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Inspiration from Nature's body armours – A review of biological and bioinspired composites

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Abstract and Figures

Designing and manufacturing multi-functional, lightweight and high-performance body armour materials and assemblies have attracted intense attention recently due to fast-growing military applications. There is an urgent need to reduce the weight and increase the flexibility of body armours without compromising their ballistic protection capability. Natural/biological armour materials and assemblies offer remarkable properties that can inspire the design of lightweight, flexible and tough body armours. In this paper, a systematic review is conducted to identify the structural-mechanical characteristics of selected biological armour systems such as nacre from mollusc shells, conch shells and fish scaled skin. Other biological structures with the potential for ballistic protection have also been investigated, including crustacean exoskeletons and compact bone, which possess structures with important features and properties that may inspire the development of future soldier armours. The techniques and methodologies available for the analysis, fabrication and experimental investigations of bio-inspired armour composites and systems are also reviewed in detail. The investigations that have been found to be most relevant to the development of bio-inspired armour systems for dynamic impact resistance have also been discussed. This discussion can inspire the design of lighter and flexible bio-inspired armour systems that are more efficient in resisting ballistic attacks.
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
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5Defense Science and Technology Group, Australia
6Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia
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1. Introduction
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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2. Structural characterisations and experimental/modelling
investigations for determining the mechanical properties/failure
mechanisms of selected biological armour systems
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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2.1. Structural characterisations and experimental investigations for
determining the mechanical properties/failure mechanisms of biological
structures
2.1.1. Marine protective structures
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G;8<E 89986G<I8 4E@BHE FLFG8@F <A 4::E8FF<I8 8AI<EBA@8AGF J;<6; B9
98E C8E9BE4G<BA E8F<FG4A68 T8K<5<?<GL 9BE @B5<?<GL 4A7 74@4:8 @<G<:4G
<A: @86;4A<F@F GB CE8I8AG 64G4FGEBC;<6 94<?HE8 +;8 >8L FGEH6GHE4? 984
GHE8F 4A7 9HA6G<BAF <A G;8 6BAG8KG B9 54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA 4E8 E8I<8J87
4A7 FH@@4E<F87 ;8E849G8E 4A7 G45H?4G87 <A +45?8 
Nacre from mollusc shells. $B??HF6F ;4I8 4 CEBG86G<I8 F;8?? <:
4 G;4G <F ;<:;?L E8F<FG4AG GB C8E9BE4G<BA 4A7 @<G<:4G8F 64G4FGEBC;<6 94<?
HE8 G;EBH:; 4 GBH:; A46E8BHF 546><A: ?4L8E 23 +;<F 4E@BHE FLF
G8@ G;8E85L ;4F F<:A<9<64AG CBG8AG<4? GB E8F<FG C8A8GE4G<BA 4A7 CEBI<78
54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA $4AL E8I<8JF ;4I8 588A 6BA7H6G87 BA A46E8 J;<6;
<78AG<S87 <G 4F 4 6EHF;<A: E8F<FG4AG FGEH6GHE8 23 4 @H?G<?4L8E87 FGEH6
GHE8 23 4 5<BCB?L@8E <AG8E946<4? 4A7 F;8?? @4G8E<4? 23 4 FGEH6GHE4?
4A7 9HA6G<BA4? 5<B?B:<64? @4G8E<4? 23 4A7 4 68E4@<6 4A7 CB?L@8E<6
@4G8E<4? 23 GB A4@8 4 98J +;8 >8L FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F B9 G;8 ;<8E4E
6;<64? FGEH6GHE8 B9 @B??HF6 F;8?? ;4I8 588A <78AG<S87 BI8E F8I8E4? ?8A:G;
F64?8F 23 9EB@ AH@8EBHF 6;4E46G8E<F4G<BA G86;A<DH8F <A6?H7<A:
F64AA<A: 8?86GEBA @<6EBF6BCL *$ GE4AF@<FF<BA 8?86GEBA @<6EBF6BCL
+$ 4GB@<6 9BE68 @<6EBF6BCL $ 4A7 BHE<8E GE4AF9BE@ <A9E4E87
FC86GEBF6BCL + ) +;8 FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F G;4G 4E8 @BFG E8?8I4AG <A G;8
6BAG8KG B9 54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA 4CC?<64G<BAF 4A7 G;8<E 9HA6G<BAF 4E8 FH@
@4E<F87 ;8E849G8E
G G;8 @46EB F64?8 G;8 CEBG86G<I8 F;8?? B9 @B??HF6F 6BAF<FGF B9 GJB
6B@CBA8AGF G;4G 9BE@ 4A 4E@BHE FLFG8@ J;<6; <F 6B@CBF87 B9 4 ;4E7
5E<GG?8 FGE<>8 9468 9BE E8F<FG<A: ?B64?<F87 C8E9BE4G<BA 7H8 GB CE874GBE
5<G8F 4A7 4 GBH:; 546><A: ?4L8E A46E8 9BE @<G<:4G<A: 74@4:8 <:
5 23 G G;8 @8FB F64?8  G;<6> :EBJG; 54A7F F8C4E4G8
G;<6> ?4L8EF B9 A46E8 4A7 G;8F8 4E8 58?<8I87 GB 4EE8FG 74@4:8
5L 78T86G<A: 6E46>F 23 G G;8 @<6EB F64?8 G;8 ;84EG B9 A46E8F CEB
G86G<I8 FGEH6GHE8 ;4F 588A B5F8EI87 J;8E85L G;<6> CB?L:BA4?
Table 1
*H@@4EL B9 'E8I<BHFHEE8AG JBE> BA G;8 F<@H?4G<BA 945E<64G<BA 4A7 G8FG<A: B9 5<B<A
FC<E87 4E@BHE FLFG8@F
<B<AFC<E874E@BHE
FLFG8@F
$B78??<A:945E<64G<BA
G86;A<DH84A7?B47<A:
6BA7<G<BA
*GEH6GHE8
4A7
984GHE8F
'EB@<A8AG
58A8SGF
%46E8<AFC<E87
6B@CBF<G8@4G8E<4?F
'4A8?5BEBA64E5<78
G45?8GFJ<G;
CB?LHE84@4GE<K
54??<FG<6FSA<G88?8@8AG
F<@H?4G<BA @
FABE@4?4A7
B5?<DH8<@C46G9EB@4
FB?<7E<:;G6<E6H?4E
6L?<A7E<64?CEB=86G<?8
23
+45?8G
FHE9468
CEBS?<A:
7BI8G4<?
G45?8G
FHE9468
EBH:;A8FF
@<A8E4?
5E<7:8F
*HC8E<BE
C8A8GE4G<BA
E8F<FG4A68
<8
F<:A<S64AG
E87H6G<BA<A
E8F<7H4?
I8?B6<GL
6B@C4E87GB
@BAB?<G;<6
C?4G8 -F
 @F
8E4@<6CB?L@8E
CB?LHE84@4GE<K
6B@CBF<G85B7L4E@BHE
F<@H?4G<BA @F
<@C46G9EB@4E4:@8AG
*<@H?4G<A:'EB=86G<?8
*'J<G;47<4@8G8E
4A7;8<:;GB9 @@
23
F45BI8 *HC8E<BE
C8A8GE4G<BA
E8F<FG4A68
6B@C4E87GB
@BAB?<G;<6
C4A8? -F
 @F
E8F<7H4?
I8?B6<GL
E@BHE:E478
4?H@<A<H@I<AL?8FG8E
6B@CBF<G84E@BHE
C4A8?5?4FG
F<@H?4G<BA23
%46E8?<>8
-BEBAB<
:8B@8GEL
@H?G<?4L8E
FG4::8E87
FGEH6GHE8
*HC8E<BE
8A8E:L
7<FF<C4G<BA
64C46<GL
6B@C4E87GB
8DH<I4?8AG
@BAB?<G;<6
C4A8?
:?4FFI<AL?8FG8E
6B@CBF<G84E@BHE
C4A8?HA78EJ4G8E5?4FG
TH<7FGEH6GHE8
<AG8E46G<BA
F<@H?4G<BA23
%46E8?<>8
J4IL
G45?8GFJ<G;
6B;8F<I8
5BA7F
*<@<?4E546>
9468
7<FC?468@8AG
4A7I8?B6<GL
B9G;85<B
<AFC<E87
C4A8?
6B@C4E87GB
G;8
@BAB?<G;<6
C4A8?5HG
G;874@4:8
J4FFCE847
BI8E4?4E:8E
4E84
E@BHE:E478
4?H@<A<H@8CBKL
6B@CBF<G84E@BHE
C4A8?6?BF8E4A:85?4FG
F<@H?4G<BA23
%46E8?<>8
J4IL
<AG8E9468
@H?G<?4L8E
FGEH6GHE8

786E84F8<A
546>9468
I8?B6<GL4A7
AB74@4:8
4GG;8546>
9468
6B@C4E87GB
8DH<I4?8AG
@BAB?<G;<6
C4A8?
E@BHE:E478
4?H@<A<H@8CBKL
6B@CBF<G84E@BHE
C4A8?54??<FG<6
F<@H?4G<BA @F
<@C46G9EB@4E<:<7
;8@<FC;8E<64?
CEB=86G<?823
%46E8?<>8
J4IL
<AG8E9468
FG4::8E87
@H?G<?4L8E
FGEH6GHE8

E87H6G<BA<A
E8F<7H4?
I8?B6<GL4A7
<A6E84F8
<A54??<FG<6
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6B@C4E87GB
8DH<I4?8AG
5H?>C?4G8
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
<B<AFC<E874E@BHE
FLFG8@F
$B78??<A:945E<64G<BA
G86;A<DH84A7?B47<A:
6BA7<G<BA
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4A7
984GHE8F
'EB@<A8AG
58A8SGF
BEBA64E5<78
8K'?LA84G
E8F<A8CBKL
6B@CBF<G84E@BHE
C4A8?54??<FG<6
F<@H?4G<BA @F
<@C46G9EB@4 @@
E<:<75H??8G23
%46E8?<>8
J4IL
G45?8GFJ<G;
6B;8F<I8
5BA7F
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I8?B6<G<8F9BE
G;8T4G4A7
J4ILC4A8?F
4E8 @F
4A7 @F
E8FC86G<I8?L
6B@C4E87GB
4@BAB?<G;<6
C4A8?
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6B@CBF<G8@4G8E<4?F
4E7FB9GC;4F8
6B@CBF<G84E@BHE
C4A8?7EBCGBJ8E?BJ
I8?B6<GL<@C46G @F
8KC8E<@8AG4A7
F<@H?4G<BA'B?L!8G
CE<AG<A:HF879BEF4@C?8
945E<64G<BA23
BA6;?<>8
6EBFF
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6B@C4E87GB
4@BAB?<G;<6
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6B@CBF<G8@4G8E<4?F
*F64?8?<>8CEBGBGLC8
8@587787<AF<?<6BA8
EH558E5?HAG4A7
C8A8GE4G<BA<A78AG4G<BA
@<6EB@86;4A<64?
4A4?LF<FHF<A:
F<@H?4G<BAF4A7
8KC8E<@8AGCE<AG<A:
HF879BEF4@C?8
945E<64G<BA23
<F;F64?8
BI8E?4CC<A:
FGEH6GHE8
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HF87GB
E8CE8F8AG
G;8FB9G
HA78E?L<A:
G<FFH8F
89BE@4G<BA
@86;4A<F@F
B9F64?8
58A7<A:
F64?8
EBG4G<BA
G<FFH8F;84E
4A7G<FFH8
6BAFGE4<AG
:BI8EAG;8
64C45<?<GLB9
G;8
6B@CBF<G8GB
CEBG86GG;8
HA78E?L<A:
FH5FGE4G8
8K4:BA4?:?4FFC?4G8
BAFB9GFH5FGE4G8F;4EC
5?HAGA887?8CHA6GHE8
8KC8E<@8AG4A7
4A4?LG<64?6BAG46G
@B78??4F8E8A:E4I8E
HF87GB6HGC?4G823
<F;F64?8
?<>8
<A7<I<7H4?
:?4FFC?4G8F
BA4FB9G
FH5FGE4G8
#B64G<BAB9
CB<AG9BE68
BAG;8C?4G8
9E<6G<BA4G
G;8C?4G8
FHE9468F<M8
B9G;8C?4G8
4A7FG<VA8FF
B9G;8
FH5FGE4G8
8A;4A68F
CHA6GHE8
E8F<FG4A685L
CEB7H6<A:4
6B@5<A4G<BA
B9FHE9468
;4E7A8FF
FG45<?<GL4A7
T8KHE4?
6B@C?<4A68
<B<AFC<E874E@BHE
FLFG8@F
$B78??<A:945E<64G<BA
G86;A<DH84A7?B47<A:
6BA7<G<BA
*GEH6GHE8
4A7
984GHE8F
'EB@<A8AG
58A8SGF
*8:@8AG87:?4FFC?4G8
BA4FB9GFH5FGE4G8
F;4ECA887?8CHA6GHE8
8KC8E<@8AG4A7SA<G8
8?8@8AG@B78??4F8E
8A:E4I87:?4FF23
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?<>8
F8:@8AG87
C?4G8BA4
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FH5FGE4G8
'HA6GHE8
E8F<FG4A68B9
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;<:;8EG;4A
@BAB?<G;<6
:?4FF7H8GB
E87H687FC4A
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F8:@8AGF
FB9GA8FFB9
G;8FH5FGE4G8
4A7CHA6GHE8
?B64G<BA<8
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J4FE87H687
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6B@C4E87GB
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G;8F4@8
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C8E9BE@4A68
EHFG4684A
8KBF>8?8GBA<AFC<E87
6B@CBF<G8@4G8E<4?F
4E5BAS5E88CBKL
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74@4:8
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6B@C4E87GB
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6BAS:HE4G<BA
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CE8CE8:<:;8A8E:L
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C4A8?
