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Towards a new material culture. Bio-inspired design, parametric modeling, material design, digital manufacture.

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Digital technologies represent, for the world of design and material culture, unprecedented opportunities for expression and innovation. The integration of a bio-inspired design approach for the development of new materials, based on generative modelling and additive manufacturing, represents a promising challenge for the design culture. The paper intends to outline the potential and benefits of this integrated design approach, as a “virtuous circle” for the design and production of innovative and sustainable artefacts, through the description of an experimental design case study.
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a cura di
Massimo Perriccioli
Marina Rigillo
Sergio Russo Ermolli
Fabrizio Tucci
MASSIMO PERRICCIOLI
Professore ordinario di Tecnologia dell’Architettura
DiARC - Dipartimento di Architettura
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
MARINA RIGILLO
Professore associato di Tecnologia dell’Architettura
DiARC - Dipartimento di Architettura
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
SERGIO RUSSO ERMOLLI
Professore associato di Tecnologia dell’Architettura
DiARC - Dipartimento di Architettura
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
FABRIZIO TUCCI
Professore ordinario di Tecnologia dell’Architettura
PDTA - Dipartimento di Pianicazione, Design, Tecnologia dell’Architettura
Sapienza Università di Roma
ISBN 978-88-916-4327-8
© Copyright 2020 by Authors
Published in November 2020
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Call for paper del Convegno Internazionale
“Design in the Digital Age. Technology, Nature, Culture”
Organizzato dalla SITdA - Società Scientifica della Tecnologia dell’Architettura e
dal DiARC - Dipartimento di Architettura dell’Università di Napoli Federico II
Napoli, Giugno 2021
Comitato Scientifico/Scientific Committee
Vicente Guallart, Guallart Architects
Thomas Herzog, Thomas Herzog Architekten, Socio Onorario SITdA
Matteo Lorito, Rettore dell’Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Mario Losasso, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Past President SITdA
Maria Teresa Lucarelli, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Presidente SITdA
Gaetano Manfredi, Ministro dell’Università e della Ricerca
Fabrizio Schiaonati, Politecnico di Milano, Socio Onorario SITdA
Bernard Stiegler, Institut de Recherche et d’Innovation, Paris
Martin Tamke, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen
Coordinamento Scientifico/Scientific Coordination
Ernesto Antonini
Eliana Cangelli
Valeria D’Ambrosio
Laura Daglio
Pietromaria Davoli
Massimo Lauria
Elena Germana Mussinelli
Massimo Perriccioli
Sergio Russo Ermolli
Fabrizio Tucci
Segreteria SITdA/SITdA Secretariat
Antonella Violano
Comitato organizzativo di Sede/Coordination Committee of Naples
Paola Ascione
Erminia Attaianese
Eduardo Bassolino
Mariangela Bellomo
Alessandro Claudi de St. Mihiel
Valeria D’Ambrosio
Paola De Joanna
Katia Fabbricatti
Antonella Falotico
Mattia Leone
Pietro Nunziante
Massimo Perriccioli (responsabile)
Marina Rigillo
Sergio Russo Ermolli
Serena Viola
Coordinamento organizzativo/Organizing Committee
Maria Azzalin
Enza Tersigni
Segreteria organizzativa/Organizing Secretariat
Anita Bianco
Marina Block
Francesca Ciampa
Maria Fabrizia Clemente
Ivana Coletta
Federica Dell’Acqua
Giuliano Galluccio
Giovanni Nocerino
Giuseppe Vaccaro
Giovangiuseppe Vannelli
Sara Verde
Grafica e comunicazione multimediale/Graphic and multimedia communication
Raaele Catuogno
Vincenzo Pinto
INDICE
CALL FOR PAPER: DESIGN IN THE DIGITAL AGE. TECHNOLOGY, NATURE, CULTURE 11
PREFAZIONE 13
Maria Teresa Lucarelli
INTRODUZIONE
LA DIMENSIONE ECOLOGICA DEL PROGETTO NELL’ERA DIGITALE/THE ECOLOGICAL DIMENSION OF DESIGN IN THE DIGITAL AGE 15
Massimo Perriccioli
TECNOLOGIA ED EVOLUZIONE DELL’APPROCCIO ECO-SISTEMICO AL PROGETTO
/TECHNOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF THE
ECO-SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO THE DESIGN 21
