ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was widely regarded due to an unpredictable, imminent pandemic posing a significant threat to humanity. This new virus has high infectivity, mortality, and variable latency. The recurrent modification in the virus' genetic (antigenic) structures poses a challenge in successful vaccine development. While several vaccine trials are underway, many conventional drugs are repositioned (i.e. repurposing) and used for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. However, the results were not very encouraging and often causing serious adverse effects. To come down the grimness and duration of acute disease and complexities, safe alternative remedies are, thus, needed. In symptomatic SARAS-COV-2 patients, the traditional Chinese medicine (TMC) with allopathic drugs and Moroccan medicinal plant extract showed significant benefit. Traditional medicine derived from Indian herbal plants used since ancient times to treat human diseases in India is easily available and cost-effective without any side effects. Some compounds from Indian herbal plants such as phytonutrients, flavonoids, phytomelatonin, and others have been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiviral bioactivities. In this review, we discuss some of the potential herbal plants with antiviral properties based on the history of usefulness in either treating COVID-19 or other potential viral infections. Considering the benefits of these preparations, government agencies must take interest in these preventive therapies and allot more funding. More evidence-based, experimental (basic, translational, and clinical) studies are needed to establish its efficacy and safety of these ingredients either alone or in combination.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
Herbal remedies and COVID-19: where is the evidence?
Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumala,*, Rajendra P. Mauryab, Dinesh
Chandrac, Shalini Mauryab, Om P. Singhe, Rajneesh A. Tripathif,
Yogesh C. Tripathig, Arup Girih, Vijay K. Bhartih
aSomnogen Canada Inc., College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada
bRegional Institute of Ophthalmology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi –
221005, India
cDepartment of Zoology, Government PG College, Pilibhit, Uttar Pradesh, India.
dDepartment. of Kayachikitsa, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi, UP, India.
eShri Jagdish Prasad Jha Barmal Tibrewala University, Jhunjhunu, Churu Rd, Vidyanagari, Churela 333001,
Rajasthan, India.
fDivision of Chemistry and Bioprospecting, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006, India.
gDRDO-Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR), Leh-Ladakh-194101, India.
*For correspondence:
Abstract: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was widely regarded due to an
unpredictable, imminent pandemic posing a significant threat to humanity. This new virus has high
infectivity, mortality, and variable latency. The recurrent modification in the virus' genetic
(antigenic) structures poses a challenge in successful vaccine development. While several vaccine
trials are underway, many conventional drugs are repositioned (i.e. repurposing) and used for
prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. However, the results were not very encouraging and often
causing serious adverse effects. To come down the grimness and duration of acute disease and
complexities, safe alternative remedies are, thus, needed. In symptomatic SARS-COV-2 patients, the
traditional Chinese medicine (TMC) with allopathic drugs and Moroccan medicinal plant extract
showed significant benefit. Traditional medicine derived from Indian herbal plants used since
ancient times to treat human diseases in India is easily available and cost-effective without any side
effects. Some compounds from Indian herbal plants such as phytonutrients, flavonoids,
phytomelatonin, and others have been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory,
immunomodulatory, and antiviral bioactivities. In this review, we discuss some of the potential
herbal plants with antiviral properties based on the history of usefulness in either treating COVID-19
or other potential viral infections. Considering the benefits of these preparations, government
agencies must take interest in these preventive therapies and allot more funding. More evidence-
based, experimental (basic, translational, and clinical) studies are needed to establish its efficacy and
safety of these ingredients either alone or in combination.
Keywords: Antioxidants, antiviral, COVID-19, herbal, immunoenhancement, plants, virus
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
The world community faces an unheard-of pandemic of new coronavirus disease (COVID-
19) caused by Coronavirus 2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). One report on
April 8 2020 stated that about 1.43 million people were infected and 82,100 casualties occurred. The
number of infected and deaths were increasing day by day despite taking all the preventive measures
in all the infected country except the lack of therapeutic medicine. The Coronavirus infection is now
caused by the deadly situation throughout the globe after its pandemic nature. While officially
licensed pharmacological agents are not yet available for COVID-19 therapy, several international
health agencies are actively interested in clinical trials of different compounds [1–4]. Moreover,
among the immigrant community and ethnic minorities, it is not unusual to try cost-effective
"alternative" therapies to avoid or treat COVID-19. Some of these supposed remedies include, but
are not limited to, herbal therapies like Ashwagandha, Artemisia annua, Capsaicin, Curcumin,
Favipiravir, Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Kabasurakudineer (Table 1), Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and
Zinc. Homeopathic formulations such as Arsenicum Album 30 (Ars Alb 30C) and Camphor 1 m are
used as anti-COVID-19 prophylactic agents. Other compounds used as prophylactics were tested
either alone or in combination, assessing their effectiveness and safety as a potential antiviral agent.
Such compounds include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin, metformin
[5,6]. So far, the therapeutic and investigative approaches for COVID-19 have focused primarily on
agents for attacking or immunizing against the virus. Most of the antiviral and herbal drugs in
COVID-19 are important because of their antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.
However, every medical specialty claims they have some help available to either prevent,
treat, or cure potential infectious viral pathogens. This includes, but is not limited to, Siddha,
Ayurveda, Unani, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, and indigenous tribal
preparation around the world [7]. Besides, there are many unproven and fraudulent claims
concerning prevention, cure, and management for COVID-19. When patients and consumers resort
to any of these alternative treatment modalities, care must be taken to avoid side effects and/or
potential death. The health agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) has released
warning against the use of unproven treatment [8]. Hence, patients and consumers are advised to
consult appropriate medical specialties and avoid self-medication. As CAM therapies evolving due
to some factors and lacunae in the health care system, more research is needed on this front (Fig. 1).
In our report, we have highlighted some of these available options mainly CAM therapies that need
to be researched further.
This review reveals the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, the mechanism of infection,
and finding the most suitable medicinal plants from the floral diversity of South Asian countries.
From ancient times, many medicinal plants are being used for different diseases including thse viral
infection also. The recent pharmacology industry also mainly depends upon the plant-related drug
formulation for most of the evolved diseases in the globe. Therefore, with preventive measures such
as the use of hand sanitizer, washing hands, social distance, etc., to fight with this pandemic, now,
the time for therapeutic drug development. The cognition of medicinal plants, which have the
antiviral properties, may be applicable for the new drug formulation or may consume at the society
level to make the human immune system strong.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
Table 1 The composition of Kabasurakudineer, an herbal concoction.
The composition of KabaSuraKudineer, a herbal concoction
Botanical name
Plant part being used
Rhizome, ginger root or ginger
Piper longum
Indian long pepper or
Dried fruit
Flower bud
Indian stinging nettle
Anacyclus pyrethrum
chamomile, or Mount
Atlas daisy or Akarkara
Forest Bitterberry or
African Eggplant
Terminalia chebula
Small, ribbed and nut
like fruit rind
Malabar nut, adulsa,
(formally known as Coleus
Indian mint
Costus or Kuth
Miers (Guduchi)
leaved moonseed,
Guduchi, orGiloy
Clerodendrumserratum (L.)
Turk's tur
ban moon, Blue
glory, Beetle killer
Creat or green chireta
Aerial parts
Cissampelospareira L.
leaf, Abuta
grass, Java grass,
Nut grass, Red - or Purple
nut sedge, Khmer
Root tuber
Preparation of decoction:
An equal part of these 15 ingredients must be made into a coarse powder.8 gm powder in 4-glass
water, boiled and reduced into 1 glass. May be taken twice or thrice according to the severity of
the fever and other respiratory symptoms. Since the recipe is recently promoted as prophylaxis for
COVID-19, for prophylaxis, it may be taken once a day for three days, if required it may be taken
after a gap of 3-4 days. No need to take it continuously.
Etiopathogenesis of COVID-19: Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-
CoV2) caused novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV2 is a single-stranded, β
coronavirus-containing RNA. Viral host cell infection triggered by endocytosis liaised by the
receptor. Receptor binding domain (RBD) is located in virus spike protein attached to the target cell
via angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor, which is highly enriched distribution in the
alveolar epithelium in the human lung. An analysis of the structural model shows that SARS-CoV2
has a 10 times more binding affinity than SARS CoV that has a similar spike protein RBD [9]. RBD
ACE-2 complex formation mediates the coalition between the host cell membrane and viral
envelope during virus-host interaction and ultimately grants the viral genome to entry in the host cell
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
[10]. Many herbal compounds inhibit infection and propagation of COVID-19 by blocking the
complex RBD ACE-2.
SARS CoV 2 remains unknown to have pathological mechanisms for organ damage.
COVID-19's potential mechanism for ARDS may be immune disruption and inflammatory process.
The peripheral blood examination and quantification of extreme COVID-19 patients with plasma
cytokine have shown depletion of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and a massive increase in IL-10, IL-6,
IL-2, and IFN-α. This 'cytokine storm' causes damage to the alveolar epithelium and therefore
respiratory distress [11].
Scope of Ayurveda against COVID-19: For nearly 5000 years Ayurveda, an ancient Indian
medicine method, has been practiced in India, relying heavily on plants to formulate it. Ayurvedic
herbal supplements and immunity boosters showing the way to a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that
is the need of the hour. For plants namely Glycyrrhiza glabra, Andrographis paniculata, Phyllanthus spp.,
Zingiber officinale,Withania somnifera, and Curcuma longa antiviral properties have been reported.
Whereas, others have the properties to enhance immunity, such as Tinospora cordifolia and Emblica
officinalis [12]. It has been previously shown that Coptidis rhizome, Meliae cortex, Sanguisorbae radix,
Cimicifuga rhizome, and Phellodendron cortex exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Sophorae radix, Torilis
fructus, and Acanthopanacis cortex decreased intracellular viral RNA levels with corresponding viral
protein decreases [13]. Therefore, Ayurveda has a tremendous to attenuate this pandemic but the
trials should be implemented substantially which will simplify learning, produce proof, and provide
a way forward [14].
Efficacy of medicinal plants against COVID-19: From ancient times, medicinal plants have been
in use for the treatment and prevention of various diseases including viral infections (Table 2).
Studies on plant antiviral activity, however, were minimal compared with other antimicrobial
efficiencies such as antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the plants and plant products
were investigated for their effectiveness against pathogenic viruses in general, and particularly
COVID. Table 2 presents some of the major preventive and prophylactic medicinal plants with
recorded effectiveness against COVID-19.
