ArticlePDF Available

Does Giving the Learner Control Improve Learner Success?

Article

Does Giving the Learner Control Improve Learner Success?

Abstract and Figures

This research aims to determine the most suitable style of educational control over the use of multimedia by high school chemistry students in Saudi Arabia. The research aims to quantify the effect of styles of educational control over multimedia (program or learner control) on 16-17 year old students' achievements in chemistry. The sample consists of two groups of 30 students. The first group studied with the learner control style while the second studied using the program control style. The results show that the improvement in chemistry test scores in the first group was better than in the second, with a statistically significant difference between groups at the α = 0.05 level. As a result of this research we recommend, firstly, using the learner control style when designing multimedia programs because of its demonstrated positive effect on achievement; and, secondly, expanding the use of educational programs for individual learning to other areas of education. In summary, this research highlights the beneficial combination of multimedia technology and pedagogy.
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
135
Does Giving the Learner Control Improve Learner
Success?
Abdu Al Nashrey1,*
1School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences, Newcastle University, UK
*Corresponding author: School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences,
Newcastle University, UK. E-mail: a.a.a.al-nashrey3@ncl.ac.uk
Received: August 6, 2020 Accepted: August 21, 2020 Published: September 25, 2020
doi:10.5296/ije.v12i3.17492 URL: https://doi.org/10.5296/ije.v12i3.17492
Abstract
This research aims to determine the most suitable style of educational control over the use of
multimedia by high school chemistry students in Saudi Arabia. The research aims to quantify
the effect of styles of educational control over multimedia (program or learner control) on
16-17 year old students' achievements in chemistry. The sample consists of two groups of 30
students. The first group studied with the learner control style while the second studied using
the program control style. The results show that the improvement in chemistry test scores in the
first group was better than in the second, with a statistically significant difference between
groups at the α = 0.05 level. As a result of this research we recommend, firstly, using the
learner control style when designing multimedia programs because of its demonstrated positive
effect on achievement; and, secondly, expanding the use of educational programs for
individual learning to other areas of education. In summary, this research highlights the
beneficial combination of multimedia technology and pedagogy.
Keywords: control patterns, multimedia software, program control, learner control
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
136
1. Introduction
1.1 Introduce the Study
The Saudi Arabian educational system supports an international curriculum and the Ministry of
Education has recently improved the secondary school system with the introduction of a new
program in so-called Tatweer Schools. These new schools have an innovative system that
includes advanced technological equipment and allows students the flexibility to choose
subjects and teachers for each semester, as well as offering them the possibility of studying
during the summer. With regard to secondary schooling, there are two types, private and
government schools, with the majority of students attending the latter as they are free to do so.
As part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 (2017) scheme, which sets out national
transformation goals, there are aims concerned with learning and with developing current and
future generations, including providing citizens with learning resources that allow the quality
and outcomes of learning to be improved.
The impact of scientific and technological progress is clear in many areas of life, including
education, and this has placed on the shoulders of educators the need to keep up with this new
technology. The entry of technologies into the field of education has become a necessity rather
than a luxury. It is fair to say that the beginning of progress of any nation and its prosperity
depends heavily on the development of education.
Multimedia playback is the most important multimedia application. Many studies have been
conducted on multimedia computer programs in the acquisition and development of skills and
cognitive experience (Kingsley & Boone, 2008). Multimedia programs help to develop
opportunities for self-learning as they enable the learners to control what they learn in a way
that suits them. The two educational control methods are known as learner control and program
control.
However, the studies that have examined the impact of multimedia on learning outcomes have
not addressed some of the main variables in the production of multimedia programs themselves,
most notably with regard to learning control styles. In learner control, the learner has power
over the educational situation through their control of the sequence of content, the pace of
learning, and the amount of practice and feedback. In contrast, program control is based on the
idea of guiding the learner through a program whose paths are pre-determined, and thus the
learner does not have the opportunity to change the method of learning or the material
sequencing (Wang & Beasley, 2002).
