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Skill learning and behavior change in an individually tailored management coaching and training program /

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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Minnesota, 1993. Includes bibliographical references.

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... Executive coaching is a one-to-one, individually tailored development process formally contracted between an external coach and a management-level client to help achieve goals related to professional development within a business context (Kilburg, 1996;Peterson, 1993;Tobias, 1996). It provides new insights, principles, strategies, tactics, and skills to improve the effectiveness and performance of individuals at work. ...
... One of the first quantitative outcome studies looking at the efficacy of coaching was conducted by Peterson (1993). He used an innovative methodology for measuring individual change and development. ...
... This study's results were quite favorable compared to the cumulative management training meta-analytic findings of Burke and Day (1986), who found an average effect size of .44 for subjective ratings of on-the-job behavior. Ballinger (2000) looked at self-perceptions of individuals participating in the same coaching program used by Peterson (1993). She was interested in whether there were differences about which factors in coaching were most important in leading to behavior change. ...
... Measuring and evaluating change is often described as complex and difficult. The basic problems are presented by various authors, including Arvey and Cole (1989), Carver (1970), Collins and Horn (1991), Cronbach and Furby (1970), Harris (1963), and Peterson (1993). ...
... Cronbach and Furby (1970) concluded that they were so problematic that they shouldn't even be used. However, others (e.g., Ackerman, 1989;Peterson, 1990Peterson, , 1993 have argued that change scores are appropriate under certain conditions, similar to the conditions outlined by Sackett and Mullen (1993); such as when initial scores are low and there is little variance. ...
... Second, I will discuss a new approach to measuring change, which I call a retrospective degree of change rating (Peterson, 1990(Peterson, , 1993. This retrospective measure of change is a simple judgment of the amount of change that has occurred, made at the completion of the training. ...
Article
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One of the most challenging barriers to evaluating training outcome is finding the best methods to measure change. My presentation today outlines an innovative psychometric approach suited to measuring change and training outcomes on individual training objectives.
... Participants reported improvements in a wide variety of tangible and intangible business variables, including relationships with direct reports (77%), peers (63%), and other stakeholders (71%); teamwork (67%); job satisfaction (61%); productivity (53%); and quality (48%). Peterson's (1993b) research on 370 executives found an average effect size (Cohen's d) of just over 1.5 on specific coaching objectives across a wide range of leadership, communication, interpersonal, and intrapersonal skills as rated by both participants and their bosses. The average improvement in overall performance was greater than .5 standard deviations, again from both rater perspectives. ...
... However, it is noted here because of the relatively consistent findings that across such a variety of methods, purposes, and measures, researchers are reporting positive findings. Each of the references noted here describes some tangible positive outcomes from coaching: ■ research based on self-report from participants and their managers using diverse samples and data-collection methodologies (e.g., Bush, 2005; B. L. Davis & Petchenik, 1998;Kombarakaran, Yang, Baker, & Fernandes, 2008;Leedham, 2005;Seamons, 2006;Thompson, 1986;Wasylyshyn, 2003;Wasylyshyn, Gronsky, & Haas, 2006); ■ individual case studies (e.g., Blattner, 2005;Diedrich, 1996;Hunt, 2003;Kiel, Rimmer, Williams, & Doyle, 1996;Kralj, 2001;Libri & Kemp, 2006;Natale & Diamante, 2005;Orenstein, 2006;Peterson, 1996;Peterson & Millier, 2005;Schnell, 2005;Tobias, 1996;Wasylyshyn, 2005;Winum, 2005); ■ organizational case studies, dozens of which are described in books by Clutterbuck and Megginson (2005), Hunt and Weintraub (2007), and Jarvis et al. (2006); ■ surveys of organizational purchasers of coaching (Dagley, 2006;Leedham, 2005;McDermott, Levenson, & Newton, 2007); ■ evaluations of ROI (e.g., Anderson, 2001;Corporate Leadership Council, 2004;Holt & Peterson, 2006;McGovern et al., 2001;Parker-Wilkins, 2006;Phillips, 2007;Schlosser, Steinbrenner, Kumata, & Hunt, 2006); ■ a small but growing number of quasi-experimental and other carefully designed research studies (e.g., Evers, Brouwers, & Tomic, 2006;Finn, 2007;Finn, Mason, & Griffin, 2006;Grant, Curtayne, & Burton, 2009;Offermanns, 2004 [as reported in Greif, 2007]; Peterson, 1993b;Smither et al., 2003;Steinmetz, 2005 Levenson, 2009;MacKie, 2007;Passmore & Gibbes, 2007). ...