Research on Vitex trifolia and Sphaeranthus indicus for coronaviral anti-mouse activity reported
inhibiting the NF-kB pathway after reducing the inflammatory cytokines which are involved in
SARS-CoV respiratory distress [59,60]. Clitoria ternatea has the metalloproteinase inhibitory effect in
ACE shredding that is primarily associated with virus replication. Strobilanthes cusia plant reportedly
blocks the HCoV infection [61]. Amber et al. [62] reported that Justicia adhatoda, Verbascum Thapsus,
and Hyoscyamus niger that is traditionally used in bronchitis, have been found to reduce influenza
virus infections. Kambizi et al. [63] demonstrated that Aconitum ferox and Withania somnifera aqueous
extracts have anti-HSV-1 activity.
Thus, several medicinal plants, including Cynara scolymus, Punica granatum, Coscinium
fenestratum, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cassia occidentalis, Embelia ribes, and Coriandrum sativum can inhibit the
activity o ACE [64–66]. One study on Salacia oblonga reported that it has the anti angiotensin II
activity [67]. Andrographis paniculata commonly known as Kalmegh has been credited for its efficacy
against viral respiratory infections [68]. The interleukin-1β molecules, caspase-1, and high NOD-like
receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) were suppressed after the application of this plant [11]. Glycyrrhiza
glabra, Clerodendrum inerme, and Allium sativum have the potential to inactive the viral replication
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
Table 2 Medicinal plants having anti-viral properties
Sl. No.
Medicinal Plants
Virus Name
Achyranthus aspera
Herpes simplex virus
Allium cepa
Allium porrum
Allium sativum
Alnus japonica
Andrographis paniculata
H9N2, H5N1
Andrographis paniculata
Dengue virus
Andrographis paniculata
Dengue virus
Angelica keiskei
Azadirachta indica
Dengue virus
Betula pubescens
Canthium coromandelicum
Herpes simplex virus
Cassiae semen
Chamaecyparis obtusavar formosana
Cinnamomum cassia
Cryptomeria japonica
Curcuma longa
H1N1, H6N1
Dioscoreae rhizoma
Emblica officinalis
Influenza Virus
Ficus religiosa
Human rhino virus
Galla chinensis
Gentianae radix
Glycine max
Human adenovirus
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Respiratory Syncytial virus
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Herpes type 1 and 2 viruses
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam
Polio virus
Hippophae rhamnoides
Dengue virus
Isatis indigotica
Juniperus oxycedrus
Laurus nobilis
Linum usitatissimum
Loranthi ramus
Mangrove plant
Moringa oleifera
Moringa oleifera
Epstein bar virus
Myrica faya
Nicotiana tabacum
Nigella sativa
Nilavembu kudineer
Chikungunya virus
Paulownia tomentosa
Phyllanthus amarus
Human immuno deficiency virus
Phyllanthus amarus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
Phyllanthus amarus
Hepatitis B
Phyllanthus urinaria
Herpes Simplex Virus
Psoralea corylifolia
Pterocarpus santalinus
Rheum officinale
Rheum palmatum
Rhodiola kirilowii
Salvia miltiorrhiza
Scutellaria baicalensis
Scutellaria lateriflora
Sesbania grandiflora
Herpes simplex virus
Stephania cepharantha
T. nucifera
Terminalia belerica
Terminalia bellerica
Thuja orientalis
Tinospora cordifolia
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Toona sinensis
Triterygium regelii
Utrica dioica
Veronica linariifolia
Withania somnifera
rpes Simplex Virus 2
In Brazil, Acmella oleracea is a well-known herb that belongs to the asteraceae family. It is
used for the local ‘Jambu tea’ preparation consumed daily in every home in Brazil. This plant
contains a lot of phytomolecules, among which Spilanthol, undeca-2,7,9-trienoic acid isobutyl
amide, and undeca-2-en-8,10-diynoic acid isobutyl amide are well known. It has been proved that
the extract of this plant has anti-microbial properties [72].
Ocimum sanctum, Acacia nilotica, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Euphorbia granulate, Eugenia
jambolana, Solanum nigrum, and Vitex negundo inhibited HIV and Sambucus ebulus reversed
transcriptase activity inhibiting enveloped virus activity [73–79]. All these plants may be applicable
as the effective agents against SARS-CoV-2.
Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor): In India, herbal product camphor is commonly used as a
white crystalline substance derived from camphor laurel wood (Cinnamomum camphora), a tree
belongs to the lauraceae family. Camphor is obtained by distilling steam, purifying, and sublimating
wood [80]. This is distributed in India, Taiwan, Japan, China, Mangolia, and especially in Florida.
This product has a very fine history as the antispasmodic, odontalgic, anti-rheumatic, and
rubifacient medication. The Chinese oil for sassafros obtained from C. Camphora. The camphor is
composed of camphor, sofrole, linalool, borneol, dipentene, terpeneol, and cineole [81]. It is also
well established that Camphors has antihistaminic activity, antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory
activity, bronchitis antioxidant activity, sprain, rheumatic pain, etc., immunoglobulin-E suppressing
allergic disease activity [82]. A characteristic organized feature of camphor molecule is its rigid
structure of cage-hydrocarbons such as amantadine, rimantadine, most potent antiviral drugs [83].
These compounds' antiviral activity is due to the blockage of virally encoded protein-M2, which acts
as a protein channel necessary for the hemmagglutinin cleavage and adhesion of host cell
membranes and viral envelope [84]. New biologically active antiviral compounds are obtained by
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
chemical modification of the natural compounds that occur. The camphecene (Fig. 1) is a recent
camphor amino derivative, with high antiviral activity and low toxicity [85]. The camphecene is
based on hepten-2-ylidene-aminoethanol-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1); Amino camphor derivatives
are an important influenza A inhibitor of M2 ion channels (viral haemagglutinin) [86]. Bananins are
potent antiviral compounds close to classical adamantanes (trioxa-admantene moiety covalently
linked to pyridoxal derivatives). Tanner et al. [87] reported that bananin and its derivatives are
potent inhibitors of both SARS-Coronavirus ATPase and helicase activities, thus inhibiting the
replication of SCVs. In Iran, triggered by the use of homeopathic medication Camphor-1 M,
COVID-19 related deaths dramatically reduced. In India, the ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga &
Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) has recommended the use of Arsenicum
Album 30 (Ars Alb 30C) and Camphor 1 m (homeopathic formulations) in COVID-19 under
physician supervision for prophylaxis usage. Thus, these drugs were issued to several Indian states
and police forces.
Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi): Because of its medicinal and spiritual values, Tulasi (Ocimum
sanctum) belongs to the plant family Lamiaceaeis widely used in the Indian medicinal system; also
known as holy basil, Mother Natural Medicine, and "The Queen of Herbs" This is found in the
Himalayas in all of India climbing up to 1800 m. Tulasi's main bioactive molecules are oleanolic
acid, rosmarinic acid ursolic acid, carvacrol, eugenol, and caryophyllene. There are hundreds of
scientific studies showing that this plant has a special combination of behavior including anti-
diarrheal, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial (including antifungal, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antiviral,
antimalarial, antiprotozoal), hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antidiabetic,
cardioprotective, analgesic, anti-allergic, antipyretic, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, and
anti-inflammatory. Extract from Ocimum sanctum has considerable potential to inhibit the produced
free radicals in the cell. There was strong antioxidant activity in the phenolic compounds, i.e.,
apigenin and rosmarinic acid, isothymusin, cirsimaritin, cirsilineol, and large amounts of eugenol
from stems and leaves [77]. Ocimum sanctum demonstrates its immunomodulatory effect by
increasing the number of IL-‘4, NK cells, IFN-γ, T-helper cells. This helps to reduce the increasing
population of neutrophils, and lymphocytes and thereby increasing phagocytic activity and
phagocytic index. In bovine sub-clinical mastitis, the aqueous extract also exhibited
immunotherapeutic potential by inhibiting mast cell degranulation and histamine release in the
presence of an allergen. This is more effective for treating acute viral encephalitis than
dexamethasone [88]. Since the 1990s, the flavonoid molecules (6-hydroxyflavone, Apigenine (Fig.
1), tangeritin, wogonin, scutellarein, chrysin, and luteoline) of the plant extract has increased
antiviral effect in cell culture on herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 [89]. Pandey et al. [90] reported
naturally extracted flavonoids have the evidence to inhibit the helicase activity of SARS-CoV due to
suppression of ATPase activity.
Zingiber officinale (Ginger): Zingiber officinale (Ginger) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family and
is among the most commonly used herbs. The Rhizome is the eaten portion of the ginger. It has
been developed as a spice for a long time. From the last decade, it is being used as a traditional
medicine in the different medicinal system [91]. Ginger includes various substances, such as
gingerol, gingerdiol, and gingerdione, which have anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer,
chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties of ginger
Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy): Tinospora cordifolia is commonly known as Giloy or Guduchi.
Three major species of Tinospora viz., Tinospora candifolia, Tinospora malabarica, and Tinospora
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
crispa are found primarily in Myanmar, mainly tropical and subtropical regions of India, Sri
Lanka, and China [95]. Flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, alkaloids, polysaccharides, and others
are the active constituents of the plants. Several chemical components, such as giloin, tinosporic
acid, tinosporite, berberine, palmatin, isocolumbin, columbin, choline, tinochordifolin, and others
were extracted from the various parts of tinospora [95]. This plant is also recognized for anti-allergic,
anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-oxidant, anti-spasmodic, and anti-cancer
properties [96]. Tinospora is a potent natural immunomodulator. It induces chemotaxis,
phagocytosis of macrophages, and activates B- lymphocytes and other immune controlling cells [97].
Giloy root extracts have shown positive modulation of the immune system in HIV patients. It was
reported that T. Chordifolia has a protective effect against swine flu [96]. T. Chordifolia has a high
potential for anti-stress and antioxidant [98]. Giloy's phytochemicals such as tinocodiside could be
potent against COVID-19. Exactly within the ACE2-RBD complex, in-silico model tinocodisides
dock has been found which suggests that rich giloy extracts of Tinochordiside may be the best
options to inhibit the host cell entry of COVID-19. Giloy’s immunomodulatory property will
strengthen innate immunity to COVID-19 infections [99].
Glycyrrhiza glabra (Mulethi): Several in vivo and in vitro studies reported that Licorice and
glycyrrhizine have the potential as the therapeutic agent against several viral diseases including
vaccina virus, chronic hepatitis A, B and C, respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency
(HIV) virus, SARS-related coronavirus, arboviruses, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) [100–103].
Nyctanthes arbortristis (Tree of sorrow or Harsingar): Nyctanthes arbortristis also known as
Harsingar or Parijatha belongs to the family of Oleaceae/Nyctanthaceae. Leaves from the N.
