941% for the control sample (wheat flour cookies) and cookie samples with 50% African yam bean flour
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Table 1. Proximate composition (%) of wheat-African yam bean composite cookies.
Samples
Moisture
Crude
Protein
Fat
Ash
Crude Fibre
Carbohydrate
A
8.59f±0.04
9.87f±0.02
3.84f±0.03
4.84f±0.03
3.84e±0.03
72.86a±0.06
B
8.65e±0.01
10.56e±0.05
4.32e±0.08
4.89e±0.10
3.95d±0.04
71.56b±0.04
C
9.21d±0.02
11.29d±0.05
4.41d±0.02
4.93d±0.06
4.01c±0.04
70.17c±0.05
D
9.27c±0.02
11.89c±0.04
4.47c±0.01
5.00c±0.03
4.13b±0.01
69.37d±0.09
E
9.35b±0.04
12.26b±0.06
4.54b±0.05
5.14b±0.04
4.17b±0.02
68.72e±0.07
F
9.41a±0.03
13.06a±0.10
4.63a±0.07
5.21a±0.06
4.22a±0.04
67.69f±0.11
Values are mean ± standard deviation of triplicate determinations. Means in the same column with different
superscripts are significantly different (p≤0.05).
A Cookies made with 100% wheat flour, B Cookies made with 90% wheat flour and 10% African yam bean flour,
C Cookies made with 80% wheat flour and 20% African yam bean flour, D Cookies made with 70% wheat flour
and 30% African yam bean flour, E- Cookies made with 60% wheat flour and 40% African yam bean flour, F
Cookies made with 50% wheat flour and 50% African yam bean flour.
substitution. The moisture content of the wheat flour cookies was significantly the lowest. This could be due to low
moisture and water absorption capacity (13.52 and 58.02%) of wheat flour (Deshmukh and Yenag, 2016) as compared
with that of African yam bean flour (13.94 and 86.42%, respectively) (Eke, 2002). The moisture content of wheat-African
yam bean composite cookies was comparable with reports on moisture contents of cookies and moisture contents
above 10% are likely to cause the spoilage of the products through increased microbial action (Okpala et al., 2013,
Barber and Obinna- Echem, 2016).
The protein content of wheat flour cookies (control samples) was the lowest, while those with African yam bean flour
substitutions had higher protein contents. This showed that the addition of African yam bean flour resulted in increase in
the protein content of the cookies. This observation is not in doubt because African yam bean had been reported to be a
good source of protein (Uguru and Madukaife, 2001; Adeparusi, 2001; Okoye et al., 2015). There has been similar
report on the increase in protein content of bakery products substituted with pigeon pea flour (Eneche, 2006). The fat
content of the cookies increased as the proportion of African yam bean flour increased. This observation is in line with
reports that African yam bean has high oil content (Obatolu, et al., 2007; Onwuka et al., 2009; Nwosu, 2013). The ash
content of the control samples (100% wheat flour cookies) was the least, while those substituted with African yam bean
flour had higher ash contents. This signified that the addition of African yam bean flour resulted in increase in the ash
content of the cookies. The high ash content of the samples with African yam bean flour substitutions is an indication
that African yam bean is a rich source of ash (Ojukwu et al., 2012). The fibre content of the cookies ranged from 3.84 to
4.22%. The values obtained in this study were within the recommended FAO/WHO (1994) level of not more than 5% for
both children and adults. The carbohydrate contents of all the test cookie samples were lower than the control. Okaka et
al. (2009) reported a decrease in carbohydrate content of biscuits with increasing substitution of brown bean flour. The
substitution of wheat flour with African yam bean flour in the production of cookies greatly improve their protein, fat, ash
and fibre contents.
