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Inspiration from Nature's body armours – A review of biological and bioinspired composites


Abstract and Figures

Designing and manufacturing multi-functional, lightweight and high-performance body armour materials and assemblies have attracted intense attention recently due to fast-growing military applications. There is an urgent need to reduce the weight and increase the flexibility of body armours without compromising their ballistic protection capability. Natural/biological armour materials and assemblies offer remarkable properties that can inspire the design of lightweight, flexible and tough body armours. In this paper, a systematic review is conducted to identify the structural-mechanical characteristics of selected biological armour systems such as nacre from mollusc shells, conch shells and fish scaled skin. Other biological structures with the potential for ballistic protection have also been investigated, including crustacean exoskeletons and compact bone, which possess structures with important features and properties that may inspire the development of future soldier armours. The techniques and methodologies available for the analysis, fabrication and experimental investigations of bio-inspired armour composites and systems are also reviewed in detail. The investigations that have been found to be most relevant to the development of bio-inspired armour systems for dynamic impact resistance have also been discussed. This discussion can inspire the design of lighter and flexible bio-inspired armour systems that are more efficient in resisting ballistic attacks.
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4University of Melbourne, Australia
5Defense Science and Technology Group, Australia
6Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia
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1. Introduction
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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2. Structural characterisations and experimental/modelling
investigations for determining the mechanical properties/failure
mechanisms of selected biological armour systems
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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2.1. Structural characterisations and experimental investigations for
determining the mechanical properties/failure mechanisms of biological
2.1.1. Marine protective structures
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4A7 9HA6G<BA4? 5<B?B:<64? @4G8E<4? 23 4A7 4 68E4@<6 4A7 CB?L@8E<6
@4G8E<4? 23 GB A4@8 4 98J +;8 >8L FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F B9 G;8 ;<8E4E
6;<64? FGEH6GHE8 B9 @B??HF6 F;8?? ;4I8 588A <78AG<S87 BI8E F8I8E4? ?8A:G;
F64?8F 23 9EB@ AH@8EBHF 6;4E46G8E<F4G<BA G86;A<DH8F <A6?H7<A:
F64AA<A: 8?86GEBA @<6EBF6BCL *$ GE4AF@<FF<BA 8?86GEBA @<6EBF6BCL
+$ 4GB@<6 9BE68 @<6EBF6BCL $ 4A7 BHE<8E GE4AF9BE@ <A9E4E87
FC86GEBF6BCL + ) +;8 FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F G;4G 4E8 @BFG E8?8I4AG <A G;8
6BAG8KG B9 54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA 4CC?<64G<BAF 4A7 G;8<E 9HA6G<BAF 4E8 FH@
@4E<F87 ;8E849G8E
G G;8 @46EB F64?8 G;8 CEBG86G<I8 F;8?? B9 @B??HF6F 6BAF<FGF B9 GJB
6B@CBA8AGF G;4G 9BE@ 4A 4E@BHE FLFG8@ J;<6; <F 6B@CBF87 B9 4 ;4E7
5E<GG?8 FGE<>8 9468 9BE E8F<FG<A: ?B64?<F87 C8E9BE4G<BA 7H8 GB CE874GBE
5<G8F 4A7 4 GBH:; 546><A: ?4L8E A46E8 9BE @<G<:4G<A: 74@4:8 <:
5 23 G G;8 @8FB F64?8  G;<6> :EBJG; 54A7F F8C4E4G8
G;<6> ?4L8EF B9 A46E8 4A7 G;8F8 4E8 58?<8I87 GB 4EE8FG 74@4:8
5L 78T86G<A: 6E46>F 23 G G;8 @<6EB F64?8 G;8 ;84EG B9 A46E8F CEB
G86G<I8 FGEH6GHE8 ;4F 588A B5F8EI87 J;8E85L G;<6> CB?L:BA4?
Table 1
*H@@4EL B9 'E8I<BHFHEE8AG JBE> BA G;8 F<@H?4G<BA 945E<64G<BA 4A7 G8FG<A: B9 5<B<A
F<@H?4G<BA @
C?4G8 -F
 @F
F<@H?4G<BA @F
4A7;8<:;GB9 @@
F45BI8 *HC8E<BE
C4A8? -F
 @F
F<@H?4G<BA @F
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
F<@H?4G<BA @F
<@C46G9EB@4 @@
4E8 @F
4A7 @F
 @F
I8?B6<GL<@C46G @F
 @F4?<58E
 @F4A7
 !7EBCGBJ8E
F45BI8 8?<6B<74?
