Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 2020 1/15 1
Food Science and Technology
ISSN 0101-2061 (Print)
ISSN 1678-457X (Online)
Ricinus communis is an annual oilseed crop commonly
known as castor. It is sometimes called castor bean, but it’s not
a true bean in nature. Castor plant, belonging to the spurge
family Euphorbiaceae can grow in dierent geographical areas
(Anjani, 2014). Growth of castor is favorable around 20°C to
25°C whereas temperatures lower than 12°C or higher than
38°C aects germination and yield (Severinoetal., 2012;
Yinetal.,2019). e plant growth and appearance vary greatly
including its growth pattern, seed color and size, stem color and
foliage, as well as oil content Figure 1 (Ramanjaneyuluetal.,2013;
Sbihietal.,2018). Castor seed is characterized by its elongated,
ovoid, oval, or square shape; size variable, 0.5 to 1.5cm long.
Itsseed color comprises a base color that varies from brown or red
to black, brownish yellow, grey, and white Figure 1. epattern
as such ranges from ne to coarse vein-like or nely dotted to
broad splotches (Naik, 2018; Salihuet al.,2014). eleaves
change from pale green to dark red based on the content of
anthocyanin pigmentation (Sbihiet al.,2018). e shape of
the fruit is globe-like resembling a spiny capsule. e capsule
which encloses the seeds cracks when fully matured Figure 1.
Castor oil extracted from the seed mostly using n-hexane is
very versatile Figure 1. us, it is utilized in several sectors such as
agricultural, pharmaceutical, and industrial sectors. Productsof
castor oil include; ointments, nylon, varnishes, airplane engine
lubricants, hydraulic uids, dyes, detergents, plastics, synthetic
leather, cosmetics, and perfumes (Anjani,2014; Severinoetal.,2012;
Yingetal.,2017). Currently, castor oil production is predominant
in India, China, and Brazil (Gad-Elkareemet al.,2019;
Perdomoetal.,2013). e percentage of seed oil content ranges
from 40 to 60% and the annual oil production is about 1.8million
tons worldwide (Perdomoetal.,2013). e chemistry of castor
oil is based on the ricinoleic acid structure, carboxylic group,
hydroxyl group, and the single point of unsaturation (Mubofu,
2016; Yusufetal.,2015). ese features provide additional strength
to the oil structure. e fatty acid proles present in castor oil
are ricinoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic, linoleic, linolenic acid and
among others. Among them, ricinoleic acid, a monounsaturated
fatty acid is the dominant acid constituting about 75 to 90% of
the total oil composition (Beruketal.,2018; Panhwaretal.,2016;
Yusufetal.,2015). It is worth saying that, the castor oil is the
sole oil with such a high amount of fatty acid and this makes it
unique from other vegetable oils. e fatty acid prole of castor
Castor oil (Ricinus communis): a review on the chemical composition and
Akwasi YEBOAH1, Sheng YING2, Jiannong LU1, Yu XIE1, Hanna AMOANIMAA-DEDE1,
Kwadwo Gyapong Agyenim BOATENG3, Miao CHEN1*, Xuegui YIN1*
Received 23May, 2020
Accepted 17 July, 2020
1College of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China
2Division of Plant Biology, Noble Research Institute, Ardmore, Oklahoma, USA
3Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
*Corresponding author: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Increasing world population has markedly increased the demand for vegetable oils for domestic and industrial purposes. Plant-based
vegetable oils have been identied as one of the oils with high nutritive value. Castor plant is one of the oilseed with rich oil
content owing to its high monounsaturated fatty acid and bioactive compounds. Its fatty acid prole constitutes mainly of
ricinoleic acid and other minor acids such as stearic, palmitic, and oleic acid. Ricinoleic acid of castor oil is unique among
all other vegetable oils, making it attractive for a wide spectrum of applications. e predominant triglyceride component in
the oil is triricinolein. Minor biological compounds including carotenoid, tocopherol, tocotrienol, phytosterol, phospholipid,
phytochemical, and phenolic compounds are present in castor oil. ese compounds oer oxidation stability, anti-inammatory,
and antioxidant properties to the oil. e acid, anisidine, iodine, viscosity, and saponication values indicate that castor has
good oil quality compared to other vegetable oils. Castor oil composition is inuenced by the area of production and method
of extraction adopted. e chemical structure of castor oil is centered on the ricinoleic acid and three major functional groups
linked by glycerol moiety. More research on the oil’s component is being investigated nevertheless ecient and eco-friendly
extraction methods are required. is review, therefore, summarizes the castor oil composition namely the triglyceride, various
fatty acids and bioactive compounds, extraction methods, as well as its physicochemical properties.
Keywords: castor oilseed; fatty acids; phytosterols; ricinoleic acid; tocopherols.
Practical Application: Suitability of castor oil for domestic and industrial purposes.
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 20202 2/15
Composition of castor oil
has low amount of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and
this enhance its stability (Yusufetal.,2015). Like other vegetable
oils, the composition and properties of castor oil vary with
respect to the method of extraction, geographical location, and
type of cultivar. e fatty acid prole of castor oil shares a higher
similarity with that of macadamia nut, palm kernel, olive, and
sunower oil (Nor Hayatietal.,2009; Sinanoglouetal.,2014).
Over the past decades, an increase in world population
has dramatically increased the demand for vegetable oils
for domestic and industrial purposes. Recent research has
unveiled that nutritional unsaturated acids play an important
role in reducing individual risks associated with diseases
such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes
(Ganesanetal., 2018). Plant-based vegetable oils have been
identied to possess high amount of unsaturated fatty acid and
certain biological antioxidants that are eective against several
disease (Abdallahet al.,2015; Ganesanet al., 2018). Castor
plant is one of the non-oilseed with high nutritional value
owing to its rich amount of monounsaturated fatty acid (90%)
and bioactive active compounds such as vitamin E component
(tocopherols or tocotrienols), phospholipids, phenolics among
others (Saidetal.,2016; Sbihietal.,2018). ese compounds
also account for castor oils stability and avor making it
suitable for many purposes (Sedeeketal.,2012). Tocopherols
are one of the natural antioxidants present in castor oil with
anti-proliferative and anti-inammatory properties. e primary
tocopherol isomers, 43.1-96.62mg/g for δ and 30.89-52.7mg/g
for γ are relatively higher than those reported in olive, hazelnut,
and sunower (Saidet al.,2016; Sbihiet al.,2018). Also, its
physicochemical properties such as low acid and iodine value,
high saponication value, and thiobarbituric acid indicate that
castor oil has good oil quality. e acid and iodine value of the
oil reects its quality at 1.34mg KOH/g oil and 83gI2/100g,
respectively (Omarietal., 2015). Several studies have been
conducted on the fatty acid composition, however, information
about the biologically active compounds present in castor oil
is very limited.