Arbortristis contains oleanolic acid, methyl salicylate, astragalin, iridoid glycosides, amorphous resin,
flavanol glycosides, nicotiflorin, a trace of volatile oil, carotene, β-sitosterol, benzoic acid, and
nyctanthic acid. Nyctanthes arbortristis seeds contain Arbortristoside A&B, oleic acid, glycerides,
lignoceric acid, linoleic acid, and 3-4 secotriterpene acid. The bark of N. Arbortristis contains both
glycosides and alkaloids [104]. The bronchodilatory effect of this plant ethanolic extract was
demonstrated in in-vitro circumstances [105]. Stabilizing mast cell and bronchodilating activity of N.
Arbortristis bark has been shown to treat asthma [106]. Administration of doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg
body weight of plant ethanolic extract found that there was a significant increase in splenic antibody-
secreting cells, leukocyte count, phagocytic index [107]. Plant ethanolic extract along with
arbortristoside C and arbortristoside A; have inhibitory activity against Semliki Forest Virus (SFV)
and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The in-vivo ethanol extract of N. Arbortristis and n-butanol
fraction protected EMCV infected mice against SFV [108].
Camellia sinensis (Herbal Tea): Tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) are rich in polyphenol (catechins
and flavonoids) [109]. Green tea contains six primary catechin compounds such as epigallocatechin,
epicatechin, epicatechingalate, catechin, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate (Fig.
1).Polyphenols vary from 30% to 40% and from 3% to 10%, respectively in green tea and black tea.
The health benefits of tea consumption are well known and widely reported in the literature [110].
There has recently been hype concerning the usefulness of tea in the treatment of COVID-19.
Preliminary evidence in the past has suggested that tea components could be a potential antiviral
agent that could potentially inhibit coronavirus (COVID-19) proliferationin the human body [111].
This led to the assumption that the consumption of tea could be beneficial against SARS Cov-2 due
to its abundant chemical constituents. Polyphenolic compounds like Prodelphinidine B-2 39-gallate
inhibited the entry of HSV type 2, HIV-1 into target cells. ECGC has also been reported to prevent
influenza virus infection by binding to viral hemagglutinin [112]. Catechins have anti-influenza virus
activity [75]. Epigallocatechin gallate has a higher activity than the epicatechingalate activity against
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
viral infection after suppressing the viral DNA and RNA polymerases. However, the strongest
inhibition of these compounds was observed with HIV reverse transcriptase [113,114].
Epigallocatechin gallate has reported blocking the binding of HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 to CD4
molecules on T-cells [115].
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): Withania somnifera, a family shrub of Solanaceae, is
generally used as an immunosuppressive agent in folk medicines. Its medicinal properties have been
attributed to its major bioactive constituent steroidal lactones called anolides. This is oxygenated
steroidal molecules. About 130 anolides have been isolated from Withania sp. and they are well
established for the anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-microbial properties have
been demonstrated. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Replication was stunned after the application of
hydro-alcoholic extract of W. Somnifera [116].
Antiviral Herbs as Potential Anti-COVID Agent: The unsung Himalayan floral diversity is
known as the storage house of the medicinal plants [62]. From ancient times, the ethnomedicinal
properties of the available plats were known. Recently, numerous plants found in this region have
reported that they have the properties as anti-SARSCoV-2, anti-influenza virus infections, and other
anti-viral infections [59,60,117,118]. The extract of these plants mainly inhibits the virus entry to the
cell, inhibition of viral replication, inhibiting the NF-kB pathway, immunomodulation in the host
cell, etc [60,66]. The herb lemongrass is known as Cymbopogon sp., mainly found in Asian and
African countries, and commonly found in Australia. Lemongrass extracted essential oil (EO) has
great potential as an antimicrobial agent. Studies have shown that lemongrass EO affects the
antimicrobial resistance of pathogens [119,120]. Other studies also reported an extract of
Cymbopogon sp. possible antiviral activity. Bahtiar et al. [121] reported that the ethanol extract of
Cymbopogon nardus attenuated the activity of herpes simplex virus serotype 1 (HSV-1), anti-measles
activity, anti-dengue virus serotype 1, anti-hepatitis-A virus, anti norovirus murine [122–125].
Antiviral phytochemicals: Phytochemicals provide eco-friendly and substantially applicable in
the public health sector as anti-viral agents. Several pure individual bioactive chemical constituents
from different plants have been investigated for their antiviral activity, with a particular focus on
anti-COVID action. The reported antiviral and anti-COVID activity of various phytochemicals are
summarized in Table 3 and Fig. 14. Curcumin is well known bioactive pigment present in Curcuma
longa (. It is well established the curcumin anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, antioxidant, and anti-cancer,
anti-bacterial properties. This has the inhibitory effects of the HIV replication process in the host cell,
inhibiting HIV kinase-related enzymes, inhibition of several cell signaling mechanisms, etc. [169].
Withaferin A and Withanone (Fig. 1) are the main phytochemical of Withania somnifera; a well-
known medicinal plant. These molecules have the capabilities to reduce H1N1 influenza
neuraminidase activity, inhibiting the effect of viral DNA polymerase activity, reduce the bonding
between the viral RBD and host ACE2 receptor [170]. Therefore, these molecules may reduce the
infective power of COVID-19 [99] Caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline (Fig. 1) are the main
bioactive molecules in the tea leaf. Theaflavins-1, Theaflavins-2, and Theaflavins-3 (Fig. 1) are also
present in the black tea and they are now known for the SARS-COV-2 viral replication process in the
host cell [111]. Artemisinin (ART), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and artesunate (AS) (Fig. 1) are the
active ingredients derived from Artemisia annua. For a very long time, this is used in Chinese
traditional medicine [75]. These molecules reported their antiviral effect in the fibroblast cell model
by measuring viral DNA synthesis in cell lysates, antimalarial, anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus
(BVDV) [171,172]. Artemether is often used alongside lumefantrin. One clinical version of this
formulation is Coartem®. The combination of artemether-lumefantrine has also been used in
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
patients diagnosed with EBOV and has shown a decreased efficacy in reducing the risk of death
[173]. The study of Arisaema tortuosum plants found that the extract of this plant has a proven
mechanism for attenuating the HSV-2 replicative cycle. Apigenin and luteolin had high inhibitory
activity against the HSV-2 replicative cycle [174]. Phytomolecules such as isorhapontigenin,
gnetupendin B, shegansu B, and gnetin D have significant anti-influenza viral activity in the in vitro
condition [175]. The use of icetexane diterpenoids, namely perovskatones B–D, α-
hydroxybrussonol, and α-hydroxypisiferanol (Fig. 1); isolated from Perovskia atriplicifolia, has been
used against inhibitory hepatitis B virus activity in the HepG 2.2.15 cell line. The results suggest that
phytomolecules have inhibitory activity against in vitro hepatitis B virus activity [176]). The root of
the Marsdenia tenacissima plant was used for the extraction process and marstenacissides B10–B17,
marstenacissides A8-A12, polyoxypregnane glycosidesmarsdenosides M, and L,
isolatedmarstenacissides A1–A7 and B1–B9 (Fig. 1) were isolated and identified. The anti-HIV
activity was reported [177]. Naphthoquinone droserone is a natural product found in dicotyledonous
plants. Lieberherr et al. [178] have shown that this molecule has great potential for entry into cells of
the measles virus.
Table 3 Bioactive phytochemicals with virus inhibiting action
Bioactive compounds Source Plants Virus inhibiting action References
1, 8-cineole Vitex trifolia Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 virus [126]
10-Methoxycamptothecin Camptotheca acuminata Inhibit adenovirus, Herpes and
vaccinia viruses
Justicia gendarussa
Inhibition of Zika Virus, Human
Immunodeficiency Virus
6-gingerol Zingiber officinalis Anti-viral action against Avian influenza
virus H9N2
Erythrostrebluslignanol G
Streblus asper Lour.,Moraceae Inhibition of Hepatitis B [130]
Actinophnine Actinodaphne hookeri Herpes simplex virus type 1 [131]
Aranotin, Gliotoxin Arachniotus aureus Coxsackievirus A 21, poliovirus, rhinovirus,
influenza virus, para-influenza virus type 3
Azadirachta indica
Virucidal activity against FMDV
Schisandra rubriflora
Inhibition of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C
Euodia roxburghiana
HIV-1-reverse transcriptase
Ophiorrhiza mungo
Herpes virus
Canavanin Carnavalia ensiformis L. Influenza virus, Semliki Forest virus [137]
Caribine Hymenocallis arencola Antiviral activity [138]
Zephyranthes carinata
Antiviral activity
Carnosic acid Rosmarinus officinalis Blocks replication of Human
Respiratory syncytial virus
Castanospermine, Australine Castanospermum australe HIV [140]
Chelidonine Chelidonium majus L.