Starting from this shortcoming, this current study deepens our understanding of multimedia
program control. Previous studies have disagreed over which method of control was more
effective, a problem which we aim to address in the forthcoming text.
1.2 Rationale for the Study
Working as a chemistry teacher, the researcher noted that student achievement was low, and
determined to explore methods to address this.
The researcher conducted many interviews with chemistry teachers in separate schools in
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
137
Alqunfudhah governorate to find which part of the first secondary grade chemistry course they
found most difficult; with all respondents in agreement that the third semester was the hardest
part of the course, a fact confirmed by the final exam results.
The researcher also noted that most of the previous studies that were concerned with
multimedia and its use in educational computer programs had not addressed one of the most
important variables in the production of educational computer programs, namely educational
control, despite the potentially strong benefit this variable offers.
The question now is, not whether to use the computer in education, but what are the most
appropriate employment strategies in the educational process. Therefore, the production of
educational computer programs must develop to reach a distinct level of quality .
Many observations have shown that secondary school teachers often use unsuitable teaching
techniques. Through conducting sporadic interviews, it was found that many students believe
that their teachers lacked the necessary skills to deliver suitable classes to learners. Interviews
of teaching staff highlighted that many lack the necessary technical skills to allow them to use
modern technology in their pedagogy. Furthermore, many teachers believed that technology
took up too much time in the classroom.
In turn, this leads to consideration of multimedia computer program design, focusing on the
educational control method as an important variable in exploring the effect of the difference in
educational control patterns within multimedia programs: is it better for the learner to control
the software or for the program to control itself, and what is the impact of that choice on
students’ achievement in chemistry?
1.3 Study Hypothesis
There are no statistically significant differences at the level (α = 0.05) between the mean scores
in the post-application achievement test of students in the first experimental group, who used
the software with learner control, and those of the second experimental group, who used the
software with program control.
1.4 Aims of the Study
The present study aims to achieve the following:
- Identify the effect of the educational control patterns of multimedia programs on
achievement;
- Determine the most appropriate types of educational control patterns for high school students.
1.5 Importance of the Study:
It is hoped that this study will be useful in the following ways:
- Helping educators, educational supervisors and curriculum planners to identify how best to
employ multimedia in teaching chemistry;
- Reducing the difficulties of teaching chemistry to first-grade secondary students by
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
138
presenting an interesting computer program that presents the subject matter in a positive and
attractive manner;
- Guiding future preparation of multimedia computer programs in order to increase students'
achievement in other courses;
- Determining the most appropriate method of educational control in building educational
software and thereby increasing the effectiveness of these programs;
- Identifying the most age-appropriate educational control method in multimedia software for
first-year high school students.
2. Education in Saudi Arabia
According to the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Education (2019), the current education system in
the country began in 1926, when the first school was established in Makah. There is currently
significant investment in education with the aim of delivering further improvements.
Alongside King Abdullah’s project for improving public school education, government
funding has also been allocated to a new mathematics and science curriculum. As mentioned
previously, Tatweer schools have been developed, the name deriving from the national
company that has been appointed to drive these changes. Tatweer provides professional
development programs for both science supervisors and teachers to enable them to teach using
new materials. As a result of these changes, science education in Saudi Arabia is now the
subject of increasing attention.
The first step in achieving the government’s vision is to improve the curriculum, which takes a
comprehensive perspective and comprises students and teachers, school and home, strategies
and society. A curriculum is defined as the learning material for a particular stage of education,
and includes elements that the student may find in their textbooks, including concepts,
definitions, theories, facts, laws, values, trends, and skills. In secondary school, science
consists of several separate subjects, biology, chemistry, computer science, geology and
physics; while the curriculum has four main components: aims, content, teaching methods and
evaluation (Alhomairi, 2018). The science curriculum essentially aims to teach and prepare
students with scientific knowledge, allowing them to think effectively about the scientific
phenomena that they will encounter in society. Chemistry is a dependent subject in secondary
school and so only qualified teachers are employed to teach it.