In this present review, the structure of castor oil, extraction
methods, fatty acid prole, and neutral lipids (triglyceride) found
in castor oil have been highlighted. e various biologically
active compounds and physicochemical properties have also
been discussed. is review also compares the physicochemical
properties and composition of castor oil with other vegetable oils.
1.1 Extraction and uses of castor oilseed
In many parts of the world, castor oils are mostly purchased in
the form of cold-pressed oils. Research has revealed that castor oil
can be extracted by pressing, solvent extraction technique mostly
utilizing n-hexane, and super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO
(Danlamietal.,2015a, b; Guoetal.,2018). Beforeextraction,
castor seeds are rst cleaned to remove any unwanted material.
e seed is then put into decorticating machines to dehull the
shells leaving the kernels. e more ecient the decorticating
Figure 1. Castor; (A) young castor plant; (B) matured castor capsules; (C-F), dierent colors and varieties of castor seeds; (G) castor oil.
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 2020 3/15 3
process the lighter the oil color. Mostly, more than 90% of
castor oil is obtained by using solvent extraction technique.
However,the high price value and sustainability of biodiesel-based
solvents are the major concern with the use of this technique
(Patelet al.,2016). As a result, dierent solvents involving
ethanol and SC-CO2have been studied and adopted for castor
oil extraction. e use of aqueous solvents has demonstrated to
be as ecient as hexane with the additional benet of low solvent
requirement. Nevertheless, one setback with aqueous solvents is
the high energy production needed to separate the liquid from the
oil (Mutlu&Meier, 2010; Pateletal.,2016). SC-CO2 is preferred
to organic solvents (ethylene monoethyl ether, diethyl ketone,
methyl acetate) because it is cost-eective, non-explosive, and
non-toxic (Danlamietal.,2015a; Malekietal.,2013).
With extraction of castor oil using n-hexane, the oil content
vary from 34.6 to 56.6% (Panhwaretal.,2016; Sbihietal.,2018;
Severinoetal.,2015). is variation may be attributed to changes
in climatic conditions, geographical location, and type of variety
(Severinoetal.,2015). With SC-CO2 as an extraction medium,
only a few studies have analyzed the oil content in castor with
this technique. e reported optimal yield with SC-CO
castor is 9.29% (Danlamietal.,2015a). is value is very low
compared to that obtained by hexane (56.6%). Particle size of
the ground seed is one paramount factor that inuences oil yield
during extraction (Beveridgeetal.,2005). It has been found that
particle size of 0.35mm or lesser is desirable for maximum oil
yield (Beveridgeetal.,2005). Danlamietal. (2015a) reported
about 1mm particle sizes of the castor seeds which may be
due to the low oil yield. Moreso, operational conditions such
as temperature, time range, and moisture content vary and
inuence oil yield in oilseed (Danlamietal.,2015a). erefore,
studies involving these conditions may be further investigated to
improve castor oilseed yield by using SC-CO2. Overall, further
studies are required on castor oilseed extraction as well as the
eects on the oil quality.
Castor oil is a vital raw material and has been used to
produce more new bio-based chemicals and materials than any
other plant produced oils (Anjani, 2014). In the past, the use
of castor oil was limited mainly to manufacturing lamp oils,
industrial lubricants, and medicine (Anjani, 2014). However, a
better understanding of the chemical structure has broadened
it’s use and resulted in the production of more byproducts that
are benecial to humans. In medicine and other health-related
elds, castor oil has been widely used to treat several kinds of
diseases owing to its anti-inammatory property. Castor products
have been applied to treat minor issues like menstrual pain,
gastrointestinal infection, athlete’s foot, sunburns, and induction of
labor pain (Anjani, 2012; Kellyetal.,2013). It contains purgative
or laxative and thus can be good for constipation treatment.
In Nigeria, detoxied castor seed is used as a food condiment
(Salihuetal.,2014), a substance that benets human vision.
Limited information is available on the use of castor oilseed
in the food industry. e oil is used as a mold inhibitor in food
preservation and manufacturing of additives, avors, and candy
(Wilsonetal.,1998). Polyoxyl (e.g., Kolliphor EL) castor oil is
used as an emulsier and non-ionic solubilizer produced by
mixing ethylene oxide with castor oil (Pateletal.,2016). e oil
is greatly utilized in countries like Nepal, Pakistan, and India,
where it is poured on top of foodstus (wheat, pigeon pea) during
storage to prevent spoilage (Wilsonetal.,1998).
e seed cake of castor contains toxic compounds such
as ricin. is compound can aect human health and even
animals when consumed (Severinoetal.,2012). However, several
methods have been identied to be eective in detoxifying this
toxic component, thereby making it useful for other purposes.
Castormeal detoxied by autoclaving can be used to substitute about
67% of soybean meal for sheep (Borjaetal.,2017). Also,through
fermentation or boiling, castor meal is detoxied and this can be
used as a supplement in broiler-nisher (Akandeetal.,2016).
Castor residue called pomace with high amount of nitrogen is
used as animal feed and as organic fertilizer without any reported
harmful eects (Borjaetal.,2017).
1.2 Structure of castor oil
e structure of castor oil is made up of triglycerides that
lack glycerin. e triglyceride molecule has a long 18-carbon
chain with a double bond (Pateletal.,2016). Its chemistry is
based mainly on the ricinoleic acid structure, carboxyl group,
hydroxyl group, and a single point of unsaturation Figure2
(Mubofu, 2016; Ogunniyi, 2006). e carboxylic group in castor
oil molecule allows production of a wide range of esterication
products. e hydroxyl (-OH) group on the 12th carbon can be
acetylated or eliminated through a dehydration process to upsurge
the unsaturation to give a semi-drying oil (Neziheetal.,2010;
Sinadinović-Fišeretal., 2012). rough caustic fusion and
high-temperature pyrolysis, the reactive site of the hydroxyl
group can be splited to generate useful products with shorter
chains (Patelet al., 2016). In addition, the hydroxyl group
provides more strength to the structure to prevent the formation
of hydroperoxides (Razdi, 2012). e double bond in the
structure can be modied through the process of carboxylation,
epoxidation or hydrogenation (Alwaseemetal.,2014). Lastly, the
single point of unsaturation can be altered through the process
of epoxidation and hydrogenation. Hydrogenated castor oil,
which is a wax-like substance, can be obtained from the oil via
hydrogen reduction (Pateletal.,2016).