Marina Rigillo
TOPIC 1.A 26
EVOLUZIONE DELL’APPROCCIO ESIGENZIALE-PRESTAZIONALE PER IL PROGETTO SULL’ESISTENTE NELL’ERA DIGITALE 27
Marta Calzolari
EVOLUTION OF TEACHING IN THE DIGITAL AGE 30
Raphael Fabbri, Catalina Francu, Mattia Federico Leone, Sergio Pone
RE-DESIGNING SPACESHIP EARTH: SFIDE, OPPORTUNITÀ E STRUMENTI DI UN PROGETTO COSMOPOLITICO 36
Ramon Rispoli
L’INTENZIONE PROGETTUALE E LA NORMAZIONE CONSAPEVOLE ALL’EPOCA DELLA DIGITALIZZAZIONE: NUOVI DRIVER PER UNO SVILUPPO SOSTENIBILE 39
Adriano Ferrara, Elisabetta Ginelli, Elena Mocchio, Gianluca Pozzi
MATERIALI VEGETALI PER IMPIEGHI INNOVATIVI NEI MANUFATTI ARCHEOLOGICI 44
Alessia Vaccariello
IL GIOCO EURISTICO TECNOLOGICO-AMBIENTALE DEL METAPROGETTO DEGLI SPAZI URBANI 47
Filippo Angelucci
PROJECT ASSESSMENT. TECHNOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY AND DIGITAL TOOLS 51
Elisabetta Bronzino, Luca Buoninconti, Dora Francese
DESIGNING WHIT PLANTS.CONNECTING NATURE, HUMANS AND THEIR BUILDINGS 56
Lavinia Herzog
APPROCCIO ECO-SISTEMICO E INNOVAZIONE DELLE TECNOLOGIE DIGITALI PER IL PROGETTO 59
Valeria Cecafosso
GREEN BUILDING CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS, INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND POST-OCCUPANCY EVALUATION METHODS: A CRITICAL REVIEW 62
Marco Giampaoletti, Maria Beatrice Andreucci
TECNOLOGIE E CULTURA DEL PROGETTO NELLA SOCIETÀ DELLE MANGROVIE 68
Andrea Campioli
SMART MEDINA. ESPERIENZE DI DESIGN AUMENTATO PER LA MEDINA DI FEZ 71
Jurji Filieri
TOPIC 1.B
76
METODOLOGIA E STRUMENTI PER UNA VALUTAZIONE DEI FLUSSI DI MATERIA E DI ENERGIA A SCALA MICRO-URBANA 77
Matteo Trane
TECNOLOGIE DI INTERMEDIAZIONE COGNITIVA PER IL PROGETTO DI VALORIZZAZIONE DEL PATRIMONIO CULTURALE 80
Daniele Fanzini, Cristiana Achille, Gianpiero Venturini, Cinzia Tommasi
BIM FOR ASSET MANAGEMENT AND REUSE OF UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS: THE CASE-STUDY OF SANT’ANNA SCHOOL 85
Benedetta Marradi
ARCHITECTURE OF COMPLEXITY: (RE)GENERATIVE INTERFACES 89
Roberta Cocci Grifoni , Graziano Enzo Marchesani
LE TECNOLOGIE IMMERSIVE PER IL CO-DESIGN IN ARCHITETTURA. IL PROGETTO DEGLI SPAZI PER LA CURA 93
Elisa Biolchini
IL PROGETTO DEL PAESAGGIO NELL’INTERAZIONE TRA NATURA E CULTURA: IL RUOLO GENERATIVO DELLA COMUNITÀ 96
Raaella Riva
PATTERN URBANI E INTERNET OF NATURE. TECNOLOGIE DIGITALI E STRATEGIE INNOVATIVE PER L’APPROCCIO ECO-SISTEMICO AL PROGETTO 99
Anita Bianco
ISTANZE AMBIENTALI, CULTURA DIGITALE, APPROCCIO MANUTENTIVO DALLA RICERCA. GLI STRUMENTI OPERATIVI 103
Maria Azzalin
TOPIC 1.C
108
STRATEGIE DI ADATTAMENTO PER LA GESTIONE INTEGRATA DELLE RISORSE IDRICHE NEGLI EDIFICI 109
Alessandro Stracqualursi
CULTURAL (AND CLIMATIC) REGENERATION PER LA CITTÀ STORICA 112
Gaia Turchetti
DIGITAL MODELS FOR ADAPTIVE URBAN OPEN SPACES 115
Renata Valente, Roberto Bosco
RIGENERAZIONE URBANA E MITIGAZIONE CLIMATICA. IL CASO DELL’EX FERROVIA DI ADRANO (CT) 120
Fernanda Cantone
IL CONTROLLO DELL’ELEMENTO NATURALE (ACQUA) PER MIGLIORARE LA RESILIENZA AMBIENTALE URBANA 125
Valentina Dessì
RIGENERAZIONE URBANA INTEGRATA E URBAN METABOLISM: RI-PROGETTARE IL COSTRUITO IN CHIAVE AMBIENTALE 130
Antonello Monsù Scolaro, Francesco Spanedda
LA SECONDA VITA DELL’ESISTENTE. TOOL DIGITALI PER IL LIFE CYCLE APPROACH E IL RESILIENT DESIGN 133
Serena Baiani, Paola Altamura
ICTS TECHNOLOGIES FOR FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT 139
Bruno Barroca, Maria Fabrizia Clemente
METODOLOGIE PER L’ADATTAMENTO CLIMATICO DEGLI SPAZI URBANI CON L’UTILIZZO DI TECNOLOGIE DIGITALI 144
Simona Mascolino, Sara Verde
IL RUOLO DELLO SPAZIO APERTO NEL QUARTIERE DI EDILIZIA PUBBLICA RESIDENZIALE A NAPOLI. UNA LETTURA ECOSISTEMICA DEL PROGETTO 149
Ivana Coletta, Federica Dell’Acqua
A SIMULATION STUDY OF THE DIRECT GREEN FAÇADES IN SEMI-ARID CLIMATE BY ENVI-MET 154
Ensiyeh Farrokhirad
TECNOLOGIA E COSTRUZIONE DI UNA NUOVA CULTURA MATERIALE/TECHNOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW MATERIAL CULTURE 159
Sergio Russo Ermolli
TOPIC 2.A
164
DESIGN E SURROGAZIONE RELAZIONALE 165
Ivo Caruso
DIGITALIZZAZIONE DEL SETTORE DELLE COSTRUZIONI TRA PROGETTAZIONE INFORMATIVA E “ARTIGIANATO” AVANZATO 169
Giuliano Galluccio
