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Reliability and construct validity testing of a questionnaire to assess nomophobia (QANP)

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Abstract

Background: The real meaning of the term nomophobia remains somewhat obscure in studies assessing this disorder. There is an increasing interest in further exploring nomophobia: however, currently available measuring tools appear to only address mobile phone abuse and/or addiction. The objective of this study was to create a Spanish-language instrument to measure nomophobia. Methods: We developed an 11-item scale that we administered to 968 participants drawn from the population of Granada (Spain). We first performed an Exploratory Factor Analysis. After assessing the nomological validity of the scale, we conducted a Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results: The Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a three-factor structure. Factor 1 (Mobile Phone Abuse) comprised five items that described 19% of the variance; Factor 2 (Loss of Control) comprised three items that explained 12% of the variance; and Factor 3 (Negative Consequences) comprised three items that explained 10% of the variance. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient was 0.80. Limitations: Nomophobia is a modern disorder that has yet to be classified as a disease. Self-report measures are affected by biased replies, and therefore the presence of confounders may be a potential issue. Conclusion: This scale is reliable and valid. It provides future researchers with the means to measure nomophobia in the Spanish population.

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... 2.4. Questionnaire to assess nomophobia (QANIP; Olivencia-Carrión et al., 2018) This questionnaire was developed by Olivencia-Carrión et al. (2018) and consists of 11 items related to text message abuse, high frequency of use, spending more than 4 hours per day using the mobile phone (using the mobile phone all of the time) to cope with negative emotions or problems, to feel better, showing extreme nervousness and aggressive behaviour when deprived or unable to use the mobile phone, progressive deterioration in school/work and social and family functioning, and impairments in self and social perception. Each item is scored from one to five and they describe a four-factor structure according to the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) performed on the sample of participants described in Section 2.1: Factor 1 (Mobile Phone Abuse) consists of four items (1, 3, 7 and 8) that described 18% of the variance. ...
... 2.4. Questionnaire to assess nomophobia (QANIP; Olivencia-Carrión et al., 2018) This questionnaire was developed by Olivencia-Carrión et al. (2018) and consists of 11 items related to text message abuse, high frequency of use, spending more than 4 hours per day using the mobile phone (using the mobile phone all of the time) to cope with negative emotions or problems, to feel better, showing extreme nervousness and aggressive behaviour when deprived or unable to use the mobile phone, progressive deterioration in school/work and social and family functioning, and impairments in self and social perception. Each item is scored from one to five and they describe a four-factor structure according to the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) performed on the sample of participants described in Section 2.1: Factor 1 (Mobile Phone Abuse) consists of four items (1, 3, 7 and 8) that described 18% of the variance. ...
... Convergent validity was assessed with item-total correlations, which were all significant, while discriminant validity was assessed testing the null hypothesis of mean equality between the upper and lower groups of each item, which was rejected for all of the items. Further details on scale analysis and questionnaire validity can be found in Olivencia-Carrión et al. (2018). As noted previously, the sample of 968 participants was used for both the scale and factor analysis and for the weighted regression analysis. ...
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... Başka bir tanıma göre nomofobi, cep telefonu kullanmamaktan dolayı hissedilen yersiz bir korkudur ve insanlarda gerginlik, sıkıntı ve endişe eğilimine sebep olmaktadır (Bala & Chaudhary, 2020). Başka türlü ifade etmek gerekirse nomofobi, telefona olan uzaklıktan dolayı bireyde uyumsuzluk ve stres gibi hislerin hâkim olmasıdır (García, Carrión, Rueda, Torres, & Torrecillas, 2019). Dolayısıyla nomofobi "yersiz korkular ve bu korkuların bireyde yarattığı olumsuz psikolojik ve fizyolojik durumlar ile" özdeşleştirilmektedir (Çiçek, 2020, s. 91). ...
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Background There is emerging evidence that the psychobiological mechanisms underlying behavioral addictions such as internet and videogame addiction resemble those of addiction for substances of abuse. Objectives Review of brain imaging, treatment and genetic studies on videogame and internet addiction. Methods Literature search of published articles between 2009 and 2013 in Pubmed using “internet addiction” and “videogame addiction” as the search word. Twenty-nine studies have been selected and evaluated under the criteria of brain imaging, treatment, and genetics. ResultsBrain imaging studies of the resting state have shown that long-term internet game playing affected brain regions responsible for reward, impulse control and sensory-motor coordination. Brain activation studies have shown that videogame playing involved changes in reward and loss of control and that gaming pictures have activated regions similarly to those activated by cue-exposure to drugs. Structural studies have shown alterations in the volume of the ventral striatum possible as result of changes in reward. Furthermore, videogame playing was associated with dopamine release similar in magnitude to those of drugs of abuse and that there were faulty inhibitory control and reward mechanisms videogame addicted individuals. Finally, treatment studies using fMRI have shown reduction in craving for videogames and reduced associated brain activity. Conclusions and Scientific SignificanceVideogame playing may be supported by similar neural mechanisms underlying drug abuse. Similar to drug and alcohol abuse, internet addiction results in sub-sensitivity of dopamine reward mechanisms. Given the fact that this research is in its early stage it is premature to conclude that internet addiction is equivalent to substance addictions. (Am J Addict 2013;XX:1–9)
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This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioural addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders, and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity, and family history and (or) genetic findings for behavioural addictions involving gambling, Internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania, and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioural addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and grey matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history and genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that people with behavioural addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic and family history findings in substance and nonsubstance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviours may constitute addictions. To date, findings are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania, and sexual behaviour. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered.