... Working with a participant who demonstrates low motivation and a lack of boss support, an effective coach will naturally focus on specific methods to address those issues. Peterson (1993b), for example, began his research with specific hypotheses about the relationship between coaching outcomes and individual differences such as motivation, intelligence, and neuroticism. However, none of the hypothesized correlations, nor in fact any of the dozens of unhypothesized relationships between personality scale scores and outcomes, were statistically significant. ...
Article
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Executive coaching has exploded in popularity over the past decade and has many passionate advocates, including coaches, participants who have personally benefited from coaching, and their organizational sponsors who have seen the transformational power of coaching firsthand. Yet there is still considerable debate about such fundamental issues as the definition and effectiveness of coaching, the competencies and qualifications of effective coaches, and how to match coaches and participants. This chapter examines these and other issues important to coaches, researchers, users of coaching services, and those who train coaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... No other coaching outcome studies were published until Duffy's ( 1984 ) dissertation on the effectiveness of a feedback-coaching intervention in executive outplacement. Peterson's ( 1993 ) thesis on behavior change in an individually tailored management coaching program marked the dawning of a contemporary phase of coaching outcome research (prior to 1990 there had been only six published coaching outcome studies examining the efficacy of coaching). ...
... The following are some representative examples of outcome measure from the literature. Peterson ( 1993 ) provides a valuable example of how to develop coaching assessments to suit the idiosyncratic goals of individual coaching clients. Peterson used multiple customized rating inventories and rating scales based on each coachee's individual training objectives, and drew data from a number of raters to assess the effectiveness of an individualized coaching program for managers and executives. ...
Article
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Introduction Seek First to Understand Sounds Simple: So Coaching Should be Easy to Evaluate? Reviewing the Efficacy of Coaching is Complex, and the Literature is Disjointed Outcome Studies Two Key Case Studies Within-subject Outcome Research Between-subject and Randomized Controlled Studies Longitudinal Studies: Is Coaching Effective Over Time? Gauging Efficacy Through Measuring Outcomes of Coaching Executive Coaching Efficacy Measures Workplace and Personal Coaching Measures Using Validated Measures to Assess Efficacy: Mental Health and Goal Attainment Is Return on Investment a Reliable Measure of Coaching Efficacy? Do We Yet Have an Evidence Base for the Efficacy of Coaching? Inclusivity in Establishing Efficacy Conclusion References
... Early indications of this can be found in the work of Australian coaching psychologists such as Grant (2003b) and Skiffington and Zeus (2003), US psychologists such as Peterson (1993) and British psychologists such as Palmer and Whybrow (2006), who are among many others who have championed the development of EBC psychology by establishing linkages between mainstream psychological theories and coaching practice. There are several other notable developments that have occurred since the 1996 landmark publication of the first special issue on executive coaching of the American Psychological Association's Consulting Psychology Journal: (a) the beginnings of regular publication of psychologically focused peer-reviewed papers on executive coaching (Kilburg, 1997;Laske, 1999;Peterson, 1996); (b) publication of books on evidenced-based approaches to coaching by psychologists (Cavanagh, Grant, & Kemp, 2005;Peltier, 2001;Skiffington & Zeus, 2003;; (c) the establishment of the first university based postgraduate degree programs in coaching psychology at the University of Sydney, Australia (2000) and City University, London (2005); (d) publication of the first peerreviewed empirical studies on the effectiveness of life coaching (Grant, 2003a;Green, Oades, & Grant, 2006;Spence & Grant, 2007); (e) the establishment of coaching psychology interest groups within both the Australian Psychological Society (2003) and the British Psychological Society (2004); (f) the inaugural Australian Evidence-Based Coaching Conference hosted by the University of Sydney in 2003, followed by several other international conferences, symposia and professional forums in coaching psychology; (g) the emergence of coaching journals and periodicals, including International Coaching Psychology Review (peer-reviewed), International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring (peer reviewed), and The Coaching Psychologist (British Psychological Society); and (h) the recognition given to coaching psychology within the positive psychology literature (e.g., Green et al., 2006;Kauffman & Scoular, 2004;Linley & Harrington, 2005;Spence & Grant, 2007). ...