Mineral Composition
Table 2 shows the mineral content of wheat African yam bean cookies. The calcium content of the wheat flour cookies
was the least, while those with African yam bean flour substitutions had higher calcium contents. This revealed that the
calcium content of the samples increased as the proportion of African yam bean flour increased. The observation is in
agreement with the report that African yam bean is a rich source of calcium (Uguru and Madukaife, 2001). The
potassium content of the samples increased as the level of substitution of the cookies with African yam bean flour
increased. This is in line with the report that African yam bean has high potassium content (Eke, 2002; Asoiro and Ani,
2011). The phosphorus content of the cookies which ranged from 3.38 to 4.13mg/100g increased significantly (p0.05)
as the level of inclusion of African yam bean in the products increased. There has been similar report on the increase in
phosphorus content of biscuits substituted with bambara groundnut flour (Otunola et al., 2004). The iron content of the
wheat flour cookies was the lowest, while the iron content of the cookie samples substituted with African yam bean flour
increased as the proportion of African yam bean flour increased. This observed increase in the iron
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Table 2. Mineral content of wheat African yam bean composite cookies.
Samples
Calcium
(mg/100g)
Potassium
(mg/100g)
Phosphorus
(mg/100g)
Iron
(mg/100g)
Magnesium
(mg/100g)
A
10.28f±0.05
4.22f±0.03
3.38e±0.04
3.77f±0.07
3.55f±0.05
B
10.37e±0.07
4.40e±0.03
3.56d±0.06
3.91e±0.09
3.70e±0.04
C
10.72a±0.09
4.61d±0.04
3.88c±0.08
4.01d±0.04
3.78d±0.04
D
11.24c±0.04
4.89c±0.05
4.04b±0.03
4.08c±0.03
3.95c±0.04
E
11.40b±0.05
5.01b±0.04
4.09a±0.02
4.14b±0.05
4.05b±0.03
F
11.65a±0.06
5.08a±0.03
4.13a±0.01
4.14b±0.05
4.11a±0.01
Values are mean ± standard deviation of triplicate determinations. Means in the same column with different
superscripts are significantly different (p≤0.05).
A Cookies made with 100% wheat flour, B Cookies made with 90% wheat flour and 10% African yam bean flour,
C Cookies made with 80% wheat flour and 20% African yam bean flour, D Cookies made with 70% wheat flour
and 30% African yam bean flour, E- Cookies made with 60% wheat flour and 40% African yam bean flour, F
Cookies made with 50% wheat flour and 50% African yam bean flour.
Table 3. Sensory properties of wheat African yam bean composite cookies
Samples
Colour
Flavor
Taste
Texture
Overall acceptability
A
6.35e±0.05
7.35a±0.08
7.10a±0.14
7.55a±0.08
7.75a±0.09
B
6.45d±0.07
6.50b±0.10
6.65b±0.11
6.70b±0.07
7.36b±0.08
C
6.65c±0.11
6.35c±0.05
6.55c±0.10
6.65c±0.11
6.85c±0.06
D
6.68c±0.10
6.36c±0.05
6.40d±0.14
6.55d±0.10
6.75d±0.07
E
6.75b±0.07
6.32c±0.06
6.30e±0.06
6.45e±0.07
6.65e±0.11
F
6.86a±0.06
6.26d±0.05
6.25f±0.05
6.35f±0.05
6.50f±0.10
Values are mean ± standard deviation of twenty (20) semi-trained judges. Mean in the same column with different
superscripts are significantly different (p≤0.05).
A Cookies made with 100% wheat flour, B Cookies made with 90% wheat flour and 10% African yam bean flour, C
Cookies made with 80% wheat flour and 20% African yam bean flour, D Cookies made with 70% wheat flour and 30%
African yam bean flour, E- Cookies made with 60% wheat flour and 40% African yam bean flour, F Cookies made with
50% wheat flour and 50% African yam bean flour.
content of the cookies is an indication that African yam bean is a rich source of iron (Oshodi et al., 1995). The
magnesium content of the samples increased significantly (p≤0.05) as the proportion of African yam bean flour
increased. This showed that African yam bean has high magnesium content (Eke, 2002). In effect, the use of wheat
African yam bean composite flours in the preparation of cookies had greater effect in enhancing their mineral contents.
Sensory Properties
Table 3 shows the sensory properties of wheat African yam bean cookies. The wheat flour cookies used as control
were rated significantly (p≤0.05) higher than the test cookie samples with 10 to 40% African yam bean flour
substitutions for the attributes of taste, texture, flavour and overall acceptability. The cookie samples with 50% African
yam bean flour substitution were significantly (p≤0.05) different from the control in colour. This showed that the level of
likeness of the cookies reduced gradually with improvement in colour as substitution with African yam bean flour
increased when compared with the traditional wheat flour cookies. The substitution of wheat flour with African yam bean
flour in the production of cookies at a level up to 50% produced good and acceptable results.