Figure 2. Structure of castor oil molecule. (A) indicates carboxylic
groups; (B) indicates double bonds; (C) indicates hydroxyl groups.
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 20204 4/15
Composition of castor oil
1.3 Composition of castor oilseed
e composition of castor oil is mainly composed of fatty
acids and neutral lipids (triglycerides). Other minor biological
active compounds that consist of unsaponiable fractions such
as carotenoids, phenolics, phospholipids, phytochemicals,
phytosterols, tocopherols, and tocotrienols are also present in
the oil. In the following subsections, these components and
their nutritional benets in castor oilseed explored by dierent
researchers have been discussed.
Majority of the triacylglyceride (TAG) molecules found in
castor oil contain three molecules of ricinoleic acid linked to a
glycerol moiety (Mubofu, 2016; Ogunniyi, 2006; Pateletal.,2016).
Ndiayeetal. (2005) reported the compositions of triglycerides
in castor oil Figure 3. A later study by Salimon and others
found only ve triacylglycerides in castor oil and their contents:
diricino-leoylpalmitoyl-glycerol (RRP) (0.9%), diricino-leoyllinoleoyl-
glycerol (RRL) (1.2%), diricino-leoyloleoyl-glycerol (RRO) (5.6%),
diricino-leoystearoyl-glycerol (RRS) (8.2%), and triricinolein (RRR)
(84.1%) (Salimonetal.,2010). Also, in two dierent studies the
contents of RRR (the most predominant TAG) were found to be at
70% and 63%, respectively (Lin, 2009; Planteetal.,2011). Several
factors such as the area of production, cultivar, oil extraction
process, harvesting period, and storage time aect triacylceride
composition of vegetable oils (Lin, 2009; Lin&Chen, 2012).
Hence, the relative percentage of triacylceride composition
in castor may be attributed to these factors. In addition, some
tetraacylglycerols in castor oil are (12-ricinoleoyl - ricinoleoyl)
-ricinoleoyl - linolenoyl-glycerol (RRRLn), (12-ricinoleoyl -
ricinoleoyl) - ricinoleoyl-stearoyl-glycerol (RRRS), (12-ricinoleoyl
- ricinoleoyl)- ricinoleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (RRRO), (12-ricinoleoyl
- ricinoleoyl) -ricinoleoyl-palmitoyl-glycerol (RRRP), and
(12-ricinoleoyl - ricinoleoyl) - ricinoleoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol
(RRRL). ese acylglycerols were determined by HPLC, and
only 3% of the castor oil of the overall acylglycerols contained
polyhydroxy fatty acids, whereas the individual acylglycerols
were 0.5% (Lin&Chen, 2012).
e discovery of fatty acids has been long known in plants.
Saalmülle rst reported castor oilseed fatty acid composition
in 1848 and named an isolated hydroxyl acid as ricinoleic
acid (Saalmüller, 1848). Ricinoleic acid (C18:1-OH), a
monounsaturated fatty acid, is the major component present in
castor oil (Omohu&Omale, 2017). It has 18-carbon chain and
one double bond at the 12th carbon with the molecular formula
C18H34O3 Table 1 (Román-Figueroaetal.,2016). Latter, studies
showed that castor oilseed contains several fatty acids, including
linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), oleic acid (C18:1),
palmitic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0) among others Table1
(Omariet al., 2015; Omohu& Omale, 2017). e presence
of linolenic acid and oleic acid in vegetable oils are highly
benecial to human health and have been used to treat several
human sicknesses such as diabetes, skin cancer, renal disease,
heart attack, lupus, high blood pressure and high cholesterol
level (Ganesanetal.,2018). Oleic acid is resistant to oxidation
and can be used to improve the functions of antioxidants and
as anti-polymerization agents (Anjani, 2012). When combined
with antioxidants (e.g., tocopherols) it can be blended with other
oils to prevent oxidation. Linoleic, palmitic, stearic acids contain
some useful properties good for the skin, thus used in many
cosmetic industries (Ganesanetal.,2018). Esters of stearic acid:
glycol distearate, glycol stearate, and ethylene glycol are used to
manufacture cosmetic products or to increase the pearly eect
of shampoos (Gunstone&Hamilton, 2004). e occurrence
of these fatty acids in castor oil propose the nutritional and
industrial benet of this plant.
As with other oilseed crops, the type of cultivars, the geographical
origin of the crop, or the time of harvest inuence the relative
proportion of the fatty acids composition (Yusufetal.,2015).
Table 2 shows that the percentage of ricinoleic acid in castor
oilseed from India, China, Brazil, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Saudi
Arabia, Nigeria, and Tanzania were 87.3, 90.85, 88.2, 91.06,
94.59, 75.77, 86.96, and 87.8%, respectively. e ricinoleic acid
in castor oil from Pakistan was the highest with 94.59% whereas
Saudi Arabia was the least with 75.77% (Panhwaretal.,2016;
Sbihietal.,2018). Researchers have shown that ricinoleic acid
is present in the endosperm and cotyledon of immature castor
seed but not in developed male owers (Brownetal.,2012). Its oil
formation is speculated to form a positive correlation with oleic
acid (Möllers&Schierholt, 2002), and an increase of ricinoleate
content increases seed weight and size (Huang etal.,2015).
erefore, it can be said that selective breeding for high ricinoleic
oil content can lead to an increase in seed weight, size, and oleic
acid content in castor.
e variation in fatty acids component in Table 2 shows
a clear variation according to location such that certain fatty
acids present in some locations are absent in other locations.
Figure 3. Triglyceride composition of castor oil (Ndiayeetal.,2005).
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 2020 5/15 5
Forexample, linoleic and linolenic acid are present in castor
oilseed from some countries but were absent in Nigerian
and Saudia Arabian samples (Omohu& Omale, 2017;
Sbihietal.,2018). is may be related to the type of cultivar
and climatic or environmental factors. Moreover, the methods of
analysis adopted dier among the authors which could also be a
contributing factor. For instance, Souza Schneideretal. (2004)
used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for
fatty acids analysis whereas Omohu&Omale (2017) employed
gas chromatography (GC). GC-MS is more advantageous with
Tab le 1. Chemical structures of dierent fatty acids in castor oil.
formular Type of fatty acid Number of bonds
and position Chemical structures
Ricinoleic C18H34O3Monounsaturated One, and at the 12th
Oleic C18H34O2Monounsaturated One, and at the 12th
Palmitic C16H32O2Saturated -
Stearic C18H36O2Saturated -
Linolenic C18H30O2Unsaturated ree, and at the 9th,
12th, and 15th carbon
Linoleic C18H32O2Polyunsaturated Two, and at the 9th
and 12th carbon
Tab le 2. % compositions of fatty acids in castor oil from various regions.