Herpes virus, influenza virus
Cordycepin Cordyceps militaris Picornavirus, poliovirus, vaccinia, Newcastle
disease virus, Herpes simplex, and influenza
Cryptopleurine Bochneria cylindrica L. Sw. &
Herpes simplex type 1 [142]
Diphyllin Justicia gendarussa Inhibition of Zika Virus [143]
Ellagic acid, Isoquercetin,
Eugenia jambolana Inhibition of protease activity in Avian
Emetine Cephaelis ipecacuanha A MERS, SARS [144]
Fagara zanthoxyloides
Reverse transcriptase activity of retrovirus [145]
Flavonoids and Alkaloids Hyoscyamus niger Inhibition of Ca
channels and
Bronchodilator SARS
Flavonol glycosides Clitoria ternatea Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 [147]
Glaucine fumarate, N-
Methyllaurotetanine, Isoboldine,
Herpes simplex virus Corydalis cava, Glaucium flavum, Peumus boldo
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
Nuciferine HCl
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Induces nitrous oxide synthase which in turn
blocks replication of SARS-CoV
Harmaline, Harmine
Peganum harmala
DNA-containing herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1)
Harmine Peganum harmala Inhibit replication of Influenza Avirus [33]
Hinonkin Chamaecyparis obtusa Inhibition of Human Cytomegalo Virus,
Hypoxanthine Beta vulgaris Viral diseases
Luteolin Reseda luteola Inhibit entry of SARS-CoV, have great
affinity for S2 protein thus interfere virus-cell
fusion process in SARS-CoV
Menthol and
essential oils
Mentha piperita Virucidal impact on IBV by incrementing
virion density
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid Larrea tridentata
Inhibition of Hepatitis C virus, West Nile
virus, Zika virus
Ochropamine, epi-16-
Cabucula erythrocarpa
Vatke Mar
Influenza virus [154]
-Demethyl-buchenavianine Buchenavia capitata Cytopathic effect of HIV
Aglaia roxburghiana
Ranikhet disease virus
Oleanane triterpenes Camellia japonica Block replication of PEDV-CoV via affecting
key structural protein synthesis
Oliverine Polyathia oliveri Herpes simplex virus type 1
Oxostephanine Stephania japonica Herpes simplex virus type 1
Pachypodanthium staudti
Herpes simplex virus type 1
Papaver somniferum
Cytomegalovirus (CMV), measles and HIV
Phenolics Acacia nilotica Inhibition of HIV-PR [158]
Phytosterols and
Strobilanthes callosa Blocking of HCoV-NL63 virus [69]
Platycodin D Platycodon
Inhibit viral replication and proinflammatory
cytokine expression in PRRSV
Polyphenols Rheum palmatum Significant inhibition of protease activity
Cephaelis acuminata
Punicalagins and
Punica granatum Inhibition of ACE SARS-CoV-2 [161]
Quercetin Houttuynia cordata Virucidal activity against MHV, DENV-2,
inhibits ATPase of multidrug resistance-
Quercetin and kaempferol
Moringa oleifera
Blocks initial stages of replication of FMDV
Quinazolinone, alkaloids and
Strobilanthes cusia Blocking of replication of HCoV-NL63 virus
Vitis vinifera
Reduced expression of nucleocapsid (N)
protein, also lowers the apoptosis induced by
MERS-CoV virus
Streptomyces mediterranei
inia, pox viruses
Schumannificine Schumanniophyton
HIV and anti- Herpes simplex (anti-HSV) [155]
Solasonine Solanum nigrum & S. khasianum Tobacco mosaic virus and sunnhemp
rosette virus
Taspine Croton lechleri M. RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity of
avian myeloblastosis virus
Larrea tridentata
Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus, Human
Influenza Virus
Yatein Chamaecyparis obtusa Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 [168]
Nocchi et al. [179] found that Schinus terebinthifolia plant’s bark extract reduces infections of
the Herpes simplex virus in cells.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
Currently, effective treatments against Covid-19 are unavailable. There may or may not be
one in the near future. In such circumstances, medications commonly used for other viral infections
such as Malaria, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (Sars-CoV),
Middle East coronavirus-related respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) are considered
(repurposing/repositioning) as therapeutic options. Every medical specialty around the world claims
they have some help available to either prevent, treat, or cure potential infectious viral pathogens.
This includes, but is not limited to, Siddha, Ayurveda, Unani, Complementary and alternative
medicine (CAM) therapies, natural and indigenous tribal medicine. Several communities eschew
drugs for Covid-19 but resort to natural medicine as it is believed that the home-made remedies are
much safe without mush side-effects, and additionally have great preventive curing capabilities. For
example, native South American from Amazonia uses ‘toothache plant’ (Acmella oleracea) to prepare
an herbal tea (jambú tea) home remedy. Traditional herbal remedies from India and other countries
and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are currently being explored. In India, the Ministry of
Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) has been involved in
the research and dissemination of indigenous alternative medicine systems. However, the aim was to
promote traditional healing therapies and to list various practices that prevent infectious agents from
occurring, strengthen the immune system, thereby improving the overall health and well-being of the
individual, but not promoting it as a primary treatment.When patients and consumers resort to any
of these alternative supportive therapies, care must be taken to avoid potential side effects. The
World Health Organization (WHO) has released a general warning against the use of unproven
treatment. Besides, there are many fraudulent claims concerning prevention, cure, and management
for COVID-19. Hence, patients and consumers are advised to consult appropriate medical specialties
and avoid self-diagnosis and treatment or while using over-the-counter preparations.
The authors are indebted to the anonymous reviewers for providing insightful comments on
earlier drafts of the manuscript and directions for additional analysis to improve the quality of the
paper. Without the anonymous reviewers, supportive work this paper would not have been possible.
Ethical approval and Compliance with ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies
with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors. Hence, no ethical approval was
needed for this work. No primary data have been reported in this study.
The authors have read the journal’s policy and have the following potential conflicts: This
study was not industry-supported. S.R. Pandi-Perumal is a stockholder and the President and Chief
Executive Officer of Somnogen Canada Inc., a Canadian Corporation. This does not alter his
adherence to all of the journal policies. Pandi-Perumal has edited several academic volumes for
which he receives occasional annual royalties. He declares that he has no competing interests that
might be perceived to influence the content of this article.
Other remaining authors declare that they have no proprietary, financial, professional, nor
any other personal interest of any nature or kind in any product or services and/or company that
could be construed or considered to be a potential conflict of interest that might have influenced the
views expressed in this manuscript.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent
the official views of their affiliated institutions.
[1] Lythgoe MP, Middleton P. Ongoing clinical trials for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Trends Pharmacol Sci 2020;41:363–82.
[2] Carvalho T. COVID-19 Research in Brief: 4 April to 10 April, 2020. Nat Med 2020.
[3] Servick K. Clinical trials press on for conditions other than COVID-19. Will the pandemic’s effects
sneak into their data? Science (80-) 2020.
[4] Campbell M. 13 COVID-19 vaccines are in human clinical trials what are they? 2020.
336738 (accessed September 7, 2020).
[5] Scholz KH, Lengenfelder B, Thilo C, Jeron A, Stefanow S, Janssens U, et al. Impact of COVID-19
outbreak on regional STEMI care in Germany. Clin Res Cardiol 2020.
[6] Read SA, Obeid S, Ahlenstiel C, Ahlenstiel G. The Role of Zinc in Antiviral Immunity. Adv Nutr
[7] Pandey MM, Rastogi S, Rawat AKS. Indian traditional ayurvedic system of medicine and nutritional
supplementation. Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med 2013;2013.
[8] World Health Organization. Monitored emergency use of unregistered and experimental interventions
(MEURI). 2020. Retrieved from
[9] Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett KS, Goldsmith JA, Hsieh CL, Abiona O, et al. Cryo-EM structure of the
2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science (80- ) 2020;367:1260–3.
[10] Belouzard S, Millet JK, Licitra BN, Whittaker GR. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by
the viral spike protein. Viruses 2012;4:1011–33.
[11] Liu Z, Xiao X, Wei X, Li J, Yang J, Tan H, et al. Composition and divergence of coronavirus spike
proteins and host ACE2 receptors predict potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2. J Med Virol 2020;92:595–601.
[12] Gangal N, Nagle V, Pawar Y, Dasgupta S. AIJR Preprints Reconsidering Traditional Medicinal Plants
to Combat COVID-19. ResearchgateNet 2020. Retrieved from
[13] Kim HY, Eo EY, Park H, Kim YC, Park S, Shin HJ, et al. Medicinal herbal extracts of Sophorae radix,
Acanthopanacis cortex, Sanguisorbae radix and Torilis fructus inhibit coronavirus replication in vitro. Antivir Ther 2010;15:697–
[14] Rastogi S, Pandey DN, Singh RH. COVID-19 pandemic: A pragmatic plan for ayurveda intervention. J
Ayurveda Integr Med 2020.
[15] Mukherjee A, Lal R. Biochar Impacts on Soil Physical Properties and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
Agronomy 2013;3:313–39.
[16] Jo S, Kim S, Shin DH, Kim MS. Inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease by flavonoids. J Enzyme Inhib
Med Chem 2020;35:145–51.
[17] Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Pannecouque C, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Egberink H, et al. Plant lectins are
potent inhibitors of coronaviruses by interfering with two targets in the viral replication cycle. Antiviral Res 2007;75:179–
[18] Thuy BTP, My TTA, Hai NTT, Hieu LT, Hoa TT, Thi Phuong Loan H, et al. Investigation into SARS-
CoV-2 resistance of compounds in garlic essential oil. ACS Omega 2020;5:8312–20.
[19] Park JY, Kim JH, Kim YM, Jeong HJ, Kim DW, Park KH, et al. Tanshinones as selective and slow-
binding inhibitors for SARS-CoV cysteine proteases. Bioorganic Med Chem 2012;20:5928–35.
[20] Ruwali P, Gautam P, Ambwani S, Dadhich A, Ambwani T. Immunomodulatory potential of genus
Artemisia. J Immunol Immunopathol 2013;15:99–101. Retrieved from
[21] Jain J, Kumar A, Narayanan V, Ramaswamy RS, Sathiyarajeswaran P, Shree Devi MS, et al. Antiviral
activity of ethanolic extract of Nilavembu Kudineer against dengue and chikungunya virus through in vitro evaluation. J
Ayurveda Integr Med 2019.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
[22] Park JY, Ko JA, Kim DW, Kim YM, Kwon HJ, Jeong HJ, et al. Chalcones isolated from Angelica
keiskei inhibit cysteine proteases of SARS-CoV. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2016;31:23–30.
[23] Parida MM, Upadhyay C, Pandya G, Jana AM. Inhibitory potential of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss)
leaves on Dengue virus type-2 replication. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79:273–8.
[24] Wen CC, Kuo YH, Jan JT, Liang PH, Wang SY, Liu HG, et al. Specific plant terpenoids and lignoids
possess potent antiviral activities against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Med Chem 2007;50:4087–95.
[25] Chinnaiyan SK, Subramanian MR, Vinoth Kumar S, Chandu AN, Deivasigamani K. Antimicrobial
and anti-HIV activity of extracts of Canthium coromandelicum (Burm.f.) Alston leaves. J Pharm Res 2013;7:588–94.
[26] Tolo FM, Rukunga GM, Muli FW, Njagi ENM, Njue W, Kumon K, et al. Anti-viral activity of the
extracts of a Kenyan medicinal plant Carissa edulis against herpes simplex virus. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104:92–9.
[27] Wen CC, Shyur LF, Jan JT, Liang PH, Kuo CJ, Arulselvan P, et al. Traditional chinese medicine
herbal extracts of cibotium barometz, gentiana scabra, dioscorea batatas, cassia tora, and taxillus chinensis inhibit sars-cov
replication. J Tradit Complement Med 2011;1:41–50.
[28] Zhuang M, Jiang H, Suzuki Y, Li X, Xiao P, Tanaka T, et al. Procyanidins and butanol extract of
Cinnamomi Cortex inhibit SARS-CoV infection. Antiviral Res 2009;82:73–81.
[29] Cagno V, Civra A, Kumar R, Pradhan S, Donalisio M, Sinha BN, et al. Ficus religiosa L. bark extracts
inhibit human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;176:252–7.