Conclusion
The proximate composition and the mineral content of the wheat African yam bean cookies investigated in this study
showed that African yam bean flour can be used successfully as a partial substitute for wheat flour in the production of
26
cookies at the levels of 10 to 50%. The test cookie samples with African yam bean flour substitutions generally had
higher protein, ash, fibre and mineral contents than the wheat flour cookies. The cookies substituted with 50% African
yam bean flour were the most preferable in terms of colour, while the control (wheat flour cookies) was rated higher than
the rest of the cookies in flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability. However, further studies should be done to
determine the vitamin and amino acid profiles, nutritional quality and the storage stability of the wheat African yam
bean composite cookies.
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... The high protein content reported in this study might be due to the addition of groundnut and cashew nut paste which are rich in protein. The protein content reported by Ojinnaka, Adeyeye, Asaolu, and Aluko [33] (2016), Taiwo, Ayodele, and Olajide [34] (2015) and Okoye and Obi [28] (2017) on cookies produced from wheat -African breadfruit flour were higher than that obtained from the present study. ...
... Fat content reported by Onwuka [32] (2005), Hasan et al. [29] (2010) on cookies produced from wheatjackfruit seed flour composite was consistent with the present study. Okoye and Obi [28] (2017) also reported fat contents which were significantly lower than those obtained from the present study but consistent with Sample C (50% wheat flour, 25% cocoyam flour and 25% cashew nut paste). ...
... The crude fibre content of the cookies obtained from the present study was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that reported by Okoye and Obi [28] (2017) but consistent with that reported by Eke-Ejiofor [31] (2013) on cookies made from African breadfruitsweet potato and wheat flour composite blends and Onwuka [32] (2005) on cookies produced from wheat flour, cocoyam and date palm fruit pulp as sugar substitute. However, a lower crude fibre content was reported by Ajani et al. [35] (2012) on snacks produced from breadfruit and cocoyam flour. ...
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Across the world, people of all ages enjoy and commonly eat cookies as snacks. In this study, cookies made from blends of wheat flour, cocoyam flour, cashew nut, and groundnut paste were evaluated for nutrient, phytochemical, and organoleptic properties. Wholesome wheat, Cocoyam corm, cashew nut, groundnut and other baking ingredients were purchased from Relief Market in Owerri, Imo State. The wheat flour, cocoyam flour, cashew and groundnut paste were prepared separately and blended in different proportions. Three blends (Sample A, 100% wheat flour; Sample B, 25:50:25 of groundnut, wheat flour and cocoyam; Sample C, 50:25:25 wheat flour, cashew nut and cocoyam) were produced. Proximate composition, mineral and phytochemical content of the cookies were determined using standard procedures. The result shows that the moisture content of the blends ranged from 7.30 to 8.54%, carbohydrate content ranged from 61.37 to 63.92%, protein content ranged from 8.14 to 10.38%, fat content ranged from 14.19 to 18.28%, crude fiber ranged from 1.50 to 2.07%, ash content ranged from 2.41 to 2.85%. The carbohydrate content of the samples varied significantly (p<0.05). The calcium content ranged from 42.63 to 52.77 mg/100g, iron content ranged from 0.96 to 1.27 mg/100g and zinc from 1.4 - 1.84 mg/100g. There was significant difference in the alkaloid, flavonoid and saponin contents of the samples with sample A being significantly higher (P<0.05) in alkaloid and flavonoid while sample C, 50:25:25 wheat flour, cocoyam flour and cashew nut were higher in saponin 0.70 mg/100g. Result of the sensory evaluation shows that sample A (control) was the best preferred. The test cookie samples with cocoyam flour, cashew nut and groundnut paste substitutions generally had higher protein, ash, energy, fat, fiber and calcium contents than the wheat flour cookies. The test cookies were also higher in flavonoid and saponin. The control (wheat flour cookies) was rated higher than the rest of the cookies in taste, texture, colour and overall acceptability, although their scores indicates that they were also acceptable. Production of cookies with wheat flour, cocoyam, cashew nut and groundnut blends has a good nutritional potential and should be encouraged as wheat flour substitute.