Fatty acid India (a) China (b) Brazil (c) Ethiopia (d) Pakistan (e) Saudi Arabia (f) Nigeria (g) Tanzania (h)
Ricinoleic (C18:1-OH) 87.3 90.85 88.2 91.06 94.59 75.77 86.96 87.8
Oleic (C18:1) 4.69 2.82 3.8 2.93 2.05 7.40 5.10 4.1
Linoleic (C18:2) 4.92 3.74 4.9 3.48 1.84 8.94 nd 4.3
Stearic (C18:0) 1.241 0.64 0.9 0.91 0.45 3.05 nd 1.4
Palmitic (C16:1) 1.016 0.72 1.4 1.08 0.31 2.77 0.56 2.4
Linolenic (C18:3) 0.63 - 0.3 0.316 nd nd nd nr
(a) (Ramanjaneyuluetal.,2013) (b) (Guoetal.,2018) c) (Souza Schneideretal.,2004) (d) (Beruketal.,2018) (e) (Panhwaretal.,2016) (f) (Sbihietal.,2018) (g) (Omohu&Omale,
2017) (h) (Omarietal.,2015). Key; nr-not reported, nd-not detected.
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 20206 6/15
Composition of castor oil
accurate results in that, it reveals certain compounds using both
mass spectrum and retention time compared to GC. e overall
content of saturated fatty acid in samples from Nigeria is low with
5.66% in castor and a maximum of 11.3% from Brazil (Souza
Schneideretal.,2004; Omohu&Omale, 2017).
Phytosterols are one of the minor bioactive compounds
that consist of unsaponiable fraction in castor oilseed
(Sbihiet al., 2018). e dominant phytosterol class up to
93.8% in castor was found to be 4-desmethylsterols and
β-sitosterol was the abundant compound present with
47.1% (Saidetal.,2016). Campesterol, stigmasterol, and Δ-5
avenasterol were the other 4-desmethylsterols identied.
Atotal phytosterol compound of 98.1mg/ 100g oil was also
found in castor oil (Velascoetal.,2015). Sbihietal. (2018)
examined castor sterols and concluded that β-sitosterol is the
main sterol component among detected sterols. e percentage
of cholesterol was as low as 0.09%, but (Lechneretal.,1999;
Velascoetal.,2015) in their studies detected no cholesterol
in their samples which could be due to varietal dierences.
Phytosterol content is inuenced by the area of planting,
cultivar, and temperature where an increase in temperature
resulted in higher levels (Aparicioetal.,2013). Although the
oilseed of castor is mostly utilized for industrial purposes,
phytosterols could be extracted from the raw oil rening
waste products. In this scenario, the production of castor
cultivars with high phytosterol component may contribute to
the valuable co-products of the chain length. Phytosterolsare
important in human diet owing to their decreasing serum
low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (Velascoetal.,2015).
ey are greatly recommended as elements for a broad range
of fortied foods and, therefore a better understanding of the
individual phytosterols content in castor oil may contribute
to its potential use in the food industry.
One class of lipids that form lipid bilayers in the cell membrane
are phospholipids. A combination of phospholipids and tocopherols
may delay the onset of lipid oxidation (Chew&Nyam, 2019).
Information about phospholipids is useful in pharmaceutical
and food industries, particularly as emulsier.
e phospholipid composition of castor oilseed has long
been studied. Moreauetal. (1980) reported in castor that the
total polar lipids was less than 1%, with phosphatidylcholine,
phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major
components. Among them, phosphatidylcholine was the most
predominant at 30%. Donaldson also reported 2% of phospholipid
of 2-day-old castor oilseed and the values of phospholipid
classes were similar (Donaldson, 1976). Comparing to other
oilseed crops such as chufa nuts with 5.4%, the phospholipid
values reported in castor are low (Oderinde& Tairu, 1992).
Normally,dark-colored oils are a result of high proportions of
phospholipid. Hence the clear pale yellow color of castor oil may
be due to the low amount of phospholipid content in the oils.
Tocopherols and tocotrienols
Lipid-soluble antioxidants such as tocopherols in oilseed
scavenge free-radicals. Isomers of tocopherols (in vitro and in
vivo) have dierent antioxidant activity. In vitro antioxidant
activity of tocopherols prevents unsaturated fatty acids from
oxidation whereas in vivo tocopherols also known as Vitamin
E homologues inhibit inammatory damage, proliferative, and
cellular tissues from oxidation (Baümleretal.,2017). e four
naturally tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) which vary
in their antioxidant properties and chemical structure have been
identied in many oilseeds including castor (Ribeiroetal.,2014).
Velascoetal. (2015) investigated the variability of castor seed
quality traits and found all the tocopherol isomers in the oil.
δ- and γ-tocopherol were also the main isomers present in the oil
(Saidetal.,2016; Velascoetal.,2005). α-tocopherols are noted
for their vitamin E homologues and δ- as well as γ-tocopherol
are highly eective as in vitro antioxidants (Ribeiroetal.,2014).
e long oil’s shelf life, anti-inammatory property, and oxidative
stability of castor oil at high temperature may be associated to the
presence of these tocopherols in the oils. Moreover, tocopherols
control the membrane functions by inhibiting oxidation of
body lipids, organelle membranes, and reduce individual risks
associated with contracting diseases such as Alzheimer’s, cancer,
and heart disease (Ramadan, 2019). erefore the presence
of tocopherols suggests that castor oilseed may be benecial
against these diseases.
Besides tocopherols, tocotrienols are also naturally antioxidants
in oils, belonging to the Vitamin E group, with α- and β- analogs.
Tocotrienols provide neuroprotective properties and prevent
cholesterols biosynthesis (Ramadan, 2019). Tocotrienols are
identied in their unsaturated form. e limited studies available
on the tocotrienols content of castor oil have revealed that α- and
β-tocotrienols are the main tocotrienols found in the oilseed
Phenolic compounds involve various groups of secondary
metabolites. is compound has either one or more hydroxyl groups
that bind directly to aromatic compounds (Rampadarathetal.,2014).
e major classes of nutritional phenolic compounds include
avonoids, phenolic acids, and tannins. Hydroxycinnamic acid
and hydroxybenzoic acid are the two main subgroups of phenolic
acids (Chew&Nyam, 2019). Hydroxybenzoic acids mostly have
the aromatic ring with C1-C6 structure and their by-product
are gallic, syringic, and vanillic acids (Boualemetal., 2017).