... Early indications of this can be found in the work of Australian coaching psychologists such as Grant (2003b) and Skiffington and Zeus (2003), US psychologists such as Peterson (1993) and British psychologists such as Palmer and Whybrow (2006), who are among many others who have championed the development of EBC psychology by establishing linkages between mainstream psychological theories and coaching practice. There are several other notable developments that have occurred since the 1996 landmark publication of the first special issue on executive coaching of the American Psychological Association's Consulting Psychology Journal: (a) the beginnings of regular publication of psychologically focused peer-reviewed papers on executive coaching (Kilburg, 1997;Laske, 1999;Peterson, 1996); (b) publication of books on evidenced-based approaches to coaching by psychologists (Cavanagh, Grant, & Kemp, 2005;Peltier, 2001;Skiffington & Zeus, 2003;; (c) the establishment of the first university based postgraduate degree programs in coaching psychology at the University of Sydney, Australia (2000) and City University, London (2005); (d) publication of the first peerreviewed empirical studies on the effectiveness of life coaching (Grant, 2003a;Green, Oades, & Grant, 2006;Spence & Grant, 2007); (e) the establishment of coaching psychology interest groups within both the Australian Psychological Society (2003) and the British Psychological Society (2004); (f) the inaugural Australian Evidence-Based Coaching Conference hosted by the University of Sydney in 2003, followed by several other international conferences, symposia and professional forums in coaching psychology; (g) the emergence of coaching journals and periodicals, including International Coaching Psychology Review (peer-reviewed), International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring (peer reviewed), and The Coaching Psychologist (British Psychological Society); and (h) the recognition given to coaching psychology within the positive psychology literature (e.g., Green et al., 2006;Kauffman & Scoular, 2004;Linley & Harrington, 2005;Spence & Grant, 2007). ...
Article
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Although several authors have argued for the development of an evidence-based approach to coaching practice, few attempts have been made to draw support for these arguments by examining events of the recent past. This paper seeks to learn some lessons from history by exploring events surrounding the rise and fall of the human potential movement (HPM), which occurred between the 1940s and 1970s. The demise of the HPM is of relevance to the coaching industry because it powerfully illustrates how the promise and potential of innovative practices can be easily lost when its practitioners become disconnected from theoretically sound rationales and solid research. It is argued that the longevity of the coaching industry will be dependent upon the degree to which it embraces the evidence-based practice ethos, and concludes by outlining recent contributions made by psychologists to the advance of evidence-based coaching practice.
... Some researchers have suggested that, although both are measures of change, DS and CS may provide two different types of information (Peterson, 1993a(Peterson, , 1993b. Peterson (1993a) found that DS and CS do not always correlate, even when measured at the same time by the same rater. ...
... Some researchers have suggested that, although both are measures of change, DS and CS may provide two different types of information (Peterson, 1993a(Peterson, , 1993b. Peterson (1993a) found that DS and CS do not always correlate, even when measured at the same time by the same rater. In the present study, correlations were calculated between the overall DS and the overall CS. ...