[30] Yi L, Li Z, Yuan K, Qu X, Chen J, Wang G, et al. Small molecules blocking the entry of severe acute
respiratory syndrome coronavirus into host cells. J Virol 2004;78:11334–9.
[31] Yamai M, Tsumura K, Kimura M, Fukuda S, Murakami T, Kimura Y. Antiviral activity of a hot water
extract of black soybean against a human respiratory illness virus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2003;67:1071–9.
[32] Badam L. In vitro studies on the effect of glycyrrhizin from Indian Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on some
RNA and DNA viruses. Indian J Pharmacol 1994;26:194–9. Retrieved from http://www.ijp-;year=1994;volume=26;issue=3;spage=194;epage=199;aulast=Lalita;type=0
[33] Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, Chandra P, Rabenau H, Doerr HW. Glycyrrhizin, an active
component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet 2003;361:2045–6.
[34] Felipe AMM, Rincão VP, Benati FJ, Linhares REC, Galina KJ, De Toledo CEM, et al. Antiviral effect
of Guazuma ulmifolia and Stryphnodendron adstringens on poliovirus and bovine herpesvirus. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:1092–
[35] Jain M, Ganju L, Katiyal A, Padwad Y, Mishra KP, Chanda S, et al. Effect of Hippophae rhamnoides leaf
extract against Dengue virus infection in human blood-derived macrophages. Phytomedicine 2008;15:793–9.
[36] Lin CW, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, Lai CC, Wan L, Ho TY, et al. Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease
effects of Isatis indigotica root and plant-derived phenolic compounds. Antiviral Res 2005;68:36–42.
[37] Loizzo MR, Saab AM, Tundis R, Statti GA, Menichimi F, Lampronti D, et al. Phytochemical analysis
and in vitro antiviral activities of the essential oils of seven Lebanon species. Chem Biodivers 2008;5:461–70.
[38] Jo S, Kim H, Kim S, Shin DH, Kim MS. Characteristics of flavonoids as potent MERS-CoV 3C-like
protease inhibitors. Chem Biol Drug Des 2019;94:2023–30.
[39] Premanathan M, Kathiresan K, Yamamoto N, Nakashima H. In vitro anti-human immunodeficiency
virus activity of polysaccharide from rhizophora mucronata poir. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999;63:1187–91.
[40] Eze DC, Okwor EC, Ehirim CH, Ibu JO, Shoyinka SVO. Comparative evaluation of Moringa oleifera
and vacci-boost immuno- modulators in chickens experimentally infected with Newcastle Disease Virus (Kudu 113 Strain).
South Asian J Exp Biol 2014;4:42–7. Retrieved from
[41] Murakami A, Kitazono Y, Jiwajinda S, Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H. Niaziminin, a thiocarbamate from
the leaves of Moringa oleifera, holds a strict structural requirement for inhibition of tumor-promoter-induced epstein- barr
virus activation. Planta Med 1998;64:319–23.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
[42] Yu MS, Lee J, Lee JM, Kim Y, Chin YW, Jee JG, et al. Identification of myricetin and scutellarein as
novel chemical inhibitors of the SARS coronavirus helicase, nsP13. Bioorganic Med Chem Lett 2012;22:4049–54.
[43] Zhong X, Qi G, Yang J, Xing G, Liu J, Yang X. High-efficiency expression of a receptor-binding
domain of SARS-CoV spike protein in tobacco chloroplasts. Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese J Biotechnol
[44] Koshak AE, Koshak EA, Mobeireek AF, Badawi MA, Wali SO, Malibary HM, et al. Nigella sativa
supplementation to treat symptomatic mild COVID-19: A structured summary of a protocol for a randomised, controlled,
clinical trial. Trials 2020;21:703.
[45] Cho JK, Curtis-Long MJ, Lee KH, Kim DW, Ryu HW, Yuk HJ, et al. Geranylated flavonoids
displaying SARS-CoV papain-like protease inhibition from the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa. Bioorganic Med Chem
[46] Notka F, Meier G, Wagner R. Concerted inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus amarus on HIV replication
in vitro and ex vivo. Antiviral Res 2004;64:93–102.
[47] Jayaram S, Thyagarajan SP. Inhibition of HBsAg secretion from Alexander cell line by Phyllanthus
amarus. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 1996;39:211–5. Retrieved from
[48] Kim DW, Seo KH, Curtis-Long MJ, Oh KY, Oh JW, Cho JK, et al. Phenolic phytochemical displaying
SARS-CoV papain-like protease inhibition from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2014;29:59–63.
[49] Ho TY, Wu SL, Chen JC, Li CC, Hsiang CY. Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and
angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction. Antiviral Res 2007;74:92–101.
[50] Luo W, Su X, Gong S, Qin Y, Liu W, Li J, et al. Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease effects of
Rheum palmatum L. extracts. Biosci Trends 2009;3:124–6.
[51] Yi L, Li Z, Yuan K, Qu X, Chen J, Wang G, et al. Small molecules blocking the entry of severe acute
respiratory syndrome coronavirus into host cells. J Virol 2004;78:11334–9.
[52] Yudi Utomo R, Meiyanto E. Revealing the potency of citrus and galangal constituents to halt sars-cov-2
infection 2020.
[53] Arthanari SK, Vanitha J, Ganesh M, Venkateshwaran K, Clercq D. Evaluation of antiviral and
cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract of S. grandiflora (Fabaceae) flowers. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2.
[54] Debprasad C. Role and scope of ethnomedical plants in the development of Pharmacologyonline 3: 64-
72 ( 2006 ) Newsletter Chattopadhyay. Pharmacologyonline 2006;03:64–72. Retrieved from
[55] Ryu YB, Park SJ, Kim YM, Lee JY, Seo WD, Chang JS, et al. SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitory effects of
quinone-methide triterpenes from Tripterygium regelii. Bioorganic Med Chem Lett 2010;20:1873–6.
[56] Valsaraj R, Pushpangadan P, Smitt UW, Adsersen A, Christensen SB, Sittie A, et al. New anti-HIV-1,
antimalarial, and antifungal compounds from Terminalia bellerica. J Nat Prod 1997;60:739–42.
[57] Jayasundar R, Ghatak S, Makhdoomi MA, Luthra K, Singh A, Velpandian T. Challenges in integrating
component level technology and system level information from Ayurveda: Insights from NMR phytometabolomics and
anti-HIV potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2019;10:94–101.
[58] Kumaki Y, Wandersee MK, Smith AJ, Zhou Y, Simmons G, Nelson NM, et al. Inhibition of severe
acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin,
Urtica dioica agglutinin. Antiviral Res 2011;90:22–32.
[59] Alam G, Wahyuono S, Ganjar IG, Hakim L, Timmerman H, Verpoorte R. Tracheospasmolytic activity
of viteosin-A and vitexicarpin isolated from Vitex trifolia. Planta Med 2002;68:1047–9.
[60] Srivastava RAK, Mistry S, Sharma S. A novel anti-inflammatory natural product from Sphaeranthus
indicus inhibits expression of VCAM1 and ICAM1, and slows atherosclerosis progression independent of lipid changes.
Nutr Metab 2015;12.
[61] Maity N, Nema N, Sarkar B, Mukherjee P. Standardized Clitoria ternatea leaf extract as hyaluronidase,
elastase and matrix-metalloproteinase-1 inhibitor. Indian J Pharmacol 2012;44:584–7.
[62] Amber R, Adnan M, Tariq A, Mussarat S. A review on antiviral activity of the Himalayan medicinal
plants traditionally used to treat bronchitis and related symptoms. J Pharm Pharmacol 2017;69:109–22.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
[63] Kambizi L, Goosen BM, Taylor MB, Afolayan AJ. Anti-viral effects of aqueous extracts of Aloe ferox
and Withania somnifera on herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell culture. S Afr J Sci 2007;103:359–60. Retrieved from
[64] Prathapan A, Vineetha VP, Abhilash PA, Raghu KG. Boerhaavia diffusa L. Attenuates angiotensin II-
induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiac myoblast cells via modulating oxidative stress and down-regulating NF-κβ and
transforming growth factor β1. Br J Nutr 2013;110:1201–10.
[65] Hussain F, Jahan N, Rahman K ur, Sultana B, Jamil S. Identification of hypotensive biofunctional
compounds of Coriandrum sativum and evaluation of their Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition potential.
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018;2018.
[66] Khan MY, Kumar V. Mechanism & inhibition kinetics of bioassay-guided fractions of Indian medicinal
plants and foods as ACE inhibitors. J Tradit Complement Med 2019;9:73–84.
[67] Li Y, He L, Qi Y, Rong X, Jiang J, Yang Q, et al. The Ayurvedic medicine Salacia oblonga attenuates
diabetic renal fibrosis in rats: Suppression of angiotensin II/AT1 signaling. Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med
[68] Yarnell E. Herbs for viral respiratory infections. Altern Complement Ther 2018;24:35–43.
[69] Olivieri F, Prasad V, Valbonesi P, Srivastava S, Ghosal-Chowdhury P, Barbieri L, et al. A systemic
antiviral resistance-inducing protein isolated from Clerodendrum inerme Gaertn. is a polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase
(ribosome-inactivating protein). FEBS Lett 1996;396:132–4.
[70] Nourazarian SM, Nourazarian A, Majidinia M, Roshaniasl E. Effect of root extracts of medicinal herb
Glycyrrhiza glabra on HSP90 gene expression and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev
[71] Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Pannecouque C, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Egberink H, et al. Plant lectins are
potent inhibitors of coronaviruses by interfering with two targets in the viral replication cycle. Antiviral Res 2007;75:179–
[72] Holetz FB, Pessini GL, Sanches NR, Cortez DAG, Nakamura CV, Dias Filho BP. Screening of some
plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2002;97:1027–
[73] Thayil Seema M, Thyagarajan SP. Methanol and aqueous extracts of Ocimum kilimandscharicum
(Karpuratulasi) inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in vitro. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2016;8:1099–103. Retrieved
[74] Otake T, Mori H, Morimoto M, Ueba N, Sutardjo S, Kusumoto IT, et al. Screening of Indonesian plant
extracts for anti human immunodeficiency virus—type 1 (HIV1) activity. Phyther Res 1995;9:6–10.
[75] Song HD, Tu CC, Zhang GW, Wang SY, Zheng K, Lei LC, et al. Cross-host evolution of severe acute
respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005;102:2430–5.