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
<@C46G9EB@4 @@
Table 2
<8E4E6;<64? FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F B9 A46E8 6BA6; 4A7 SF; F64?8F
*64?8 %46E8 BA6; <F;F64?8
$46EB 'EBG86G<I8FLFG8@
*64?8 @@G;<6>
8@587787F86G<BA @@
 6@<A?8A:G; 6@<A
F86G<BA @@G;<6><A
FB@8FC86<8F G;<6>
@587787?4L8E @@
$8FB &I8E4??G;<6>A8FF
54A7F G;<6>
$<6EB +45?8GFIB?B9
F;4C8 G;<6>
#4@8??48 μ@G;<6>
I4EL<A:4G 58GJ88A
%4AB $<A8E4?5E<7:8F
 FGE8G6;87
B??4:8AS5E<?F A@
 A@G;<6>A8FF4A7
 A@7<4@8G8E
4E4:BA<G8 G45?8GF  <A ?8A:G; 4E8 FG46>87 4A7 FG4::8E87 <AGB 4
@H?G<?4L8E 5E<6> 4A7 @BEG4E FGEH6GHE8 <: 6 J<G; 4A BI8E?4C ?8A:G;
B9  BE 4CCEBK<@4G8?L BA8G;<E7 B9 G;8 G45?8G FHE9468 4E84
23 +;8F8 G45?8GF 6BAFG<GHG8  B9 A46E8F IB?H@8 23
+;8 FG4::8E87 FGEH6GHE8 @<G<:4G8F 74@4:8 G;EBH:; 6E46> 5E<7:<A: 89
G G;8 A4AB F64?8 F8I8E4? 984GHE8F ;4I8 588A B5F8EI87 HF<A: <@4:<A:
G86;A<DH8F <A6?H7<A: GE4AF@<FF<BA 8?86GEBA @<6EBF6BCL +$ 4GB@<6
9BE68 @<6EBF6BCL $ 4A7 BHE<8E GE4AF9BE@ <A9E4E87 FC86GEBF6BCL
+ ) 23 +;8 G45?8GF 4E8 -BEBAB<?<>8 CB?L:BAF <: 7 J<G;
J4IL FHE9468F  A@ 4@C?<GH78 4A7 J4I8?8A:G; 23
+;8 B5?<DH8 87:8F B9 G;8 G45?8GF 78T86G <AC?4A8 6E46>F 4A7 G;8 BI8E
?4C ?8A:G;4E84 58GJ88A 47=468AG ?4L8EF 946<?<G4G8F 6E46> 5E<7:<A:
BHGB9C?4A8 +;8 J4IL <AG8E9468 CEBI<78F CEB:E8FF<I8 <AG8E?B6><A: 58
GJ88A G45?8G FHE9468F J;<6; G;8E85L CEB@BG8F FGE4<A ;4E78A<A: A BE
:4A<6 7H6G<?8 @4GE<K  A@ G;<6> 466BHAGF 9BE  IB? B9 A46E8
4A7 5BA7F G;8 G45?8GF GB:8G;8E J;<6; <F 6B@CBF87 B9 CEBG8<AF 6;<G<A
4 F<?>?<>8 CEBG8<A 4A7 CB?LF466;4E<78F 6B@C?8K 64E5B;L7E4G8 CB?L
@8EF 23 +;8 BE:4A<6 @4GE<K <F ;<:;?L 7H6G<?8 4A7 @4<AG4<AF
G;8 <AG8:E<GL B9 A46E8 HA78E ?4E:8 FGE4<AF %4AB4FC8E<G<8F BE EBH:;
5H@CF ;4I8 588A B5F8EI87 BA G;8 G45?8G FHE9468 <: 7 J<G; 4A
4I8E4:8 ;8<:;G B9  A@ 4A7 4A 4I8E4:8 FC46<A: B9  A@
23 +;8 A4AB 4FC8E<G<8F CEBI<78 FHE9468 EBH:;A8FF 4A7 T4G
G8A HA78E ?B64?<F87 <A78AG4G<BA GB 45FBE5 8A8E:L L?<A7E<64? @<A8E4?