INDUSTRIA 4.0 E INDUSTRIA DELLE COSTRUZIONI: IL PROGETTO DI RICERCA EUROPEO P2ENDURE 176
Emanuele Piaia, Beatrice Turillazzi, Andrea Boeri, Danila Longo
THE ENVISION OF INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT DESIGN 180
M. Antonietta Esposito, Spiro N. Pollalis, Filippo Bosi
LA RICOSTRUZIONE POST-SISMA TRA MATERIALITÀ E TEMPORALITÀ: UN PROCESSO DAL PRODOTTO AL PROGETTO 184
Giovangiuseppe Vannelli, Daniele Spiniello
LA MODELLAZIONE INFORMATIVA PER LA MITIGAZIONE DEGLI IMPATTI AMBIENTALI DEGLI EDIFICI NZEB 187
Alessandro Claudi de Saint Mihiel, Enza Tersigni, Alessio D’Ambrosio
THE CONSTRUCTION SITE IN THE DESIGN THOUGHT. FORESEEING UNCERTAINTY, A POSSIBILITY OF THE DIGITAL ERA 194
Antonella Falotico
SENSORING & IOT: ABITARE SMART 197
Valentina Palco, Gaetano Fulco
MATERIALI NATURALI – PROGETTAZIONE GENERATIVA. DALL’ANTITESI ALLA SINTESI 202
Rossella Siani
TOWARDS A NEW MATERIAL CULTURE. BIO-INSPIRED DESIGN, PARAMETRIC MODELING, MATERIAL DESIGN, DIGITAL MANUFACTURE 208
Barbara Pollini, Lucia Pietroni, Jacopo Mascitti, Davide Paciotti
OGGETTI 1:1. I NUOVI PROCESSI COSTRUTTIVI DEL DESIGN INDIPENDENTE ITALIANO 213
Chiara Scarpitti
TESSERE DI SAPERE 217
Michela Toni
LA PROGETTAZIONE TECNOLOGICA E AMBIENTALE NELL’ERA DIGITALE: TRA BIG DATA E SENSO DELLA MISURA 220
Monica Lavagna
IL PROJECT MANAGEMENT 4D: STRATEGIE DIGITALI PER LE SOSTENIBILITÀ DEI PROCESSI REALIZZATIVI 223
Soa Agostinelli, Fabrizio Cumo , Francesco Ruperto
IL PROGETTO DIGITALE E IL CICLO DI VITA: CONSAPEVOLEZZA E TRASPARENZA DEI SOFTWARE LCA 229
Anna Dalla Valle
FROM EFFICIENCY++ TO ENVIRONMENTAL COMPATIBILITY: BIM AND INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 232
Rossella Franchino, Caterina Frettoloso, Nicola Pisacane
INFRASTRUTTURE DIGITALI NEI COMPONENTI DI INVOLUCRO PER LA GESTIONE DEGLI EDIFICI 238
Matteo Giovanardi, Edoardo Giusto, Riccardo Pollo
STRUMENTI DI SUPPORTO AL PROGETTO PER DINAMICHE DI ECONOMIA CIRCOLARE IN EDILIZIA 243
Serena Giorgi
MULTIMATERIAL-BASED DESIGN: FRAMING AN INNOVATIVE ECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO CREATIVITY 246
Marta D’Alessandro, Laila Oliveira Santana, Ingrid Paoletti, Denise Mônaco dos Santos
STRATEGIE DI PROGETTAZIONE TECNOLOGICA PER LA PRODUZIONE CUSTOMIZZATA DI COMPONENTI IN UHPFRC 250
Jenine Principe, Giovanni Nocerino
THE ECALAB EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT: OPENING TO DIGITAL/TRADITIONAL CULTURE 255
Paola Ascione
AURA: GREEN AND SMART URBAN FURNITURE 260
Alfonso Morone, Nicolau Adad Guilherme, Susanna Parlato, Iole Sarno
DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A DEMOUNTABLE SHELL 265
Ornella Iuorio
TOPIC 2.B
270
DIGITO ERGO AEDIFICO. DIGITAL CHAINS FOR ADVANCED BUILDING PROCESSES 271
Roberto Ruggiero, Roberto Cognoli
NEW FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOURS FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILDING SKIN. MATERIAL BIOMETIC FEATURES FOR OUTER ENVELOPE 276
Francesca Giglio
ACTIVE ASSISTED LIVING. SOLUZIONI PERSONALIZZATE PER LE RESIDENZE DEGLI ANZIANI INDIPENDENTI 280
Tiziana Ferrante, Luigi Biocca, Teresa Villani
COMBINATORIAL DESIGN: DESIGNING COLLABORATIVE MODELS FOR CONSTRUCTION 285
Mollie Claypool, Gilles Retsin, Manuel Jimenez Garcia, Clara Jaschke, Kevin Saey
IMPARARE DA VAIA. IL CASO DELLA “TEMPESTA VAIA NELLE ALPI ORIENTALI COME OCCASIONE PER LA MESSA A PUNTO DI UNA STRATEGIA DI RECUPERO E VALORIZZAZIONE
DEL LEGNAME ABBATTUTO A CAUSA DI EVENTI CLIMATICI ESTREMI 291
Massimo Rossetti, Francesca Camerin
THE RECOVERY OF VALUABLE BUILDING MATERIALS, TOOLS AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 296
Carmine Ammirati, Paola De Joanna, Giuseppe Vaccaro
TOPIC 2.C
300
L’EVOLUZIONE DELL’APPROCCIO AL PROGETTO ESECUTIVO: UN’INSIEME COORDINATO DI MATRICI APERTE 301
Fabio Conato, Valentina Frighi
UNA “NUOVA ARCHEOLOGIAPER LA RICOSTRUZIONE DEI PAESAGGI COLPITI DAL SISMA 305
Federica Ottone, Davide Romanella
DESIGN WORKFLOWS E DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION: POSSIBILI SCENARI D'INNOVAZIONE PER LA PRODUZIONE DEL PROGETTO DI ARCHITETTURA 311
Sara Codarin, Roberto Di Giulio, Theo Zaagnini
THE PUBLIC HOUSING REDEVELOPMENT PROCESS TOWARDS A NEW (IM-) MATERIAL CULTURE 315