F;BJ87<A
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74@4:8J<G;
4?BJ8E
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
<B<AFC<E874E@BHE
FLFG8@F
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6BA7<G<BA
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7<4@8G8E:4F:HA
CEB=86G<?8CHE6;4F87
4A74FF8@5?878K<FG<A:
9B4@C?4G8F23
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6B@C46G
5BA8
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78AF<GL
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9B4@
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CEB=86G<?8
C8A8GE4G<BA
9EB@
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78AF<GLGB
5BA8
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Table 2
<8E4E6;<64? FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F B9 A46E8 6BA6; 4A7 SF; F64?8F
*64?8 %46E8 BA6; <F;F64?8
$46EB 'EBG86G<I8FLFG8@
8E4@<6FGE<>89468
A46E8546><A:
EBFF?4@8??4E
@46EB?4L8EF
<AG8E<BE@<77?8
4A78KG8E<BE
*64?8 @@G;<6>
8@587787F86G<BA @@
G;<6>8KCBF87F86G<BA
 6@<A?8A:G; 6@<A
J<7G;4I8E4:8BI8E?4C
58GJ88A?4L8EF4E84?
9E46G<BAB9
BAL?4L8E8KCBF87
F86G<BA @@G;<6><A
FB@8FC86<8F G;<6>
4AB<A88A4@8??4L8E
@587787?4L8E @@
G;<6>
$8FB &I8E4??G;<6>A8FF
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54A7F G;<6>
$<6EB +45?8GFIB?B9
A46E8CB?L:BA4?
F;4C8 G;<6>
?8A:G;BI8E?4C
4CCEBK
BA8G;<E7B9G45?8G
4E84
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?4@8??48C?4G8F
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J<78
G;<6>
*86BA7BE78E
?4@8??48584@F
G;<6>
J<78
F8I8E4?@<6EBAF
<A?8A:G;
BE<8AG4G<BA
#4@8??48 μ@G;<6>
6EBFFC?LC?LJBB7?<>8
FGEH6GHE8J<G;4
BE<8AG4G<BAGJ<FG87
C?LJBB7<F4?FBCBFF<5?8
I4EL<A:4G 58GJ88A
?4L8EF
B??4:8AS5E85HA7?8F
μ@7<4@8G8E
%4AB $<A8E4?5E<7:8F
7<4@8G8E
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%4AB4FC8E<G<8F
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FC46<A:
+45?8GJ4I<A8FF
4@C?<GH78
J4I8?8A:G;
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IB?B9A46E8
G;<6>
#<:4@8AGF58GJ88A
G45?8GF
HAFGE8G6;87?8A:G;
 FGE8G6;87
?8A:G;
+;<E7BE78E
?4@8??48C?4A>F
J<78
G;<6>
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BHEG;BE78E
C4EG<6?8FA4AB
GJ<AA87
4E4:BA<G8
C?4G8?8GF
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&E:4A<6@4GE<K
JG
B??4:8AS5E<?F A@
7<4@8G8E
$<A8E4?C;4F8C?4G8?8GF
 A@G;<6>A8FF4A7
 A@7<4@8G8E
4E4:BA<G8 G45?8GF  <A ?8A:G; 4E8 FG46>87 4A7 FG4::8E87 <AGB 4
@H?G<?4L8E 5E<6> 4A7 @BEG4E FGEH6GHE8 <: 6 J<G; 4A BI8E?4C ?8A:G;
B9  BE 4CCEBK<@4G8?L BA8G;<E7 B9 G;8 G45?8G FHE9468 4E84
23 +;8F8 G45?8GF 6BAFG<GHG8  B9 A46E8F IB?H@8 23
+;8 FG4::8E87 FGEH6GHE8 @<G<:4G8F 74@4:8 G;EBH:; 6E46> 5E<7:<A: 89
986GF
G G;8 A4AB F64?8 F8I8E4? 984GHE8F ;4I8 588A B5F8EI87 HF<A: <@4:<A:
G86;A<DH8F <A6?H7<A: GE4AF@<FF<BA 8?86GEBA @<6EBF6BCL +$ 4GB@<6
9BE68 @<6EBF6BCL $ 4A7 BHE<8E GE4AF9BE@ <A9E4E87 FC86GEBF6BCL
+ ) 23 +;8 G45?8GF 4E8 -BEBAB<?<>8 CB?L:BAF <: 7 J<G;
J4IL FHE9468F  A@ 4@C?<GH78 4A7 J4I8?8A:G; 23
+;8 B5?<DH8 87:8F B9 G;8 G45?8GF 78T86G <AC?4A8 6E46>F 4A7 G;8 BI8E
?4C ?8A:G;4E84 58GJ88A 47=468AG ?4L8EF 946<?<G4G8F 6E46> 5E<7:<A:
BHGB9C?4A8 +;8 J4IL <AG8E9468 CEBI<78F CEB:E8FF<I8 <AG8E?B6><A: 58
GJ88A G45?8G FHE9468F J;<6; G;8E85L CEB@BG8F FGE4<A ;4E78A<A: A BE
:4A<6 7H6G<?8 @4GE<K  A@ G;<6> 466BHAGF 9BE  IB? B9 A46E8
4A7 5BA7F G;8 G45?8GF GB:8G;8E J;<6; <F 6B@CBF87 B9 CEBG8<AF 6;<G<A
4 F<?>?<>8 CEBG8<A 4A7 CB?LF466;4E<78F 6B@C?8K 64E5B;L7E4G8 CB?L
@8EF 23 +;8 BE:4A<6 @4GE<K <F ;<:;?L 7H6G<?8 4A7 @4<AG4<AF
G;8 <AG8:E<GL B9 A46E8 HA78E ?4E:8 FGE4<AF %4AB4FC8E<G<8F BE EBH:;
5H@CF ;4I8 588A B5F8EI87 BA G;8 G45?8G FHE9468 <: 7 J<G; 4A
4I8E4:8 ;8<:;G B9  A@ 4A7 4A 4I8E4:8 FC46<A: B9  A@
23 +;8 A4AB 4FC8E<G<8F CEBI<78 FHE9468 EBH:;A8FF 4A7 T4G
G8A HA78E ?B64?<F87 <A78AG4G<BA GB 45FBE5 8A8E:L L?<A7E<64? @<A8E4?
5E<7:8F 6BAA86G 47=468AG G45?8G FHE9468F J<G; 4 7<4@8G8E B9  A@ 4A7
;8<:;G B9  A@ <: 8 23 +;8F8 5E<7:8F 46G 4F E8<A9BE68
@8AGF 4A7 G;8E85L <A6E84F8 G;8 FGE8A:G; 4A7 FG<VA8FF B9 A46E8 H6G<?8
?<:4@8AGF 58GJ88A 47=468AG G45?8GF ;4I8 588A B5F8EI87 J;<6; ;4I8 4
?8A:G; 58GJ88A  A@ HAFGE8G6;87 GB  A@ FGE8G6;87 23 +;8
?<:4@8AGF 6BAA86G<A: G;8 G45?8GF 7<FF<C4G8 8A8E:L 6L6?<64??L I<4 G;8 E8
C84G87 9E46GHE8 B9 <AG8E@87<4G8 F46E<S6<4? 5BA7F
+;8 @86;4A<64? 58;4I<BHE B9 A46E8 ;4F 588A <AI8FG<:4G87 5L @4AL
E8F84E6;8EF HA78E ?<@<G87 ?B47<A: 6BA7<G<BAF G8AF<BA
23 6B@CE8FF<BA 23 58A7<A: 23 F;84E
23 4A7 <A78AG4G<BA 23 +;8 @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F B9
A46E8 HA78E G;8F8 ?B47<A: 6BA7<G<BAF 4E8 FH@@4E<F87 <A *86G<BA 
4A7 G;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F 4E8 7<F6HFF87 ;8E849G8E +8AF<BA
;4F 588A E8CBEG87 GB 58 G;8 CE898EE87 @B78 B9 ?B47<A: 5L A46E8 4F <G
CEB@BG8F F8I8E4? >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F +;8 FGE8FFFGE4<A 58;4I
<BHE F;BJF 4 ?<A84E 8?4FG<6 E8:<BA 4A7 C?4FG<6 789BE@4G<BA J<G; FGE4<A
;4E78A<A: 23  F<:A<9<64AG I4E<45<?<GL <A G;8 G8AF<?8 FGE8A:G; B9 A46E8
;4F 588A 4GGE<5HG87 GB 9E46GHE8 <A G;8 T4JF8AF<G<I8 G45?8GF 23 
F6;8@4G<6 B9 G;8 G8AF<?8 58;4I<BHE B9 G;8 G45?8GF <F <??HFGE4G87 <A <:
4 <A G;8 HA789BE@87 FG4G8 J;8E85L G;8 ?B47 <F GE4AF98EE87 I<4 F;84E
G;EBH:; G;8 <AG8E9468 +;8 >8L @86;4A<F@ E8FCBAF<5?8 9BE A46E8F FGE4<A
;4E78A<A: 58;4I<BHE <F CEB:E8FF<I8 @<6EBF64?8 F?<7<A: 4A7 <AG8E?B6>
<A: 58GJ88A G;8 J4IL G45?8G <AG8E9468F J;<6; @4<AG4<A 6BAG46G HC GB
F?<7<A: 7<FG4A68F B9  A@ <: 5 23 %4AB4FC8E<G<8F 7B ABG
6BAGE<5HG8 @H6; GB G;8 GBH:;A8FF HA78E G8AF<BA :<I8A G;4G G;8L 4E8
F@4?? 984GHE8F G;4G ?BF8 6BAG46G 58LBA7 F?<7<A: 7<FG4A68F B9  A@
 9HEG;8E GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@ <F CEB:E8FF<I8 9E46GHE8 B9 F46E<S6<4?
Fig. 6. 4 *6;8@4G<6 B9 CB?L:BA4? J4IL A46E8BHF G45?8GF HA78E G8AF<BA <A G;8 HA789BE@87
FG4G8 J<G; >8L <AG8E946<4? 984GHE8F ;<:;?<:;G87 5 89BE@87 FG4G8 F;BJ<A: F;84E GE4AF98E
G;EBH:; G;8 <AG8E9468 J;8E8 <AG8E?B6><A: 7H8 GB 6BAG46G 58GJ88A G45?8GF 4A7 FGE8G6;<A: B9
?<:4@8AGF 4E8 G;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F 4A7 6 *GE8G6;87 ?<:4@8AGF J;8E85L 9E46
GHE8 B9 F46E<S6<4? <AG8E@87<4G8 5BA7F 8KCBF8 4 FGE8G6;87 ;<778A ?8A:G; J;<6; <F 4ABG;8E
GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@ 474CG87 9EB@ )89F 23
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
5BA7F <A G;8 ?<:4@8AGF 6BAA86G87 58GJ88A G;8 G45?8GF <: 6 23
J;<6; 8KCBF8 HAFGE8G6;87 ;<778A ?8A:G;F +;8 <AG8E@87<4G8 9E46GHE8 B9
G;8F8 ?<:4@8AGF <A G;8 J84>8E ?BBCF BE @B7H?8F CEB@BG8F 8A8E:L 7<F
F<C4G<BA J;<?FG @4<AG4<A<A: G;8 <AG8:E<GL B9 G;8 6BAA86G<BA 58GJ88A G;8
G45?8GF +;<F CEB68FF B9 6L6?<6 9E46GHE8 B9 G;8F8 <AG8E@87<4G8 5BA7F E8
C84GF HA78E G;8 FGEBA: 5BA7F 58GJ88A G;8 G45?8GF 9E46GHE8
,A78E 6B@CE8FF<BA A46E8 8K;<5<GF 4A<FBGEBC<6 58;4I<BHE J;8A
?B4787 C4E4??8? BE C8EC8A7<6H?4E GB G;8 G45?8G 9468GF 23 G <F J84>8E
4A7 @BE8 5E<GG?8 J;8A ?B4787 C4E4??8? GB G;8 G45?8G 9468GF 7H8 GB @<
6EB5H6>?<A: 4G G;8 <AG8E9468 4A7 8K;<5<GF F8I8E4? 6L6?8F B9 ?B47<A: 4A7
HA?B47<A: J;8A ?B4787 C8EC8A7<6H?4E GB G;8 G45?8G 9468GF +;8 6B@CE8F
F<I8 58;4I<BHE B9 A46E8 <F ;<:;?L E4G8 78C8A78AG J;8A ?B4787 C8EC8A
7<6H?4E GB G;8 G45?8G 9468GF <A7<64G<A: G;4G <GF 4E6;<G86GHE8 @4L 58 <784?