... Since African yam bean is available, affordable, and inexpensive, its incorporation in food products and continual utilization promise nutrition and health benefit to consumers across all socio-economic statuses. Some initiatives employed the grain legume as a fortifier in biscuits (Idowu, 2014) and cookies (Okoye and Obi, 2017). They noted that this readily available nutritionally-dense grain legume satisfactorily fortified biscuits and cookies, improving calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and iron contents and widely improving the physicochemical properties of the two confectioneries including their color. ...
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The African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hochst Ex. A. Richmond, Harms, is an indigenous tuberous legume of the humid tropics of Africa. Its edible pulse and tuber host significant promises for food, nutrition, and health security. It was identified as a counterpart of cowpea in the 1970s and rated to be highly nutritious, but notable constraints have denied it research and funding attention. “Cowpea revolution” further deprived focus on the African yam bean. However, some research updated and promoted its significant food, feed, and nutritional-pharmaceutical values between 1973 and 2000. The global trend for food diversification has further improved awareness and research on the African yam bean this past decade, but research focus on the tuber is incomparably small. The abundant minerals, vitamins, and bioactive compounds in the two economic products unveiled in the present review assure food, health, and nutritional security. The analytical comparison of nutritional values of the African yam beans and other grain legumes demonstrated the significant place of the crop among its counterparts. Furthermore, investigative research identified the grain as a good substitute for soybean for livestock feed formulations. Although no clinical study has been reported, some in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo biological activities and human studies of the two economic products revealed their efficacy in the management of anti-natal lactation induction, anemia, diabetes, arthritis, etc. However, African yam bean still suffer displacement in rank, utilization, and popularity compared to the “favored” legumes. While the present review adds to its advocacy, awareness, and utilization, a coordinated research program that will boost its value chain is most necessary for progress.
... Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State University Owerri website: www ajol.info economic relevance of indigenous crops (Okoye and Obi, 2017). The use of composite flours have some advantages for developing countries such as Nigeria in terms of enhancement of nutritional quality of food, utilization of under-exploited crops, thus, preventing them from going into extinction and reduction in the importation of wheat flour, thereby saving of foreign exchange (Hasmadi et al., 2014). ...
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This study aimed at investigating the use of wheat, Bambara nut and orange fleshed sweet potato composite flours in the production of cookies. Enriched cookies were produced using wheat, Bambara nut and Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato flour blends in the ratios: 100:0:0, 90:5:5, 90:0:10, 80:10:10 and 80:5:15 and were labeled BVB, ACC, LVG, BCN and CFC respectively. Sample BVB (100% wheat flour) served as the control. The functional properties of the flour blends were determined, as well as the proximate and beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) composition of the cookies. Also, the physical parameters and sensory qualities of the enriched cookies were evaluated. The moisture content, protein, fat, fibre, ash and carbohydrate ranged from 5.70 to 8.57%, 9.62 to 11.93%, 11.02 to 13.02%, 2.33 to 4.03%, 1.23 to 1.54% and 63.33 to 68.79% respectively. The energy value ranged from 405.46 to 420.03 k/cal. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the functional properties of the flour blends. The result also revealed that the β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) increased with increase in substitution of orange fleshed sweet potato. The results showed significant differences (p<0.05) in physical properties of the cookies in weight, diameter, break strength, density and volume while there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in thickness and spread ratio. The sensory analysis indicated that all the samples had high level of acceptability in their sensory attributes, but sample BVB and ACC had the best overall acceptability ratings of 7.50 and 7.10 respectively. Therefore, enriched cookies produced from the blends were acceptable.
... In addition, AYB seeds are used as a seasoning in soups [13,14]. Also, AYB seeds were reportedly used to fortify food products, including breakfast meals, biscuits, and cereal flour [15][16][17]. AYB seeds are likewise crucial in the nutrient enrichment of animal feeds when used solely or combined with nutrient supplements [6,18]. However, despite its immense potential for food, nutrition, and resilience to adverse environmental conditions, AYB is neglected, which could be attributed to constraints, including seed hardness [19][20][21], prolonged cooking time [6,22,23], and abundance of antinutrient factors (tannin, phytate, and oxalate) [5,7,10]. ...