5E<7:8F 6BAA86G 47=468AG G45?8G FHE9468F J<G; 4 7<4@8G8E B9  A@ 4A7
;8<:;G B9  A@ <: 8 23 +;8F8 5E<7:8F 46G 4F E8<A9BE68
@8AGF 4A7 G;8E85L <A6E84F8 G;8 FGE8A:G; 4A7 FG<VA8FF B9 A46E8 H6G<?8
?<:4@8AGF 58GJ88A 47=468AG G45?8GF ;4I8 588A B5F8EI87 J;<6; ;4I8 4
?8A:G; 58GJ88A  A@ HAFGE8G6;87 GB  A@ FGE8G6;87 23 +;8
?<:4@8AGF 6BAA86G<A: G;8 G45?8GF 7<FF<C4G8 8A8E:L 6L6?<64??L I<4 G;8 E8
C84G87 9E46GHE8 B9 <AG8E@87<4G8 F46E<S6<4? 5BA7F
+;8 @86;4A<64? 58;4I<BHE B9 A46E8 ;4F 588A <AI8FG<:4G87 5L @4AL
E8F84E6;8EF HA78E ?<@<G87 ?B47<A: 6BA7<G<BAF G8AF<BA
23 6B@CE8FF<BA 23 58A7<A: 23 F;84E
23 4A7 <A78AG4G<BA 23 +;8 @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F B9
A46E8 HA78E G;8F8 ?B47<A: 6BA7<G<BAF 4E8 FH@@4E<F87 <A *86G<BA 
4A7 G;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F 4E8 7<F6HFF87 ;8E849G8E +8AF<BA
;4F 588A E8CBEG87 GB 58 G;8 CE898EE87 @B78 B9 ?B47<A: 5L A46E8 4F <G
CEB@BG8F F8I8E4? >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F +;8 FGE8FFFGE4<A 58;4I
<BHE F;BJF 4 ?<A84E 8?4FG<6 E8:<BA 4A7 C?4FG<6 789BE@4G<BA J<G; FGE4<A
;4E78A<A: 23  F<:A<9<64AG I4E<45<?<GL <A G;8 G8AF<?8 FGE8A:G; B9 A46E8
;4F 588A 4GGE<5HG87 GB 9E46GHE8 <A G;8 T4JF8AF<G<I8 G45?8GF 23 
F6;8@4G<6 B9 G;8 G8AF<?8 58;4I<BHE B9 G;8 G45?8GF <F <??HFGE4G87 <A <:
4 <A G;8 HA789BE@87 FG4G8 J;8E85L G;8 ?B47 <F GE4AF98EE87 I<4 F;84E
G;EBH:; G;8 <AG8E9468 +;8 >8L @86;4A<F@ E8FCBAF<5?8 9BE A46E8F FGE4<A
;4E78A<A: 58;4I<BHE <F CEB:E8FF<I8 @<6EBF64?8 F?<7<A: 4A7 <AG8E?B6>
<A: 58GJ88A G;8 J4IL G45?8G <AG8E9468F J;<6; @4<AG4<A 6BAG46G HC GB
F?<7<A: 7<FG4A68F B9  A@ <: 5 23 %4AB4FC8E<G<8F 7B ABG
6BAGE<5HG8 @H6; GB G;8 GBH:;A8FF HA78E G8AF<BA :<I8A G;4G G;8L 4E8
F@4?? 984GHE8F G;4G ?BF8 6BAG46G 58LBA7 F?<7<A: 7<FG4A68F B9  A@
 9HEG;8E GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@ <F CEB:E8FF<I8 9E46GHE8 B9 F46E<S6<4?
Fig. 6. 4 *6;8@4G<6 B9 CB?L:BA4? J4IL A46E8BHF G45?8GF HA78E G8AF<BA <A G;8 HA789BE@87
FG4G8 J<G; >8L <AG8E946<4? 984GHE8F ;<:;?<:;G87 5 89BE@87 FG4G8 F;BJ<A: F;84E GE4AF98E
G;EBH:; G;8 <AG8E9468 J;8E8 <AG8E?B6><A: 7H8 GB 6BAG46G 58GJ88A G45?8GF 4A7 FGE8G6;<A: B9
?<:4@8AGF 4E8 G;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F 4A7 6 *GE8G6;87 ?<:4@8AGF J;8E85L 9E46
GHE8 B9 F46E<S6<4? <AG8E@87<4G8 5BA7F 8KCBF8 4 FGE8G6;87 ;<778A ?8A:G; J;<6; <F 4ABG;8E
GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@ 474CG87 9EB@ )89F 23
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
5BA7F <A G;8 ?<:4@8AGF 6BAA86G87 58GJ88A G;8 G45?8GF <: 6 23
J;<6; 8KCBF8 HAFGE8G6;87 ;<778A ?8A:G;F +;8 <AG8E@87<4G8 9E46GHE8 B9
G;8F8 ?<:4@8AGF <A G;8 J84>8E ?BBCF BE @B7H?8F CEB@BG8F 8A8E:L 7<F
F<C4G<BA J;<?FG @4<AG4<A<A: G;8 <AG8:E<GL B9 G;8 6BAA86G<BA 58GJ88A G;8
G45?8GF +;<F CEB68FF B9 6L6?<6 9E46GHE8 B9 G;8F8 <AG8E@87<4G8 5BA7F E8
C84GF HA78E G;8 FGEBA: 5BA7F 58GJ88A G;8 G45?8GF 9E46GHE8
,A78E 6B@CE8FF<BA A46E8 8K;<5<GF 4A<FBGEBC<6 58;4I<BHE J;8A
?B4787 C4E4??8? BE C8EC8A7<6H?4E GB G;8 G45?8G 9468GF 23 G <F J84>8E
4A7 @BE8 5E<GG?8 J;8A ?B4787 C4E4??8? GB G;8 G45?8G 9468GF 7H8 GB @<
6EB5H6>?<A: 4G G;8 <AG8E9468 4A7 8K;<5<GF F8I8E4? 6L6?8F B9 ?B47<A: 4A7
HA?B47<A: J;8A ?B4787 C8EC8A7<6H?4E GB G;8 G45?8G 9468GF +;8 6B@CE8F
F<I8 58;4I<BHE B9 A46E8 <F ;<:;?L E4G8 78C8A78AG J;8A ?B4787 C8EC8A
7<6H?4E GB G;8 G45?8G 9468GF <A7<64G<A: G;4G <GF 4E6;<G86GHE8 @4L 58 <784?