Marina Block, Monica Rossi-Schwarzenbeck
TECNOLOGIA E GENERAZIONE DI HABITAT INNOVATIVI/TECHNOLOGY AND GENERATION OF INNOVATIVE HABITAT 323
Fabrizio Tucci
TOPIC 3.A
328
GAMING URBANO PER LA RIGENERAZIONE 329
Luciana Mastrolonardo, Manuela Romano
IL PROGETTO COME VOLONTÀ E RAPPRESENTAZIONE: DAI BIG DATA ALL’APPRENDIMENTO COLLETTIVO 335
Alessandra Battisti
DESIGN DATA-DRIVEN AND KINETICS. A METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN 341
Attilio Nebuloni, Giorgio Vignati
ARCHITETTURA E BIOMIMESI: LA NATURA COME RISORSA PER IL PROGETTO 346
Martino Milardi, Mariateresa Mandaglio
SCENARI E TECNOLOGIE A BASSO COSTO PER LA RIGENERAZIONE AMBIENTALE DEGLI SPAZI TRA LE CASE 350
Paola Marrone, Federico Orsini, Alberto Raimondi
INVOLUCRO ADATTATIVO SPERIMENTALE PER AMBIENTI ABITATIVI 354
Nazzareno Viviani, Matteo Iommi, Giuseppe Losco
DALL’HABITAT RESPONSIVO ALL’HABITAT COMPORTAMENTALE 360
Andrea Tartaglia, Joseph di Pasquale, Giovanni Castaldo
INVOLUCRI CINETICI A MATRICE AMBIENTALE PER EDIFICI NZEB 364
Rosa Romano
PROVE DI METODO NEL PROGETTO DI UNA UNITÀ SEMOVENTE PER L'OSPITALITÀ TEMPORANEA 369
Gian Luca Brunetti
PROGETTARE PER IL CAMBIAMENTO: LO SPAZIO RESPONSIVO DELL’ABITARE 374
Valeria Melappioni
TOPIC 3.B
377
ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS FOR FLOOD DEFENCE 378
Francesca Muzzillo
TECNOLOGIE DIGITALI E NUOVO SPAZIO PUBBLICO: IL CASO DELLA LOGGIA 381
Mirko Romagnoli
INTERAZIONI UOMO-FAUNA NEGLI SPAZI URBANI. UN HABITAT INNOVATIVO PER PIAZZA ADRIATICO 385
Maria Canepa, Andrea Giachetta, Adriano Magliocco, Veronica Puppo
IL LATO “B”. DA UNITÀ TECNOLOGICA MARGINALE A MOTORE RIGENERATIVO SISTEMICO-RELAZIONALE 390
Paolo Piantanida, Antonio Vottari
APPLE DEVELOPER ACADEMY: COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN FOR THE DIGITAL GENESIS OF SMART ENVIRONMENTS 394
Luciano Ambrosini
TRANSFORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES AND REGENERATION PROCESSES. THEAPPLES À PROJETS URBAINS INNOVANTS” (APUI) MODEL IN FRANCE 399
Rossella Maspoli
HABITAT INFORMATI: TECNOLOGIE E METODI IN TRANSIZIONE VERSO I POSITIVE ENERGY DISTRICTS 404
Carola Clemente, Paolo Civiero, Marilisa Cellurale
BIG DATA ED EVOLUZIONE DEI MODELLI INFORMATIVI A SUPPORTO DELLA SOSTENIBILITÀ 408
Paola Salvatore
TECHNOLOGIES AND PROCESSES FOR NEW URBAN HABITATS. THE CASE OF THE CITY OF TORONTO 412
Mariangela Bellomo
LE HYBRID ZONE COME MODELLO DI MITIGAZIONE DELLE VULNERABILITÀ DEI SISTEMI INSEDIATIVI 417
Francesca Ciampa
THE SOUL OF THE SPACE 420
Peian Yao, Stefano Follesa
HABITAT MUTEVOLI E SOLUZIONI INNOVATIVE PER LA SCUOLA DEL FUTURO 424
Paola Gallo
TOPIC 3.C
429
TECNOLOGIE REVERSIBILI PER SISTEMI FLESSIBILI E CIRCOLARI 430
Tecla Caroli
TECNOLOGIE DIGITALI E PROGETTO DI HABITAT INNOVATIVI PER ANZIANI 433
Eugenio Arbizzani, Anna Mangiatordi
“THREE, TWO, ONE… LINK START”. PREFIGURARE UNIVERSI VIRTUALI ATTRAVERSO ARTEFATTI AUDIOVISIVI 440
Vincenzo Maselli
DIGITALIZZAZIONE E “SOCIALIZZAZIONE INFORMALENEL PROGETTO DELL’HOUSING UNIVERSITARIO 444
Oscar Eugenio Bellini, Martino Mocchi, Marianna Arcieri
LE REGOLE DELL’EVOLUZIONE 450
Claudia Chirianni
STRATEGIE DI INTERACTIVE-ADAPTIVE-SURFACES PER L’HABITAT URBANO 454
Cristiana Cellucci
208
Fig. 1
TOWARDS A NEW MATERIAL CULTURE
BIO-INSPIRED DESIGN, PARAMETRIC MODELING, MATERIAL DESIGN, DIGITAL MANUFACTURE
Barbara Pollini1, Lucia Pietroni2, Jacopo Mascitti3, Davide Paciotti4
Abstract
Digital technologies represent, for the world of design and material culture, unprecedented opportunities for expression and innovation. The
integration of a bio-inspired design approach for the development of new materials, based on generative modelling and additive manufacturing,
represents a promising challenge for the design culture. The paper intends to outline the potential and benets of this integrated design approach,
as a “virtuous circle” for the design and production of innovative and sustainable artefacts, through the description of an experimental design
case study.
Keywords: Bio-inspired Design, Parametric Design, Additive Manufacturing, Designed materials, Digital Fabrication, Environmental Sustain-
ability
1 PhD student in Design, Politecnico di Milano, Design Department, barbara.pollini@polimi.it