3. Literature Review
Multimedia software refers to any combination of text, image, video, graphics and animation to
create knowledge accessed by multiple senses, such as sight and hearing. Beauchamp et al.
(2005) identified multimedia as the digital presentation of information, which can incorporate
text, audio, and still and moving images. Regarding the use of multimedia software, three kinds
are available depending on whether control is maintained by the learner, the program or is
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
139
flexible. Hooper et al. (1993) defined learner control to mean giving learners the right to make
educational decisions, so that additional assistance can be requested, changes made to the level
of difficulty and quantity of training, and control can be exercised over the sequence of content
according to the needs of the individual. On the other hand, program control entails one
educational sequence for all students, regardless of their interests or needs, whereas flexible
control modifies the characteristics of the lesson according to the students’ preparation, their
tribal levels, and their learning needs. Naidu (1995) identified the program control strategy as
having a linear direction, and being non-branching as a result, because it works according to the
program’s orders. That is, the program controls the learning time, the sequence of content, the
amount of training imposed on the learner, and the provision of information, all by moving
within the program in a manner prescribed by the program without learner intervention.
In discussing multimedia program control, many concepts and phrases can be considered
synonymous, such as Adaptive Control, Linear Control, Absolute Control, Free Access and
Limited Access.
Many studies have shown that multimedia methods have a positive effect on students’
achievement at all ages because it brings together text, sound and imagery. For example,
Alarishi (2009) found a statistically significant difference in students' average test scores in
science between a control group that studied in a traditional fashion and an experimental group
that studied using multimedia. In addition, Zard (2010) examined the effectiveness of proposed
educational software on achievement in a biology course by using two experimental groups of
approximately 21 students each, one of which was taught using educational software, and the
other taught in a traditional manner. The study found statistically significant differences at the
0.05 level between the average scores of students on a post-achievement test between the
experimental and control groups, in favor of the experimental group. After controlling for the
pre-achievement scores, these differences occurred at three cognitive levels: remembering,
understanding, and application. In this study, the use of multimedia software enhanced learning
is at the basic levels in Bloom’s taxonomy, namely remembering, understanding and applying.
To build on this concept, a self-organized learning environment (SOLE) gives students the
opportunity and flexibility to build their learning at any time and without restriction. Mitra et al.
(2010) saw that SOLE could encourage teachers to let their students answer questions by
working as a community with both the assistance of computers and internet access.
On the other hand, many studies have claimed that program control in multimedia learning
works better than learner control. Eom & Reiser (2000), for instance, examined the effects of
learners' use of the self-organizing strategy on their achievement and motivation in
computer-based learning. The study sample consisted of 30 sixth-grade students who were
divided into two groups who were then taught using either learner or program control. The
results showed that learners using program control scored higher in the post-test than learners
using learner control, and that performance was weaker in learners with low self-control. No
differences in motivation were found between the two groups.
Yeh & Lehman (2001) indicated that students being in control showed a greater summons
compared to those using program control, and this indicates that the environment that the
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
140
learner controls is better than the environment that the program controls in the learning of
English.
Program control occurs where the program is the primary controller in the learning time, in the
sequence of content, and of how many examples are imposed on the learner, and in providing
feedback and therapeutic frameworks for the learner, all of which is presented in a fixed linear
path. Al-Ayafi & Hamid (2019) found a statistically significant difference at the 0.05 level,
between the average test scores of students using a patterned electronics control (control) and
students using a control made using electronics (non-controlling), in favor of non-controlling
among students in an intermediate school in Saudi Arabia. In the same way, Silalahi et al.
(2018) found that multimedia based on offline learning positively affected students' motivation
and outcomes in chemistry.