9BE 78984G<A: 54??<FG<6 4GG46>F 23 +;8 CEBC4:4G<BA B9 C4EG<4? 7<F?B64
G<BAF 4A7 789BE@4G<BA GJ<AA<A: 4E8 BG;8E @86;4A<F@F E8CBEG87 HA78E
;<:; FGE4<AE4G8 HA<4K<4? 6B@CE8FF<BA 23 ,A78E ABG6;87 58A7<A: A46E8
8K;<5<GF F8I8E4? GBH:;8A<A: 89986GF B5F8EI87 <A S5E8E8<A9BE687 6B@CBF
<G8F <A6?H7<A: 6E46> 78T86G<BA 4A7 5E<7:<A: 23 +;<F 946<?<G4G8F ?4E:8
<A8?4FG<6 789BE@4G<BAF 4;847 B9 G;8 6E46> G<C J;<6; 5?HAG G;8 6E46>
%46E8 <F CEB@<A8AG?L GBH:;8E <A <GF ;L7E4G87 FG4G8 4F J4G8E C?4FG<6<F8F
G;8 @4GE<K A <GF 7EL FG4G8 <G 8K;<5<GF 5E<GG?8 9E46GHE8 F<@<?4E GB <GF >8L
6BAFG<GH8AG 5H?> 4E4:BA<G8 A 6BAGE4FG A46E8 8K;<5<GF 7H6G<?8 58;4I<BHE
J;8A 7<E86G?L F;84E87 8I8A <A <GF 7EL FG4G8 23 +;<F <F 4GGE<5HG87 GB
@BE8 F?<7<A: F<G8F 58<A: 46G<I4G87 58GJ88A G;8 G45?8G <AG8E9468F HEG;8E
@BE8 G;8 G45?8GF 8KC4A7 F<:A<9<64AG?L <A G;8 G;EBH:;G;<6>A8FF 7<E86G<BA
FH6; G;4G G45?8G F?<7<A: <F @BE8 7<9S6H?G GB <A<G<4G8 G;8E85L 78?4L<A: G;8
BAF8G B9 C?4FG<6 789BE@4G<BA
,A78E <A78AG4G<BA G;8 IB<7F 7H8 GB A4AB4FC8E<G<8F F8C4E4G<A: G;8
G45?8GF ;4I8 4 @BE8 CEB@<A8AG 6BAGE<5HG<BA GB G;8 8A8E:L 45FBECG<BA 64
C46<GL B9 A46E8 4F G;8L T4GG8A BE FB9G8A G;8 6B@CBF<G8 HAG<? 6BAG46G
58GJ88A G;8 G45?8GF G4>8F BI8E <A E8F<FG<A: G;8 ?B47 23 <5E8 CH??BHG
6E46> 78T86G<BA 4A7 BE:4A<6 @4GE<K 5E<7:<A: J8E8 4?FB E8CBEG87 4F >8L
GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F ?G;BH:; 9E46GHE8 B66HEF <A 4 F@4?? AH@58E B9
G45?8GF HA78E G;<F <784?<F87 ?B47<A: 6BA7<G<BA G45?8G 9E46GHE8 64A 6B@
CEB@<F8 G;8 <AG8:E<GL B9 G;8 FGEH6GHE8 C4EG<6H?4E?L HA78E 54??<FG<6 <@C46G
4A7 7H6G<?8 G45?8GF @4L G;8E85L 58 CE898E45?8 A78AG4G<BA J4F 4?FB HF87
GB 78G8E@<A8 G;8 ;4E7A8FF 4A7 8?4FG<6 @B7H?HF B9 A46E8 J;<6; F;BJ87
G;4G G;8F8 CEBC8EG<8F 4E8 <AF8AF<G<I8 A4ABF64?8 BE:4A<6 <A6?HF<BAF <A G;8
G45?8GF 23
Conch (Strombus gigas) shell. BA6; *GEB@5HF :<:4F F;8?? <:
4 ;4F 588A 8KG8AF<I8?L <AI8FG<:4G87 9BE <GF HA<DH8 74@4:8 @<G<:4G
<A: @86;4A<F@F <A 4::E8FF<I8 8AI<EBA@8AGF A 6B@C4E<FBA J<G; A46E8
6BA6; ;4F G8A G<@8F G;8 JBE> B9 9E46GHE8 5HG 4 G8AF<?8 FGE8A:G; G;4G <F
 ?BJ8E 23 +;8 FGEH6GHE8 B9 G;8 F;8?? <F 4A4?B:BHF GB C?LJBB7
BE S5E8E8<A9BE687 ?4@<A4G87 6B@CBF<G8F ?G;BH:; <G <F 6B@CBF87 B9
 JG 68E4@<6 G;8 ;<8E4E6;<64? 4EE4A:8@8AG B9 G;8 @46EBF6BC<6 <A
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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4A7 G;8 @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F 4E8 FH@@4E<F87 <A *86G<BA  ,A
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G8AG  23 GF FGE8FFFGE4<A 6HEI8 F;BJF 4F FH5F8DH8AG C?4FG<6 E8
:<BA HC GB 4 9E46GHE8 FGE4<A B9  *?<7<A: 4A7 CH??BHG B9 G;8 6B??4:8A
S5E8F J8E8 G;8 >8L @86;4A<F@F :BI8EA<A: C?4FG<6 789BE@4G<BA J<G;<A
G;8 ?4@8??4E FGEH6GHE8 ,F<A: BCG<64? @8G;B7F FH778A 6E46><A: B9 G;8
5BAL ?4L8E 9B??BJ87 5L CEB:E8FF<I8 78?4@<A4G<BA 58GJ88A G;8 6B??4:8A
?4L8E 4A7 G;8 FG<V 5BAL ?4L8E ;4I8 588A B5F8EI87 23 +;<F 58;4I<BHE
J4F E8T86G87 4F FG4<E?<>8 C4GG8EAF BA G;8 FGE8FFFGE4<A 6HEI8 +;8 SF;
F64?8 4?FB 8K;<5<GF @BE8 7H6G<?8 58;4I<BHE HA78E ;L7E4G87 6BA7<G<BAF
4A7 E4G878C8A78A68 <A G;8 0BHA:F @B7H?HF HA78E G8AF<BA 23 +;8
J4G8E 6BAG8AG B9 G;8 FB4>87 F4@C?8F 4EBHA7  B9 G;8<E 7EL J8<:;G
E87H68F G;8 IB?H@8 9E46G<BA B9 ;L7EBKL4C4G<G8 6ELFG4?F A 89986G G;<F E8
7H68F G;8 FGE8A:G; B9 G;8 F64?8 23 '8E9BE4G<BACHA6GHE8 G8FGF ;4I8
588A 6BA7H6G87 HF<A: 4 F;4EC A887?8 GB F<@H?4G8 4 CE874GBE 5<G8 BA 4
SF; F64?8 23 +;8L B5F8EI87 G;4G G;8 SF; F64?8 ;4F F<:A<9<64AG?L
;<:;8E CHA6GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 G;4A ;<:; C8E9BE@4A68 8A:<A88E<A: CB?L@8EF
CB?LFGLE8A8 4A7 CB?L64E5BA4G8 +;8L E8CBEG87 G;4G G;8 5BAL ?4L8E <F 4A
<@CBEG4AG 54EE<8E GB CHA6GHE8 HCBA <FB?4G<A: <G G;8 6B??4:8A ?4L8E J;<6;
J4F 84F<?L C8A8GE4G87 F 4 FLFG8@ G;8 J8??78SA87 BI8E?4CC<A: F64?8
FGEH6GHE8 E8FH?GF <A G;E88 ?4L8EF B9 F64?8F J;<6; 4E8 94E @BE8 89986G<I8
<A 8A;4A6<A: CHA6GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 +;8 FG<VA8FF B9 G;8 546><A: FH5FGE4G8
J4F ABG 9BHA7 GB 49986G G;8 CHA6GHE8 9BE68
$8L8EF 8G 4? 23 4?FB 6BA7H6G87 C8A8GE4G<BA 8KC8E<@8AGF BA SF;
F64?8F 5HG HF87 46GH4? C<E4A;4 G88G; +;8L E8CBEG87 G;4G G;8 E8F<FG4A68
GB C8A8GE4G<BA <F @H6; ;<:;8E G;4A G;8 5<G8 9BE68 B9 G;8 C<E4A;4 4EBHA7
 % 7H8 GB G;8 ;<:;?L @<A8E4?<F87 8KG8E<BE ?4L8E B9 G;8 F64?8 *<@<?4E
B5F8EI4G<BAF J8E8 @478 5L *;8E@4A 8G 4? 23 J;B C8E9BE@87 C8A8
GE4G<BA G8FGF BA Atractosteus spatula F64?8F 4A7 B5F8EI87 G;8 ;<:; C8E9BE4
G<BA E8F<FG4A68 B9 G;8 5BAL ?4L8E ,A78E <A78AG4G<BA BE<8AG87 A4ABEB7F
8@587787 <A 4 @4GE<K <A G;8 BHG8E ?4L8E B9 4 SF; F64?8 J8E8 B5F8EI87
4A7 BE:4A<M87 S5E8?<>8 FGEH6GHE8F <A G;8 <AA8E ?4L8E 23 +;8 >8L 74@
4:8 @<G<:4G<A: @86;4A<F@F B5F8EI87 J8E8 6E46> 78T86G<BA 4?BA: G;8 <A
G8E9468 58GJ88A G;8 BHG8E 4A7 8@587787 ?4L8EF J;<6; J8E8 4EE8FG87
<A G;8 8@587787 6B??4:8A ?4L8E <:  +;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4
A<F@F J8E8 G;8E85L E8CBEG87 4F IB<7?<A><A: 4A7 S5E8 5E<7:<A:  F<:A<9
<64AG @<F@4G6; <A G;8 ;4E7A8FF 4A7 @B7H?HF B9 G;8 BHG8E 4A7 8@587787
?4L8E B9 SF; F64?8 ;4F 588A E8CBEG87 J;<6; J4F 4GGE<5HG87 GB G;8 7<998E
8A68 <A @<A8E4? 6BAG8AG 23
,A78E 58A7<A: G;8 SF; F64?8 J4F E8CBEG87 ;4I8 4A4?B:BHF GBH:;8A
<A: 4A7 ?B47 GE4AF98E @86;4A<F@F GB 4E@BHEF J;8E8 G;8 8KG8E<BE ;4E7
Fig. 8. 4 *6;8@4G<6 B9 G;8 6EBFFC?LJBB7 FGEH6GHE8 B9 SF; F64?8 J<G; G;8 CEB@<A8AG @46EB
?4L8EF ;<:;?<:;G87 +;8 5BAL ?4L8E <F FGEBA: GB E8F<FG ?B64?<F87 C8E9BE4G<BA J;<?FG G;8 8@
587787 6B??4:8A ?4L8E 5 CEB@BG8F 8?4FG<6<GL 4A7 GBH:;A8FF G;EBH:; F<@<?4E 6E46> @<G<:4G
<A: @86;4A<F@F B5F8EI87 <A S5E8E8<A9BE687 6B@CBF<G8F <A6?H7<A: S5E8 5E<7:<A: 474CG87
9EB@ )89 23
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
?4L8E CE8I8AGF C8A8GE4G<BA 4A7 4 @BE8 6B@C?<4AG 8@587787 ?4L8E FHC
CBEGF G8AF<?8 ?B47F 4A7 @<G<:4G8F 94<?HE8 23
2.1.2. Other relevant biological structures
EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA 4A7 6BEG<64? 5BA8 4E8 BG;8E 5<B?B:<64? FGEH6
GHE8F G;4G CBFF8FF <AGE<64G8 984GHE8F G;4G @4L 58 58A8S6<4? 9BE 54??<FG<6
CEBG86G<BA ?G;BH:; 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA 4A7 5BA8 4E8 5H<?G 9BE 4G
G46><A: CE8L 4A7 CEBI<7<A: E<:<7<GL GB G;8 ;H@4A 5B7L E8FC86G<I8?L
G;8<E HA<DH8 S5E8E8<A9BE687 4E6;<G86GHE8F 64A CEBI<78 FHC8E<BE 74@4:8
@<G<:4G<A: @86;4A<F@F +;<F 64A ?847 GB G;8 78I8?BC@8AG B9 4 546><A:
?4L8E <A 4 54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA FLFG8@ GB CE8I8AG 64G4FGEBC;<6 94<?HE8 <A
G;8 8I8AG G;4G G;8 FGE<>8 9468 <F 5E846;87 +;8 >8L FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F
4A7 9HA6G<BAF G;4G 4E8 CE8I4?8AG GB 54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA 4E8 E8I<8J87 4A7
FH@@4E<F87 ;8E849G8E 4A7 G45H?4G87 <A +45?8 
Crustacean (mainly crab) exoskeleton. EHFG4684AF 4E8 C4EG B9
4 94@<?L B9 4AG;EBCB7F +;8<E 5B7L 64A 58 7<I<787 <AGB G;8 ;847
68C;4?BA G;BE4K 4A7 G;8 G4<? 457B@8A 23 ?? 4AG;EBCB7F <A
6?H7<A: GE<5B?<G8F 6;8?<68E4G8F @LE<4CB7F ;8K4CB7F 4A7 6EHFG4684AF 4E8
6BI8E87 J<G; 4A 8KBF>8?8GBA <: 4 J;<6; <F @4<A?L 6B@CBF87 B9
6;<G<A 4 CB?LF4664;4E<78 BE 64E5B;L7E4G8 23 EHFG4684
FH6; 4F 6E45 ?B5FG8E 6E4LSF; BE F;E<@C 4E8 4?E847L CE8F8AG <A G;8
9BFF<? E86BE7 B9 G;8 4E?L 4@5E<4A C8E<B7 <8 G;8 8K<FG87 4CCEBK<
@4G8?L  @<??<BA L84EF 4:B 4A7 4E8 G;8E85L 4@BA: G;8 @BFG FH6
68FF9H? 4A<@4?F ?<I<A: BA 84EG; 23 .8 9B6HF @4<A?L BA G;8 6E45
8KBF>8?8GBA 4F <G CBFF8FF8F F8I8E4? 984GHE8F G;4G 4E8 ;<:;?L 4GGE46G<I8
9BE CEBG86G<I8 FGEH6GHE8F +;8 8KBF>8?8GBA <F 64C45?8 B9 78FGEBL<A: G;8
;4E7 F;8??F B9 @B??H6F I<4 4 ;4@@8E?<>8 FGE<>8 23 *C86<9<64??L G;8
6E45 8KBF>8?8GBA <F 6B@CBF87 B9 ;<:;?L @<A8E4?<F87 6;<G<ACEBG8<A S
5E8F G;4G 4E8 4EE4A:87 <A 4 GJ<FG87 C?LJBB7 C4GG8EA <: 6 64?6<H@
64E5BA4G8 58<A: G;8 GLC<64? @<A8E4? G;4G CEBI<78F @86;4A<64? E<:<7<GL
23 +;8 8KBF>8?8GBA <F E8DH<E87 GB 58 @H?G<9HA6G<BA4? GB
FHCCBEG G;8 5B7L B9 G;8 4A<@4? 4A7 CEBG86G <G 9EB@ @86;4A<64? ?B47F
Table 3
<8E4E6;<64? FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F B9 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA 4A7 6BEG<64? 5BA8
*64?8 EHFG4684A8KBF>8?8GBA BEG<64?6B@C46G5BA8
$46EB KBF>8?8GBA G;<6>F;8??
A7B6HG<6?8 IB?B9
8KBF>8?8GBA G;<6>
BA8F4A7J<6;FGEH6GHE8&HG8EF;8??
6BEG<64?J<G;468??H?4E6BE8
GE4586H?4E
$8FB KB6HG<6?8@BE878AF8
G;<6>
$<6EB 8?<6B<74?FG46><A:B9C?4A8F
<AGBGJ<FG87C?LJBB7FGEH6GHE8
C8E<B7<6EBG4G<BA
C?LJBB7;8<:;G
+H5H?8F<ACBEBHF64A4?F
CEBGEH7<A:G;EBH:;?4L8EFB9
6;<G<ACEBG8<AS5E8FJ<G;
;8?<64?:8B@8GEL J<78
G;<6>
&FG8BAF5BHA7875L6L?<A7E<64??L
F;4C87?4@8??48 <A
7<4@8G8E J<78
%4AB BA8L6B@55HA7?8FB96;<G<A
CEBG8<AS5E8F4EE4A:87<A
;BE<MBAG4?C?4A8F
;<G<ACEBG8<AS5E8F
7<4@8G8E
;<G<AS5E<?F
7<4@8G8E ?8A:G;
HA7?8FB96B??4:8AS5E8F
J<78
B??4:8AS5E8F
B??4:8AS5E<?F
$<A8E4?C?4G8F;4C876ELFG4?F
G;<6> ?BA:
J<78
&E:4A<66B??4:8A@4GE<KJ<G;
;8?<64??LJBHA76B??4:8A@B?86H?8F
:4CF9BE5BA86ELFG4?F
C8E<B7<6<GL 7<44A7
?BA:
GB@<6 #BA:6;4<ACB?LF466;4E<78
6;<G<A@B?86H?8F N FC46<A:
$<A8E4?<F87@4GE<K4&BE
4@BEBC;BHF
4A7 G;8 ;4EF; 89986GF B9 <GF 8AI<EBA@8AG 23 G 6BAF<FGF B9 F8I8E4?