2 Full Professor in Industrial Design, School of Architecture and Design, University of Camerino, lucia.pietroni@unicam.it
3 Researcher in Industrial Design, School of Architecture and Design, University of Camerino, jacopo.mascitti@unicam.it
4 Postdoctoral fellow in Industrial Design, School of Architecture and Design, University of Camerino, davide.paciotti@unicam.it
209
A new way of conceiving, designing and producing sustain-
able artifacts in the digital age
Digital technologies, in their most recent development, are
modifying and redening the traditional criteria of design and
production in our articial world, transforming our material cul-
ture too. If we think about the new softwares supporting design-
ers, such as those regarding parametric and generative modeling,
or the new digital manufacturing and rapid prototyping technol-
ogies (e.g. additive manufacturing), we realize how progressive-
ly and denitively the traditional and distinct concepts of “de-
signing” and “producing”, consolidated in the modern culture of
design, are being transformed. The distinction between the con-
cept and the production phase of an artifact is now questioned
by the use of digital technologies, which today can support a
uid, continuous and iterative process between the concept and
the physical creation of a new product. Another important par-
adigm shift comes from science which, in its recent ability to
observe nature and physical phenomena at the nanoscale, allow
us to identify, understand and replicate ecient and sustainable
processes, behaviors and performances, hitherto unknown. The
result is a new bio-inspired approach in the design of materials
and artifacts, not just imitating forms and structures, but apply-
ing functional mechanisms and systemic relationships from na-
ture, as it happens in “biomimesis”, a design methodology able
to foster radically sustainable solutions to human problems (Pi-
etroni, 2011). The integration of a bio-inspired design approach,
together with the development of designed materials coupling
bioinspired features with digital technologies, represent a prom-
ising challenge for the design culture, above all in a perspective
of environmental sustainability. Therefore, the document intends
to outline the potential of the benets, in terms of innovation and
reduction of environmental impacts, of this integrated approach
between bio-inspired design, parametric modelling and additive
manufacturing. This “virtuous circle”, and its promising devel-
opment possibilities for the design of products and materials,
will be exemplied through the description of an experimental
design case study: SPIRO.
Spiro: a case study of virtuous integration between bio-in-
spiration, parametric modeling and digital manufacturing
Spiro is a concept design for a device aimed at the detection
and mitigation of indoor pollution, originally developed experi-
mentally within a nal thesis of the Master’s degree program in
Computational Design oered by the School of Architecture and
Design, University of Camerino1. Spiro is equipped with special
sensors and a bio-inspired ltering system. The lter is designed
with software using parametric modelling and produced through
additive manufacturing (Fig. 1).
The project aims to innovate photocatalytic lters: a specif-
ic typology of air lters, particularly interesting if compared to
other lter systems (e.g. HEPA lters) for their durability, ef-
ciency and consequent environmental advantage (Zhong and
Haghighat, 2015; Ren et al. , 2017). Photocatalytic materials
use titanium dioxide to trigger a chemical process activated by
light called photocatalysis, which can deteriorate polluting and
particulate in the air, making them harmless. In addition to a
depolluting action, these lters are also antibacterial and can be
regenerated simply by washing them, therefore avoiding being
a continuous waste, as it happens instead for mechanical lters,
1 Pollini, B., Spiro, dispositivo bioispirato per il rilevamento e la mitigazione dell’inquinamento indoor, Master’s Degree Thesis in Computational Design,
School of Architecture and Design, University of Camerino. Supervisor: Prof. L. Pietroni.