Withhydroxycinnamic acids, their derivatives include caeic,
ferulic, and p-coumaric acids with C3-C6 structure (Ramadan,
2019). e type and content of phenolic compounds dier among
dierent oils. Phenolic compounds contribute to the avor and
antioxidant activity in oils.
Chakravartula&Guttarla (2007) used methanol-ether
to extract phenolic acids from defatted castor oilseed.
econcentration of the total Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)
was unknown. HPLC-SPD chromatogram analysis detected
ve acids namely ferulic, syringic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric,
and cinnamic. e separation of dierent phenolic acids in
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 2020 7/15 7
castor depends on their polarities and structural similarities
(Chakravartula&Guttarla, 2007). e separation of ferulic and
p-coumaric acid was easily resolved compared to ferulicacid
and syringic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric, and cinnamic acids
(Chakravartula&Guttarla, 2007). Other phenolic acids such as
chlorogenic, gallic, gentistic, and protocatechuic have also been
identied in castor oilseed (Boualemetal.,2017). eextraction
of phenolic compounds in castor oil varies among the method
of extraction and the part of tissue analyzed. Recently, the total
phenolic content of castor root extracts by ethanol gave the
highest with 135.06mg GAE/g than 50.24mg GAE/g for ethyl
acetate extracts and 25.50mg GAE/g as the least by hexane
extract (Santosetal.,2018). rough hydrogen bonds, phenolic
compounds of hydroxyl moieties form stronger intermolecular
linkage with polar solvents (Rampadarathetal.,2014). Hexaneis
a non-polar extraction solvent whiles ethanol is polar solvent
therefore the highest GAE extract by ethanol can be associated
with its polarity which forms hydrogen bonds during phenolic
e evaluation of antimicrobial and phytochemical activity
in castor oil revealed that avonoid, cyanogenic glycoside,
saponin, oxalate, phytate, alkaloid, and tannin were present in
the ascending order (Momohetal.,2012). Udegbunametal.
(2015) in their studies also detected these biologically active
chemical compounds in castor oilseed during screening
of in vitro antimicrobial activity among seven bacteria.
epresence of avonoids indicates antimicrobial, antioxidant,
anti-inammatory as well as other medicinal properties in plants
(Gutiérrez-Grijalvaet al.,2017). Tannin is toxic to bacteria,
fungi, and yeast and has some antibacterial and antiviral activity
(Udegbunametal.,2015). eexistence of these phytochemical
compounds in castor oil might be responsible for the antimicrobial
activity in the oil. Further studies however on their properties
are required to enhance its use by pharmaceutical industries as
a value-added product for production of antibiotics in addition
to its anti-inammatory and purgative benet.
Carotenoids in oils act as an antioxidant to scavenge free
radicals and may contribute to fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin
A activity. e combination of β-carotene and tocopherols in oils
may synergistically provide antioxidant eect, while β-carotene
alone can prevent lipid oxidation (Chew&Nyam, 2019).
Carotenoids content found in castor oil ranged from
12.34-39.47mg/kg β-carotene oil (Kadrietal.,2011). In another
study, the carotenoids identied in castor oil was 2.05mg/kg oil
(Atta&Mohamed, 2017). Comparing with other vegetable oils,
the carotenoid content of castor oil is higher than soybean with
0.37mg/kg oil and saower at 1.21mg/kg oil (Atta&Mohamed,
2017). Mostly, at higher temperature carotenoid content easily
degrade, and this might contribute to the low carotenoid in the oils.
In addition, carotenoids have been found to correlate with oils
color which is one fundamental component to access oil quality
(Chew&Nyam, 2019). On determining the color of castor oil
using Lovibond tintometer, it gave the red color 2.1 at 35 yellow
(Atta&Mohamed, 2017). e pale yellow color of castor oil
signies the presence of the yellow pigment, carotenoids. is
pigment helps absorb ultraviolet radiations (Jemnietal.,2019).
1.4 Physicochemical properties of castor oilseed
roughout literature, the density and refractive index
of castor oilseed at 28ºC are 961 kg/m3 and 1.476 respectively
(Omarietal.,2015; Torrentes-Espinozaetal.,2017). Castor oil
has a viscosity of 1.86 St/dPas at 30°C (Yusufetal.,2015) and
9.3-10 St/dPas at 25°C (Omarietal.,2015). e viscous nature
of castor oil makes it appropriate for diesel fuel and coating
(Naiketal.,2018). e castor oil quality can be determined by the
acid, p-anisidine, iodine, saponication, and thiobarbituric acid.
e iodine value quanties the unsaturation level of fats
or oils and it is expressed in grams of iodine. A higher iodine
value implies a higher level of unsaturation and lower value also
indicates a low unsaturation level. In castor oilseed, the average
range of iodine value is 83-93g I2/100g oil (Omotehinseetal.,2019;
Yusufetal.,2015). is value indicates that the amount of
iodine that will be present in the unsaturated acids is low.
Castor oil can be regarded as a non-drying oil since the value
is less than 100, hence making it useful for hydraulic brake
uids and lubricants. e iodine value sometimes diers among
varieties. Zanzibarcastor seeds (ZCOH and ZCOE) obtained
from the same variety showed no signicant dierence in their
iodine value when planted in the same area in Saudi Arabia
(Sbihietal.,2018). Variation did occur among Impala castor
seeds obtained from the same variety (ICOH and ICOE) when
they were cultivated in the same area which was attributed to
their low PUFA content (Sbihietal.,2018).
e acid value determines the concentration of free fatty
acids and is expressed as mg KOH/g oil. Acid value is one of the
paramount indicators of oil quality. Vegetable oil with high acid
content mostly has poor oil quality and during rening process,
much oil is lost (Omarietal.,2015; Sbihietal.,2018). erefore,
low acid value is a good indicator of vegetable oil and could be
valuable for rening process. A number of reported acid values
in castor oil ranges from 0.14 to 1.97mg/g oil (Omarietal.,2015;
Panhwaretal.,2016; Perdomoetal.,2013; Yusufetal.,2015).