[76] Ganjhu RK, Mudgal PP, Maity H, Dowarha D, Devadiga S, Nag S, et al. Herbal plants and plant
preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases. VirusDisease 2015;26:225–36.
[77] Nair A, Gunasegaran R, Joshi B. Chemical investigation of certain south Indian plants. Indian J Chem
[78] Anil Rege AA, Sadashiv Chowdhary A. Evaluation of Ocimum sanctum and Tinospora cordifolia as
probable HIV-protease inhibitors. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2014;25:315–8. Retrieved from www.worthington-,
[79] Mishra SB. Perspective of potential plants for medicine from Rajasthan, India. Int J Pharm Res
[80] Zuccarini P, Soldani G. Camphor: Benefits and risks of a widely used natural product. Acta Biol Szeged
2009;53:77–82. Retrieved from
[81] Chelliah DA. Biological activity prediction of an ethno medicinal plant cinnamomum camphora
through bio-informatics. Ethnobot Leafl 2008;12:181–90. Retrieved from
[82] Singh R, Jawaid T. Cinnamomum camphora (Kapur): Review. Pharmacogn J 2012;4:1–5.
[83] Sokolova AS, Yarovaya OI, Korchagina D V., Zarubaev V V., Tretiak TS, Anfimov PM, et al.
Camphor-based symmetric diimines as inhibitors of influenza virus reproduction. Bioorganic Med Chem 2014;22:2141–8.
[84] Cady SD, Schmidt-Rohr K, Wang J, Soto CS, Degrado WF, Hong M. Structure of the amantadine
binding site of influenza M2 proton channels in lipid bilayers. Nature 2010;463:689–92.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
[85] Sokolova AS, Yarovaya OI, Shernyukov A V., Gatilov Y V., Razumova Y V., Zarubaev V V., et al.
Discovery of a new class of antiviral compounds: Camphor imine derivatives. Eur J Med Chem 2015;105:263–73.
[86] Zhao X, Zhang Z-W, Cui W, Chen S, Zhou Y, Dong J, et al. MedChemComm Identification of
camphor derivatives as novel m2 ion channel inhibitors of influenza A Virus. Medchemcomm 2012;00:1–3.
[87] Tanner JA, Zheng BJ, Zhou J, Watt RM, Jiang JQ, Wong KL, et al. The adamantane-derived bananins
are potent inhibitors of the helicase activities and replication of SARS coronavirus. Chem Biol 2005;12:303–11.
[88] Maurya IK, Pathak S, Sharma M, Sanwal H, Chaudhary P, Tupe S, et al. Antifungal activity of novel
synthetic peptides by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disruption of cell wall against Candida albicans.
Peptides 2011;32:1732–40.
[89] Mucsi I, Gyulai Z, Béládi I. Combined effects of flavonoids and acyclovir against herpesviruses in cell
cultures. Acta Microbiol Hung 1992;39:137–47. Retrieved from
[90] Pandey R, Chandra P, Srivastava M, Mishra DK, Kumar B. Simultaneous quantitative determination
of multiple bioactive markers in Ocimum sanctum obtained from different locations and its marketed herbal formulations
using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS combined with principal component analysis. Phytochem Anal 2015;26:383–94.
[91] Rong X, Peng G, Suzuki T, Yang Q, Yamahara J, Li Y. A 35-day gavage safety assessment of ginger in
rats. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2009;54:118–23.
92] Chen GQ, Zhuang QY, Wang KC, Liu S, Shao JZ, Jiang WM, et al. Identification and survey of a
novel avian coronavirus in ducks. PLoS One 2013;8.
[93] Habib SHM, Makpol S, Hamid NAA, Das S, Ngah WZW, Yusof YAM. Ginger extract (Zingiber
officinale) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats. Clinics 2008;63:807–13.
[94] Chang JS, Wang KC, Yeh CF, Shieh DE, Chiang LC. Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale) has anti-viral
activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;145:146–
[95] Singh M, Müller G, Singh IB. Geogenic distribution and baseline concentration of heavy metals in
sediments of the Ganges River, India. J Geochemical Explor 2003;80:1–17.
[96] Singh S, Devi P, Promila. Pharmacological potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex hook.
& Thoms. (Giloy): A review. ZJournal Pharmacogn Phytochem JPP 2017;6:1644–7. Retrieved from
[97] Akhtar KP, Saleem MY, Asghar M, Ahmad M, Sarwar N. Resistance of Solanum species to Cucumber
mosaic virus subgroup IA and its vector Myzus persicae. Eur J Plant Pathol 2010;128:435–50.
[98] Gupta VK, Agarwal S, Saleh TA. Synthesis and characterization of alumina-coated carbon nanotubes
and their application for lead removal. J Hazard Mater 2011;185:17–23.
[99] Van Rossum TGJ, Vulto AG, Hop WCJ, Schalm SW. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous glycyrrhizin
after single and multiple doses in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Clin Ther 1999;21:2080–90.
[100] Wang ZY, Athar M, Bickers DR. Licorice in foods and herbal drugs: Chemistry, pharmacology,
toxicology and uses, 2000, p. 321–53.
[101] Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Krausse R, Ragazzi E, Pellati D, Armanini D, et al. Antiviral effects of
Glycyrrhiza species. Phyther Res 2008;22:141–8.
[102] Orlent H, Hansen BE, Willems M, Brouwer JT, Huber R, Kullak-Ublick GA, Gerken G, Zeuzem S,
Nevens F, Tielemans WC, Zondervan PE. Biochemical and histological effects of 26 weeks of glycyrrhizin treatment in
chronic hepatitis C: A randomized phase II trial. J Hepatol 2006;45:539–46. Retrieved from
[103] Pandey S, Mishra M, Chandrawati. Human papillomavirus screening in north indian women. Asian
Pacific J Cancer Prev 2012;13:2643–6.
[104] Ramadan N, Shaib H. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-COV): A review.
GERMS 2019;9:35–42.
[105] Nirmal SA, Pal SC, Mandal SC. Mast cell stabilizing and bronchodilatory activity of Nyctanthes
arbortristis bark. Phytopharmacology 2012;2:234–42.
[106] Kannan M. An Immuno-pharmacological investigation of indian medicinal plant nyctanthes arbor-
tristis Linn. World Appl Sci J 2010;11:495–503.
[107] Gupta S, Singh R, Ashwlayan V. Pharmacological activity of Tinospora cordifolia. Pharmacologyonline
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
[108] Leung LK, Su Y, Chen R, Zhang Z, Huang Y, Chen ZY. Theaflavins in black tea and catechins in
green tea are equally effective antioxidants. J Nutr 2001;131:2248–51.
[109] Sharangi AB. Medicinal and therapeutic potentialities of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) - A review. Food Res
Int 2009;42:529–35.
[110] Chen CN, Lin CPC, Huang KK, Chen WC, Hsieh HP, Liang PH, et al. Inhibition of SARS-CoV 3C-
like protease activity by theaflavin-3,3- digallate (TF3). Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med 2005;2:209–15.
[111] Nakayama M, Toda M, Okubo S, Hara Y, Shimamura T. Inhibition of the infectivity of influenza virus
by black tea extract. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1994;68:824–9.
[112] Nakane H, Ono K. Differential inhibitory effects of some catechin derivatives on the activities of human
immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and cellular deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acid polymerases.
Biochemistry 1990;29:2841–5.
[113] Li S, Hattori T, Kodama EN. Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits the HIV reverse transcription step.
Antivir Chem Chemother 2011;21:239–43.
[114] Nance CL, Shearer WT. Translational research of the green tea catechin, Epigallocatechin gallate, as an
HIV-1 therapy. Tea Consum. Heal., 2012, p. 167–94.
[115] Pant M, Ambwani T, Umapathi V. Antiviral activity of Ashwagandha extract on infectious bursal
disease virus replication. Indian J Sci Technol 2012;5:2750–1.
[116] Vimalanathan S, Ignacimuthu S, Hudson JB. Pharmaceutical biology medicinal plants of Tamil Nadu
(Southern India) are a rich source of antiviral activities . Pharm Biol 2009;47:422–9.
[117] Tsai YC, Lee CL, Yen HR, Chang YS, Lin YP, Huang SH, et al. Antiviral action of tryptanthrin
isolated from strobilanthes cusia leaf against human coronavirus nl63. Biomolecules 2020;10.
[118] Doran AL, Morden WE, Dunn K, Edwards-Jones V. Vapour-phase activities of essential oils against
antibiotic sensitive and resistant bacteria including MRSA. Lett Appl Microbiol 2009;48:387–92.
[119] Adukwu EC, Allen SCH, Phillips CA. The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus)
and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus. J Appl Microbiol 2012;113:1217–
[120] Bahtiar AA, Ibrahim N, Ahmad I. Antiviral Activity of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle Fractions
Against HSV-1. Antiviral Res 2011;90:A54.
[121] Tang LIC, Ling APK, Koh RY, Chye SM, Voon KGL. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic
extracts of medicinal plants. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12.
[122] Abushady EAE, Aly KAS, El- GMT, Abo-ghalia HH. The antiviral and antioxidant activity of some.
WwwWjppsCom 2017;6:263.
[123] AK. Linton, Entigu R, Jerah, Lihan S, Bin Ahmad I. The effect of combination of octadecanoic acid,
methyl ester and ribavirin against measles virus. Int J Sci Technol Res 2013;2:181–4. Retrieved from
[124] Kim YW, You HJ, Lee S, Kim B, Kim DK, Choi JB, et al. Inactivation of norovirus by lemongrass
essential oil using a norovirus surrogate system. J Food Prot 2017;80:1293–302.
[125] Liou CJ, Cheng CY, Yeh KW, Wu YH, Huang WC. Protective effects of casticin from Vitex trifolia
alleviate eosinophilic airway inflammation and oxidative stress in a murine asthma model. Front Pharmacol 2018;9.
[126] Clemens M. Chemoprophylaxis and virus infections of respiratory Tract II. Ohio: Chemical Rubber Co.
Press; 1977.
[127] Martinez-Lopez A, Persaud M, Chavez MP, Zhang H, Rong L, Liu S, et al. Glycosylated diphyllin as a
broad-spectrum antiviral agent against Zika virus. EBioMedicine 2019;47:269–83.
[128] Yang M, Lee G, Si J, Lee SJ, You HJ, Ko GP. Curcumin shows antiviral properties against norovirus.
Molecules 2016;21.
[129] Li J, Meng AP, Guan XL, Li J, Wu Q, Deng SP, et al. Anti-hepatitis B virus lignans from the root of
Streblus asper. Bioorganic Med Chem Lett 2013;23:2238–44.