9BE 78984G<A: 54??<FG<6 4GG46>F 23 +;8 CEBC4:4G<BA B9 C4EG<4? 7<F?B64
G<BAF 4A7 789BE@4G<BA GJ<AA<A: 4E8 BG;8E @86;4A<F@F E8CBEG87 HA78E
;<:; FGE4<AE4G8 HA<4K<4? 6B@CE8FF<BA 23 ,A78E ABG6;87 58A7<A: A46E8
8K;<5<GF F8I8E4? GBH:;8A<A: 89986GF B5F8EI87 <A S5E8E8<A9BE687 6B@CBF
<G8F <A6?H7<A: 6E46> 78T86G<BA 4A7 5E<7:<A: 23 +;<F 946<?<G4G8F ?4E:8
<A8?4FG<6 789BE@4G<BAF 4;847 B9 G;8 6E46> G<C J;<6; 5?HAG G;8 6E46>
%46E8 <F CEB@<A8AG?L GBH:;8E <A <GF ;L7E4G87 FG4G8 4F J4G8E C?4FG<6<F8F
G;8 @4GE<K A <GF 7EL FG4G8 <G 8K;<5<GF 5E<GG?8 9E46GHE8 F<@<?4E GB <GF >8L
6BAFG<GH8AG 5H?> 4E4:BA<G8 A 6BAGE4FG A46E8 8K;<5<GF 7H6G<?8 58;4I<BHE
J;8A 7<E86G?L F;84E87 8I8A <A <GF 7EL FG4G8 23 +;<F <F 4GGE<5HG87 GB
@BE8 F?<7<A: F<G8F 58<A: 46G<I4G87 58GJ88A G;8 G45?8G <AG8E9468F HEG;8E
@BE8 G;8 G45?8GF 8KC4A7 F<:A<9<64AG?L <A G;8 G;EBH:;G;<6>A8FF 7<E86G<BA
FH6; G;4G G45?8G F?<7<A: <F @BE8 7<9S6H?G GB <A<G<4G8 G;8E85L 78?4L<A: G;8
BAF8G B9 C?4FG<6 789BE@4G<BA
,A78E <A78AG4G<BA G;8 IB<7F 7H8 GB A4AB4FC8E<G<8F F8C4E4G<A: G;8
G45?8GF ;4I8 4 @BE8 CEB@<A8AG 6BAGE<5HG<BA GB G;8 8A8E:L 45FBECG<BA 64
C46<GL B9 A46E8 4F G;8L T4GG8A BE FB9G8A G;8 6B@CBF<G8 HAG<? 6BAG46G
58GJ88A G;8 G45?8GF G4>8F BI8E <A E8F<FG<A: G;8 ?B47 23 <5E8 CH??BHG
6E46> 78T86G<BA 4A7 BE:4A<6 @4GE<K 5E<7:<A: J8E8 4?FB E8CBEG87 4F >8L
GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F ?G;BH:; 9E46GHE8 B66HEF <A 4 F@4?? AH@58E B9
G45?8GF HA78E G;<F <784?<F87 ?B47<A: 6BA7<G<BA G45?8G 9E46GHE8 64A 6B@
CEB@<F8 G;8 <AG8:E<GL B9 G;8 FGEH6GHE8 C4EG<6H?4E?L HA78E 54??<FG<6 <@C46G
4A7 7H6G<?8 G45?8GF @4L G;8E85L 58 CE898E45?8 A78AG4G<BA J4F 4?FB HF87
GB 78G8E@<A8 G;8 ;4E7A8FF 4A7 8?4FG<6 @B7H?HF B9 A46E8 J;<6; F;BJ87
G;4G G;8F8 CEBC8EG<8F 4E8 <AF8AF<G<I8 A4ABF64?8 BE:4A<6 <A6?HF<BAF <A G;8
G45?8GF 23
Conch (Strombus gigas) shell. BA6; *GEB@5HF :<:4F F;8?? <:
4 ;4F 588A 8KG8AF<I8?L <AI8FG<:4G87 9BE <GF HA<DH8 74@4:8 @<G<:4G
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23 4A7 58A7<A: 23 +;8 @BFG E8?8I4AG <A G;8
6BAG8KG B9 54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA 4CC?<64G<BAF 4E8 FH@@4E<F87 ;8E849G8E
4A7 G;8 @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F 4E8 FH@@4E<F87 <A *86G<BA  ,A
78E G8AF<BA SF; F64?8 ;4F 4 ?BJ FG<VA8FF 7H8 GB <GF ?BJ @<A8E4? 6BA