Castor oilseeds planted in Nigeria had high acid values of 14.80
and 15.57mg/g oil (Nangbeset al.,2013; Omohu&Omale,
2017), but this could be associated to the poor handling and
processing of the seed. According to American Society for testing
and material (ASTM), the accepted acid value of vegetable oils
should not exceed 2 (Yusufetal.,2015). Omarietal.,(2015)
suggested that the high acid value of castor oil may be due to the
delay in seed extraction which inuenced the lipase enzyme to
hydrolyze the triglycerides into free fatty acid. High acid value
of 9.12mg/g oil in chufa nuts was attributable to the splitting
fat enzyme in the tuber that was found in low concentration
which gradually hydrolyzed amygdalin (Aremuet al.,2016).
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 20208 8/15
Composition of castor oil
Amygdalin is a glycoside that occurs naturally in plants to forms
ester-linked bonds with fatty acids. erefore, the occurrence
of the enzyme might have gradually increase to hydrolytic
oxidation as a result of the release of free fatty acids. In addition,
the acid value of vegetable oils can be inuenced by the type
of solvent used in extraction. Aer analyzing the acid value in
castor oil by using two dierent solvents, it was concluded that
extraction by hexane gave good and quality oils compared to
ethanol extraction (Sbihietal.,2018).
Anisidine value (AnV) is a reliable and useful test that measures
secondary oxidation products and reveals valuable information on
compounds that are more stable and non-volatile during frying
process (Schramm&McGrath, 2013). It has been proposed that
for oils to be classied as quality oil, its AnV should not be above
two (Schramm&McGrath, 2013). e AnV of castor oilseed
was identied to be 1.66meq/kg (Sedeeketal.,2012). is value
is less compared to that reported in cottonseed oil and jojoba
with 4.450 and 2.03meq/kg, respectively (Sedeeketal.,2012),
suggesting that these oils are highly susceptible to oxidation than
castor oil. Also, a negative AnV was observed (Yeboahetal.,2012).
In AnV test, it is very rare for negative numbers to be obtained
and, therefore this might be as a result of interference of water in
reagents and samples from the artefact during the test process.
A deep-frying study revealed that the AnV and stability of oil
castor was better compared to the other oils under the study
Most oen than not, anisidine and acid values are used to
check the quality of vegetable oils. iobarbituric acid (TBA) is
also another test that is widely used to access secondary oxidation
products of oils. It measures the degree of malondialdehyde
(MDA) and other related aldehyde compounds formed during
the oxidation of oils (Sedeeket al.,2012). e TBA value of
castor oil in deep frying was 0.58mmol/kg which was lower
than shea butter 4.39mmol/kg and soybean oil 11.0mmol/kg
(Ikyaetal.,2013; Sedeeketal.,2012). e low TBA value of castor
signies that the oil has longer keeping quality than shea butter
and soybean oil assuming that TBA is an indicator of the extent
in lipids. It was revealed that variation in peroxide, acid, iodine,
and TBA values were well regulated and declined when castor/
jojoba oil mixtures was blended with cottonseed oil at ratios of
9:1 and 8:2 in a deep frying system (Sedeeketal.,2012). In the
same frying study, castor and jojoba oil improved the stability of
cottonseed oil which was attributable to the natural antioxidants
and fatty acid composition in these oils (Sedeeketal.,2012).
One chemical property used to characterize castor oil
is the saponication value which measures the molecular
weight of the triglyceride. Low saponication value implies
high molecular weight and high saponication value indicates
low molecularweight of the triglyceride (Omarietal.,2015).
eaverage range of saponication value reported in castor
oilseed is 165.50 to 187mg KOH/g oil (Omariet al., 2015).
e planting area has been found to be a major factor that
inuences the saponication value in oilseeds. Dierence
among saponication values grown in six dierent regions were
found in castor. e highest value was recorded in Morogoro
with 187.46mg KOH/g whereas Kagera had the lowest with
165.50mg KOH/g (Omarietal., 2015). Low saponication
value in oil samples proposes their non-suitability for industrial
use, hence the high saponication value of castor oil conrms
its useful application for the manufacture of soaps and other
1.5 Composition and physicochemical properties of castor
oilseed compared with other vegetable oils
Castor oil has a bland taste and amber-color which is similar
to that of virgin sunower oil (Arshad&Amjad, 2012; Ogunniyi,
2006). Comparative studies of the fatty acids composition of
castor oilseed with some vegetable oils are presented in Table3.
Fromthe table, it can be observed that the range of saturated
fatty acid (SFA) composition of castor oil is closely related to
sunower as indicated by their percentages and lower than
palm kernel. Its high composition of monounsaturated fatty
acid (MUFA) is similar to both olive oil and macadamia nut oil.
Small amounts of PUFA in oils account for their high stability
as reported in palm kernel oil, macadamia nut, and olive oil
(Gargetal.,2007; Sinanoglouetal.,2014). erefore, the low
percentage of PUFA in castor oil may also contribute to its
stability. Table 3 also indicates that the average total unsaturated
fatty acid of castor is higher than barbados nut, palm kernel,
pistachio, and macadamia nut, and falls within the range of
rapeseed, olive, and sunower (Sauderetal.,2014; Tavakolipour,
2015). From these observation, it can be said that the fatty acid
prole of castor oil share similarities with macadamia nut, palm
kernel, olive, and sunower. However, its unsaturated fatty acid;
ricinoleic acid is unique among all other vegetable oils, making
it attractive for a wide spectrum of applications.
e composition of castor oilseed falls in line with oils
that are nutritious and provides stability for a wide range of
application. Such oils are mostly suitable for frying and industrial
use because of their stability. rough gene slicing, Liu and
colleagues developed cottonseed cultivar that gave high UFA
and low SFA (Liuetal.,2002). It was believed that the oil gave
higher stability compare to high oleic rapeseed or soybean oils.
Based on the cultivar of castor oilseed and probably modication
of the chemical structures, its oil can form part of oils that are
commercially used for frying applications.
A number of studies have evaluated the oxidative stabilities
of castor oil by using Rancimat test. is test measures the
induction period from the point of oxidative rancidity in the oil
(Saidetal.,2016). e oxidation rate of castor oil starts gradually
until it gets to the peak. e abrupt rise indicates the nal
induction period. e oxidative stabilities of castor oil with other
oils have been studied. Rancimat test analysis at 100°C revealed
that the induction period of castor, cottonseed, and jojoba oil
were 135.2, 52.9, and 9.97h respectively (Sedeeketal.,2012).