Article
This study investigated the relationship between working alliance and problem resolution, among other variables, from the perspective of 102 coaches with psychology or counseling backgrounds. Results of the analyses suggested that coaches' perceptions of the working alliance were positively associated with problem resolution in both face-to-face and distance (e.g., phone) coaching. No significant differences were found in working alliance or problem resolution between the face-to-face and distance coaching conditions. The findings offer tentative evidence that distance coaching may be as effective face-to face coaching. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... This myth is erroneous because there are large amounts of data in the behavioural sciences from the 1990s onwards indicating that coaching can help facilitate behavioural change and enhance goal attainment and well-being in a wide range of domains including life coaching, leadership coaching and in response to stress (e.g. Grant, 2003;MacKie, 2014;Peterson, 1993;Wissbrun, 1984). Such work is peer-reviewed, conforms to accepted scientific procedures and does not utilise any aspect of neuroscience. ...
... The idea that there was not an already existing scientific foundation for coaching prior to 2009 or the popularising of neuroscientific language in relation to coaching, would have come as a great surprise to the many behavioural scientists (e.g. Grant, 2003;Kilburg, 2001;Miller, 1990;Olivero, Bane & Kopelman, 1997;Peterson, 1993) who had been using theory to generate coaching-specific hypothesis, and then testing those hypotheses through systemic data collection and analysis -facets commonly understood as comprising the 'scientific method' (Wilson, 1990), a vital part of a scientific foundation. ...
Article
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This paper discusses some myths and misconceptions that have emerged in relation to neuroscience and coaching, and explores the notion that neuroscience provides a foundational evidence-base for coaching, and that neurocoaching is a unique or original coaching methodology. It is found that much of the insights into coaching purported to be delivered by neuroscience are long-established within the behavioural sciences. Furthermore, the empirical and conceptual links between neuroscientific findings and actual coaching practice are tenuous at best. Although at present there is no convincing empirical support for a neuroscientific foundation to coaching, there are important ways in which coaching and neuroscience can interact. There is good evidence that solution-focused cognitive-behavioural (SF-CB) coaching can reliably induce specific behavioural and cognitive changes. SF-CB coaching could thus be used as a methodology to experimentally induce specific changes including greater self-insight and better relations with others. Subsequent changes in brain structure or brain activity could then be observed. This has potential to be of great value to the neuroscience enterprise by providing more hard evidence for concepts such as neuroplasticity and brain-region function-specificity. It may well be that coaching can be of greater use to the field of neuroscience than the field of neuroscience can be to coaching. In this way we can address many neuromyths and misconceptions about brain-based coaching, and begin to author a more accurate and productive narrative about the relationship between coaching and neuroscience.
... Peterson (Peterson, 1993) used a customized rating inventory by participants, their bosses, and their coaches to test for changes in specific training objectives. Peterson observed 1.54 standard deviations of change on specific training objectives and only .85 standard deviations of change on a global measure of leadership effectiveness. ...
... The Peterson (1993) and Kampa-Kokesch (2001) studies are somewhat relevant for this study in that they found some evidence of the effectiveness of executive coaching in changing leadership behavior. The relevance of Peterson's study is limited by the fact that Peterson used an index composed of coach's, boss's, and self ratings rather than multirater scores. ...
Article
Despite the phenomenal growth of executive coaching in recent years, there has been little empirical research on its effectiveness. Executive coaching is typically delivered with 360 degree feedback and training. This study tests whether there are significant differences in leadership behavior change for participants who: received feedback alone; received feedback and attended a leadership training program; and received feedback, attended training and received executive coaching. Preliminary results, conclusions and recommendations are discussed. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)
... No other coaching outcome studies were published until Duffy's ( 1984 ) dissertation on the effectiveness of a feedback-coaching intervention in executive outplacement. Peterson's ( 1993 ) thesis on behavior change in an individually tailored management coaching program marked the dawning of a contemporary phase of coaching outcome research (prior to 1990 there had been only six published coaching outcome studies examining the efficacy of coaching). ...