G8AG  23 GF FGE8FFFGE4<A 6HEI8 F;BJF 4F FH5F8DH8AG C?4FG<6 E8
:<BA HC GB 4 9E46GHE8 FGE4<A B9  *?<7<A: 4A7 CH??BHG B9 G;8 6B??4:8A
S5E8F J8E8 G;8 >8L @86;4A<F@F :BI8EA<A: C?4FG<6 789BE@4G<BA J<G;<A
G;8 ?4@8??4E FGEH6GHE8 ,F<A: BCG<64? @8G;B7F FH778A 6E46><A: B9 G;8
5BAL ?4L8E 9B??BJ87 5L CEB:E8FF<I8 78?4@<A4G<BA 58GJ88A G;8 6B??4:8A
?4L8E 4A7 G;8 FG<V 5BAL ?4L8E ;4I8 588A B5F8EI87 23 +;<F 58;4I<BHE
J4F E8T86G87 4F FG4<E?<>8 C4GG8EAF BA G;8 FGE8FFFGE4<A 6HEI8 +;8 SF;
F64?8 4?FB 8K;<5<GF @BE8 7H6G<?8 58;4I<BHE HA78E ;L7E4G87 6BA7<G<BAF
4A7 E4G878C8A78A68 <A G;8 0BHA:F @B7H?HF HA78E G8AF<BA 23 +;8
J4G8E 6BAG8AG B9 G;8 FB4>87 F4@C?8F 4EBHA7  B9 G;8<E 7EL J8<:;G
E87H68F G;8 IB?H@8 9E46G<BA B9 ;L7EBKL4C4G<G8 6ELFG4?F A 89986G G;<F E8
7H68F G;8 FGE8A:G; B9 G;8 F64?8 23 '8E9BE4G<BACHA6GHE8 G8FGF ;4I8
588A 6BA7H6G87 HF<A: 4 F;4EC A887?8 GB F<@H?4G8 4 CE874GBE 5<G8 BA 4
SF; F64?8 23 +;8L B5F8EI87 G;4G G;8 SF; F64?8 ;4F F<:A<9<64AG?L
;<:;8E CHA6GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 G;4A ;<:; C8E9BE@4A68 8A:<A88E<A: CB?L@8EF
CB?LFGLE8A8 4A7 CB?L64E5BA4G8 +;8L E8CBEG87 G;4G G;8 5BAL ?4L8E <F 4A
<@CBEG4AG 54EE<8E GB CHA6GHE8 HCBA <FB?4G<A: <G G;8 6B??4:8A ?4L8E J;<6;
J4F 84F<?L C8A8GE4G87 F 4 FLFG8@ G;8 J8??78SA87 BI8E?4CC<A: F64?8
FGEH6GHE8 E8FH?GF <A G;E88 ?4L8EF B9 F64?8F J;<6; 4E8 94E @BE8 89986G<I8
<A 8A;4A6<A: CHA6GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 +;8 FG<VA8FF B9 G;8 546><A: FH5FGE4G8
J4F ABG 9BHA7 GB 49986G G;8 CHA6GHE8 9BE68
$8L8EF 8G 4? 23 4?FB 6BA7H6G87 C8A8GE4G<BA 8KC8E<@8AGF BA SF;
F64?8F 5HG HF87 46GH4? C<E4A;4 G88G; +;8L E8CBEG87 G;4G G;8 E8F<FG4A68
GB C8A8GE4G<BA <F @H6; ;<:;8E G;4A G;8 5<G8 9BE68 B9 G;8 C<E4A;4 4EBHA7
 % 7H8 GB G;8 ;<:;?L @<A8E4?<F87 8KG8E<BE ?4L8E B9 G;8 F64?8 *<@<?4E
B5F8EI4G<BAF J8E8 @478 5L *;8E@4A 8G 4? 23 J;B C8E9BE@87 C8A8
GE4G<BA G8FGF BA Atractosteus spatula F64?8F 4A7 B5F8EI87 G;8 ;<:; C8E9BE4
G<BA E8F<FG4A68 B9 G;8 5BAL ?4L8E ,A78E <A78AG4G<BA BE<8AG87 A4ABEB7F
8@587787 <A 4 @4GE<K <A G;8 BHG8E ?4L8E B9 4 SF; F64?8 J8E8 B5F8EI87
4A7 BE:4A<M87 S5E8?<>8 FGEH6GHE8F <A G;8 <AA8E ?4L8E 23 +;8 >8L 74@
4:8 @<G<:4G<A: @86;4A<F@F B5F8EI87 J8E8 6E46> 78T86G<BA 4?BA: G;8 <A
G8E9468 58GJ88A G;8 BHG8E 4A7 8@587787 ?4L8EF J;<6; J8E8 4EE8FG87