Longer induction period implies higher stability, hence the
longer period of castor oil signies higher oxidative stability
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 2020 9/15 9
compared to cottonseed and jojoba oil. In another study, the
oxidative stability of castor oil was found to be higher than
argan, nigella, olive, and sesame oils with an induction period of
35.5h at 110°C (Saidetal.,2016). Studies have conrmed that
oxidative stability oils assessed by Rancimat test correlate with
antioxidant systems (Abdallahetal.,2015; Sedeeketal.,2012).
erefore the stability of castor oil to oxidation could also be
related to its high antioxidant properties such as tocopherols
and probably the presence of ricinoleic acid which does not
e range of unsaponiable matter of cottonseed, coconut,
and olive oils are 0.4-1.1, 0.5, and 0.7-1.4%, respectively
and these values are quite similar to castor oil which is 0.7%
(Benitez-Sánchezetal., 2003; Ramos-Escuderoetal., 2015;
Yusufetal.,2015). Extensive studies have been conducted on
the unsaponiable fraction of these oils in that alcoholic esters,
hydrocarbons, triterpene alcohols, and waxes have been identied
(Oderinde&Tairu, 1992). erefore, more studies are required
in castor oil particularly on the various lipids, since these helps
to identify the source of the lipids (Liuetal.,2002).
Phytosterols constitute major fraction of unsaponiable
matter in many oils. ey are benecial because of their
antioxidant activity and positive inuence on human health
(Abdallahetal.,2015). e determination of the sterol prole
and total sterol content is a reliable tool to evaluate authenticity
of oils (Abdallahetal.,2015). e phytosterols components of
the various vegetable oils have been shown in Table 4. e overall
phytosterol content (1520.4-2603mg/100g) in castor oilseed
is similar to the range of olive oil (1800-2300mg/100g), and
higher than walnuts (1085.60- 1573.63mg/100g) and hazelnuts
(1458-1956mg/100g) (Said et al.,2016; Sbihiet al.,2018).
erelative content of total phytosterol in cottonseed, rapeseed,
sesame, and sunower is higher than castor oilseed. e major
phytosterol content found in castor oil is β‐sitosterol with an
average value of 1040.8-1181mg/100g. is value is lower than
all the reported β‐sitosterol in this study. Aer β‐sitosterol,
the most predominant phytosterol in castor is stigmasterol
followed by δ5-Avenasterol and campesterol. e percentage of
these values are higher than the other oils except cottonseed,
rapeseed, and sesame.
e contents of various isomers of tocopherol and tocotrienols
in dierent vegetable oils are presented in Table 5. e most
dominant tocopherol component in castor oilseed is δ and γ and
the lowest is β and α. e mean value of δ and γ are 43.1-96.62mg/g
and 30.89-52.7mg/g, respectively in castor oilseed making up a
total of 73.99-149.32mg/g (Saidetal.,2016; Sbihietal.,2018).
ese values are higher than those reported in olive, hazelnut,
and sunower as indicated in Table 5. High antioxidant and
oxidative stability in oils such as cactus is associated to its higher
δ and γ-tocopherol (Edem, 2002). In sunower, the presence
of tocopherol has been reported to protect the PUFA from
oxidation (Fisketal.,2006). According to Sattleretal. (2003),
tocopherol is related with oil bodies to enhance the antioxidant
protection for the seed. As such, the high amount of tocopherol
in castor oil oer this same benet. In addition to tocopherols,
tocotrienols have several biological activities and could serve
as antiosteoporotic agent (Edem, 2002). e major tocotrienols
found in castor oilseed is β-tocotrienols, nevertheless, this value
is extremely lower compared to palm kernel oil. Generally, it can
be said that the vitamin E content in castor oilseed is lower than
all the oils shown in Table 5. However, its values corresponds to
Tab le 3. Fatty acid proles of castor oilseed with other oils.
Oil Botanical name % S FA % MUFA % PUFA % Total UFA
communis 5.2-10.95 78.29-83.35 9.54-11.41 87.83-94.76 (Sbihietal.,2018;
Barbados nut Jatropha curcas 21.6-26.3 45.2-45.4 32.2-33.0 77.4-78.4 (Akbaretal.,2009; Akintayo,
Palm kernel Elaeis guineensis 52.1-85.01 14.6-38.6 2.4-11.6 17.0-50.2 (Asnaasharietal.,2015; Edem,
2002; Nor Hayatietal.,2009)
annuus 8.8-11.3 21.1-30.0 59.0-70.0 80.1-100 (Chongetal.,2015; Edem, 2002;
Soyabean Glycine max 10.40-18.70 17.70-26.10 55.30-66.60 73.0-92.7 (Edem, 2002; Knothe, 2002; Nor
Rapeseed Brassica napus 7.2-8.6 58.5-68.0 24.7-33.9 83.2-101.9 (Lewinskaetal.,2015;
Olive Olea europaea 13.2-16.0 73.0-83.0 5.1-13.0 78.1-96.0 (Gharbietal.,2015; Ramos-
Hazelnut Corylus avellana 6.30-16.7 55.0-60.1 14.8-33.4 69.8-93.5
Pistachio Pistacia atlantica 9.3-28.0 8.56-49.57 6.42-36.62 14.98-86.19 (Sauderetal.,2014; Tavakolipour,
Macadamia nut Macadamia
tetraphylla 13.2-21.77 75.69-82.4 2.2-4.7 77.89-87.1 (Gargetal.,2007;
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 202010 10/15
Composition of castor oil
oils with high amount of Vitamin E rich in PUFA. e relatively
proportion of tocopherols and tocotrienols in castor oilseed
may contribute to the study of their relative in vivo and in vitro
e reported value of polyphenol content in castor oilseed
was 632.33µg GAE/g and this amount was higher than phenolic
content of Jatropha 408.00µg GAE/g (Rampadarathetal.,2014).
Compared to other vegetable oils, it is relatively higher than the
total amount of coconut (84µg GAE/g), corn (0.1µg GAE/g),
olive (26.5µg GAE/g), sunower (0.4µg GAE/g), and soybean oil
with 8µg GAE/g (Marfiletal.,2011; Nevin&Rajamohan, 2006).
e phospholipid content (1-2%) in castor oilseed falls within
the range of that known in soybean (1.1-1.9%) and sunower oil
with 1.2% (Moreauetal.,1980; Subra-Paternaultetal.,2015).
eprimary phospholipids mentioned in castor oilseed are similar
to those in soybean and sunower oil; phosphatidylcholines,
Tab le 4. Phytosterols constituent in vegetable oil (mg/100g).