... The following are some representative examples of outcome measure from the literature. Peterson ( 1993 ) provides a valuable example of how to develop coaching assessments to suit the idiosyncratic goals of individual coaching clients. Peterson used multiple customized rating inventories and rating scales based on each coachee's individual training objectives, and drew data from a number of raters to assess the effectiveness of an individualized coaching program for managers and executives. ...
Chapter
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... I quickly gravitated to the coaching business, and in 1990 was promoted to lead PDI's worldwide coaching practice. In synergy between work and school, I spent 5 years gathering outcome and follow-up data on 370 coaching participants for my dissertation (Peterson, 1993; see also Peterson & Kraiger, 2004) and then received my PhD in counseling and industrial/organizational psychology in 1993. ...
Article
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In the literature of the coaching profession, the voice of the client is rarely heard. This case study examines the coaching process from the perspective of both the coach and the participant, providing unique insights into the art of coaching. Beginning with background descriptions of the coach and the participant, the authors move into a discussion of the first coaching engagement, which began in 2000. Two years later, after Jennifer had been promoted into a larger and more complex assignment, the authors began working together again. The authors discuss highlights of the coaching experience from each of their perspectives and compare what was similar and different across the 2 coaching engagements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Many of these early publications were discussion articles on the application of theoretical approaches to coaching (e.g., Kilburg, 1997), reports on how to evaluate executive coaching engagements (e.g., Peterson, 1993Peterson, , 1996, or descriptions of workplace coaching (e.g., Graham, Wedman, & Garvin-Kester, 1994). The few empirical studies tended to be qualitative case studies (e.g., Diedrich, 1996;Kiel, Rimmer, Williams, & Doyle, 1996;Tobias, 1996), although there were some quantitative studies on coaching effectiveness (e.g., Miller, 1990;Olivero, Bane, & Kopelman, 1997). ...
Article
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This paper details material from 2 presentations given at the 2015 Society of Consulting Psychology Mid-Winter Conference in San Diego, California, which presented a summary of the coaching research conducted at the Coaching Psychology Unit (CPU) at the University of Sydney. The CPU was established in 1999 with a mission to enhance the performance, productivity, and quality of life of individuals, organizations, and the broader community through excellence in education, research, and the practice of coaching psychology. Drawing on over 150 CPU publications—including 8 randomized, controlled, outcome studies; 9 between-subjects or within-subject outcome studies; and a range of cross-sectional studies—this paper considers the empirical CPU research related to 4 key questions of relevance to practitioners: (a) What is a practical theoretical framework for coaching? (b) Does coaching “work”? (c) What makes a difference in the coach–coachee relationship? (d) How can coaching psychology contribute to the broader psychological enterprise? CPU research supports the notion that a solution-focused cognitive–behavioral theoretical framework is an effective and practical approach to coaching that facilitates goal attainment and enhances well-being and is effective with a wide range of populations. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
... To the best of our knowledge, only two published studies so far have also included clients', coaches', and sponsors' perceptions of coaching outcomes separately, albeit that in the second study they did not necessarily stem from the same assignments. Peterson (1993) studied N=370 leaders from various organisations at three points in time (pre-coaching, post-coaching, and follow-up) with outcome defined by their own coaching objectives and five standard 'control' items, rated by at least themselves, their manager and their coach (multi-source ratings). The coaching programme was intensive and long-term, with typically 50+ hours of individual coaching with a professional coach over at least a year. ...
... A substantial amount of the academic literature about coaching that was published during the 1990s focused on delineating and defining coaching (e.g., Kilburg, 1996), or on describing how managers could improve employees' performance through coaching in the workplace (e.g., Graham, Wedman, & Garvin-Kester, 1994). The 1990s also produced papers on how to evaluate executive coaching engagements (e.g., Peterson, 1993 Peterson, , 1996), and a number of early quantitative studies on the effectiveness of coaching emerged (e.g., Miller, 1990; Olivero, Bane, & Kopelman, 1997) although qualitative case studies on executive coaching were most common (e.g., Diedrich, 1996). An overview of the literature from 2000 to 2010 indicates that coaching was now being better understood as a methodology for creating positive change. ...