<A G;8 8@587787 6B??4:8A ?4L8E <:  +;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4
A<F@F J8E8 G;8E85L E8CBEG87 4F IB<7?<A><A: 4A7 S5E8 5E<7:<A:  F<:A<9
<64AG @<F@4G6; <A G;8 ;4E7A8FF 4A7 @B7H?HF B9 G;8 BHG8E 4A7 8@587787
?4L8E B9 SF; F64?8 ;4F 588A E8CBEG87 J;<6; J4F 4GGE<5HG87 GB G;8 7<998E
8A68 <A @<A8E4? 6BAG8AG 23
,A78E 58A7<A: G;8 SF; F64?8 J4F E8CBEG87 ;4I8 4A4?B:BHF GBH:;8A
<A: 4A7 ?B47 GE4AF98E @86;4A<F@F GB 4E@BHEF J;8E8 G;8 8KG8E<BE ;4E7
Fig. 8. 4 *6;8@4G<6 B9 G;8 6EBFFC?LJBB7 FGEH6GHE8 B9 SF; F64?8 J<G; G;8 CEB@<A8AG @46EB
?4L8EF ;<:;?<:;G87 +;8 5BAL ?4L8E <F FGEBA: GB E8F<FG ?B64?<F87 C8E9BE4G<BA J;<?FG G;8 8@
587787 6B??4:8A ?4L8E 5 CEB@BG8F 8?4FG<6<GL 4A7 GBH:;A8FF G;EBH:; F<@<?4E 6E46> @<G<:4G
<A: @86;4A<F@F B5F8EI87 <A S5E8E8<A9BE687 6B@CBF<G8F <A6?H7<A: S5E8 5E<7:<A: 474CG87
9EB@ )89 23
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
?4L8E CE8I8AGF C8A8GE4G<BA 4A7 4 @BE8 6B@C?<4AG 8@587787 ?4L8E FHC
CBEGF G8AF<?8 ?B47F 4A7 @<G<:4G8F 94<?HE8 23
2.1.2. Other relevant biological structures
EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA 4A7 6BEG<64? 5BA8 4E8 BG;8E 5<B?B:<64? FGEH6
GHE8F G;4G CBFF8FF <AGE<64G8 984GHE8F G;4G @4L 58 58A8S6<4? 9BE 54??<FG<6
CEBG86G<BA ?G;BH:; 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA 4A7 5BA8 4E8 5H<?G 9BE 4G
G46><A: CE8L 4A7 CEBI<7<A: E<:<7<GL GB G;8 ;H@4A 5B7L E8FC86G<I8?L
G;8<E HA<DH8 S5E8E8<A9BE687 4E6;<G86GHE8F 64A CEBI<78 FHC8E<BE 74@4:8
@<G<:4G<A: @86;4A<F@F +;<F 64A ?847 GB G;8 78I8?BC@8AG B9 4 546><A:
?4L8E <A 4 54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA FLFG8@ GB CE8I8AG 64G4FGEBC;<6 94<?HE8 <A
G;8 8I8AG G;4G G;8 FGE<>8 9468 <F 5E846;87 +;8 >8L FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F
4A7 9HA6G<BAF G;4G 4E8 CE8I4?8AG GB 54??<FG<6 CEBG86G<BA 4E8 E8I<8J87 4A7
FH@@4E<F87 ;8E849G8E 4A7 G45H?4G87 <A +45?8 
Crustacean (mainly crab) exoskeleton. EHFG4684AF 4E8 C4EG B9
4 94@<?L B9 4AG;EBCB7F +;8<E 5B7L 64A 58 7<I<787 <AGB G;8 ;847
68C;4?BA G;BE4K 4A7 G;8 G4<? 457B@8A 23 ?? 4AG;EBCB7F <A
6?H7<A: GE<5B?<G8F 6;8?<68E4G8F @LE<4CB7F ;8K4CB7F 4A7 6EHFG4684AF 4E8
6BI8E87 J<G; 4A 8KBF>8?8GBA <: 4 J;<6; <F @4<A?L 6B@CBF87 B9
6;<G<A 4 CB?LF4664;4E<78 BE 64E5B;L7E4G8 23 EHFG4684