2 Patent WO2007088151A1. Retrieved February 2020, from. https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2007088151A1/en)
which, once clogged, become loaded with harmful substances -
and therefore hardly recyclable.
In the form of powder, titanium dioxide can be added to
other materials such as cement, glass or ceramic, making them
antibacterial, anti-pollution, self-cleaning and anti-odour. The
addition of the powder enables these materials to purify the air
that comes in contact with their surface, thanks to a photoca-
talysis process. The collaboration with an Italian manufacturer
of photocatalytic ceramic2 was precious for the initial concept
of the lter’s material employed in the device; its depolluting
and antibacterial qualities have been the starting point to further
enhance its eciency through the design of bio-inspired shapes
that could improve two fundamental parameters: the amount of
surface in contact with air and the surface’s exposure to light.
The study of sea sponges (one of the most ecient ltering
bodies in the world) was the starting point to optimize the poros-
ity of the lter, a fundamental parameter for the ecient passage
of air through it, aimed to increase the contact area between the
air and the lter’s surface. One of the characteristics that most
distinguishes the Porifera (or sponges) lays in the porous struc-
ture of their body, functional for the capture and digestion of
food, that it intercepts through the ltering of large quantities
of water. The liquid inltrates the pores of the external surface
(inhalation of the pores or ostioles), passes into the porous layer
where the suspended organic matter is captured and nally exits
through the pores of the internal wall. To summarize we can say
that sponges are formed by a composite material: extremely l-
tering inside, uniform and leathery externally to protect itself. A
similar structure has been implemented in the Spiro device lter.
The second feature to be enhanced was the refraction of light
on the material. The internal morphology of the eye of long-bod-
ied decapod crustaceans (e.g. shrimps, prawns and lobsters) can
focus the light reected on the retina using a geometric cong-
uration divided into square tubes on a spherical surface. This
structure, with a peculiar and extremely ecient design, has the
function of increasing the light refraction inside the eye (Land,
1978; Chown, 1996), (Fig. 2).
The imitation of a structure similar to the one described
above, hybridized with the previous one inspired by sponges and
enhanced by a LED light source, has allowed the creation of a
new structural system capable of increasing the eciency of the
material added with titanium dioxide.
The bio-inspired preliminary study identied organic and
Fig. 2
210
complex shapes and structures as necessary, dicult if not im-
possible to create in ceramic with the constraints of traditional
production methods. For the rst development of the shape, a
nodal modelling software was used to start a series of design hy-
potheses. The goal was to improve the performance of the photo-
catalytic material and increase the environmental sustainability
of the product, through the design of a new shape capable of en-
hancing the parameters of the material identied in the research
phase. The parametric modelling has proved to be a fundamental
tool for the creation and experimentation of complex morpholo-
gies, such as the hypothesized one.
The idea of Spiro’s photocatalytic lter was conceived fol-
lowing two dierent approaches which structured the design
methodology: one bottom-up and one top-down. Aiming to rep-
licate the sponge structure, in the rst approach the parameters
were established to obtain the desired porosity and the maximum
exposure of the surface to air. While in the second approach the
designer searched the correct parameters to replicate the particu-
lar structure of the eye of the decapod crustaceans.
In both cases, it was dicult to guess in advance the mor-
phology resulting from the modelling process, which became it-
self an experimental activity to try out multiple structures, tested
based on the required parameters of thickness, porosity, partition
and scalability of the surfaces (Fig. 3).
The design process included several models tested in a virtu-
al simulation; since parametric modelling facilitates and speeds
up the process of checking dierent iterations (always leaving
the possibility of changing several open variables), the models
presented here are to be considered as the most interesting and
mature from a design point of view.
Finally, additive manufacturing has proved to be a produc-
tion technology able to create complex bio-inspired structures,
needed both for prototyping the study samples and realizing the
nal product (Fig. 4).
Bio-inspiration for the development of a new sustainable
material culture
Bio-inspiration, in a design research process, starts with the
3 Oxman, N. (2016). Age of Entanglement. Journal of Design and Science. https://doi.org/10.21428/7e0583ad
4 n-e-r-v-o-u-s Studio. Retrieved February 2020, from. https://n-e-r-v-o-u-s.com/
study of nature, looking for solutions in the development of en-
vironmentally sustainable products. This process can take place
from the macro to the nanometric scale, and can be aimed at the
imitation of forms, structures and behaviors (of living beings as
of matter), often invisible to the naked eye and not necessarily
representative of our daily experience and/or perception of the
world.
Digital technologies boosted the material design, strength-
ening it with new peculiar performances (Migliore et al., 2015)
which, once observed in nature, are then transferable into the
project, thanks to the computational design and additive manu-
facturing. Structure, function, material and behavior can now be
assimilated into a single design, closely related to what nature
has experienced and developed over billions of years.