However, other studies found no difference between the two styles of multimedia software. For
example, Ibrahim (2012) found no statistically significant differences between the two
methods (learner control and program control), either in a mathematical reasoning test or in an
achievement motivation scale, among secondary age learners deemed to be slow learners of
mathematics in Egypt. Similarly, Aly et al. (2005) found no statistically significant difference
between a learner control group and program control group among undergraduate students of
dentistry when they studied via computer assisted learning. Notwithstanding this, current
guidance still requires a role model in inspiring pupils to learn, especially those who struggle
with using multimedia to learn. Wang & Beasley (2002) examined learner control in
educational environments and learner control with guidance using 81 students from Taiwan
University, who were divided into two groups. Their results indicated that the learner control
method with advice is more beneficial than the learner control method alone, and also that the
presence or absence of advice or guidance did not affect students who were highly skilled.
4. Approach and Methodology
4.1 Approach
Positivism is the paradigm followed in this study. It posits that there are universal laws and
that the researcher can therefore be objective and neutral in investigating them (Thompson,
1995, pp. 62-72). Consequently, a quantitative quasi-experimental research method is most
appropriate to the nature of the present study. Herein, the educational control pattern (learner
control or program control) is the independent variable, while achievement in chemistry is the
dependent variable. The first group in the experiment used educational software with a learner
control pattern, while the second group used a program control pattern.
4.2 Methodology
Quantitative methodology was used to compare the students' achievements. The study
variables consisted of independent and dependent variables. The independent variable had two
levels of control pattern: learner control and program control. The dependent variable is
students’ achievement.
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
141
4.2.1 Study Sample
The research population comprises all 2571 first grade students at the secondary stage in
Alqunfudah city, described in the statistics for the Information and Computer Center in the
Education Department in Alqunfudah. The study sample was intentionally chosen from first
grade students in the secondary stage at King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz School (Boys) in
Alqunfudah City. 60 students were randomly divided into two groups: the first experimental
group had 30 students, and were taught using educational software with a learner control mode.
The second experimental group also had 30 students but were taught using educational
software with a program control pattern. Table (1) shows the numbers in the study sample.
Table 1. Number of Students in Each Group
Group
Number
Program
1
30
learner control
2
30
program control
The sample was limited to male students due to the Muslim faith in the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia, which demands gender segregation in school (excepting the first stage in primary
school). Consequently, the current study was conducted in a boys’ school and therefore, it
applies to male students only.
4.2.2 Study Procedures
The researcher reviewed the following study tools and prepared them according to the order in
which they were used in the study. First, a study unit comprising the third semester of the
chemistry course was chosen for the first secondary class of the first semester. Titled
Composition of the Atom, this was to be the scientific content under study.
Analysis of the educational content was carried out, and the educational objectives were
defined. The scientific subject matter pertinent to achieving the program’s educational goals
was identified as the third chapter of the chemistry curriculum for the first secondary class,
which is typically presented as a series of four lessons: definition of the atom; how do atoms
differ, unstable nuclei; and radioactive decay.
These objectives were presented to a number of arbiters, to seek their views on the following:
* The extent of clarity of the educational goals;
* The extent of provision of scientific content to meet these educational goals.
Some objectives were modified or supplemented after arbitration. The most important of which
amended the formulation of some educational goals, and added further goals, to several lessons.
Consequently, the Bergman & Moore (1990) model was used to generate content (see Fig.1).
Content design began with two different scenarios for the two multimedia programs; the first
allows students flexibility by providing control over the length of study time, while the other
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
142
restricted the student’s time, depending on the content viewed. The scenario was approved by
two academic staff, before transference into both programs using Adobe Authorware software.
Figure 1. Bergman and Moore’s 1990 Model (Bergman & Moore, 1990)
The following steps were taken to build an achievement test: goal setting, building, pilot testing,
and only then modification, and final construction. The preliminary knowledge gained after
completion of post-arbitration modifications, allowed acceptance of the test as a valid research
tool.
An exploratory sample of 20 students was chosen from the first secondary class of Hussein bin
Ali School in Alqunfudhah City. The study tools (chemistry achievement test and the two
programs with different patterns of control) were applied to this cohort, in order to ascertain the
validity and reliability of the tests, to check the efficiency of the tools, and evaluate and avoid
certain aspects during application.