FH6; 4F 6E45 ?B5FG8E 6E4LSF; BE F;E<@C 4E8 4?E847L CE8F8AG <A G;8
9BFF<? E86BE7 B9 G;8 4E?L 4@5E<4A C8E<B7 <8 G;8 8K<FG87 4CCEBK<
@4G8?L  @<??<BA L84EF 4:B 4A7 4E8 G;8E85L 4@BA: G;8 @BFG FH6
68FF9H? 4A<@4?F ?<I<A: BA 84EG; 23 .8 9B6HF @4<A?L BA G;8 6E45
8KBF>8?8GBA 4F <G CBFF8FF8F F8I8E4? 984GHE8F G;4G 4E8 ;<:;?L 4GGE46G<I8
9BE CEBG86G<I8 FGEH6GHE8F +;8 8KBF>8?8GBA <F 64C45?8 B9 78FGEBL<A: G;8
;4E7 F;8??F B9 @B??H6F I<4 4 ;4@@8E?<>8 FGE<>8 23 *C86<9<64??L G;8
6E45 8KBF>8?8GBA <F 6B@CBF87 B9 ;<:;?L @<A8E4?<F87 6;<G<ACEBG8<A S
5E8F G;4G 4E8 4EE4A:87 <A 4 GJ<FG87 C?LJBB7 C4GG8EA <: 6 64?6<H@
64E5BA4G8 58<A: G;8 GLC<64? @<A8E4? G;4G CEBI<78F @86;4A<64? E<:<7<GL
23 +;8 8KBF>8?8GBA <F E8DH<E87 GB 58 @H?G<9HA6G<BA4? GB
FHCCBEG G;8 5B7L B9 G;8 4A<@4? 4A7 CEBG86G <G 9EB@ @86;4A<64? ?B47F
Table 3
<8E4E6;<64? FGEH6GHE4? 984GHE8F B9 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA 4A7 6BEG<64? 5BA8
*64?8 EHFG4684A8KBF>8?8GBA BEG<64?6B@C46G5BA8
$46EB KBF>8?8GBA G;<6>F;8??
A7B6HG<6?8 IB?B9
8KBF>8?8GBA G;<6>
$8FB KB6HG<6?8@BE878AF8
$<6EB 8?<6B<74?FG46><A:B9C?4A8F
;8?<64?:8B@8GEL J<78
F;4C87?4@8??48 <A
7<4@8G8E J<78
%4AB BA8L6B@55HA7?8FB96;<G<A
7<4@8G8E ?8A:G;
G;<6> ?BA:
C8E<B7<6<GL 7<44A7
GB@<6 #BA:6;4<ACB?LF466;4E<78
6;<G<A@B?86H?8F N FC46<A:
4A7 G;8 ;4EF; 89986GF B9 <GF 8AI<EBA@8AG 23 G 6BAF<FGF B9 F8I8E4?
CEB@<A8AG E8:<BAF 4 G;8 8C<6HG<6?8 J;<6; <F G;8 BHG8E G;<A J4KL ?4L8E
BE @4<A J4G8ECEBB9<A: 54EE<8E 5 G;8 CEB6HG<6?8 J;<6; 9BE@F G;8 FGEH6
GHE4? 6B@CBA8AG 4A7 9HA6G<BAF GB E8F<FG @86;4A<64? ?B47F 23 +;8
CEB6HG<6?8 64A 58 7<FF86G87 <AGB GJB C4EGF <: 5 G;4G ;4I8 4 F<@<?4E
6B@CBF<G<BA 4A7 FGEH6GHE8 G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 BHG8E G;<6> ?4L8E 4A7
8A7B6HG<6?8 <AA8E G;<6> ?4L8E 23 +;8 8A7B6HG<6?8 46
6BHAGF 9BE  IB? B9 G;8 8KBF>8?8GBA J;<?FG G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 <F FG46>87
@BE8 78AF8?L @CBEG4AG?L G;8 J8??78SA87 ;<8E4E6;<64? BE:4A<M4G<BA B9
G;8F8 6B@CBA8AGF BI8E @H?G<C?8 ?8A:G; F64?8F :<I8F G;8 8KBF>8?8GBA <GF
FHC8E<BE C8E9BE@4A68 23
G G;8 @B?86H?4E ?8I8? G;8E8 4E8 ?BA:6;4<A CB?LF466;4E<78 6;<G<AF
4EBHA7  G;4G 9BE@ A4ABS5E<?F  A@ <A 7<4@8G8E 4A7  A@
<A ?8A:G; J;<6; 6BAG4<A I4E<BHF 4@BHAGF B9 64?6<G8 4A7 4@BEC;BHF 64?