[130] Montanha JA, Amoros M, Boustie J, Girre L. Anti-herpes virus activity of aporphine alkaloids. Planta
Med 1995;61:419–24.
[131] Becker Y. Antiviral agents from natural sources. Pharmacol Ther 1980;10:119–59.
[132] Miller PA, Milstrey KP, Trown PW. Specific inhibition of viral ribonucleic acid replication by
gliotoxin. Science (80-) 1968;159:431–2.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
[133] Liu G. Bicyclol: A novel drug for treating chronic viral Hepatitis B and C. Med Chem (Los Angeles)
[134] Manske R, Brossi A. The alkaloids. Alkaloids Chem. Physiol., 1985, p. 153–4.
[135] Tafur S, Nelson JD, DeLong DC, Svoboda GH. Antiviral components of Ophiorrhiza mungos isolation
of camptothecin and 10 methoxycamptothecin. Lloydia 1976;39:261–2. Retrieved from https://pascal-
[136] Pilcher KS, Soike KF, Smith VH, Trosper F, Folston B. Inhibition of multiplication of lee influenza
virus by Canavanine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1955;88:79–86.
[137] Manske R, Brossi A. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology. London: Academic Press; 1987.
[138] Lin YT, Wu YH, Tseng CK, Lin CK, Chen WC, Hsu YC, et al. Green tea phenolic epicatechins inhibit
hepatitis c virus replication via cycloxygenase-2 and attenuate virus-induced inflammation. PLoS One 2013;8.
[139] Foder G, Colasanti B. Alkaloids, Chemical and Biological Perspectives. New York: Wiley; 1985.
[140] Kaij-a-Kamb M, Amoros M, Girre L. Search for new antiviral agents of plant origin. Pharm Acta Helv
1992;67:130–47. Retrieved from
[141] Manske R, Brossi A. The Alkaloids. London: Academic Press; 1989.
[142] Zhang HJ, Rumschlag-Booms E, Guan YF, Liu KL, Wang DY, Li WF, et al. Anti-HIV diphyllin
glycosides from Justicia gendarussa. Phytochemistry 2017;136:94–100.
[143] Bleasel MD, Peterson GM. Emetine, ipecac, ipecac alkaloids and analogues as potential antiviral agents
for coronaviruses. Pharmaceuticals 2020;13.
[144] Manske R, Brossi A. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology. London: Academic Press; 1988.
[145] Sood R, Swarup D, Bhatia S, Kulkarni DD, Dey S, Saini M, et al. Antiviral activity of crude extracts of
Eugenia jambolana Lam. against highlypathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus. Indian J Exp Biol 2012;50:179–86.
Retrieved from
[146] Shanthakumar B, Sathish M, Jerad Suresh A. In vitro anti oxidant activity of extracts and stigmasterol
from leaves of clerodendrum inerme linn. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2013;4:1411–8. Retrieved from
[147] Boustie J, Stigliani JL, Montanha J, Amoros M, Payard M, Girret L. Antipoliovirus structure - Activity
relationships of some aporphine alkaloids. J Nat Prod 1998;61:480–4.
[148] Rashan LJ. In vitro study of the antiviral activity of some β-carboline alkaloids. Fitoterapia
[149] Mifflin B. Biochemistry of Plants. New York: Academic Press; 1981.
[150] Zhang M, Du T, Long F, Yang X, Sun Y, Duan M, et al. Platycodin D suppresses type 2 porcine
reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in primary and established cell lines. Viruses 2018;10.
[151] Moradi M-T, Karimi A, Fotouhi F, Kheiri S, Torabi A. In vitro and in vivo effects of Peganum harmala
L. seeds extract against influenza A virus. Avicenna J Phytomedicine n.d.;7:519–30.
[152] Soto-Acosta R, Bautista-Carbajal P, Syed GH, Siddiqui A, Del Angel RM. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid
(NDGA) inhibits replication and viral morphogenesis of dengue virus. Antiviral Res 2014;109:132–40.
[153] Manske R, Brossi A. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology. London: Academic Press; 1990.
[154] Ieven M, Van den Berghe DA, Vlietinck AJ. Plant antiviral agents. IV. Influence of lycorine on growth
pattern of three animal viruses. Planta Med 1983;49:109–14.
[155] Phillipson J, Zenk M. Indole and Biogenetically Related Alkaloids. London: Academic Press; 1980.
[156] Ulasli M, Gurses SA, Bayraktar R, Yumrutas O, Oztuzcu S, Igci M, et al. The effects of Nigella sativa
(Ns), Anthemis hyalina (Ah) and Citrus sinensis (Cs) extracts on the replication of coronavirus and the expression of TRP
genes family. Mol Biol Rep 2014;41:1703–11.
[157] Imran I, Altaf I, Ashraf M, Javeed A, Munir N, Bashir R. In vitro evaluation of antiviral activity of leaf
extracts of Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera, and Morus alba against the foot and mouth disease virus on BHK-21 cell line.
ScienceAsia 2016;42:392–6.
[158] Kannan M, Rajendran P, Vedha V, Ashok G, Anushka S, Chandran Ramachandran Nair P. HIV-1
reverse transcriptase inhibition by Vitex negundo L. leaf extract and quantification of flavonoids in relation to anti-HIV
activity. J Cell Mol Biol 2012;10:53–9. Retrieved from
[159] Chen CJ, Michaelis M, Hsu HK, Tsai CC, Yang KD, Wu YC, et al. Toona sinensis Roem tender leaf
extract inhibits SARS coronavirus replication. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;120:108–11.
Asian J. Pharmacogn 4(4): 32-52
© 2020, Asian Society of Pharmacognosy. All Rights Reserved.
[160] Arun LB, Arunachalam AM, Arunachalam KD, Annamalai SK, Kumar KA. In vivo anti-ulcer, anti-
stress, anti-allergic, and functional properties of Gymnemic Acid Isolated from Gymnema sylvestre R Br. BMC
Complement Altern Med 2014;14.
[161] Shin HB, Choi MS, Ryu B, Lee NR, Kim HI, Choi HE, et al. Antiviral activity of carnosic acid against
respiratory syncytial virus. Virol J 2013;10.
[162] Chiow KH, Phoon MC, Putti T, Tan BKH, Chow VT. Evaluation of antiviral activities of Houttuynia
cordata Thunb. extract, quercetin, quercetrin and cinanserin on murine coronavirus and dengue virus infection. Asian Pac J
Trop Med 2016;9:1–7.
[163] Lin CW, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, Lai CC, Wan L, Ho TY, et al. Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease
effects of Isatis indigotica root and plant-derived phenolic compounds. Antiviral Res 2005;68:36–42.
[164] Roychoudhury R, Basu PK. Characterization of a plant virus inhibitor from two Solanum species.
Indian J Exp Biol 1983;21:212–5. Retrieved from https://pascal-
[165] Merino-Ramos T, Jiménez De Oya N, Saiz JC, Martín-Acebes MA. Antiviral activity of
nordihydroguaiaretic acid and its derivative tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid against West Nile virus and Zika
virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017;61.
[166] Wang S, Le TQ, Kurihara N, Chida J, Cisse Y, Yano M, et al. Influenza virus-cytokine-protease cycle
in the pathogenesis of vascular hyperpermeability in severe influenza. J Infect Dis 2010;202:991–1001.
[167] Kuo YC, Kuo YH, Lin YL, Tsai WJ. Yatein from Chamaecyparis obtusa suppresses herpes simplex virus
type 1 replication in HeLa cells by interruption the immediate-early gene expression. Antiviral Res 2006;70:112–20.
[168] Kumari N, Kulkarni AA, Lin X, McLean C, Ammosova T, Ivanov A, et al. Inhibition of HIV-1 by
curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog. Drug Des Devel Ther 2015;9:5051–60.
[169] Cai Z, Zhang G, Tang B, Liu Y, Fu X, Zhang X. Promising anti-influenza properties of active
constituent of Withania somnifera ayurvedic herb in targeting neuraminidase of H1N1 influenza: computational study. Cell
Biochem Biophys 2015;72:727–39.
[170] Balkrishna A, POKHREL S, Singh J, Varshney A. Withanone from Withania somnifera May Inhibit
Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Entry by disrupting interactions between viral s-protein receptor binding domain and host
ace2 receptor 2020.
[171] Flobinus A, Taudon N, Desbordes M, Labrosse B, Simon F, Mazeron MC, et al. Stability and antiviral
activity against human cytomegalovirus of artemisinin derivatives. J Antimicrob Chemother 2014;69:34–40.
[172] Blazquez AG, Fernandez-Dolon M, Sanchez-Vicente L, Maestre AD, Gomez-San Miguel AB, Alvarez
M, et al. Novel artemisinin derivatives with potential usefulness against liver/colon cancer and viral hepatitis. Bioorganic
Med Chem 2013;21:4432–41.
[173] Gignoux E, Azman AS, De Smet M, Azuma P, Massaquoi M, Job D, et al. Effect of
artesunate.amodiaquine on mortality related to Ebola virus disease. N Engl J Med 2016;374:23–32.
[174] Rittà M, Marengo A, Civra A, Lembo D, Cagliero C, Kant K, et al. Antiviral activity of a arisaema
tortuosum leaf extract and some of its constituents against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2. Planta Med 2020;86:267–75.
[175] Liu G, Friggeri A, Yang Y, Milosevic J, Ding Q, Thannickal VJ, et al. miR-21 mediates fibrogenic
activation of pulmonary fibroblasts and lung fibrosis. J Exp Med 2010;207:1589–97.
[176] Jiang ZY, Yu YJ, Huang CG, Huang XZ, Hu QF, Yang GY, et al. Icetexane diterpenoids from
perovskia atriplicifolia. Planta Med 2015;81:241–6.
[177] Pang X, Kang LP, Fang XM, Zhao Y, Yu HS, Han LF, et al. Polyoxypregnane glycosides from the
roots of marsdenia tenacissima and their anti-hiv activities. Planta Med 2017;83:126–34.
[178] Lieberherr C, Zhang G, Grafen A, Singethan K, Kendl S, Vogt V, et al. The plant-derived
naphthoquinone droserone inhibits in vitro measles virus infection. Planta Med 2017;83:232–8.
[179] Nocchi SR, De Moura-Costa GF, Novello CR, Rodrigues J, Longhini R, De Mello JC, et al. In vitro
cytotoxicity and anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity of hydroethanolic extract, fractions, and isolated compounds from
stem bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Pharmacogn Mag 2016;12:160–4.