4.2.3 Limitations
Key limitations arose from the design of the school, which had few electrical sockets available,
with not more than three per classroom. To negate this, electrical connections were provided to
allow all students to charge their laptop during class time. There was a limited maintenance
service provision for student devices due to insufficient staffing.
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
143
5. Analysis
SPSS was used for data analysis. The reliability of the achievement test was calculated by
applying it to a survey sample from the same population, namely the 20 students from the first
year of secondary school at Al-Hussein Bin Ali Secondary School in Alqunfudah City. Tool
reliability was ascertained by calculating Chronbach’s Alpha; with a value of 0.76 (n=30)
indicating a reliable test.
Table 2. Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha
N of Items
.760
30
Pre-intervention achievement test means of the two groups were calculated in order to ensure
that the two groups were initially, approximately equal. The means were 10.6 and 11.5 for the
program control and learner control groups respectively.
In computing group homogeneity through achievement test scores in the pre-measurement, it
was found that there were no statistically significant differences between the two research
groups at the 0.05 level, which indicates the homogeneity of the two groups before
experimentation. Therefore, it can be considered that the two groups are equivalent before the
experiment, and that any differences that appear after this are due to the effect of the
independent variable, rather than pre-existing differences. After intervention for both two
groups, post-test results were obtained. The t-test results are shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Independent Samples Test
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig.
t
df
Sig.
(2-tailed
)
Mean
Difference
Std. Error
Difference
95% Confidence Interval
of the Difference
Lower
Upper
Equal variances
assumed
.000
.999
2.708
57
.009
2.77701
1.02536
.72377
4.83025
Equal variances
not assumed
2.707
56.782
.009
2.77701
1.02584
.72263
4.83139
In order to identify tool bias, bootstrap values were calculated as 0.009, which signifies very
low bias. Group normality was assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk statistic for the two groups,
resulting in 0.125 for learner control and 0.365 for program control. With both groups’
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
144
significance higher than 0.05, indicative of a normal distribution of post-test scores.
Table 4. Tests of Normality
Group
Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic
df
Sig.
Students
1.00
.945
30
.125
2.00
.963
30
.365
6. Results
The study reached the following results:
- There are statistically significant differences, at the α = 0.05 level, between the average
post-test achievement scores of students who were taught using software with learner control
and those who were taught using program control, with the learner control group performing
higher (M= 21.46, Std=3.88). For comparison, the median post-intervention score for the
learner control group was ~21, while that of the program control group was ~18 (see chart 1).
Chart 1. Post Intervention Scores of the Two Groups
Group 1: Learner Control; 2: Program Control
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
145
- There are statistically significant differences at the level (α = 0.05) between the mean scores
of students taught with learner control software in the pre-test (M=11.5, Std= 4.06) and the
post-test (M= 21.46, Std=3.88) in favor of the post-test. This shows that their chemistry
knowledge improved over the course of the intervention.
- There are statistically significant differences at the level (α = 0.05) between the mean scores
of students who were taught using program control software in the pre-test (M=10.6, Std= 3.77)
and the post-test (M=18.6, Std= 3.93), skewed in favor of the post-test. This indicates that this
group also improved their chemistry knowledge.
7. Discussion
Giving students the opportunity to control multimedia educational software is shown in this
study, in agreement with Alarashī (2009), and Zard (2010), who investigated self-learning
organization without time restriction. On the other hand, the results are contrary to those of
Al-Ayafi & Hamid (2019), who found that non-control was more effective than controlled
multimedia for student achievement.