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African yam bean has immense food and nutrition potential and is resilient to adverse environmental conditions. Despite its potential, the crop is underutilized, which could be attributed to seed hardness (requiring about 6-24 hours of cooking time); and the abundance of antinutrient factors (tannin, phytate, and oxalate). is study evaluated the physical (seed hardness, cooking time) and chemical compositions (crude protein, tannin, phytate, and oxalate) of 93 AYB accessions grown in Ethiopia. e seed hardness of each accession was determined by the compression force and compression time using Texture Analyzer, whereas cooking time was ascertained using Mattson Bean Cooker. e accession's crude protein level, tannin, oxalate, and phytate were investigated from flour samples using standard laboratory procedures. Highly significant (P < 0.01) differences were observed for cluster means of compression force, cooking time, and oxalate. e accessions were grouped into three clusters: cluster-II was prominent with 42 accessions, while cluster-I had the least (25). e mean values for compression force ranged from 50.05 N ± 10.25 (TSs-423) to 278.05 N ± 13.42 (TSs-378) whereas compression time varied from 0.35 secs ± 0.02 (TSs-334) to 5.57 secs ± 6.12 (TSs-62B). Cooking time ranged from 127.50 mins ± 2.12 (TSs-82A) to 199.50 mins ± 10.61 (TSs-138B); crude protein ranged from 15.41% ± 0.11 (TSs-269) to 24.51% ± 0.22 (TSs-446). Tannin ranged from 0.61 mg/g ± 0.02 (TSs-47) to 9.62 mg/g ± 0.03 (TSs-334) likewise, phytate ranged from 0.28 ± 0.01 (TSs-137) to 7.01 ± 0.10 (TSs-3). Accessions TSs-55; TSs-82 showed the lowest oxalate content of 0.21% ± 0.01; 0.21% ± 0.00, respectively. Similarly, TSs-352; TSs-47 revealed the most abundant tannin content of 0.70 ± 0.00 and 0.70 ± 0.07. e correlation analysis revealed a low positive and significant (P < 0.05) association (r � 0.24) between protein and phytate content.
... Several reviews have been done on the biochemistry and nutritional aspect of unfermented African yam bean seeds. Research studies on AYB seed have focused mainly on the utilization of the unfermented seeds as part of composite flour in confectioneries [9,10,11,12,13]. AYB seeds have limited utilization as food and food ingredients due to the presence of anti-nutrients such as tannin, phytic acid, saponin, and as well as its hard-to-cook phenomena. ...
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African yam bean seeds (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) Iru-like condiment was produced with 0.005 and 0.0075 g broth/g seed different concentrations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens culture. The sample fermentation was conducted at 35 °C for 5 days. Proximate composition, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, pH, and titratable acidity of the fermented samples were assessed using standard methods. Proximate composition of fermented African yam bean (AYB) condiment with 0.005 g broth/g seed inoculum concentration as determined were crude protein (6.86%-7.74%), crude fat (1.37%-1.71%), crude fiber (2.73%-4.81%), ash content (1.02%-1.59%), moisture content (9.71%-14.92%), dry matter (85.10%-90.28%), carbohydrate (70.43%-77.16%). The pH, total titratable acidity, water absorption capacity (WAC), and oil absorption capacity (OAC) of the fermented condiment were 6.76-7.60 ml, 0.07-0.09 ml, 0.50%-0.92%, and 0.55%-0.65% respectively. The fermented condiment produced with 0.0075 g broth/g seed inoculum concentration had its proximate composition as determined as crude protein (8.10%-8.53%), crude fat (1.81%-2.12%), crude fiber (2.83%-3.73%), ash content (1.23%-1.42%), moisture content (8.97%-12.81%), dry matter (87.19%-90.91%), carbohydrate (72.22%-76.13%) while its pH, total titratable acidity, WAC and OAC ranged as 7.10-8.76 ml, 0.06-0.11 ml, 0.38%-0.81% and 0.54%-0.84% respectively. The sensory acceptability scores reveal condiment samples from 0 hours as the best-preferred sample produced from the use of the inoculum concentrations. The study showed that AYB seeds condiments produced were significantly different in terms of different concentrations of starter culture used. Although the single starter culture did not deliver acceptable products during the fermentation, it played a few parts within the product quality.