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Contents: Preface. Introduction. Exploratory Common Factor Analysis. The Analysis of Covariance Structures: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Pattern Hypotheses. Models for Linear Structural Relations. The Problem of Factor Scores. Problems of Relationship Between Factor Analyses. Item Response Theory. Summary. Appendix: Some Matrix Algebra.
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Developments in psychiatry have ratified the existence of behavioral addictions, that certain activities such as gambling or video-game play may be considered addictive in the absence of exogenous (i.e. drug-induced) stimulation of brain reinforcement circuitry. This article describes recent advances in understanding the neurobiological basis of behavioral addiction, with a focus on pathological gambling as the prototypical disorder. We describe positron emission tomography (PET) studies characterizing dopaminergic transmission, and functional imaging studies of reward processing and gambling-related cognitive distortions. The current evidence not only indicates changes in pathological gamblers in core circuitry implicated in drug addiction, but also highlights some subtle differences. Behavioral addictions can also provide experimental traction on distinguishing vulnerability markers for addictions from the active detrimental effects of chronic drug use.
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A critical element in the evolution of a fundamental body of knowledge in marketing, as well as for improved marketing practice, is the development of better measures of the variables with which marketers work. In this article an approach is outlined by which this goal can be achieved and portions of the approach are illustrated in terms of a job satisfaction measure.
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role and relationships among statistical methods / basic mathematical propositions and formulations / alternative models: components and factors properties and formulas for the full factor model unique resolution and the tests of its attainment factor invariance, identification, and interpretation / deciding the number of factors reticular and strata models for higher-order factors / some modifications, developments, and conditions of the main factor model / strategies in the practical use of factor analysis questions of statistical significance and use of computer procedures (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present research was a preliminary examination of young Australians' mobile phone behaviour. The study explored the relationship between, and psychological predictors of, frequency of mobile phone use and mobile phone involvement conceptualised as people's cognitive and behavioural interaction with their mobile phone. Participants were 946 Australian youth aged between 15 and 24 years. A descriptive measurement tool, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire, was developed. Self-identity and validation from others were explored as predictors of both types of mobile phone behaviour. A distinction was found between frequency of mobile phone use and mobile phone involvement. Only self-identity predicted frequency of use whereas both self-identity and validation from others predicted mobile phone involvement. These findings reveal the importance of distinguishing between frequency of use and people's psychological relationship with their phone and that factors relating to one's self-concept and approval from others both impact on young people's mobile phone involvement.
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Determine the effect of traumatic event re-exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity on proximal drug use and drug abuse treatment-seeking in syringe exchange participants. Prospective longitudinal 16-month cohort study of new syringe exchange registrants enrolled in a parent study of methods to improve treatment engagement. Data were collected in a research van next to mobile syringe exchange distribution sites in Baltimore, Maryland. Male and female (n = 162) injecting drug users (IDUs) registered for syringe exchange. Traumatic event re-exposure was identified each month with the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. PTSD symptoms were measured with the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale–Revised, given every 4 months. Outcome measures collected monthly were days of drug use (heroin, cocaine) and drug abuse treatment-seeking behavior (interest, calls to obtain treatment, treatment participation). Each traumatic event re-exposure was associated with about 1 more day of cocaine use after accounting for the previous month's cocaine use [same month adjusted B, standard error = 1.16 (0.34); 1 month later: 0.99 (0.34)], while PTSD symptoms had no effect. Traumatic event re-exposure increased interest in drug abuse treatment [same month adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals = 1.34 (1.11–1.63)] and calling to obtain treatment [same month 1.58 (1.24–2.01); 1 month later 1.34 (1.03–1.75)]. Each 10% increase in PTSD symptom severity was associated with persistent increased interest in treatment [same month 1.25 (1.10–1.42); 1 month later 1.16 (1.02–1.32); 2 months later 1.16 (1.02–1.32)] and calling to obtain treatment [same month 1.16 (1.02–1.32)]. Neither traumatic events nor PTSD symptoms were associated with participants receiving treatment. Becoming exposed again to traumatic events among injecting drug users is associated with an increase in cocaine use up to 1 month later, but drug use is not related to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Both traumatic event re-exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms predict drug abuse treatment-seeking behavior for up to 2 months.
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Several authors have investigated the risks arising from the growth in mobile phone use (e.g. debts incurred by young people). The aims of the present study are (1) to validate a new questionnaire assessing problematic mobile phone use: the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ), and (2) to investigate the relationships between the PMPUQ and the multi-faceted construct of impulsivity. With these aims, 339 subjects were screened using the PMPUQ and the UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale (UPPS) which assesses four distinct components associated with impulsive behaviours (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance and sensation seeking). The results showed that the PMPUQ has an acceptable fit and assesses four different dimensions of problematic mobile phone use (prohibited use, dangerous use, dependence, financial problems). While each facet of impulsivity played a specific role in mobile phones use, urgency appeared to be the strongest predictor of problematic use. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.