From the results gained, it is possible to suggest avenues for future research:
1) A study on the effect of the independent variable of the current research (learner control
program control) on other educational outcomes, such as learning time or skills;
2) A study on the effect of the interaction between the independent variable of the current
research (learner control - program control) and the cognitive style of students (impulsive
metro) on immediate and delayed attainment;
3) A study of the effect of electronic books, split by type of control (learner control program
control), on student achievement and their motivation for this achievement;
4) A study on other types of software control such as (total control partial control) and the
effect of this on learning time and learning rate;
5) A study of patterns of programming control such as (learner control learner control with
guidance) and the impact of these on learning and performance rates;
6) A study on the impact of the independent variable of the current research (learner control
program control) through high-media software on other educational outcomes such as learning
time or skills.
8. Conclusion
Multimedia software enhances learning through multi-sensual stimulation. There are different
ways of exercising control of multimedia software, depending on the user requirements. Two
main educational control methods in multimedia programs were investigated: learner control
and program control. According to the extant literature, studies may be divided into three
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
146
categories: those that found that learner control is better than program control, those that found
no difference, and those that found that program control to be more effective than learner
control.
The present study found that, among students in the first stage of secondary school, aged 16-17
years, giving students control over their multimedia software assisted learning enabled them to
achieve higher scores in chemistry than when having control exercised by the program itself.
This result suggests further research to explore the relationship between the style of control in
multimedia and other variables, such as time taken to learn and age of students, may be needed
if this literary discrepancy is to be addressed.
Acknowledgments
The author appreciates support from the Saudi Arabian government, in particular the Ministry
of Education for the opportunity to conduct research in the United Kingdom. Dr. Abduh
Almuashi, Dr. Ibrahim Almarhbi, and Thamer Marzuoq are thanked for their assistance and
advice. The author is particularly grateful to King Abdullah Secondary School in offering their
site, equipment, students, and additional facilities required for the experimental work described
herein.
References
Alarishī, A. (2009). Athar tawẓīf alwsāʾṭ al-mutaʿddida tdrīs mādat al-ʿulūm ʿala taḥṣīl
tlāmīdh al-ṣṣaf al-sāis al-ibtidāʾi madinat Jazan. [The effect of employing multimedia in
teaching science on the achievement of sixth grade pupils in Jizan city]. (Unpublished
Master’s dissertation). Umm Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia.
Al-Ayafi, K. M. A., & Hamid, M. Z. A. (2019). The effect of interaction between the control
pattern and the style of activities' guidance in the multimedia software on developing the
skills of using internet with intermediate level students. Journal of Educational and
Psychological Sciences, 3(14). https://doi.org/10.26389/AJSRP.K301218
Alhomairi, A. O. A. (2018). A proposed perspective for developing science curriculum for the
upper primary grades in accordance to Saudi Arabia's Vision for 2030: An analytical and
descriptive study according to Delphi Method. International Journal of Higher Education,
7(1), 69-86. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v7n1p69
Aly, M., Elen, J., & Willems, G. (2005). Learner‐control vs. program‐control instructional
multimedia: a comparison of two interactions when teaching principles of orthodontic
appliances. European Journal of Dental Education, 9(4), 157-163.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0579.2005.00385.x
Beauchamp, N., Irvine, A. B., Seeley, J., & Johnson, B. (2005). Worksite-based internet
multimedia program for family caregivers of persons with dementia. The Gerontologist,
45(6), 793-801. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/45.6.793
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
147
Bergman, R. E., & Moore, T. V. (1990). Managing interactive video/multimedia projects.
Educational Technology Publications.
Eom, W., & Reiser, R. A. (2000). The effects of self-regulation and instructional control on
performance and motivation in computer-based instruction. International Journal of
Instructional Media, 27(3), 246-261.
Hooper, S., Temiyakarn, C., & Williams, M. D. (1993). The effects of cooperative learning and
learner control on high-and average-ability students. Educational Technology Research
and Development, 41(2), 5-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02297309
Ibrahim, K. (2012). Fāʿilliat Istrtātigiyyati taḥkkm al-mutaʿllim wa taḥkkum al-barnāmj
tanmiat al-tafkīr al-rriyadī wa al-ddāfiʿiyya lil-injāz bistakhdām al-ḥāsūb littalāmīdh
baṭiʾi al-taʿllum alriyādhiyyat. [The effectiveness of the two strategies for learner
control and program control in developing rational thinking and motivation for
achievement using computers for slow-learning pupils in mathematics]. Educational
Journal, 31, 431-433.