Article
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The role of the coach–coachee relationship in influencing coaching outcomes has emerged as an area of interest in research into the mechanics of effective coaching. Although extensively researched in the psychotherapeutic domain, exploration of the working alliance represents a new phase in executive and life coaching research. This paper presents an exploratory empirical study that explores four aspects of the coach–coachee relationship to investigate which is more related to specific measures of coaching success: (1) autonomy support; (2) the extent to which a coachee feels satisfied with the actual coach–coachee relationship; (3) the extent to which the coaching relationship was similar to an ‘ideal’ coach–coachee relationship; and (4) a goal-focused coach–coachee relationship. This is the first study to use multiple measures of the coach–coachee relationship in order to directly compare the relative efficacy of different aspects of the coach–coachee relationship. In a within-subject study, 49 coach–coachee dyads conducted four coaching sessions over a 10- to 12-week period. Results indicate that satisfaction with a coach–coachee relationship does not predict successful coaching outcomes, and whilst autonomy support and proximity to an ‘ideal’ relationship moderately predicted coaching success, a goal-focused coach–coachee relationship was a unique and significantly more powerful predictor of coaching success. The findings emphasise the importance of goals in the coaching process and highlight important differences between psychotherapeutic and coaching working alliances.
... Our framework and empirical analysis have several limitations that require further investigation. First, we base our propositions on consumer mindset (demand-side) metrics, without explicitly accounting for supply side considerations, such as infrastructure and political stability, or company factors, such as organizational absorption of the marketing concept (e.g., Nakata & Sivakumar, 2001), managerial focus (e.g., Adler & Bartholomew, 1992, Morris & Pitt, 1994Peterson, 1993) and degree of marketing program standardization (Jain, 1989). Second, our focus on aggregate-level mindset metrics requires us to infer the impact of individual consumer characteristics-controlled experiments are needed to directly demonstrate these links. ...
... Young and Dixon (1996) focused on both management behaviors and perceived impact, including a co-worker questionnaire as one of the measurement tools. Peterson's (1993) evaluation of a coaching program measured changes in perceived job effectiveness, changes in likelihood of advancement within the organization, and the extent to which training received in the coaching program contributed to job effectiveness (measured retrospectively). Ratings were collected from participants, their managers, and the coaches. ...
Article
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This article addresses the conceptual and methodological issues involved in measuring the business impact of executive coaching. A framework is introduced for identifying the business impacts of coaching. An application of the framework is presented using exploratory study data from 12 matched coach-coachee pairs showing varying degrees of impact of the coaching on business-related outcomes. The primary conclusion is that the degree of business impact likely is related to complexity of the executive’s role, and to the relationship between the organizational environment and individual performance. The implication is that coordinating executive coaching with other leadership development, performance improvement, and rewards initiatives should increase business impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Despite the ubiquity of executive coaching interventions in business organizations, there is little uniformity in the practices (e.g., assessment tools, scientific or philosophical approaches, activities, goals, and outcome evaluation methods) of executive coaches. Addressing the ongoing debate about the role of psychology in executive coaching, we compare the practices of psychologist and nonpsychologist coaches, as well as the practices of coaches from various psychological disciplines (e.g., counseling, clinical, and industrial/organizational). Results of surveys completed by 428 coaches (256 nonpsychologists, 172 psychologists) revealed as many differences between psychologists of differing disciplines as were found between psychologist and nonpsychologist coaches. Moreover, differences between psychologists and nonpsychologists were generally small (average d= .26). Our survey also revealed some differences in the key competencies identified by psychologist and nonpsychologist coaches.
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Proponents of the learning organization acknowledge that leaders and managers must assume roles as coaches in organizations that aspire to become learning organizations. The concept of the manager as coach is becoming increasingly popular as a way to facilitate learning and improve employee performance. Yet, despite the research that has been done on coaching, studies generally focus on characteristics of good coaches, requisite coaching skills, and employees' perceptions of the improvement in managers' coaching skills following such training programs. This article describes some of the findings from a larger qualitative critical incident study. Specifically, the triggers for coaching and the outcomes of coaching interventions for the individual employee, manager, and organization are examined and reported here. This study identifies gaps and discrepancies, political, and developmental issues as the primary triggers for coaching. Additionally, this study suggests that managers' commitment to coaching has the potential to impact performance at the individual employee, manager, and organizational level.