... It is a quality criterion for good formulations. Swelling power is the ability to increase in volume when foamed [25,26]. The effect of their swelling index will be reflected on the texture of food prepared from such flours. ...
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The study examined the chemical and functional properties of composite flours based on maize, Bambara groundnut, and mango for possible use as complementary food. Flours were prepared from yellow maize variety, Bambara groundnut and mango pulp and blended in the ratios 100/0/0, 90/5/5, 85/10/5, 75/20/5, 70/25/5 and 65/30/5 labelled as samples A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. Standard methods were used to evaluate the composite flours and the control for functional properties, and chemical properties. Analysis showed an increase in the moisture content, proteins (19.28% in sample A to 23.81 %
... It was observed that the higher the level of incorporation of palapye-cowpea, the lower the carbohydrate content of the cookies. This may be as a result of low carbohydrate content of the palapye-cowpea in agreement with the work of Okoye and Obi [25] that discovered lower carbohydrate content of cookies produced from blends of cassava and palapye cow-pea. ...
Article
Objective: The study aimed at production and quality evaluation of composite flours and cookies from cassava (Maniholt esculenta) -grey speckled palapye cowpea (Vigna sinensis). Methods: Flour was respectively produced from cassava and palapye cowpea. The flours of cassava and palapye cowpea were mixed in the ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 respectively before being analyzed for antinutrient and functional properties. Cookies were produced from the flours and then evaluated for their respective nutrient and organoleptic attributes. Data was analysed using using spss version 21.0. Results: The anti-nutrient concentration ranged from 0.83 to 1.25% (phytate), 0.07 to 0.19% (phenol), 0.12 to 0.17% (tannin), 0.09 to 0.21 Tiu/mg (trypsin inhibitor) and 0.28 to 0.88 mg/kg (hydrogen cyanide). The functional properties were found to be within 0.47 to 0.58 g/ml (bulk density), 1.62 to 2.04 g/g (capacity), 1.58% to 2.06 g/g (oil absorption capacity), 1.26 to 1.74 g/ml (swelling capacity) and 10.47 to 14.86% (foaming capacity). Proximate composition of the cookies samples showed 9.43 to 10.77% (moisture), 2.03 to 6.88% (protein), 1.03 to 1.91% (fat), 1.24 to 2.55% (ash), 3.22 to 4.26% (fibre) and 76.01 to 80.82% (carbohydrate). The sensory scores of the cookies ranged from 6.2 to 7.3 on the hedonic scale. Conclusion: The cassava-grey speckled cowpea flour proved satisfactory in cookies production and could also serve well in formulations for other food products.
... Carbohydrate content varied from 60.29 -64.99%. Decreasing trend of carbohydrate content as the substitution level increases is in accordance with the findings of Okaka et al., [15] as well as Okoye and Obi [16]. Biscuits are generally high in sugar and low in moisture. ...
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Bambara nut (Voandzeia subterrenea (L.) Thouars) is a cheap source of leguminous protein with a good potential as substitute for relatively expensive animal protein, in several food products such as biscuits, particularly in developing countries. Biscuit was produced from blends of wheat flour and fermented bambara nut flour (l00:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50) and was analysed. Proximate composition and protein content of biscuit produced from the flour mixes was higher than that produced with 100% wheat flour, while the moisture content ranged between 2.95 and 5.71%. The carbohydrate components and reducing sugar were in the ranges of 60.29 and / 64.99%, and 2.74 and 4.43%, respectively. Sensory data indicated that the fermented bambara nut biscuit with up to 30% were acceptable. Thickness, diameter and spread ratio of the biscuit ranged from 230.33-285.67mm, 29.00-36.67 mm and 61.70-89.19%, respectively. Consequently, the potentials of fermented bambara nut in biscuit production was established thereby providing alternative composite flour in biscuit production.