CEB@<A8AG E8:<BAF 4 G;8 8C<6HG<6?8 J;<6; <F G;8 BHG8E G;<A J4KL ?4L8E
BE @4<A J4G8ECEBB9<A: 54EE<8E 5 G;8 CEB6HG<6?8 J;<6; 9BE@F G;8 FGEH6
GHE4? 6B@CBA8AG 4A7 9HA6G<BAF GB E8F<FG @86;4A<64? ?B47F 23 +;8
CEB6HG<6?8 64A 58 7<FF86G87 <AGB GJB C4EGF <: 5 G;4G ;4I8 4 F<@<?4E
6B@CBF<G<BA 4A7 FGEH6GHE8 G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 BHG8E G;<6> ?4L8E 4A7
8A7B6HG<6?8 <AA8E G;<6> ?4L8E 23 +;8 8A7B6HG<6?8 46
6BHAGF 9BE  IB? B9 G;8 8KBF>8?8GBA J;<?FG G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 <F FG46>87
@BE8 78AF8?L @CBEG4AG?L G;8 J8??78SA87 ;<8E4E6;<64? BE:4A<M4G<BA B9
G;8F8 6B@CBA8AGF BI8E @H?G<C?8 ?8A:G; F64?8F :<I8F G;8 8KBF>8?8GBA <GF
FHC8E<BE C8E9BE@4A68 23
G G;8 @B?86H?4E ?8I8? G;8E8 4E8 ?BA:6;4<A CB?LF466;4E<78 6;<G<AF
4EBHA7  G;4G 9BE@ A4ABS5E<?F  A@ <A 7<4@8G8E 4A7  A@
<A ?8A:G; J;<6; 6BAG4<A I4E<BHF 4@BHAGF B9 64?6<G8 4A7 4@BEC;BHF 64?
6<H@ 64E5BA4G8 C4EG<6?8F 23 +;8 S5E<?F 4E8 JE4CC87 J<G;
CEBG8<AF 4A7 4FF8@5?8 <AGB S5E8F B9 45BHG  A@ <A 7<4@8G8E
23 +;8F8 S5E8F 9HEG;8E 4FF8@5?8 <AGB 5HA7?8F BE ;BA8L
6B@5F;4C87 4EE4LF <: 7 23 +;8 5HA7?8F G;8A 4EE4A:8 G;8@
F8?I8F C4E4??8? GB 846; BG;8E 4A7 9BE@ ;BE<MBAG4? C?4A8F 23
+;8F8 C?4A8F 4E8 FG46>87 <A 4 ;8?<6B<74? @4AA8E 6E84G<A: 4 GJ<FG87 C?L
JBB7 FGEH6GHE8 <: 6 23  FG46> B9 ?4L8EF G;4G
;4I8 6B@C?8G87 4 EBG4G<BA <F E898EE87 GB 4F 4 BH?<:4A7 FGEH6
GHE8 4A7 <F E898EE87 GB 4F G;8 FG46><A: ;8<:;G B9 G;8 GJ<FG87 C?LJBB7
23 +;8F8 FGEH6GHE8F E8C84G GB 9BE@ G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 4A7 8A
7B6HG<6?8 A 6E45 8KBF>8?8GBAF G;8 @<A8E4?F 4E8 <A G;8 9BE@ B9 64?6<G8
BE 4@BEC;BHF 64?6<H@ 64E5BA4G8 J;<6; 4E8 78CBF<G87 J<G;<A G;8 @4GE<K
G;4G G;8 6;<G<ACEBG8<A S5E8F 4E8 8@587787 <AGB 23
+;8 @86;4A<64? 58;4I<BHE B9 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA ;4F 588A <A
I8FG<:4G87 HA78E ?<@<G87 ?B47<A: 6BA7<G<BAF <A78AG4G<BA @<6EB A4AB
C<6B 23 6B@CE8FF<BA 23 G8AF<BA 23 4A7
F;84E 23 +;8 @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F 4E8 FH@@4E<F87 <A *86G<BA
 4A7 G;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F 4E8 7<F6HFF87 ;8E849G8E A
78AG4G<BA 4A7 6B@CE8FF<BA 4E8 G;8 @BFG CE8I4?8AG <AI8FG<:4G<BAF 4F G;8
8KBF>8?8GBA <F 78F<:A87 9BE 4GG46><A: CE8L FH6; 4F @B??HF6F HF<A: 4
;<:; I8?B6<GL ?B64?<F87 FGE<>8 ,A78E @<6EB<A78AG4G<BA F;88C 6E45 4A7
Homarus americanus 8KBF>8?8GBAF F;BJ ;<:; ;4E7A8FF 4A7 FG<VA8FF <A
G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 4A7 4A 45EHCG 7EBC <A G;8F8 CEBC8EG<8F <A G;8 8A7B6HG<
6?8 23 +;8 ;4E7A8FF <F F<:A<9<64AG?L ;<:;8E <A G;8 6?4JF G;4A <A
G;8 ?8:F B9 G;8 8KBF>8?8GBA A8E:L 7<FC8EF<I8 /E4L / @4CC<A: E8
I84?87 G;4G G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 <F ;<:;?L @<A8E4?<F87 GB <A6E84F8 ;4E7A8FF 4A7
J84E E8F<FG4A68 4G G;8 FHE9468 J;<?FG G;8 8A7B6HG<6?8 9HA6G<BAF GB 45
FBE5 8A8E:L 4A7 CE8I8AG 6E46> CEBC4:4G<BA &E<8AG87 CBE8 64A4? GH5H?8F
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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2.2. Modelling investigations for characterising the mechanical behaviours of
selected biological armour systems
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2.2.1. Marine protective structures
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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58;4I<BHE B9 G;8 5BA7<A: +;8 6B;8F<I8 C4E4@8G8EF J8E8 78G8E@<A87 HF
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7<FC?468@8AG 58GJ88A 47=468AG G45?8GF   J4F E846;87 4A7 4 ?<A
84E 786E84F8 <A FGE8A:G; HC GB 4A BC8A<A: 7<FC?468@8AG B9  +;8L
HF87 4 6B;8F<I8 FGE8A:G; B9  J;<6; J4F B5G4<A87 9EB@ 4 F;84E
8KC8E<@8AG BA 4 A46E8 FC86<@8A +;8L E8CBEG87 G;4G G;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A:
@86;4A<F@ J4F CEB:E8FF<I8 F?<7<A: 4A7 <AG8E?B6><A: 58GJ88A G;8 G45?8GF
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F?<7<A: 4A7 <AG8E?B6><A: 58GJ88A G45?8GF :BI8EAF G;8 GBH:;8A<A: 58;4I
<BHE B9 A46E8 J;<6; <F ABG CE46G<64? HA78E GE4AFI8EF8 ?B47<A:
,F<A: E<9SG;F 9E46GHE8 6E<G8E<BA 4B 8G 4? 23 <AI8FG<:4G87 G;8
A4ABF64?8 9E46GHE8 @86;4A<6F B9 G;8 A46E8BHF G45?8GF HA78E G8AF<BA +;8
A4ABF64?8 <A6?HF<BAF J;<6; 4E8 <A;8E8AG <A G;8 G45?8GF 7H8 GB G;8 5<B
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G8E?B6>F J8E8 946<?<G4G87 5L =4::87 87:8F 4G G;8 <AG8E9468 58GJ88A 47
=468AG G45?8GF +;8L E8CBEG87 4 6E<G<64? ?8A:G; F64?8   J;8E8
G;8 G45?8GF 4E8 <AF8AF<G<I8 GB T4JF 5864HF8 G;8 G;<6>A8FF B9 G;8 G45?8GF
4E8 @H6; ?8FF G;4A G;8 6E<G<64? T4J F<M8 9BE 9E46GHE8 GB B66HE +;8L E8
CBEG87 G;4G 9E46GHE8 <A G;8 G45?8GF B66HEF HA78E G8AF<BA 5864HF8 G;8L 4E8
G;<6>8E G;4A G;8 6E<G<64? T4J F<M8  "4GG< 8G 4? 23 78I8?
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@<6EB:E4C; B9 G;8 9E46GHE8 FHE9468 B9 G;8 G45?8GF 4A7 F<@H?4G87 <G HA
78E G8AF<BA +;8 @B78? 7<7 ABG 64CGHE8 G;8 FGE8A:G; B9 A46E8 HA78E G8A
F<BA  $'4 ABE G;8 94<?HE8 FGE4<A  J;<6; J8E8 B5F8EI87 8KC8E<
@8AG4??L +;8L FH::8FG87 G;4G G;8 <AG8E?B6>F 64HF8 CE8@4GHE8 94<?HE8 7H8
GB FGE8FF 6BA68AGE4G<BAF 4G G;8 =4::87 87:8F J;8E84F A46E8 ;4F F@BBG;
J4IL FHE9468F 4G G;8 <AG8E9468 A 6BAGE4FG G;8 45BI8 FGH7<8F E8CBEG87
G;4G CEB:E8FF<I8 <AG8E?B6><A: ?847F GB GBH:;8A<A: HA78E ?4E:8E FGE4<AF
Conch: "4@4G 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 C?4A8 FGE4<A @<6EB@86;4A
<64? 4A4?LG<64? @B78? GB <AI8FG<:4G8 G;8 89986GF B9 @H?G<C?8 6E46>F 4A7
6E46> 5E<7:<A: <A G;8 @46EB ?4L8EF B9 4 6BA6; F;8?? +;8L @B78??87 GJB
8?4FG<6 <FBGEBC<6 ?4L8EF B9 8DH4? G;<6>A8FF J<G; G;8 F4@8 8?4FG<6 CEBC8E
G<8F 5HG 4 7<998E8AG 9E46GHE8 GBH:;A8FF GB @<@<6 G;8 BHG8E 4A7 @<77?8
@46EB ?4L8EF B9 G;8 F;8?? +;8<E >8L 4FFH@CG<BA J4F G;4G 6E46>F 4?BA:
G;8 J84> ?4L8EF 58GJ88A SEFGBE78E ?4@8??48 BE 6;4AA8? 6E46>F J8E8
8DH4??L FC4687 BA G;8 87:8 B9 G;8 FC86<@8A E46> 5E<7:<A: J4F @B7
8??87 HF<A: ABA?<A84E FCE<A:F 46EBFF G;8 6E46> 9BE J;<6; G;8 58;4I
<BHE J4F 64CGHE87 HF<A: 4 6B;8F<I8 ?4J +;8 CE87<6G87 9E46GHE8 GBH:;
A8FF J4F <A 6?BF8 4:E88@8AG J<G; 4 9BHECB<AG 58A7<A: 8KC8E<@8AG BA 4
6BA6; FC86<@8A +;8L 6BA6?H787 G;4G G;8 FGEH6GHE4? 6BAS:HE4G<BA B9 G;8
F;8?? 8A45?8F 6E46>F GB CEBC4:4G8 <A 4 ABA64G4FGEBC;<6 @4AA8E 7H8 GB
GJB >8L @86;4A<F@F @H?G<C?8 6E46><A: B9 G;8 BHG8E ?4L8EF 4A7 6E46>
5E<7:<A: <A G;8 @<77?8 ?4L8E +;8 4CCEBK<@4G<BA B9 6E46> 5E<7:<A: J<G;
ABA?<A84E FCE<A:F 7B8F ABG 64CGHE8 G;8 6BAG46G FGE8FF8F 4G G;8 <AG8E9468F
58GJ88A G;8 ?4@8??48 466HE4G8?L
Fish scale: -8EA8E8L 8G 4? 23 <AI8FG<:4G87 G;8 T8KHE4? 58;4I
<BHE B9 4 SF; F64?8 4G G;8 @8FB F64?8 HF<A: 4 GJB7<@8AF<BA4? 4A4?LG<
64? @B78? J;8E8 G;8 F64?8F J8E8 <784?<F87 4F FGE4<:;G 584@F 4GG46;87
GB 4 FGE4<:;G FHCCBEG +;8L @B78??87 BA8 F64?8 5L 4FFH@<A: 4 C8E<B7<6
4EE4A:8@8AG 4A7 4A <78AG<64? 58A7<A: 789BE@4G<BA 58GJ88A 4?? F64?8F
A G;<F 6BAS:HE4G<BA G;8 F64?8F J8E8 E8FGE4<A87 9EB@ 7<FC?46<A: 4G BA8
8A7 5L G;8 FHCCBEG J;<6; J4F @B78??87 4F 4 ;B@B:8A8BHF @4G8E<4?
4A7 4A 477<G<BA4? EBG4G<BA4? FCE<A: BA68AGE4G87 9BE68F J8E8 4CC?<87 BA
6BAG46G CB<AGF GB F<@H?4G8 G;8 <AG8E46G<BA 58GJ88A 47=468AG F64?8F +;8L
B5F8EI87 4A <A6E84F8 <A G;8 4I8E4:8 58A7<A: FG<VA8FF 4A7 @4FF 78AF<GL
J;<6; G;8L 4GGE<5HG87 GB 4A <A6E84F8 <A F64?8 78AF<GL *GE4<AFG<V8A<A:
J4F E8CBEG87 GB 786E84F8 J;8A G;8 E4G<B 58GJ88A G;8 FG<VA8FF B9 G;8 FHC
CBEG 6BAA86G<BA 4A7 58A7<A: FG<VA8FF B9 G;8 F64?8 J4F <A6E84F87 +;8
4FFH@CG<BA B9 <78AG<64? 58A7<A: 789BE@4G<BAF 58GJ88A G;8 F64?8F @4L
?847 GB 6BAF8EI4G<I8 4CCEBK<@4G<BAF B9 G;8 58A7<A: FG<VA8FF
)H7L>; 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 @<6EB@86;4A<64? 4A4?LG<64? @B78? GB
4A4?LF8 G;8 C8E9BE@4A68 B9 @H?G<?4L8E87 FGEH6GHE8F <AFC<E87 5L <@5E<
64G87 F64?8G<FFH8 FLFG8@F B9 8?4F@B<7 SF; F64?8F +;8L @B78??87 GJB
?4L8EF BA8 J<G; G;8 F64?8F 4F EB7F 8@587787 <A 4 FB9G @4GE<K 4A7 G;8
BG;8E 4 @BAB?<G;<6 FB9G FH5FGE4G8 +;8L 78E<I87 6?BF87 9BE@ 4A4?LG<64?