Oil β-Sitosterol Stigmasterol Campesterol Cholesterol δ5-Avenasterol δ7-Avenasterol δ7-Stigmasterol Tot al
Castor 1040.8-1181 406.6-554.10 249.20-273.20 2.18-4.41 357.9-520.20 8.83-22.32 4.41-49.57 1520.4-2603 (Saidetal.,2016;
Olive 1545-1851 16-26 59-62 0.11-0.29 158-214 8-14 1-4 1800-2300 (Benitez-
walnuts 974.09-1494.54 2.98-5.78 45.98-88.02 4.05- 6.33 40.84-83.89 1.00-2.60 1.88- 8.60 1085.60-
Hazelnut 1052-1666 10-18 44-87 nd 41-65 6-11 7-17 1458-1956
Rapeseed 1489-3340 9-38 1145-2655 19-65 101-382 1.0 nr 3267-7213 (Madawalaetal.,2012;
Sunower 950-3000 200-400 140-450 - nd-200 50-250 180-500 2440-4550
Soybean 990-2210 290-690 350-830 - 40-150 20-170 30-90 1840-4090
Cottonseed 2220-5310 30-130 220-670 - 70-380 50-160 Nd-90 2690-6430
Sesame 2730-14251 330-854 1-7 - 404-1542 44-1281 13-1886 4506-18957
Keys; nr-not reported, nd-not detected.
Tab le 5. Vitamin E component of dierent oils.
Oil Tocopherols Tocotrienols References
α-(µg) β-(µg) γ-(µg) δ-(µg) α-(µg) β-(µg)
Castor 0.57-2.8 0.35-1.3 30.89-52.7 43.1-96.62 0.24-0.42 0.47-0.61 (Saidetal.,2016; Sbihietal.,2018)
Rapeseed 153-256 nd 396-474 9.8-19 0.4 - (Madawalaetal.,2012;
Argan 57-90 2.5 463-773 71-75 nd nd (Edem, 2002)
Olive 33-219 0.6-10.2 0.1-11.9 0.7-22 nd-3.1 nd-0.7 (Benitez-Sánchezetal.,2003;
Sunower 92.7-368 4.64-21.7 0.53-19.3 0.3-0.93 0.11-1.1 - (Chongetal.,2015;
Fisketal.,2006; Hammond, 1998)
Palm kernel 36.2-44 58.3-248 3.1-257 53.4 1088.8 796.8 (Asnaasharietal.,2015;
Hazelnut 87-336.40 2-28 5-47 0.3-4.5 nd-1.4 nd-1.1
Walnuts 4.28- 12.81 0.57- 3.24 162- 358 16.76- 44.73 (Abdallahetal.,2015)
Keys; nd-not detected.
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, Ahead of Print, 2020 11/15 11
phosphatidylethanolamines, and phosphatidylinositols
In a deep frying study using castor, cottonseed, and jojoba,
the viscosity of these oils increased gradually with time.
Blendingof castor and jojoba oil mixture at a ratio of 9:1 did not
inuence the viscosity of cottonseed oil. But an increase occurred
aer blending castor oil at a ratio of 8:2 (Sedeeketal.,2012).
Duringfrying, acceleration in viscosity is a normal phenomenon
because of the formation of high molecular weight polymers.
esepolymers that are produced are more of oxygen which
leads to the deterioration of oil, hence increasing the viscosity
even more (Yaghmuretal.,2001). ough under actual industrial
frying conditions, the polymers formed are low in oxygen and
the oxygen content of oil is also low, the deterioration process
becomes fast once the antioxidants produce are all used up.
In this case, more viscous oils imply oils with a higher level of
deterioration. In addition, changes in peroxide and acid values,
as well as total polar compounds and TBA was observed when
castor oil blended with cottonseed and jojoba oil in the deep
frying system (Sedeeketal.,2012). During deep frying study,
the acid value of argan, castor, cottonseed, and jojoba oil was
found to be 0.4, 1.848, 1.026 and 1.568 units, respectively
(Sedeeketal.,2012; Yaghmuretal.,2001). ough the increase
in argan oil is very small, it still falls within the range expected
during deep frying. e sole use of peroxide value for testing
oxidative deterioration of oils during frying is not recommended
due to the reason being that peroxide easily gets decompose at
high temperatures above 170°C and new peroxides are formed
during cooling (Ikyaetal.,2013).
One accepted method for assessing total oil alteration/
rancidity is by the determination of total polar compounds
(TPC) (Ghobadietal., 2018). is is because during frying
processes polar compounds are formed from the decomposition
of fatty acids. For cooking oils, the limit range for rejecting or
replacing oils could be determined if the TPC is within 20 to
27% (Ghobadietal.,2018). e acceptable range for fresh oils
lies between 0.4 to 6.4%. In the same frying study involving
castor, the initial TPC of castor was 3.264 and this was lower
than cottonseed 7.518 and jojoba oil 4.942. Aer 12h of frying,
these values rose to 32.35, 83.68, and 32.35 for castor, cottonseed,
and jojoba oil, respectively (Sedeeketal., 2012). is shows
that during drying process, increasing time negatively aects
the quality of oils, therefore the optimal range (time) should be
known to avoid oil deterioration.
2 Conclusion and prospects
As it has been reviewed here, castor oilseed has high
percentage of monounsaturated fatty acid and shares higher
similarities of with other vegetable oils. e fatty acids prole and
triglycerides demonstrate that ricinoleic acid and triricinolein are
the predominant components in the oil. Bioactive compounds
including polyphenols, phytosterols, and tocopherols present
in castor oilseed pose its anti-inammatory and antioxidant
properties against oxidation and these may prolong the oil shelf
life. e low acid value also accounts for castor oil stability.
Further studies, however on the composition and
physicochemical properties are still required. e low percentage
of total phospholipid content requires further study to enhance
its utilization as emulsier in dierent sectors. e limited
studies on the unsaponiable matter and its potential use for
frying highlight the need for comprehensive research into this
unique seed oil. Further studies on the dierent methods of
extracting castor oil that is eco-friendly with maximal yields is
required. Finally, breeding of cultivars that can be grown under
challenging climatic conditions with higher yields and good oil
quality should be taken into future consideration.
We are thankful to Ms. Adzigbli Linda, Asiamah Collins and
all anonymous reviewers for making this manuscript a better
one. We are thankful to the researchers whose contributions
have been cited in this review paper, which have helped us to
prepare a constructive review. Moreover, we apologize to those
authors whose admirable work could not be cited due to space
limitations. is study was funded by National Natural Science
foundation of China (31271759); Guangdong provincial science
and technology projects (2013b060400024, 2014a020208116,
and 2016a020208015) (China); program for scientic research
start-up funds of Guangdong Ocean University (Grant number,
521202290); project of enhancing school with innovation of
Guangdong Ocean University, GDOU 2013050206 (China).
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