Kingsley, K. V., & Boone, R. (2008). Effects of multimedia software on achievement of
middle school students in an American history class. Journal of Research on Technology
in Education, 41(2), 203-221. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2008.10782529
Ministry of Education. (2019). Ministry of Education. Retrieved from
https://www.moe.gov.sa/ar/Pages/default.aspx
Mitra, S., Leat, D., Dolan, P., & Crawley, E. (2010). The Self Organised Learning
Environment (SOLE) school support pack.
Naidu, S. (1995). Definitions of instructional control in learning environments. Australasian
Journal of Educational Technology, 11(1), 12-19. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2065
Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030. (2017). National Transformation Program 2020. Retrieved from
https://vision2030.gov.sa/en/programs/NTP
Silalahi, A., Hutabarat, W., Tarigan, S., & Chandra, Y. (2018). Impact of multimedia-based
off-line learning on student motivation and outcomes. Asian Journal of Social Science
Studies, 3(4), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.20849/ajsss.v3i4.471
Thompson, N. (1995). Theory and practice in health and social care. Changing Practice in
Health and Social Care. McGraw-Hill Education.
Wang, L. C. C., & Beasley, W. (2002). Effects of learner control and hypermedia preference on
cyber-students’ performance in a web-based learning environment. Journal of
Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 11(1), 71-91.
https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/10776/
Yeh, S., & Lehman, J. (2001). Effects of learner control and learning strategies on English as a
foreign language: Learning from interactive hypermedia lessons. Journal of Educational
Multimedia and Hypermedia, 10(2), 141-159.
International Journal of Education
ISSN 1948-5476
2020, Vol. 12, No. 3
http://ije.macrothink.org
148
https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/8413/
Zard, S. (2010). Fāʿilliat Istikhdām barmegiyya taʿlimiyya moqtraḥa ʿala al-taḥsīl al-dirāsī
moqrrar al-aḥaiā ldā ṭālebāt al-saf al-al al-thānwi bimadinat Makkah Almukarrama. [The
effectiveness of using an integrated educational program on students' achievement in the
biology course for first-grade secondary school in Makkah Al-Mukarramah].
(Unpublished Master’s dissertation). Umm Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia.
Copyright Disclaimer
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to
the journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative
Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Investigation of the impact multimedia-based off-line learning towards student motivation and outcomes was carried out based on ADDIE model, and the 2013 vocational high school curriculum content standards. It was found that the implementation of the multimedia was highly usefull as a learning device. The population of this study were students of grade XI of a vocational high school 1 in Percut Sei Tuan, Medan Indonesia. The sample selected was 2 classes of the grade XI and classified into experimental and controlled groups which consisted of 36 students respectively. The experimental group was taught by the MAOL and the controlled group taught by web-based adobe flash-based instruction (WAFI) learning approaches. Instruments used to collect data student motivation and outcomes were questionnaires and achievement tests respectively. The Data collected were analyzed with SPSS softwares. The results showed that the student motivation and achievements of the experimental group were significantly higher than the controlled group on the subject of acid and base solutions, with a significance level of 5% (with the criteria of Sig <α value is 0.001 < 0.05) ; Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between motivation and student outcomes at a significance level of 5%.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated social studies achievement as a result of utilizing a multimedia-based American history software program (Ignite Early American History, 2003) to augment textbook and lecture materials for seventh-grade middle school history students in an ethnically and linguistically diverse urban school district. The instructional software used was an interactive multimedia program designed to teach middle school students through video, song, animation, text, and other media to develop critical thinking skills while acquiring knowledge of required content strands (Ignite Learning, 2003). Teacher and student activities, pretest and posttest scores, and instructional methods for experimental and control conditions were documented in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the results. (Contains 2 tables.)