FB?HG<BAF 9BE SA<G8 6B@CE8FF<BA 4A7 58A7<A: +;8L E8CBEG87 G;8 8K<F
G8A68 B9 G;8 FHC8ET8K<5?8 6BAS:HE4G<BAF B9 G;8 6B@CBF<G8F J;<6; 4E8
:BI8EA87 5L G;8 ?4@<A4G<BA 4A:?8 J;<?8 FG<?? 499BE7<A: CEBG86G<BA +;8F8
FHC8ET8K<5?8 6B@CBF<G8F 64A 58 @4AH946GHE87 J<G; ?4E:8 IB?H@8 9E46
G<BA B9 G;8 FG<V C;4F8 G;8E85L E8FH?G<A: <A FHC8E<BE CEBG86G<I8 CEBC8EG<8F
4?@BFG J<G;BHG 6B@CEB@<F<A: T8K<5<?<GL BJ8I8E G;8 ?4@<A4G<BA 4A:?8
@4L ABG 58 <784? 9BE 945E<64G<A: G;<A 4E@BHE C4A8?F
-8EA8E8L 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 @<6EB@86;4A<64? SA<G8 8?8
@8AG @B78? 8FG45?<F; G;8 E8?4G<BAF;<C 58GJ88A G;8 T8K<5?8 6B@CBF<G8
FGEH6GHE8 B9 SF; F64?8F 4A7 G;8<E BI8E4?? @86;4A<64? E8FCBAF8 HA78E ?4G
8E4? 58A7<A: 4A7 GBEF<BA +;8<E E8FH?GF F;BJ87 G;4G SF; F><A CBFF8FF8F 4
;<:;?L 4A<FBGEBC<6 E8FCBAF8 J<G; 4 FB9G8E 58A7<A: FG<VA8FF <A G;8 ?BA:<
GH7<A4? 7<E86G<BA B9 G;8 SF; +;8L 4GGE<5HG87 G;<F FB9G8E E8FCBAF8 GB F<:
A<9<64AG F64?8 EBG4G<BAF 7HE<A: 58A7<A: J;<6; <A7H68 4 FG<V8A<A: B9 G;8
E8FCBAF8 HA78E ?4E:8 58A7<A: 6HEI4GHE8 +;8L 4?FB 9BHA7 G;4G G;<F @86;
4A<F@ 64A 58 FHCCE8FF87 BE @4:A<S87 5L GHA<A: G;8 EBG4G<BA4? FG<VA8FF
B9 G;8 F64?878E@<F 4GG46;@8AG 5HG <F ABG 46G<I4G87 <A G;8 ?4G8E4? 7<E86
G<BA +;8E89BE8 G;8L 6BA6?H787 G;4G G;8 F64?87 FGEH6GHE8 B9 SF; F><A <F
;<:;?L 474CG45?8 GB 8A:<A88E<A: 4CC?<64G<BAF FH6; 4F 4E@BHE CEBG86G<BA
BJ8I8E <G @4L 58 7<9S6H?G GB 46;<8I8 F64?8 EBG4G<BA HA78E 4 ?B64?<F87
54??<FG<6 <@C46G
2.2.2. Other relevant biological structures
Bone:  SA<G8 8?8@8AG @B78? B9 ;H@4A 6BEG<64? 5BA8 J4F 78I8?
BC87 5L 8@<EG4F 8G 4? 23 GB FGH7L G;8 6BEE8?4G<BA 58GJ88A G;8 9E46
GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 B9 5BA8 4A7 <GF 8?4FG<6 6BAFG<GH8AGF 4F J8?? 4F 9E46GHE8
CEBC8EG<8F 4G G;8 @<6EB F64?8 B@C46G G8AF<BA G8FGF BA BA8 ;B@B:8
A8BHF 4A7 G;E88 7<998E8AG ;8G8EB:8A8BHF @B78?F J8E8 6BA7H6G87 )8
FH?GF 9EB@ G;8 SA<G8 8?8@8AG @B78? E8I84?87 G;4G ;B@B:8A8BHF @4G8E
<4? CEBC8EG<8F 466BHAG87 9BE G;8 ;<:;8FG 6E46> IB?H@8 +;8 <A6E84F8 B9
;8G8EB:8A8<GL E87H687 G;8 6E46> IB?H@8 <A 6BEG<64? 5BA8 <8 8A;4A687
<GF 9E46GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 &A G;8 BG;8E ;4A7 G;8 74@4:8 IB?H@8 <A G;8
;B@B:8A8BHF @B78? J4F ?BJ8E G;4A G;4G <A G;8 ;8G8EB:8A8BHF @B78?
A G8E@F B9 6E46> CEBC4:4G<BA @BFG B9 G;8 6E46> 9BE@4G<BA J4F 9BHA7
<A G;8 <AG8EFG<G<4? 5BA8 BJ8I8E G;8 @B78? 78I8?BC87 5L 8@<EG4F 8G
4? 23 BA?L FGH7<87 G;8 89986G B9 G;8 <A;B@B:8A8BHF ?8I8? BA G;8

UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
9E46GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 B9 6BEG<64? 5BA8 E4G;8E G;4A G;8 I4E<4G<BA <A G;8 CEBC
8EG<8F B9 G;8 5BA8 6BAFG<GH8AGF
04A: 8G 4? 23 6BA7H6G87 @<6EB+54F87 @<6EB@86;4A<64? SA<G8
8?8@8AG 4A4?LF<F GB:8G;8E J<G; FGE4<A :4H:8 @84FHE8@8AGF GB @84FHE8
G;8 FGE4<A S8?7 HA78E <A I<IB 7LA4@<6 6B@CE8FF<BA B9 G<5<48 5BG; <A G;8
6BEG<64? 4A7 CBEBHF 4E84F  G;E887<@8AF<BA4? SA<G8 8?8@8AG @B78? J4F
:8A8E4G87 54F87 BA G;8 @<6EB+ <@4:8F +;8 E8?4G<I8 FGE4<A :4H:8 ?B
64G<BA J4F C?4687 <A G;8 @B78? <A G;8 8K46G ?B64G<BA 6B@C4E87 GB G;8
8KC8E<@8AG #<A84E 8?4FG<6 SA<G8 8?8@8AG 4A4?LF<F HF<A: G8GE4;87E4? 8?8
@8AGF J4F 64EE<87 BHG GB 8I4?H4G8 G;8 <@C46G B9 7<998E8AG @B78? C4E4@8
G8EF FH6; 4F F64A E8FB?HG<BA 64A68??BHF G;E8F;B?7 8?8@8AG GLC8 @8F; E8
SA8@8AG G<FFH8 ;8G8EB:8A8<GL S5H?4 <A6?HF<BA 4A7 CEBK<@4? 6BAFGE4<AG
BA G;8 6B@CE8FF<I8 FGE8A:G; 66BE7<A: GB G;8 F<@H?4G<BA E8FH?GF 4 I4E<
4G<BA B9 G;8 ?4FG G;E88 C4E4@8G8EF F<:A<9<64AG?L 6BAGE<5HG87 GB G;8 BHG
6B@8 B9 G;8 E8FH?GF +;<F @8G;B7 FH668FF9H??L CEBI<787 4 ;<:;?L 466HE4G8
FGE4<A S8?7 4G G;8 G<FFH8 ?8I8? B9 @BHF8 G<5<48 HA78E 4A <A I<IB 6B@CE8F
F<I8 ?B47 BJ8I8E G;8 @B78? 4?FB ;47 FB@8 ?<@<G4G<BAF FH6; 4F A8:?86G
<A: G<@8I4EL<A: 946GBEF 8: ?B47 9E8DH8A6L 4A7 FGE4<A E4G8 ?46> B9 4
@4G;8@4G<64? E8?4G<BAF;<C 58GJ88A G;8 8?4FG<6 @B7H?HF 4A7 5BA8 G<FFH8
@<A8E4? 78AF<GL 4A7 8K6?HF<BA B9 G;8 89986G B9 FB9G G<FFH8F <A FB@8 C4EGF
B9 G;8 5BA8 F4@C?8F
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23 GB 64CGHE8 G;8 @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F B9 G;8 @<A8E4?<F87 6B??4
:8A @<6EBS5E<?F <A 6BEG<64? 5BA8 4G G;8 A4ABF64?8 +;8 @<A8E4?<F87 6B?
?4:8A @<6EBS5E<?F 6BAF<FG B9 G;E88 C;4F8F A4@8?L GEBCB6B??4:8A @B?8
6H?8F CHE8 @<A8E4? 4A7 <@CHE8 @<A8E4?  @<6EBS5E<? J4F @B78??87 4F
4 6L?<A78E J<G; 4 6EBFFF86G<BA4? E47<HF B9  A@ G G;8 A4ABF64?8 4 @<
6EBS5E<? <F 6B@CBF87 B9 SI8 GEBCB6B??4:8A @B?86H?8F +;8F8 @B?86H?8F
4E8 ?<A>87 GB:8G;8E 5L 6EBFF?<A>F +;8 AH@8E<64? @B78? FGH7<87 G;8 8?4F
G<6 58;4I<BHE B9 G;8 @<A8E4?<F87 6B??4:8A @<6EBS5E<? <A G;8 F@4?? FGE4<A
E8:<@8 8A68 C?4FG<6<GL EHCGHE8 4A7 E8?4G<I8 F?<7<A: J8E8 A8:?86G87
+;8 E8FH?GF 9EB@ G;8  SA<G8 8?8@8AG @B78? E8<A9BE687 G;8 946G G;4G
J;8A G;8 0BHA:F @B7H?HF B9 G;8 @<A8E4? @4GE<K <A6E84F87 G;8 7H6G<?<GL
B9 G;8 6B??4:8A @<6EBS5E<?F 786E84F87 +;<F FGH7L 4?FB F;BJ87 G;4G G;8
8DH<I4?8AG 0BHA:F @B7H?HF B9 4 6B??4:8A @<6EBS5E<? J4F F<:A<9<64AG?L
<@C46G87 5L G;8 AH@58E B9 6EBFF?<A>F <A G;8 @B78? BJ8I8E G;8 @B78?
J4F ?<@<G87 GB 6B@CE8FF<I8 4A7 G8AF<?8 G8FGF
$H?G<F64?8 @B78??<A: J4F 64EE<87 BHG 5L 4@87 8G 4? 23 GB FGH7L
G;8 8?4FG<6 CEBC8EG<8F B9 6BEG<64? 5BA8 9EB@ G;8 A4ABGB @8FBF64?8 +;8L
8@C?BL87 @<6EB@86;4A<6F @8G;B7F 4A7 6B@CBF<G8 @4G8E<4?F ?4@<A4G8
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5BA8 G G;8 A4ABFGEH6GHE4? ?8I8? G;8L F<@H?4G87 G;8 FGEH6GHE8 B9 6B??4
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4A7 FH5@<6EBF64?8 @B78?F J8E8 9BHA7 5L 8@C?BL<A: G;8 $BE<+4A4>4
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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Fish scales: HA> 8G 4? 23 <AI8FG<:4G87 G;8 <AC?4A8 4A7 T8K
HE4? 789BE@4G<BA @86;4A<F@F B9 4 @4A@478 SF; F64?8 FGEH6GHE8 HF<A:
SA<G8 8?8@8AG @B78??<A:  T8K<5?8 CB?LCEBCL?8A8 @8F; 4A7 6B@C4E4
G<I8?L E<:<7 C?4FG<6 F64?8F J8E8 HF87 GB @<@<6 G;8 FGEH6GHE8 B9 G;8 A4GHE4?
G8?8BFG SF; F><A $4AL 584@F J8E8 HF87 GB @B78? G;8 @8F; S5E8F 4A7
G;8 F64?8F J8E8 @B78??87 4F FCE<A:F +;8L B5F8EI87 G;4G G;8 BI8E4?? 58
;4I<BHE B9 G;8 FLAG;8G<6 SF; F><A @4G8E<4? <F :BI8EA87 5L G;8 BI8E?4C B9
G;8 F64?8F G;8 HA78E?L<A: @8F; :8B@8GEL 4A7 G;8 6BAFG<GHG<I8 @4G8E<4?