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Cassava root flours from five different cultivars (C-MSAF2, C-P4/10, C-P98/0505, C-P98/0002, and C-UKF8) were studied for their potential application in the food industry. Proximate composition, functional, thermal, and pasting properties were investigated. Cassava flours were high in carbohydrates (85-86%) and their amino acid profiles varied. Cultivars C-MSAF2, C-P98/0002, and C-UKF8 showed high protein content (5.06%), mineral content (2.36%), and the largest particle size (72.33 µm), respectively. Solubility of cassava flours decreased as temperatures increased, however, swelling power and water absorption capacity increased. C-MSAF2 showed the highest peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity, and shortest peak time. C-P98/0505 showed the highest final viscosity, the highest pasting temperature, and the longest peak time. Cassava flours studied are promising candidates for utilization in the baking industry, however, their incorporation into baked product formulations needs further investigation.
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African yam bean, an underutilized legume usually cultivated for its edible tubers and seeds, is known for its nutrition-rich qualities; however, the crop’s level of consumption is low. The underutilization of the crop could be attributed to several constraints, including long cooking hours of up to 24 hours. Cooking time is an important food trait; it affects consumers’ choices, nutrients content, and anti-nutrient conditions. Additionally, foods requiring long cooking hours are non-economical in terms of energy usage and preparation time. The prolonged cooking time associated with AYB places enormous limitations on the invaluable food security potentials of the crop. Therefore, the availability of AYB grains with a short cooking time could lift the crop from its present underused status. To efficiently develop AYB grains with reduced cooking time, information on the crop’s cooking variables is a prerequisite. This review presents available information on variations in cooking time, cooking methods, and processing steps used in improving cooking time and nutrient qualities in AYB. Likewise, the review brings to knowledge standard procedures that could be explored in evaluating AYB’s cooking time. This document also emphasizes the molecular perspectives that could pilot the development of AYB cultivars with reduced cooking time.
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The chemical composition of African yam beans (AYB) samples [raw (R) , roasted (RB) and roasted beans plus palm kernel nuts (RWK)] were determined, to ascertain the chemical/nutritional effects of roasting and the use of palm kernels on the roasted beans. The raw sample possessed 10.00% moisture, 2.70% Fat, 3.10% ash, 20.70% protein, 2.68% crude fibre and 60.82% carbohydrate. The respective qualities of the RB and RWK samples were 13.64% and 11.60% for moisture, 2.50% and 7.60% Fat; 19.60% and 18.80% for protein 4.88% and 4.10% for ash; 3.22% and 2.88% for crude fibre, and, 56.16% and 55.02% for carbohydrate. The fat and ash were highest in the RWK sample being 7.60% and 4.10% respectively. Furthermore, the palm kernel nuts exerted a reducing effect on the calcium, magnesium, and chromium contents of the RWK samples. Consumption of the roasted nuts without the palm kernel nuts is recommended in communities where the AYB samples are the major legumes for the population.
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Various post-harvest physical properties of African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) as well as their application were investigated and reported. The major diameter, intermediate diameter, minor diameter, and geometric mean diameter were determined as 8.1778 cm, 6.712 cm, 6.3025 cm and 7.0128 cm, respectively. The sphericity indicated that the bean shape (0.85933) is close to a sphere. The surface area and specific surface area were 77.404 cm 2 and 169.709 cm 2 cm-3 , respectively. The static coefficient of friction on three different material surfaces varied from 0.114 to 0.196 on asbestos, from 0.097 to 0.1997 on aluminum, and from 0.1534 to 0.2049 on plywood. The angle of repose which was by the emptying method was 23.775 0. The solid volume, bulk volume, solid density, bulk density, seed mass and porosity were 0.2387 cm 3 , 7.6552 cm 3 , 1.0179 gcm-3 , 1.0036 gcm-3 , 0.2362 g and 1.6805%, respectively. The moisture content varies from the range of 2.84% wb to 3.13% wb or a range of 2.93% d.b to 3.23% d.b.