Article
This study aimed to identify the effect of interaction among the control pattern (Controlled- Uncontrolled) and the style of activities' guidance (guided- not guided) of the multimedia software on developing the skills of using internet with intermediate level students. The researcher used the experimental method and depended on the semi- experimental design. In the light of the study results, the study recommended conducting similar study on different educational levels, as well as putting into consideration the control patterns and styles of activities guidance when designing educational software so as to contribute in the process of achieving aims.
Article
Saudi Arabia's Vision for 2030 in development is exceedingly concerned with curriculum development. It believes that the current curriculum does no longer support the students' preparation for both life and work. Therefore, the present study aimed to reach a consensus by a set of educational experts on the importance of providing the science curriculum for the fifth and sixth primary grades with a content that can help achieve the requirements of the Kingdom's Vision for 2030 in development. In addition, it aimed to study what perceptions these educational experts have towards developing the science curriculum that can better achieve this vision. The study followed the descriptive approach and the use of Delphi method. It was applied to a group of (28) educational experts over three rounds that started on October 8, and ended on November 9, 2017. Findings indicated that the provision degree of the requirements of Saudi Arabia's Vision for 2030 in development in the science curriculum for the upper primary grades was too weak. Responses of the educational experts concerning developing the science curriculum to achieve the requirements of this vision, at the end of the third round, ranged between strongly agree and agree. At the end, a perspective for the development of the science curriculum was proposed depending on the viewpoints of the educational experts who participated in the present study.Keywords: Saudi Arabia's Vision for 2030, development of science curriculum, primary grades.
Article
A fundamental question in the design of learning environments is determining the nature of instructional control which will facilitate optimal learning outcomes. The assumptions that increased control in the hands of learners will produce enhanced learning outcomes is untenable. This short paper reviews a select body of research with varying types and levels of control in learning environments and presents a summary of operational definitions of control applied in those studies. Analysis of these definitions revealed variations in the amount of control allowed which is most meaningful if represented on a continuum ranging from maximum program control on the one hand, to maximum learner control on the other. The impacts of control in learning environments is briefly discussed.
Article
This study investigated whether the factor of "hypermedia preference" in a web-based learning environment (WBLE) affects students' task performance under "learner control with and without advisement" conditions. Eighty-one undergraduates at National Taiwan Normal University were randomly assigned to a learner-controlled treatment, with or without advisement. Two-way full factorial model ANOVA was used to test for main effects and the interaction assumption between hypermedia preference and conditions of control on means difference between posttest and pretest scores. As expected, students' task performance is mainly affected by learner control (with/without advisement). However, although students' hypermedia preference has no direct relation to their performance in WBLE, when hypermedia preference works together with learner control, there is a significant joint influence on students' task performance. Students with a low hypermedia preference level benefited significantly from the presence of learner control with advisement. Students with a high hypermedia preference level were not significantly affected by the presence or absence of learner control with advisement.
Article
Describes a study of sixth and seventh grade middle school students that examined the effects of learners' reported use of self-regulated learning strategies on achievement and motivation in learner-controlled and program-controlled computer based instruction. Discusses results of posttests, scores on a motivation survey, and the amount of instructional time spent. (Contains 59 references.) (Author/LRW)
Article
The effects of studying alone or in cooperative learning groups on high- and average-ability students were investigated. Also examined were the effects of completing computer-based instruction using either a learner- or program-control version of a lesson. A total of 175 fourth-grade students were classified as being of high or average ability and randomly assigned to paired or individual treatments stratified by ability. Students completed training to enhance small-group interaction before completing a computer-based tutorial and a posttest. Following cooperative learning, students demonstrated increased achievement and efficiency as well as better attitudes toward both the computer lesson and grouping. Students completed more practice items and examples in program-control treatments than in learner-control treatments. However, the form of lesson control did not affect students' achievement or attitudes.