CEBC8EG<8F J;<6; F;BJ87 4 HA<DH8 FGE4<AFG<V8A<A: E8FCBAF8
;<AG4C4??< 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 SA<G8 8?8@8AG @B78? GB 64CGHE8
G;8 T8KHE4? 58;4I<BHE B9 4 SF;F64?8 ?<>8 F8:@8AG87 C?4G8 HA78E CHA6
GHE8 A887?8 J<G; 4 G<C E47<HF B9 7E<I8A 4G  @@F +;8L
9BHA7 G;4G G;8 5<B<AFC<E87 4E@BHE 7<FC?4L87 @4AL B9 G;8 4GGE<5HG8F B9
6BAI8AG<BA4? 4E@BHEF <A6?H7<A: T8K<5?<GL 4A7 EB5HFGA8FF J<G; @H?G<;<G
64C45<?<G<8F ?FB G;8 5<B<AFC<E87 F8:@8AG87 C?4G8 F;BJ87 4A <A6E84F8
<A CHA6GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 B9 HC GB  6B@C4E87 GB 4 6BAG<AHBHF C?4G8 B9
G;8 F4@8 G;<6>A8FF @CBEG4AG?L G;8 FG<VA8FF B9 G;8 FH5FGE4G8 4A7 G;8
?B64G<BA B9 CHA6GHE8 BA G;8 F8:@8AG87 C?4G8 C?4L 4 F<:A<9<64AG EB?8 <A E8
7H6<A: G;8 CHA6GHE8 FGE8FF8F 4A7 G;8E85L 8A;4A68 G;8 GBH:;A8FF B9 G;8
4E@BHE FLFG8@
$4EG<A< 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4A 4A4?LG<64? @B78? 54F87 BA 6BAG46G
@86;4A<6F GB 4FF8FF G;8 FG45<?<GL B9 4 6<E6H?4E C?4G8 F8:@8AG @<@<6><A:
4 SF; F64?8 HA78E CHA6GHE8 +;8 A887?8 J4F @B78??87 4F 4 CB<AG 9BE68
J;<6; J4F E8FB?I87 <A G;8 ABE@4? 4A7 G4A:8AG<4? 7<E86G<BAF GB G;8 78
9BE@87 C?4G8 +;8L 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 FG45<?<GL B9 G;8 <A7<I<7H4? C?4G8F <F
:BI8EA87 5L G;8 ?B64G<BA B9 G;8 CB<AG 9BE68 BA G;8 C?4G8 9E<6G<BA 4G G;8

UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
FHE9468 B9 G;8 C?4G8 G;8 F<M8 B9 G;8 C?4G8 4A7 G;8 FG<VA8FF B9 G;8 FH5
FGE4G8
#<H 8G 4? 23 64EE<87 BHG 4 AH@8E<6 FGH7L B9 G;8 54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA
C8E9BE@4A68 B9 5<B<AFC<E87 SF; F64?8?<>8 6B@CBF<G8F J<G; F<?<6BA 64E
5<78 *< 4A7 4?H@<A<H@ F8?86G87 4F G;8 BHG8E 4A7 <AA8E ?4L8EF B9 G;8
5<B<AFC<E87 6B@CBF<G8 F64?8 G J4F E8CBEG87 G;4G G;8 ><A8G<6 8A8E:L B9
G;8 5H??8G <F @4<A?L 45FBE587 5L G;8 BHG8E 68E4@<6 ?4L8E B9 G;8 5<B<A
FC<E87 6B@CBF<G8 G;EBH:; 5E<GG?8 94<?HE8 4A7 G;8 <AA8E 4?H@<A<H@ ?4L8E
G;EBH:; C?4FG<6 789BE@4G<BA +;8 <A6?<A87 F64?8F ?87 GB G;8 F?<C 4A7 78
T86G<BA B9 G;8 5H??8G 4?BA: G;8 K 4A7 L 7<E86G<BAF C?4A8 ABE@4? GB G;8
<@C46G 7<E86G<BA E8FC86G<I8?L GB 7<99HF8 G;8 ><A8@4G<6 8A8E:L 4G G;8
8EB7<A: 7<E86G<BA ?FB <G J4F 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 8A8E:L 45FBECG<BA 89S
6<8A6L <A6E84F87 4F G;8 BI8E?4CC<A: E4G<B <A6E84F87
BAM4?8M?5H<K86; 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 AH@8E<64? @B78? 54F87
BA G;8 :4AB<7 C?46B<7 4A7 4E@47<??B 6BAS:HE4G<BAF 9BHA7 <A SF; F64?8F
F;4E>F 4A7 4E@47<??B 4E@BHEF E8FC86G<I8?L +;8L 58A6;@4E>87 G;8 C8E
9BE@4A68 B9 G;8F8 5<B@<@8G<6 4E@BHEF 4:4<AFG 4 5H?> 68E4@<6 C4A8? HA
78E ;<:; I8?B6<GL <@C46G  @F 4G 5BG; BEG;B:BA4? 4A7 B5?<DH8
4A:?8F GB G;8 FGE<>8 9468 ?G;BH:; 4?? 5<B@<@8G<6 C4A8?F F;BJ87 4
78CG; B9 C8A8GE4G<BA ;<:;8E G;4A G;4G B9 G;8 68E4@<6 C4A8? HA78E 4 F<A:?8
<@C46G G;8 @H?G<;<G 64C45<?<GL B9 G;8 4E@47<??B?<>8 C?4G8 J4F 78@BA
FGE4G87 J;<6; F;BJ87 4 ?BJ8E C8A8GE4G<BA 78CG; HA78E 4 @H?G<;<G <@
C46G +;8 74@4:8 9EB@ G;8 SEFG <@C46G J4F B5F8EI87 GB 58 6BASA87 GB
G;8 CEB=86G<?8 <@C46G MBA8
EBJA<A: 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 @<6EB@86;4A<64? SA<G8 8?8@8AG
@B78? GB <AI8FG<:4G8 G;8 @86;4A<64? E8FCBAF8 B9 4 @4A@478 5<B<A
FC<E87 6B@CBF<G8 <AFC<E87 5L G8?8BFG SF; F64?8F HA78E 5?HAG 4A7 C8A8
GE4G<A: <A78AG4G<BA ?B47<A: +;8 6B@CBF<G8 6BAF<FG87 B9 * F64?8F 8@
587787 <A FB9G F<?<6BA8 EH558E G J4F 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 789BE@4G<BA @86;
4A<F@F B9 F64?8 58A7<A: F64?8 EBG4G<BA G<FFH8 F;84E 4A7 G<FFH8 6BAFGE4<AG
:BI8EA87 G;8 45<?<GL B9 G;8 6B@CBF<G8 GB CEBG86G G;8 HA78E?L<A: FH5
FGE4G8
Crustacean exoskeleton: EHA8A98?78E 8G 4? 23 @B78??87 4 64E
5BA S5E88CBKL CE8CE8: 6B@CBF<G8 54F87 BA G;8 ;8?<6B<74? S5E8 4EE4A:8
@8AG B9 G;8 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA GB 4FF8FF <GF C8E9BE@4A68 HA78E ;<:;
8A8E:L <@C46G ;8@<FC;8E<64? 7EBC J8<:;G J<G; 4 7<4@8G8E B9  @@
 ! +;8L 64CGHE87 G;8 @86;4A<64? 58;4I<BHE B9 G;8 6B@CBF<G8 ?4@
<A4G8F HF<A: G;8 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 @4G8E<4? @B78? J<G; G;8 4F;<A 74@
4:8 6E<G8E<BA +;8L B5F8EI87 G;4G G;8 7B@<A4AG 94<?HE8 @86;4A<F@ A84E
G;8 <@C46G FHE9468 B9 G;8 C4A8? <F S5E8 6B@CE8FF<BA J;<6; <A7<64G8F
G;4G S5E8 5H6>?<A: 4A7 @4GE<K 74@4:8 4E8 7B@<A4AG A84E G;8 <@C46G
FHE9468 A G;8 5BGGB@ F86G<BA B9 G;8 C4A8? G;8 7B@<A4AG 94<?HE8 @86;
4A<F@ <F @4GE<K 6E46><A: J;<6; <F 4GGE<5HG87 GB G;8 58A7<A: @B78 B9
G;8 68AGE4? E8:<BA B9 G;8 C4A8? 7HE<A: G;8 <@C46G CEB68FF +;<F ?847F
GB G8AF<?8 9BE68F <A G;8 5BGGB@ F86G<BA B9 G;8 C4A8? +;8 @B78? F;BJ87
4 J<78 <AC?4A8 FCE847 B9 74@4:8 <A G;8 F@4?? 4A:?8 6B@CBF<G8 
 J;<6; <F E87H687 J<G; 4 E87H6G<BA <A 4A:?8 4A7 F@4??8FG <A G;8
DH4F<<FBGEBC<6  ?4LHC BE<8AG4G<BAF 6BAGEB? F4@C?8
?G;BH:; G;8 @B78? 7B8F ABG 466BHAG 9BE 78?4@<A4G<BA 58GJ88A G;8
C?<8F <G 64CGHE8F G;8 <AC?4A8 74@4:8 @B78F J;<6; 4E8 6BAF<FG8AG J<G;
G;8 8KC8E<@8AG4? B5F8EI4G<BAF @CBEG4AG?L G;8 @87<H@ 4A:?8 6B@CBF
<G8   F;BJ87 G;8 ;<:;8FG E8F<FG4A68 GB <A78AG4G<BA 9EB@ 8KC8E<
@8AG4? B5F8EI4G<BAF
!<4A: 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 F<@<?4E AH@8E<64? @B78? B9 4 ?4@<
A4G87 6B@CBF<G8 C4A8? J<G; ;8?<6B<74? S5E8 BE<8AG4G<BAF 54F87 BA G;8
FGEH6GHE8 B9 G;8 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA 4A7 <AI8FG<:4G87 <GF C8E9BE
@4A68 HA78E ?BJ I8?B6<GL <@C46G 8A8E:L B9  !  HF8E FH5EBHG<A8
J4F HF87 GB 64CGHE8 S5E8 94<?HE8 G8AF<BA 4A7 5H6>?<A:><A><A: <A 6B@
CE8FF<BA @4GE<K 6E46><A: HA78E GE4AFI8EF8 G8AF<BA 4A7 6B@CE8FF<BA
4A7 <AC?4A8 F;84E 94<?HE8 +;8L B5F8EI87 G;4G 4 F@4?? C<G6; 4A:?8 B9 G;8
S5E8F E8FH?G87 <A 6B@C?8G8 @4GE<K 6E46><A: J<G; G;8 6E46> 7<E86G<BAF
BE<8AG87 4?BA: G;8 S5E8 7<E86G<BAF
5<E 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 AH@8E<64? @B78? B9 4 C4A8? J<G;
6EBFFC?L DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 4A7 ;8?<6B<74? ?4@<A4G8F 54F87 BA G;8 4E6;<
G86GHE8 B9 4 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA 4A7 <AI8FG<:4G87 <GF C8E9BE@4A68
HA78E ;<:; I8?B6<GL <@C46G 9EB@ 4 ;8@<FC;8E<64? CEB=86G<?8 +;8L 8@
587787 6B;8F<I8 8?8@8AGF <A 846; C?L GB F<@H?4G8 @4GE<K 74@4:8 8
?4@<A4G<BA 4A7 G;EBH:;G;<6>A8FF FC<E4??<A: 9E46GHE8 J8E8 <78AG<S87 GB
58 G;8 @4<A @B78F B9 8A8E:L 7<FF<C4G<BA +;8L E8CBEG87 4 54??<FG<6 ?<@<G
B9  @F 9BE G;8 ;8?<6B<74? 6B@CBF<G8 J;<6; J4F HC GB  4A7 
;<:;8E G;4A G;4G B9 G;8 6EBFFC?L 4A7 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 6B@CBF<G8F E8FC86
G<I8?L
Bone: H4A: 8G 4? 23 GBB> <AFC<E4G<BA 9EB@ 6B@C46G 5BA8 GB 78
I8?BC 4 @H?G<?4L8E C?4G8 J<G; I4EL<A: 78AF<G<8F 46EBFF G;8 G;<6>A8FF
+;8L 6BA7H6G87 F<@H?4G<BAF GB 4FF8FF G;8 C8E9BE@4A68 B9 G;8 F4@C?8 HA
78E 54??<FG<6 <@C46G 9EB@ 4 :4F :HA  @F F;BBG<A: I8?B6<GL J;<6;
J4F I4?<74G87 J<G; 4A 8KC8E<@8AG +;8 @4AH946GHE<A: B9 G;8 F4@C?8F
J4F 54F<6 BA?L <AIB?I<A: G;8 4FF8@5?L B9 <A7<I<7H4? 9B4@ C?4G8F J<G;
4A 47;8F<I8 +;8L 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 BCG<@<M87 5BA8<AFC<E87 @H?G<?4L8E87
FGEH6GHE8 F;BJ87 F<:A<9<64AG?L E87H687 C84> 4668?8E4G<BAF 4A7 G;8 C8A8
GE4G<BA 7<FG4A68 B9 G;8 <@C46GBE J4F E87H687 9EB@  7BJA GB  B9
G;8 6BHCBA G;<6>A8FF +;<F 8KC8E<@8AG 78@BAFGE4G87 G;4G 4 @H?G<?4L8E
C4A8? J<G; 4?G8EA4G<A: FG<VFB9G ?4L8EF 64A 58 4 @BE8 89986G<I8 4E@BHE
FLFG8@ HA78E 54??<FG<6 <@C46G 6B@C4E87 GB @BAB?<G;<6 9B4@
3.2. Manufacturing methods/techniques and experimental results
3.2.1. Additive manufacturing of bio-inspired materials/structures
77<G<I8 $4AH946GHE<A: <F 4 CEB68FF G;4G <AIB?I8F G;8 CEB7H6G<BA B9
C4EGF G;EBH:; FH668FF<I8 477<G<BAF B9 ?4L8EF +;8E8 4E8 7<998E8AG J4LF
G;4G G;8 477<G<I8 @4AH946GHE<A: CEB68FF <F 64EE<87 BHG 23 4A7 
CE<AG<A: @8G;B7F 4E8 G;8 @BFG CBCH?4E 9BE 78I8?BC<A: CEBB9B96BA68CG
5<B@<@8G<6 CEBGBGLC8F %:B 8G 4? 23 <78AG<S87 F8I8E4? CBCH?4E 
CE<AG<A: @8G;B7F 9BE 5<B@4G8E<4?F 48EBFC468 6<I<? <A9E4FGEH6GHE8 4A7
CEBG86G<I8 FGEH6GHE8F A4@8?L 9HF87 78CBF<G<BA @B78??<A: CBJ78E 587
9HF<BA <A>=8G CE<AG<A: 4A7 6BAGBHE 6E49G<A: FG8E8B?<G;B:E4C;L *# 7<
E86G 8A8E:L 78CBF<G<BA 4A7 ?4@<A4G87 B5=86G @4AH946GHE<A: BE G;8 CHE
CBF8F B9 G;<F E8I<8J J;<6; <F G4E:8G87 4G 5<B@<@8G<6 G86;A<DH8F 9BE 54?
?<FG<6 4E@BHE FLFG8@F J8 9B6HF BA  CE<AG<A: G86;A<DH8F 9BE @4AH946
GHE<A: 68E4@<6F 4A7 @8G4?F 4F J8?? 4F ;4E7FB9GC;4F8 6B@CBF<G8F 9BE
CEBB9B96BA68CG 5<B@<@8G<6 CEBGBGLC<A:
&I8E G;8 C4FG 786478  CE<AG<A: ;4F 588A HF87 GB 945E<64G8 7<998E8AG
5<B<AFC<E87 FGEH6GHE8F FH6; 4F A46E8<AFC<E87 23 6BA6; 23 SF;
F64?8 4@BHEF 23 5BA8@<@8G<6 G<FFH8 F6499B?7F 23 4A7 FB
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<A: 4E8 46EL?BA<GE<?8 5HG47<8A8 FGLE8A8 * 23 CB?L ?46G<6 46<7
'# 23 G;8E@BC?4FG<6 CB?LHE8G;4A8 +', 23 CB?L8G;L?