The greatest contribution of biomimicry is, in fact, in the
development of new materials with particular features, avail-
able today in the project culture (Gallagher et al., 2014). Abili-
ties like sensing, regulating, interacting, growing and repairing,
transferred from biological systems to the development of new
articial materials and structures, can give rise to exceptional
performances, able to amplify those already available - as it hap-
pened in the case of Spiro.
To achieve this goal it’s necessary to go beyond the usual
design boundaries and hybridize the consolidated disciplinary
domains. This approach is the basis of the well-known “Krebs
Cycle of Creativity” diagram, conceived by Neri Oxam in 20163
to describe the methodology of the Mediated Matter research
group she coordinates. This vision can be summarized in the
concept of “Material Ecology” (Oxam, 2010), whose goal is to
integrate environmental awareness with the potentiality oered
by Computational Design and manufacturing, in the develop-
ment of new materials; hybridizing new design practices, tech-
nologies and scientic disciplines.
A similar methodology is adopted also by the duo Rosen-
krantz and Louis-Rosenberg, founder of n-e-r-v-o-u-s Studio4.
Their projects suggest possible evolutionary scenarios for a de-
sign guided by nature in which the combination between para-
metric modelling algorithms and additive manufacturing can
lead to experimentations that see in the material a variable pa-
rameter, shapable and congurable according to the goals set
over time.
Similarly, the design of Spiro rises from the will to investi-
gate the potentiality derived from the use of new digital technol-
Fig. 04
Fig. 3
211
ogies integrated with a bio-inspired approach to product design,
intervening also on the structure of the material, underlying once
again the substantial dierence between a biomorphic and a
bio-inspired approach in the development of the industrial prod-
ucts (Mascitti and Pietroni, 2019). This dierence is also evident
in the goals of the two approaches: a natural aesthetic for the
rst; production without waste and ecient use of the material
for the second.
Generative processes and additive manufacturing for
projects with a high degree of complexity
The transition from the imitation of the natural form to the
imitation of its constitutive logic, appears today as one of the
emerging key aspects in the relationship between generative de-
sign and additive manufacturing. Computational geometry and
additive production technology induce a change in the design
and production methodologies. While complex products are
made up of assembled parts, the production by stratication al-
lows creating objects characterized by extreme formal complex-
ity.
Spiro represents an experimental path of application of gen-
erative design principles to the manufacture of new products
through additive manufacturing processes. In the design and
prototyping of Spiro’s lter, the ability to design material sys-
tems, thanks to these digital technologies, enhanced the original
features in technical and environmental performances; also the
derived organic aesthetics is the result of the selected parameters
during the modelling phase. Thickness, porosity, cell structure,
weight, surface expansion, texture, etc. are some of the parame-
ters that can be adapted leading innovation in the design of sur-
faces, structures and materials.
There are other examples of projects born from the integra-
tion of digital technologies for modelling and producing, one
of these is Cool Brick (Emerging Objects studio, 2015), which
combines traditional material and new digital technologies in the
design of a brick, developed from a 3D printed lattice, that pro-
duce evaporative cooling when the air passes through it while
being wet.
By comparing the data emerged from research conducted
with similar design approaches, it emerges how - in order to
enhance the product’s performance - the designer can modify
and customize a pre-existing morphology using specic and ad-
vanced technological tools.
It may be argued that digital tools and additive manufactur-
ing have reached a degree of maturity, whereby the ability to
manipulate data, build algorithms and relations between com-
plex components by the designer can dene the nal quality of a
project. Not only the formal data, managed within a virtual mod-
el, but also the ones used to integrate the environmental condi-
tions and the interactions with the user, can be translated into
a nished product. These technologies, coupled with a bio-in-
spired approach, can support the development of new types of
products characterized by highly performing shapes and func-
tions adapting to dierent contexts. The product is generated,
emerging from a controlled process, and no longer assembled
(Murakami, 2000). The starting point is no longer formal, but
logical-mathematical; the data, set by the designer and processed
by the software, generate a huge number of possible results, all
optimized following the given parameters.
The computational approach gains a leading role in this con-
text, guiding the process of formal ideation as much as that of
material realization (Romero, 2014). At the same time, the cod-
ication of mathematical rules and evolutionary design strate-
gies, which allow emulating complex systems in nature, enables
the designer to simulate and iterate processes hitherto not for-
mally explicit and therefore reproducible.
The integration of disciplinary domains in the design pro-
cess
Spiro is among those case studies that have drawn their
strength from multidisciplinarity; in fact, the team was made up
of dierent professionals from the elds of eco-design, biomi-
mesis, additive manufacturing and engineering, supporting the
following steps:
- a bio-inspired approach as a methodology to achieve de-
sign innovation;
- generative parametric modelling to increase the perfor-
mances oered by the starting photocatalytic material, in-
novating the nal product;
- additive 3D printing technology as the only production
process for complex elaborate structures;
- the device engineering.
These fundamental steps were further integrated: from the
encounter between bio-inspiration and parametric software, the
opportunity arises to identify and test virtual parameters and
complex structures; from the collaboration between parametric
modelling and additive manufacturing it is possible to quickly
test the complex designed structures and, nally, to dene the
key elements of a basic structure for a customizable and scalable
production. This integration is not characterized by a linear but
iterative process, which allows rening the industrial product
through continuous checks and variations, thanks to the ability
to parameterize and manage several unprecedented performanc-
es at the same time (Fig. 5).