... The use of herbal medicines such as curcumin, quinine, and echinacea, which contain active compounds with immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial or antiviral properties, is a recent pattern in the culture. Because of their potential to influence the immunological response, these herbal substances are effective in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 [42][43][44][45].SARS-CoV-2 infections were treated with the antimalarial medicines chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine [46]. The two major mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine are thought to be the inhibition of viral spike protein cleavage at the ACE2 binding site, as well as its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions [47]. ...
Full-text available
Pandemic disease COVID-19 (Corona virus disease-2019) has ravaged millions of people globally. The COVID-19 infection causes worsening clinical status in diabetic patients. This review evaluates the possible interrelation between diabetes and COVID-19 pathophysiology, clinical management as well as how virus infection can intensify diabetic crises in long-term pathogenesis. Phytochemical function in anti oxidative defense mechanisms, immunomodulation of severe COVID-19 infectious disease, herbal medications, and the proclivity for direct viral toxicity of pancreatic beta cells and insulin action sites. This study can be used as a guide for treating diabetic patients with COVID-19 utilizing traditional to recent medication. In the future, clinical data will be required to assess the efficacy of traditional and recent medicines.
Full-text available
Objectives To investigate the potential efficacy of Nigella sativa (NS) oil supplementation on the outcomes of patients with mild Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Trial design Prospective, two-arm, parallel-group, randomised (1:1 allocation ratio), open-label, controlled, exploratory phase II clinical trial of oral NS oil in patients with mild COVID-19. Participants Inclusion Criteria: - Patients with mild COVID19 (defined as upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in the absence of clinical or radiological signs of pneumonia). - Adult (18 - 65 years old). - Written informed consent by the patient (or legally authorized representative) prior to initiation of any study procedures. - All patients should understand and agree to comply with planned study procedures. - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) from throat swab. Exclusion Criteria: - Patients with pneumonia or severe illness requiring admission to intensive care unit. - Severe chronic kidney disease (i.e. estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 30 mL / min ) or end stage renal disease requiring dialysis - Severe chronic liver disease (Alanine transaminase [AlT] or Aspartate transaminase [AST] > 5 times the upper limit of normal). - Pregnancy or breast feeding. - Anticipated transfer within 72 hours to another hospital that is not a study site. - Allergy to the study medication The trial is currently conducted on patients recruited from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Intervention and comparator Intervention group: Nigella sativa oil (MARNYS® Cuminmar) 500 mg softgel capsules, one capsule orally twice daily for 10 days plus standard of care treatment (antipyretic, antitussive). Comparator group: standard of care treatment. Main outcomes Proportion of patients who clinically recovered (defined as 3 days of no symptoms) within 14 days after randomisation. Randomisation Patients will be randomly assigned to treatment or control groups in a 1:1 ratio using a computer-generated randomization scheme (Random permuted blocks of 10) developed using the web-based program: . Blinding (masking) No blinding. Numbers to be randomised (sample size) Up to 200 eligible patients will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Trial Status Protocol version 1, as of July 14, 2020. Recruitment was started on May 21, 2020. The intended completion date is December 31, 2020. Trial registration Identifier: NCT04401202 . Date of trial registration: May 26, 2020. Full protocol The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
Full-text available
AimsTo assess the impact of the lockdown due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on key quality indicators for the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.Methods Data were obtained from 41 hospitals participating in the prospective Feedback Intervention and Treatment Times in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (FITT-STEMI) study, including 15,800 patients treated for acute STEMI from January 2017 to the end of March 2020.ResultsThere was a 12.6% decrease in the total number of STEMI patients treated at the peak of the pandemic in March 2020 as compared to the mean number treated in the March months of the preceding years. This was accompanied by a significant difference among the modes of admission to hospitals (p = 0.017) with a particular decline in intra-hospital infarctions and transfer patients from other hospitals, while the proportion of patients transported by emergency medical service (EMS) remained stable. In EMS-transported patients, predefined quality indicators, such as percentages of pre-hospital ECGs (both 97%, 95% CI = − 2.2–2.7, p = 0.846), direct transports from the scene to the catheterization laboratory bypassing the emergency department (68% vs. 66%, 95% CI = − 4.9–7.9, p = 0.641), and contact-to-balloon-times of less than or equal to 90 min (58.3% vs. 57.8%, 95%CI = − 6.2–7.2, p = 0.879) were not significantly altered during the COVID-19 crisis, as was in-hospital mortality (9.2% vs. 8.5%, 95% CI = − 3.2–4.5, p = 0.739).Conclusions Clinically important indicators for STEMI management were unaffected at the peak of COVID-19, suggesting that the pre-existing logistic structure in the regional STEMI networks preserved high-quality standards even when challenged by a threatening pandemic.Clinical trial registrationNCT00794001
Full-text available
World community is facing an unprecedented pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2). The disease has spread globally with more than 1.43 million confirmed cases and 82,100 deaths as of April 8, 2020. Despite worldwide efforts to contain it, the pandemic is continuing to spread for want of a clinically-proven prophylaxis and therapeutic strategy. The dimensions of pandemic require an urgent harnessing of all knowledge systems available globally. Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Wuhan to treat COVID-19 cases sets the example demonstrating that traditional health care can contribute to treatment of these patients successfully. Drawing on the Ayurveda classics, contemporary scientific studies, and experiential knowledge on similar clinical settings, here we propose a pragmatic plan for intervention in India. We provide a plan for graded response, depending on the stage of infection among individuals, in a population. Notwithstanding the fact that no system of medicine has any evidence-based treatment for COVID-19 as yet, clinical interventions are required to be put in place. Therefore, pragmatic strategy proposed here for Ayurveda system of medicine requires immediate implementation. It will facilitate learning, generate evidence and shall be a way forward.
Full-text available
Eighteen active substances, including 17 organosulfur compounds found in garlic essential oil (T), were identified by GC−MS analysis. For the first time, using the molecular docking technique, we report the inhibitory effect of the considered compounds on the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein in the human body that leads to a crucial foundation about coronavirus resistance of individual compounds on the main protease (PDB6LU7) protein of SARS-CoV-2. The results show that the 17 organosulfur compounds, accounting for 99.4% contents of the garlic essential oil, have strong interactions with the amino acids of the ACE2 protein and the main protease PDB6LU7 of SARS-CoV2. The strongest anticoronavirus activity is expressed in allyl disulfide and allyl trisulfide, which account for the highest content in the garlic essential oil (51.3%). Interestingly, docking results indicate the synergistic interactions of the 17 substances, which exhibit good inhibition of the ACE2 and PDB6LU7 proteins. The results suggest that the garlic essential oil is a valuable natural antivirus source, which contributes to preventing the invasion of coronavirus into the human body.
Full-text available
Background Newly emerged COVID-19 has been shown to engage the host cell ACE2 through its spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD). Here we show that natural phytochemical from a medicinal herb, Withania somnifera, have distinct effects on viral RBD and host ACE2 receptor complex. Methods We employed molecular docking to screen thousands of phytochemicals against the ACE2-RBD complex, performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and estimated the electrostatic component of binding free energy, along with the computation of salt bridge electrostatics. Results We report that W. somnifera compound, Withanone, docked very well in the binding interface of AEC2-RBD complex, and was found to move slightly towards the interface centre on simulation. Withanone significantly decreased electrostatic component of binding free energies of ACE2-RBD complex. Two salt bridges were also identified at the interface; incorporation of Withanone destabilized these salt bridges and decreased their occupancies. We postulate, such an interruption of electrostatic interactions between the RBD and ACE2 would block or weaken COVID-19 entry and its subsequent infectivity. Conclusion Our data, for the first time, show that natural phytochemicals could well be the viable options for controlling COVID-19 entry into host cells, and W. somnifera may be the first choice of herbs in these directions to curb the COVID-19 infectivity.
Full-text available
The COVID-19 coronavirus is currently spreading around the globe with limited treatment options available. This article presents the rationale for potentially using old drugs (emetine, other ipecac alkaloids or analogues) that have been used to treat amoebiasis in the treatment of COVID-19. Emetine had amongst the lowest reported half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) from over 290 agents screened for the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses. While EC50 concentrations of emetine are achievable in the blood, studies show that concentrations of emetine can be almost 300 times higher in the lungs. Furthermore, based on the relative EC50s of emetine towards the coronaviruses compared with Entamoeba histolytica, emetine could be much more effective as an anti-coronavirus agent than it is against amoebiasis. This paper also discusses the known side effects of emetine and related compounds, how those side effects can be managed, and the optimal method of administration for the potential treatment of COVID-19. Given the serious and immediate threat that the COVID-19 coronavirus poses, our long history with emetine and the likely ability of emetine to reach therapeutic concentrations within the lungs, ipecac, emetine, and other analogues should be considered as potential treatment options, especially if in vitro studies confirm viral sensitivity.
Full-text available
COVID-19 pandemic is a serious problem in the world today. The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 has important proteins used for its infection and development, namely the protease and spike glycoprotein. The RBD (Receptor Binding Domain) of spike glycoprotein (RBD-S) can bind to the ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2) receptor at the protease domain (PD) (PD-ACE2) of the host cell, thereby leading to a viral infection. This study aims to reveal the potential of compounds contained in Curcuma sp., Citrus sp., Alpinia galanga, and Caesalpinia sappan as anti SARS-CoV-2 through its binding to 3 protein receptors. The study was conducted by molecular docking using the MOE 2010 program (licensed from Faculty of Pharmacy UGM, Indonesia). The selected protein targets are RBD-S (PDB ID:6LXT), PD-ACE2 (PDB ID: 6VW1), and SARS-CoV-2 protease (PDB ID:6LU7). The affinities of bonds formed is represented as a docking score. The results show that hesperidin, one of the compounds in Citrus sp., has the lowest docking score for all three protein receptors representing the highest affinity to bind the receptors. Moreover, all of the citrus flavonoids possess good affinity to the respected receptors as well as curcumin, brazilin, and galangin, indicating that those compounds perform inhibitory potential for the viral infection and replication. In general, the results of this study indicate that Citrus sp. exhibit the best potential as an inhibitor to the development of the SARS-CoV-2, followed by galangal, sappan wood, and Curcuma sp. that can be consumed in daily life as prophylaxis of COVID-19.
COVID-19 has rapidly developed into a worldwide pandemic with a significant health and economic burden. There are currently no approved treatments or preventative therapeutic strategies. Hundreds of clinical studies have been registered with the intention of discovering effective treatments. Here, we review currently registered interventional clinical trials for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 to provide an overall summary and insight into the global response.