8A8 23 -8EB.;<G8 G8AF<?8 FGE8A:G; B9  $'4 4A7 94<?HE8 FGE4<A B9
 4A7 +4A:B?46>'?HF G8AF<?8 FGE8A:G; B9  $'4 4A7 94<?
HE8 FGE4<A B9  23 +;8 @4<A @4G8E<4?F HF87 <A CBJ78E54F87
 CE<AG<A: 4E8 4 @<KGHE8 B9 *E+ CBJ78E 4?H@<A<H@ BK<78 CBJ78E
4A7 M<E6BA<4 54??F 23 64?6<H@ CB?LC;BFC;4G8 23 +<?- 23
G<G4A<H@ G<G4A<H@ 5BE<78 J;<F>8E 23 K4@C?8F B9 5<B@<@8G<6 CEB
GBGLC8F G;4G ;4I8 588A 78I8?BC87 E868AG?L I<4  CE<AG<A: 4E8 CEBI<787
;8E849G8E
Multiple architectures: !<4 8G 4? 23 @4AH946GHE87 F8I8E4?
5<B<AFC<E87 FGEH6GHE8F HF<A: @H?G<@4G8E<4? CB?L=8G  CE<AG<A: 4A7 <A
I8FG<:4G87 G;8<E C8E9BE@4A68 HA78E ?BJI8?B6<GL G;E88CB<AG 58A7<A:
 @F HF<A: 4 *C?<G BC><AFBA 'E8FFHE8 4E *' +;8F8 @<
6EB4E6;<G86GHE8F <A6?H787 6BA68AGE<6 ;8K4:BAF 5BA8 BFG8BAF FG4:
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8E87 F84 FCBA:8 4A7 ;8?<6B<74? 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA +;8L @<@
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+4A:B'?HF +;8 F84 FCBA:8 4E6;<G86GHE8 F;BJ87 G;8 ;<:;8FG 8A8E:L 7<FF<
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
G;8L B5F8EI87 J8E8 6E46> 78T86G<BA F;<8?7<A: 5E4A6;<A: 4A7 GJ<FG<A:
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A46E8<AFC<E87 C4A8? HF<A: 8KGEHF<BA54F87  CE<AG<A: <:  +;8
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B5F8EI87 9BE G;8 F4@C?8F J<G; RP C?4A> 4A:?8F
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4A:?8F 4A7 FG<VFB9G IB?H@8 9E46G<BAF +;8 BCG<@4? <A6?<A4G<BA 4A:?8F
Fig. 11.  'E<AG87 A46E8?<>8 C4A8?F 4 ?4G 4A7 5 6HEI87 C4A8?F J<G; ;4E7 46EL?BA<
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C8A8GE4G<BA E8F<FG4A68 4A7 T8K<5<?<GL G J4F ABG87 G;4G 5BG; CEBG86G<BA
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Crustacean exoskeleton:  F<AHFB<74??L4E6;<G86G87 ;8?<6B<74? 6B@
CBF<G8 J4F 945E<64G87 5L 04E4:;< 8G 4? 23 HF<A: @H?G<@4G8E<4? 'B?L
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Bone: ;4M?4A 8G 4? 23 945E<64G87 4 5BA8?<>8 68??H?4E FGEH6GHE8
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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J;<6; ;47 G;8 ;<:;8FG CBEBF<GL 
.8<5@4AA 8G 4? 23 945E<64G87 BC8A CBEBHF 5BA8?<>8 F6499B?7F
HF<A: CBJ78E54F87  CE<AG<A: G<G4A<H@ CBJ78E +<?-  E478 
 @B78? J4F 78I8?BC87 HF<A:  FB9GJ4E8 4A7 GE4AF98EE87 GB  CE<AG
<A: <AFGEH6G<BAF .;8A G;8 945E<64G<BA CEB68FF J4F 6B@C?8G87 4 J<E8
8?86GE<64? 7<F6;4E:8 @46;<A8 J4F 8@C?BL87 GB E8@BI8 G;8 FHCCBEG FGEH6
GHE8F L?<A7E<64? F4@C?8F J<G; 4 F<M8 B9  @@ <A 7<4@8G8E 4A7  @@ <A
;8<:;G J8E8 @4AH946GHE87 4F HA<G 68??F J<G; 8<:;G 7<998E8AG GLC8F B9 BE<
8AG4G<BAF +;8 ?4L8E G;<6>A8FF J4F 6BAGEB??87 4G 4CCEBK<@4G8?L  μ@
+;8 F4@C?8F J8E8 E8@4E>45?L @4AH946GHE87 4G @BE8 G;4A  466H
E46L 9EB@ G;8  @B78? A G8E@F B9 @86;4A<64? C8E9BE@4A68 G;8 E8
CBEG87 8?4FG<6 @B7H?HF B9 G;8 F6499B?7F J4F J<G;<A G;8 E4A:8 B9 ;H@4A
6BEG<64? 5BA8
3.2.2. Composite fabrication
Conch: 4F4 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 CE8CE8: 64E5BA S5E8 E8<A
9BE687 6B@CBF<G8 C4A8? G;4G @<@<6F G;8 @46EB ?4L8EF B9 G;8 6BA6; F;8??
4A7 <AI8FG<:4G87 <GF C8E9BE@4A68 HA78E G;E88CB<AG 58A7<A: +;EBH:;
F64AA<A: 8?86GEBA @<6EB:E4C;F *$ G;8L B5F8EI87 G;4G G;8 GHAA8?
6E46>F 8@4A4G<A: 9EB@ G;8 G8AF<?8 MBA8 <AA8E ?4L8E J8E8 78T86G87 4G
4EBHA7  4A:?8F G;EBH:; G;8 @<77?8 @46EB ?4L8E 85BA7<A: 4A7 9E<6
G<BA4? F?<7<A: 58GJ88A G;8 ?4@8??48 J8E8 E8CBEG87 J;<6; E8FH?G87 <A FG4
5?8 6E46> CEBC4:4G<BA G;8E85L CE8F8EI<A: G;8 <AG8:E<GL B9 G;8 FGEH6GHE8
HC GB ?4E:8 6HEI4GHE8F
Crustacean exoskeleton: EHA8A98?78E 8G 4? 23 945E<64G87 4 64E
5BA S5E88CBKL CE8CE8: 6B@CBF<G8 54F87 BA G;8 ;8?<6B<74? S5E8 4EE4A:8
@8AG B9 G;8 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA GB 4FF8FF <GF C8E9BE@4A68 HA78E ;<:;
8A8E:L <@C46G 7EBC J8<:;G J<G; 4 7<4@8G8E B9  @@  ! 4A7 FH5
F8DH8AG 6B@CE8FF<BA49G8E<@C46G  @@@<A 23 +;8L FG46>87
 ?4L8EF <AS?GE4G87 G;8 8CBKL HF<A: 4 I46HH@ 54: 4A7 6HE87 G;8 F4@
C?8F 466BE7<A: GB G;8 @4AH946GHE8EF FC86<S64G<BAF +JB 6BAGEB? F4@
C?8F J8E8 945E<64G87 9BE 6B@C4E<FBA A4@8?L HA<7<E86G<BA4? 4?? C?<8F
BE<8AG87 <A G;8  7<E86G<BA 4A7 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 
BE<8AG4G<BAF J<G; G;8 ?4LHC FL@@8GE<6 45BHG G;8
@<7C?4A8 +;8 ;8?<6B<74? ?4@<A4G8F ;47 EBG4G<BA 4A:?8F B9
4A7  9G8E 4FF8FF<A: G;8 74@4:8 <A G;8 C4A8? HF<A: H?
GE4FBA<6 F64AF G;8L 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 @87<H@ 4A:?8 6B@CBF<G8 
 ;47 G;8 ?84FG 4@BHAG B9 74@4:8 C8A8GE4G<BA 78CG; B9 G;8 <A78AG8E
J4F 4EBHA7  ?8FF G;4A G;8 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 6BAGEB? F4@C?8 @CBE
G4AG?L G;8 E8F<7H4? 6B@CE8FF<I8 FGE8A:G; B9 G;8 @87<H@   4A7
?4E:8 4A:?8   6B@CBF<G8F J8E8 E8CBEG87 GB 58  4A7  ;<:;8E
G;4A G;4G B9 G;8 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 6BAGEB? F4@C?8 E8FC86G<I8?L A 6BAGE4FG
4 CEB@<A8AG 4@BHAG B9 78?4@<A4G<BA J4F B5F8EI87 <A G;8 F@4?? 4A:?8
6B@CBF<G8 J<G; G;8 74@4:87 4E84 58<A: F<:A<9<64AG?L ?4E:8E G;4A
G;4G B9 G;8 BG;8E F4@C?8F
&G;8E <AI8FG<:4G<BAF J8E8 6BA7H6G87 BA 6EHFG4684A<AFC<E87 ;8?<
6B<74? CE8CE8: 6B@CBF<G8F HA78E I4E<BHF ?B47<A: 6BA7<G<BAF 5HG G;8
@4AH946GHE<A: CEB68FF <F F<@<?4E GB G;4G E8CBEG87 5L EHA8A98?78E 8G
4? 23 *:?4FF8CBKL 6B@CBF<G8 HA78E DH4F<FG4G<6 T8KHE8 4A7 F;84E
J;<6; F;BJ87 @4E:<A4? <@CEBI8@8AGF <A T8KHE4? 4A7 F;84E FGE8A:G;
6B@C4E87 GB 4 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 2 3 F4@C?8 23 5<B<A
FC<E87 64E5BA S5E88CBKL HA78E ?BJ I8?B6<GL <@C46G 4A7 6B@CE8FF<BA
49G8E <@C46G J;<6; F;BJ87 4 ?BJ8E 78:E88 B9 <AG8EA4? 74@4:8 ;<:;8E
78?4@<A4G<BA 4A7 ?4E:8E FCE847 B9 <@C46G 74@4:8 6B@C4E87 GB 6EBFFC?L
4A7 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 F4@C?8F 23 64E5BA S5E8E8F<A 6B@CBF<G8 HA78E
DH4F<FG4G<6 58A7<A: J;<6; F;BJ87 E8@4E>45?8 78?4@<A4G<BA 5HG 4 CEB
?BA:87 E8F<7H4? ?B47 6B@C4E87 GB DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 4A7 6EBFFC?L F4@C?8F
23 4A7 64E5BA8CBKL 6B@CBF<G8 HA78E DH4F<FG4G<6 C?4G8 58A7<A:
J;<6; F;BJ87 4A <@CEBI87 C84> ?B47 4A7 ;<:;8E FG<VA8FF BI8E 4 6BEE8
FCBA7<A: 6EBFFC?L F4@C?8 23
Bone: ABG;8E <AI8FG<:4G<BA BA 4 CE8CE8: 64E5BA S5E88CBKL 6B@
CBF<G8 J4F <AFC<E87 5L 5BA8 23 A G;<F 64F8 G;EBH:;G;<6>A8FF E8
<A9BE68@8AG J4F CEBI<787 5L FG4C?<A: G;8 ?4@<A4G8F J<G; FG4<A?8FF FG88?
FG4C?8F G J4F 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 FC86<@8A J<G; 4 ;8?<6B<74? FG46><A: F8
DH8A68 ;4F 58GG8E 785BA7<A: E8F<FG4A68 4A7 <@CEBI87 74@4:8 GB?8E4A68
6B@C4E87 GB GE47<G<BA4? ?4@<A4G87 6B@CBF<G8F ,A78E G8AF<BA G;8 ;8?<
6B<74? 4E6;<G86GHE8 F;BJ87 ;<:;8E 8A8E:L 45FBECG<BA 7H8 GB ?<@<GF BA G;8
78I8?BC@8AG B9 GE4AFI8EF8 6E46>F ,A78E C?4G8 58A7<A: G;8 ;8?<6B<74?
FC86<@8A F;BJ87 G;8 ;<:;8FG ?B47 4A7 8A8E:L 45FBECG<BA +;8 <@C46G
G8FG F;BJ87 G;8 ;<:;8FG C8A8GE4G<BA E8F<FG4A68 +;<F 58;4I<BHE J4F 4G
GE<5HG87 GB G;8 7<998E8AG S5E8 BE<8AG4G<BAF J;<6; CE8I8AG 6BAG<AHBHF
@4GE<K 6E46><A: 4A7 ?<A>HC G;8E85L 7<FF<C4G<A: 8A8E:L <A G;8 7<998E8AG
S5E8 7<E86G<BAF
3.2.3. Other manufacturing of bio-inspired materials/structures
Nacre: %4E7H66< 8G 4? 23 GBB> <AFC<E4G<BA 9EB@ A46E8F G45?8G
FGEH6GHE8 4A7 HF87 4 ?4F8E 6HGG8E GB 8A:E4I8 7BI8G4<? C4GG8EAF <AGB 64E
5BAS5E88CBKL 6B@CBF<G8 ?4@<A4G8F CE<BE GB ?4LHC 4A7 6HE<A: J;<6;
G;8L G8FG87 HA78E G;E88CB<AG 58A7<A: +;8 @8G;B7 CEB7H687 G45?8GF
J<G; 4A 466HE4G8 J<7G; B9   *$ B5F8EI4G<BAF F;BJ87 G;4G 6E46>
78T86G<BA I<4 <AG8E?B6><A: J4F G;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@ J;<6;
@<G<:4G87 74@4:8 4A7 CE8I8AG87 ?B64?<F87 94<?HE8 &G;8E 5<B@<@8G<6
CE<A6<C?8F ;4I8 588A 8@C?BL87 GB <@CEBI8 G;8 C8E9BE@4A68 B9 ?4@<A4G87
6B@CBF<G8F 23
$<E>;4?49 8G 4? 23 8@C?BL87 ?4F8E 8A:E4I<A: GB 78I8?BC 4 F<A
:?8 87:8 ABG6;87 G8AF<?8 :?4FF FC86<@8A J<G; =<:F4J?<>8 T4JF 54F87 BA
G;8 6E46> 78T86G<BA @86;4A<F@F B5F8EI87 <A A46E8 +;8 T4JF J8E8 @4
6;<A87 4;847 B9 G;8 6E46> G<C +;8L FH5F8DH8AG?L <AS?GE4G87 G;8 T4JF
J<G; CB?LHE8G;4A8 J;<6; 78@BAFGE4G87 ;<:;8E GBH:;A8FF 6B@C4E87 GB
@BAB?<G;<6 8A:E4I87 :?4FF B@C4E87 GB E8:H?4E :?4FF G;8 A46E8?<>8
:?4FF J4F B5F8EI87 GB 58  G<@8F GBH:;8E +;8 G86;A<DH8 <F 4CC?<645?8
GB 54??<FG<6 4E@BHE FLFG8@F 4F <G @4L 58 8@C?BL87 GB GBH:;8A 5E<GG?8 68
E4@<6F
4EG;8?4G 8G 4? 23 8@C?BL87 6B@CHG8E AH@8E<64? 6BAGEB?