The methodology adopted for the design of Spiro and, in par-
ticular, of its photocatalytic lter, was divided into four phases.
The rst was about the study and analysis of the starting pho-
tocatalytic ceramic material, to identify the parameters that in-
uence its eciency in terms of air purication capacity. The
second phase aimed at nding solutions in the natural world to
enhance previously identied technical parameters. The third
phase was dedicated to the development, generation and mod-
elling of the complex structures that emerged from the identi-
Fig. 5
212
ed technical parameters, to optimize porosity and maximum
surface area exposed to light. In the last phase, some functional
samples were 3D-printed for a rst evaluation of the dierent
shapes, and nally, also the complete product was produced
thanks to additive manufacturing. The phases here described can
be understood as the rst attempt of a structured methodology,
to be further developed in support of a bio-inspired approach
aimed at enhancing, in terms of eciency and performances,
materials and objects. This approach has allowed not only to
overcome the limits of traditional ceramic production but also
to enhance the already promising performances of the starting
material, thanks to the development of a new one: as a result
of the integration of structure, shape and material it’s possible
to achieve what can be described as a “designed performance”.
Although Spiro is represented by an object dened in its formal,
aesthetic and performance characteristics, the logic that led to
the design of the device lter is actually a system, composed of
basic rules applicable to various parameters; this means that the
project itself can be scaled and modied, giving rise not to a stat-
ic and immutable object, but to a family of objects that can vary
in typology, aesthetics and performances. Spiro, intended as a
design system, responds to needs such as modularity, scalabili-
ty, aesthetic and functional customization, which can positively
inuence the sustainability of the object and the maintenance of
its value over time.
Through the experimental development of the Spiro system,
it has been possible to focus on a design methodology that sup-
ports the creation of bio-inspired products, by their nature com-
plex but extremely performing, both from a technical and en-
vironmental point of view. This integrated approach represents
a new way of conceiving, designing and producing materials,
products and systems, from which a newly designed materiality
arises, capable of increasing the eciency and environmental
performance of the artefacts.
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Fig. 1 - 3D printed model of the Spiro project
Fig. 2 - Poriferans and crustacean eye saw under the microscope
Fig. 3 - Generative variations of the structure samples
Fig. 4 - 3D printed prototypes of the structure samples
Fig. 5 - Methodological diagram of disciplinary domains
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Demosponges possess a leucon-type canal system which is characterized by a highly complex network of canal segments and choanocyte chambers. As sponges are sessile filter feeders, their aquiferous system plays an essential role in various fundamental physiological processes. Due to the morphological and architectural complexity of the canal system and the strong interdependence between flow conditions and anatomy, our understanding of fluid dynamics throughout leuconoid systems is patchy. This paper provides comprehensive morphometric data on the general architecture of the canal system, flow measurements and detailed cellular anatomical information to help fill in the gaps. We focus on the functional cellular anatomy of the aquiferous system and discuss all relevant cell types in the context of hydrodynamic and evolutionary constraints. Our analysis is based on the canal system of the tropical demosponge Tethya wilhelma , which we studied using scanning electron microscopy. We found
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The paper unfolds the association between geometry and material behaviour, specifically the elastic properties of resin impregnated latex membranes, by means of homogenizing protocols which translate physical properties into geometrical functions. Resinimpregnation patterns are applied to 2D pre-stretched form-active tension systems to induce 3D curvature upon release. This method enables form-finding based on material properties, organization and behaviour. A digital tool developed in the Processing environment demonstrates the simulation of material behaviour and its prediction under specific environmental conditions. Finally, conclusions are drawn from the physical and digital explorations which redefine generative material-based design computation, supporting a synergetic approach to design integrating form, material and environment.
Can 3D printing unlock bioinspiration's full potential?
  • C L Gallagher
  • L Reaser
  • P Crane
  • R A Ataide
  • D Mauerman
  • M Undesser
  • D Nunez
  • A Kushner
Gallagher, C. L., Reaser, L., Crane, P., Ataide, R.A., Mauerman, D., Undesser , M., Nunez, D. & Kushner, A. (2014), Can 3D printing unlock bioinspiration's full potential?, Fermanian Business & Economic Institute, San Diego.
Oltre il biomorfismo: l'approccio bioispirato
  • J Mascitti
  • L Pietroni
Mascitti, J., and Pietroni, L. (2019), "Oltre il biomorfismo: l'approccio bioispirato", in "Op. cit.", n. 165, Electa Napoli, ISSN 0030-3305, pp. 51-65.
La nuova materialità "biologicamente digitale
  • E Migliore
  • I Caruso
  • A Giambattista
Migliore, E., Caruso, I. & Giambattista A. (2015), "Digital materials. La nuova materialità "biologicamente digitale". Retrieved February 2020, available at: https://digicult.it/it/news/digital-materials-a-new-biologically-digital-materiality Murakami, T. (2000), Superflat, MADRA Publishing.
Uno (nessuno) centomila prototipi in movimento, Politecnica, Maggioli Editori
  • M E Romero
Romero, M.E. (2014), Physical Computing. Strumento progettuale per i designer di oggi, in Casale, A. and Rossi, M. (ed.) Uno (nessuno) centomila prototipi in movimento, Politecnica, Maggioli Editori, pp. 125-136.