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The amino acid composition and protein quality of soybean/wheat and Bambara groundnut/wheat composite flours and biscuits were investigated. The wheat flour (WF) was blended in each case with cooked, blanched and cooked/blanched soybean (SF) and bambara groundnut (BGF) flours in the ratios of 70:30 (WF:SF) and 70:30 (WF:BGF) respectively and used for amino acid analysis and production of short soft dough biscuits. The amino acid composition of the samples showed that lysine and the sulphur containing amino acids (methionine, cystine and trytophan), which are known to be limiting in both cereals and legumes were significantly improved (p<0.05) in the composite blends. The result also revealed that the amino acid profile of the blends were reduced by cooking than blanching and combined treatment effects of cooking/blanching. Similarly, the biscuits produced from the composite blends after amino acid analysis were dried, cooled and milled gradually into biscuit flours.
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Nutrient composition and sensory characteristics of wheat – African walnut cookies were determined. African walnut flour was prepared and used at varying replacement levels (5-20%) for wheat flour in the development of wheat-African walnut cookies. The increase in African walnut flour resulted in increase in the protein and fat contents of the composite cookies. The protein and fat contents ranged from 10.3 ± 0.2-13.0 ± 0.3 % and 14.4 ± 0.1-21.3 ± 0.1%, respectively. The control and 20% African walnut flour substitution had the highest and least values. The crude fibre, carbohydrate and ash contents of the cookies ranged from 3.1 ± 0.1-4.6 ± 0.1, 53.6 ± 0.0-60.9 ± 0.2 and 1.5 ± 0.1-1.7 ± 0.0 %, respectively while spread ratio varied from 0.96 to 1.40 for the 10 and 20% African walnut flour substitution. The level of likeness of the sensory attributes: appearance, taste, texture, flavour and overall acceptability of the wheat-African walnut cookies reduced with increase in African walnut flour substitution levels. African walnut flour could be used as a partial substitute for wheat flour at the levels of 5 to 15%, thus offering an alternative to diversifying the use of non-wheat flour.
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Raw, cooked and toasted meals from Sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds were analysed for proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition and the changes accompanying chemical composition when processing sesame seedmeal were investigated. There was significant (P<0.05) variation in the crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and ash content of undeffated and defatted sesame seed meal. Defatting the dehulled samples of the sesame seed meal increased its protein contents. There was significant (P<0.05) increase in protein content of the cooked and toasted seed meal when compared with that of the raw sample. While magnesium, sodium and potassium were the most abundant macro minerals in sesame seedmeal, Iron was the most abundant micro mineral in sesame seed meal used. A significant (P<0.05) reduction was observed in the mineral composition with processing time. As was observed in the raw samples, copper was not detected in the sample cooked and toasted for 30 minutes. A reduction in mineral contents of the cooked samples was observed. Raw sesame seed meal contains the highest level of anti-nutrients with respect to Trypsin Inhibitor (TIA), lectin, tannin, phytin, saponin and oxalate. Cooking and toasting reduced anti-nutrient contents of sesame seedmeal at lower cooking and toasting time. TIA and lectin contents were removed at higher cooking time while only lectin content was completely eliminated at 30 minutes toasting time.
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African breadfruit Treculia africana Decne ‘ukwa’ in Igbo is an important food crop in Southern Nigeria. The seed has less fat (4 to 7%) than some other nuts and contains 19% protein similar to most pulses. The dehulled seeds are in the form in which the seeds are consumed as main dish or roasted as snack. The spongy pulp (deseeded flesh) is used as fodder while the seed hulls are used as feedstuff. Most of the women processors of African breadfruit seeds seem to be ignorant of the importance of good processing practices in value addition to their products. Poor quality products which attract low prices or outright rejection by consumers is a problem for the processors. Processing of the seeds need the application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system for production of high quality and safe products along the value chain for the processors and consumers either manually or mechanically. This study determined the processing stages of African breadfruit seeds from June to November, 2009 and identified the hazards and critical control points in these stages. The results will be useful in recommendations to the processors concerning the need for high quality and safe products.
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African Yambean (AYB) seeds were steeped for 36 h in water with different durations of air-rest between steeps and sprouted for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The seeds were subsequently dehulled, and milled into flour. The case of dehulling the seed improved with increasing duration of sprouting but reduced as the duration of air-rest during pre-germination steeping increased. Malting also significantly (P<0.05) increased the water absorption, emulsification and foaming properties of the resulting flour with maximum values obtained from 3 - day sprouted seeds. The duration of air-rest during pre-germination steeping did not affect the gelation capacity of the flour but it affected the other functional properties.