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Coaching has received considerable attention in recent years as the responsibility for employees' learning and development has been increasingly devolved to line managers. Yet there exists little published empirical research that measures specific coaching behaviors of line managers or examines the linkages between line managers' coaching behavior and employee performance. This survey study integrates the perceptions of supervisors and their respective employees to examine supervisory coaching behavior in an industrial context and to assess its association with employee job satisfaction and performance. Findings suggest that supervisory coaching behavior is positively associated with employees' job satisfaction and performance. Implications for research and practice are presented.
Chapter
Previous studies on the effectiveness of coaching have focused on positive outcomes that clients, coaches, and organizational colleagues attribute to engaging in coaching overall. In this study descriptions of critical moments of coaching as experienced by executive‐coaching clients, their coaches, and their sponsors are analyzed and compared, to find out more about how coaching conversations are experienced. In this sense, the objective of this research was to understand more about “sub‐outcomes” of coaching: mini‐outcomes as they arise within the process and as a result of the coaching process. We extend previous studies in two ways. First, we take a process‐oriented, qualitative approach by investigating which events are regarded as critical by clients and coaches within their coaching contracts to date. Second, we consider the perspective of sponsors of coaching who refer to the same coaching assignments as clients and coaches have done. For this study, 177 critical‐moment descriptions were collected (49 from clients, 49 from coaches and 79 from sponsors of coaching), of which 147 could be matched between coach, client, and sponsor working on the same assignment. They are coded with an existing and a new coding scheme and analyzed with reference to a larger dataset comprising 555 critical‐moment descriptions from executive‐coaching assignments. Our results suggest that clients and coaches are considerably more aligned in what they regard as critical in their coaching assignments when compared to their alignment with sponsors' views. While clients and coaches mainly refer to moments of new insight and attitudinal change as critical, sponsors underline changes in the clients' behavior, such as their communication or interpersonal skills. Alongside earlier studies, we have found further indications that clients and coaches conducting normal coaching conversations seem to identify critical moments to a large extent with new learning, perspectives, and insight, and they pick the same moments well above chance rates. At the same time, organizational sponsors of coaching seem to prioritize more new actions and changes initiated by coaching clients.
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Conference Paper
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Het doel van het onderzoek was om een bijdrage te leveren aan de wens van diverse wetenschappers en de coachingpraktijk om coachingseffecten verder inzichtelijk te krijgen.
Chapter
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Understanding CoachingSkills, Performance and developmental CoachingExecutive and Workplace CoachingThe Professional Status of Coaching: Accreditations and Industry OrganizationsCoaching Professionalization Parallels development in Other FieldsCoaching Psychology as an Emerging Psychological SubdisciplineCoaching ResearchOutcome StudiesRandomized Controlled StudiesLongitudinal StudiesMeasuring Outcomes of CoachingCompetencies of Effective Coaches and CoacheesResearch DirectionsA Positive Future?A Well-Being and Engagement Framework for Organizational CoachingCoaching and Coaching Psychology: A Shared Path Forward?References
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In this article, executive or leadership coaching is considered within a broad context of the history of general applied psychology. Executive coaching is briefly explored in its major applications. Advocacy of the randomized controlled trials approach to advance the science base of the field is questioned. The current scientific and conceptual foundations of the understanding of the development of human expertise are advocated in a well-supported, empirically grounded framework within which a 21st-century practice of general applied psychology and executive coaching could flourish.
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Noticing — much less measuring — change in human behaviour is a difficult undertaking. Yet professional coaching for leadership development is all about change — fostering it, celebrating it and highlighting it. Those who participate in development coaching and those who pay for it have a right to expect measurable changes.
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