% @46;<A<A: GB 78I8?BC 4 A46E8?<>8 CEBGBGLC8 54F87 BA G;8 7BI8
G4<? :8B@8GEL B9 G;8 G45?8GF +;8L 4FF8FF87 G;8 89S646L B9 G;8 G45?8G
F?<7<A: @86;4A<F@ HA78E G8AF<BA 'B?L @8G;L? @8G;46EL?4G8 '$$

UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
A4@8?L 46EL?<6 :?4FF J4F HF87 GB @4AH946GHE8 G;8 5E<GG?8 G45?8GF +;8L
<AF8EG87 5B?GF G;EBH:; G;8 G;<6>A8FF GB :8A8E4G8 G;8 GE4AFI8EF8 <AG8E?B6>
<A: 9BE68F HA78E F?<7<A: L G<:;G8A<A: G;8 5B?GF G;8L 46;<8I87 94<?HE8
FGE4<AF B9 45BHG  J;<6; <F CEB@<A8AG?L ;<:;8E G;4A G;4G B9 '$$

Fish scale: ;<AG4C4??< 8G 4? 23 8@C?BL87 ?4F8E 8A:E4I<A: GB @4A
H946GHE8 4 SF;F64?8 ?<>8 F8:@8AG87 C?4G8 GB <AI8FG<:4G8 <GF 58;4I<BHE
HA78E CHA6GHE8 A887?8 J<G; 4 G<C E47<HF B9 7E<I8A 4G  @@
F +B @4>8 G;8 C?4G8 F8:@8AGF 4 ?4F8E J4F E8T86G87 BV 4 @<EEBE 4A7
G;EBH:; 4 ?8AF GB 78I8?BC ;BBC FGE8FF8F 4G G;8 G4E:8G87 ?B64G<BA B9 G;8
:?4FF C?4G8 G;8E85L :8A8E4G<A: ;BBC FGE8FF8F G;4G ?847 GB E47<4? 6E46>F
F @8AG<BA87 45BI8 G;8 5<B<AFC<E87 F8:@8AG87 C?4G8 F;BJ87 4A <A
6E84F8 <A CHA6GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 B9 HC GB  6B@C4E87 GB 4 6BAG<AHBHF
C?4G8 B9 G;8 F4@8 G;<6>A8FF
$4EG<A< 8G 4? 23 8@C?BL87 ?4F8E 6HGG<A: GB 8KGE46G 4 ;8K4:BA4?
F8:@8AG 9EB@ 4 @BAB?<G;<6 :?4FF C?4G8 +;8 SF; F64?8?<>8 F4@C?8 J4F
C?4687 BA 4 FB9G 8?4FGB@8E<6 CB?LHE8G;4A8 FH5FGE4G8 4A7 FH5=86G87 GB
F;4EC 4A7 5?HAG A887?8 CHA6GHE8 4G 4A 8668AGE<6<GL 9EB@ <GF 68AGEB<7 4A7
4 6BAFG4AG I8?B6<GL B9  F +;8<E 4<@ J4F GB HA78EFG4A7 ;BJ G;8 >8L
C4E4@8G8EF <A6?H7<A: G;BF8 6BAGEB??<A: G;8 FG45<?<GL B9 G;8 C?4G8 64A 58
BCG<@<M87 4G G;8 78F<:A FG4:8 GB CEB7H68 5<B<AFC<E87 CEBG86G<I8 FLFG8@F
J<G; 4 78F<E87 6B@5<A4G<BA B9 FHE9468 ;4E7A8FF FG45<?<GL 4A7 T8KHE4?
6B@C?<4A68 +;8L 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 FG45<?<GL B9 G;8 <A7<I<7H4? C?4G8 <F :BI
8EA87 5L G;8 ?B64G<BA B9 G;8 CB<AG 9BE68 BA G;8 C?4G8 9E<6G<BA 4G G;8 FHE
9468 B9 G;8 C?4G8 G;8 F<M8 B9 G;8 C?4G8 4A7 G;8 FG<VA8FF B9 G;8 FH5FGE4G8
C<6;4GGE45EHG 8G 4? 23 @4AH946GHE87 ?4@<A4G87 6B@CBF<G8F J<G;
 ?4L8EF GB @<@<6 G;8 FGEH6GHE8 B9 SF; F64?8F +;8 <A7<I<7H4? ?4@<
A4G8F J8E8 FG46>87 J<G; S5E8 BE<8AG4G<BAF B9 E8?4G<I8 GB 846; BG;8E
J;<6; <F 4A4?B:BHF GJ<FG87 C?LJBB7 G J4F B5F8EI87 G;4G G;8 8A8E:L
45FBECG<BA B9 G;8 6B@CBF<G8 J4F <@CEBI87 7H8 GB G;8 S5E8 BE<8AG4G<BA
J;<6; ?<@<G87 G;8 B66HEE8A68 B9 GE4AFI8EF8 6E46>F 7H8 GB 5E<7:<A:
<B@<@8G<6 CEBGBGLC8F 4G G;8 @<6EB GB A4AB F64?8F ;4I8 4?FB 588A
78I8?BC87 HF<A: G;8 9B??BJ<A: G86;A<DH8F BG CE8FF 4FF<FG87 F?<C 64FG<A:
* @<6EB 23 <68 G8@C?4G<A: J<G; CB?L@8E <AS?GE4G<BA @<6EB
23 @4:A8G<6 9E88M8 64FG<A: @<6EB 23 GE8A6; 8G6;<A: B9 G;8 F<?<
6BA ?4L8EF 4A7 S??<A: B9 G;8 GE8A6;8F J<G; C;BGBE8F<FG 23 ?BFG @BH?7
945E<64G<BA @<6EB 23 6B??B<74? 4FF8@5?L A4AB 23 A4ABC4E
G<6?8 E8<A9BE687 6B@CBF<G8F 5L A4AB:E49G<A: A4AB 23 8?86GEBFC<A
A<A: A4AB 23 C 7E<I8A F8?94FF8@5?L A4AB 23 946<?8 ;L
7EBG;8E@4? CEB68FF 6B4G<A: 23 4A7 G;8E@4? CEB68FF<A: 23 H8
GB G;8<E E4E8 B66HEE8A68 <A G;8 ?<G8E4GHE8 <A G;8 6BAG8KG B9 5<B@<@<6EL
9BE 54??<FG<6 4E@BHE 4CC?<64G<BAF 9HEG;8E 78G4<?F BA G;8 @4=BE<GL B9 G;8F8
G86;A<DH8F 64A 58 9BHA7 <A )89F 23
Nacre: HGG4 8G 4? 23 945E<64G87 4 68E4@<6CB?L@8E 6B@CBF<G8 G;4G
<F E8@<A<F68AG B9 A46E8F 5E<6> 4A7 @BEG4E FGEH6GHE8 HF<A: G;8 9E88M8 64FG
<A: G86;A<DH8 +JB GLC8F B9 68E4@<6 CBJ78EF J8E8 HF87 GB FLAG;8F<F8
GJB GLC8F B9 6B@CBF<G8F E8CE8F8AG<A: G;8 G45?8GF A4@8?L F<?<6454F87
*<& 4A7 4?H@<A<H@ BK<7854F87 ?& J<G; FC;8E8 7<4@8G8EF B9
4A7   E8FC86G<I8?L +;8 @4GE<K J4F E8CE8F8AG87 5L *
8CBKL E8F<A +;8 FG4G<6 4A7 7LA4@<6 C8E9BE@4A68F B9 G;8 FC86<@8AF J8E8
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4. Conclusions
 ?<G8E4GHE8 E8I<8J J4F 6BA7H6G87 GB <78AG<9L F8I8E4? G86;A<DH8F 9BE
6;4E46G8E<F<A: G;8 FGEH6GHE8F 4A7 @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F94<?HE8 @86;
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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Declaration of competing interest
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References
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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5<B@86;4A<6F 
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23 ) .4A: * HCG4 89BE@4G<BA 4A7 9E46GHE8 @86;4A<F@F B9 5BA8 4A7 A46E8
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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... A single hard phase, metakaolinbased geopolymer, is studied while varying the soft phase to form different bioinspired geopolymer composites. A variety of soft phases exist in natural materials (see Refs. [57,58] for a review) as well as in existing composites (see Refs. [59,60] for a review). These soft phases play an important role in enhancing the mechanical behavior of these composites as they serve as media for the various toughening mechanisms. ...
Article
Geopolymer cement is a promising alternative to ordinary Portland cement as it offers comparable mechanical properties and greater durability with lower carbon emissions. Despite its advantages, the brittleness of geopolymer hinders its application as a structural material. In this work, a bioinspired brick-and-mortar structure is explored as a design paradigm to overcome this brittleness and to further augment geopolymer mechanical performance. To this end, composites were prepared with geopolymer as the brick phase and 3D-printed polymers as the mortar phase, with focus on the influence of the mortar phase stiffness. Bending and fracture results reveal strong and tough geopolymer composites can be achieved through a bioinspired brick-and-mortar structure. The geopolymer based composites showed up to 830 times greater toughness with simultaneous gains of 48% in strength compared to the bulk geopolymer. This composite exceeds bending strength and toughness of both its constituents. Stiffer soft phases generate tougher composites compared to more compliant soft phases. Various toughening mechanisms, including brick interlocking, crack bridging and crack deflection, triggered by the bioinspired design, were revealed through Digital Image Correlation, indentation, and microscopy.
... There are several criteria for grouping the design solutions for stab-resistant armors [3], including -base materials used for manufacturing the protective armor: -their structure, especially for composite (as monoblock component, as fibers arranged in yarns and fabrics with different architecture, but dense and with no loose spaces between yarns), -their shape as layers (here including knitting, woven fabrics with metallic fibers, polymeric and natural fibers [4][5][6], glass fibers [7], but also stratified sheets), monoblock plates or animal-mimicked shaped [8] (like scales, turtle tiles, egg-shell [9] etc.), -the technology involved (from laminates, fabrics to printing fabrication). Base materials could be metallic alloys, having the disadvantage of high specific weight, inflexibility, polymeric materials as plates or woven fabrics, the last having the advantage of light weight and flexibility and ceramic materials, usually used to faced combined threats as blades and bullets. ...
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This paper presents preliminary results and discussion on two aramid fabrics in order to establish their stab resistance when used as panels with different numbers of layers. Twaron fabrics SRM509 and CT736CMP, were arranged in 16 and 20 layers and in a combination of them (10 layers SRM509 and 10 layers CT736CMP). Samples of 130 mm x 130 mm were cut from the fabrics, weighed and measured for thickness. All tests were done for an impact energy of 24 J (the resulting impact velocity being 3 m/s). The blade had the geometry recommended in the standard Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor NIJ Standard-0115.00 as P1. The conclusion of this analysis is that the better behavior to stab is obtained for panels that have higher gradients in time, for all four characteristics here discussed: force, displacement, absorbed energy and velocity. When using hybrid panels, the results could intermediate those of the components, this solution could be recommended for reasons as price, weight.
... Complicated damage mechanisms of these helicoidal structures such as fibre breakage, matrix cracking, fibre/matrix interface debonding and delamination have been also observed [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. Changes in the ply orientation are known to affect the toughness and strength of composites by altering their damage mechanisms and related propagation [7]. ...
Article
The design of impact-resistant composite laminates could be inspired by a biologically helicoidal architecture where a series of thin unidirectional fibre laminas are stacked one by one, with the orientation of each fibre layer rotating sequentially by a near-constant angle. The results of low-velocity/face-on impact show that the excessive diffusion of damage inside the helicoidal configurations poses a potential threat to the structural integrity of size-limited laminates, even though the fibre failure is suppressed (which tends to occur in the Cross-Ply controls, resulting in lower contact force). Here, we propose a cross-helicoidal design strategy for the fabrication of high-performance helicoidal composites with variable rotation angles. By adjusting the relative position of the oriented fibre sheets, this cross-helicoidal architecture changes the out-of-plane stiffness of the original helicoidal configuration, resulting in a rather different impact response. Both experimental data and numerical simulations confirm that the introduction of this cross-helicoidal design significantly improved the impact resistance of laminates, with larger impact peak forces and much smaller projected damage area.
... Across the long periods of evolution, natural creatures have developed and optimised structures with porous, grading, stochastic and hierarchical features to achieve superior functionalities (Ghazlan et al. 2021;Tran et al. 2017). These functionalities, which include lightweight, high-strength, impact resistance and energy absorption capacity, can help creatures to survive under harsh environmental conditions. ...
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This paper presents a novel multiscale explicit topology optimisation approach for concurrently optimizing the structure at the macro level and the bio-mimicking porous infillings at the micro level. Solid bar components with cross-section control at the macro level and sphere components at the micro level are constructed as the minimal control units to replace the manipulation of material distribution at each grid. The overlapping, moving and morphing of bar components provide the ability to generate flexible structural shapes at the macro level. Using the inspiration of the turtle shell (carapace), the sphere components are designed to move, overlap, and resize inside the bar to sufficiently mimic both the regular and irregular porous features. Classical beam designs, lattice structure designs and unit cell designs are illustrated as numerical examples to demonstrate the functionalities and correctness of the proposed method. As a result, the stochastic pores distribution and porosity control can be validated. The abilities of optimising lattice structure at truss-level and single unit cell level are demonstrated. Moreover, the samples are fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) technology and then scanned with the X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technique to further examine the manufacturability.