6<H@ 64E5BA4G8 C4EG<6?8F 23 +;8 S5E<?F 4E8 JE4CC87 J<G;
CEBG8<AF 4A7 4FF8@5?8 <AGB S5E8F B9 45BHG  A@ <A 7<4@8G8E
23 +;8F8 S5E8F 9HEG;8E 4FF8@5?8 <AGB 5HA7?8F BE ;BA8L
6B@5F;4C87 4EE4LF <: 7 23 +;8 5HA7?8F G;8A 4EE4A:8 G;8@
F8?I8F C4E4??8? GB 846; BG;8E 4A7 9BE@ ;BE<MBAG4? C?4A8F 23
+;8F8 C?4A8F 4E8 FG46>87 <A 4 ;8?<6B<74? @4AA8E 6E84G<A: 4 GJ<FG87 C?L
JBB7 FGEH6GHE8 <: 6 23  FG46> B9 ?4L8EF G;4G
;4I8 6B@C?8G87 4 EBG4G<BA <F E898EE87 GB 4F 4 BH?<:4A7 FGEH6
GHE8 4A7 <F E898EE87 GB 4F G;8 FG46><A: ;8<:;G B9 G;8 GJ<FG87 C?LJBB7
23 +;8F8 FGEH6GHE8F E8C84G GB 9BE@ G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 4A7 8A
7B6HG<6?8 A 6E45 8KBF>8?8GBAF G;8 @<A8E4?F 4E8 <A G;8 9BE@ B9 64?6<G8
BE 4@BEC;BHF 64?6<H@ 64E5BA4G8 J;<6; 4E8 78CBF<G87 J<G;<A G;8 @4GE<K
G;4G G;8 6;<G<ACEBG8<A S5E8F 4E8 8@587787 <AGB 23
+;8 @86;4A<64? 58;4I<BHE B9 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA ;4F 588A <A
I8FG<:4G87 HA78E ?<@<G87 ?B47<A: 6BA7<G<BAF <A78AG4G<BA @<6EB A4AB
C<6B 23 6B@CE8FF<BA 23 G8AF<BA 23 4A7
F;84E 23 +;8 @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F 4E8 FH@@4E<F87 <A *86G<BA
 4A7 G;8 >8L GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@F 4E8 7<F6HFF87 ;8E849G8E A
78AG4G<BA 4A7 6B@CE8FF<BA 4E8 G;8 @BFG CE8I4?8AG <AI8FG<:4G<BAF 4F G;8
8KBF>8?8GBA <F 78F<:A87 9BE 4GG46><A: CE8L FH6; 4F @B??HF6F HF<A: 4
;<:; I8?B6<GL ?B64?<F87 FGE<>8 ,A78E @<6EB<A78AG4G<BA F;88C 6E45 4A7
Homarus americanus 8KBF>8?8GBAF F;BJ ;<:; ;4E7A8FF 4A7 FG<VA8FF <A
G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 4A7 4A 45EHCG 7EBC <A G;8F8 CEBC8EG<8F <A G;8 8A7B6HG<
6?8 23 +;8 ;4E7A8FF <F F<:A<9<64AG?L ;<:;8E <A G;8 6?4JF G;4A <A
G;8 ?8:F B9 G;8 8KBF>8?8GBA A8E:L 7<FC8EF<I8 /E4L / @4CC<A: E8
I84?87 G;4G G;8 8KB6HG<6?8 <F ;<:;?L @<A8E4?<F87 GB <A6E84F8 ;4E7A8FF 4A7
J84E E8F<FG4A68 4G G;8 FHE9468 J;<?FG G;8 8A7B6HG<6?8 9HA6G<BAF GB 45
FBE5 8A8E:L 4A7 CE8I8AG 6E46> CEBC4:4G<BA &E<8AG87 CBE8 64A4? GH5H?8F
<A G;8 GJ<FG87 ;8?<6B<74? FGEH6GHE8 B9 G;8 8KBF>8?8GBA <@C4EG 4A<FBGEBCL
4A7 GBH:;A8FF G;EBH:; G;8 FGEH6GHE8 5L 46G<I4G<A: @86;4A<F@F B9 6E46>
78T86G<BA 4A7 E8F<FG4A68 GB @<6EB5H6>?<A: 23 HEG;8E@BE8 G;8 C8
E<B7<6 A4GHE8 B9 ;4E7 4A7 FB9G <AG8E9468F 58GJ88A 4?C;46;<G<A S5E<?F
4A7 ;L7EBKL4C4G<G8 6ELFG4?F E8FH?GF <A 4 6E46>G<C F;<8?7<A: 89986G G;4G
6;4A:8F G;8 6E46> 7E<I<A: 9BE68 4A7 G;8E85L 4EE8FGF 6E46> CEBC4:4G<BA
G8E@F B9 E8F<FG<A: 5BG; <AC?4A8 4A7 BHGB9C?4A8 46G<BAF 4 +;8 ;<:;
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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selected biological armour systems
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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2.2.2. Other relevant biological structures
Bone:  SA<G8 8?8@8AG @B78? B9 ;H@4A 6BEG<64? 5BA8 J4F 78I8?
BC87 5L 8@<EG4F 8G 4? 23 GB FGH7L G;8 6BEE8?4G<BA 58GJ88A G;8 9E46
GHE8 E8F<FG4A68 B9 5BA8 4A7 <GF 8?4FG<6 6BAFG<GH8AGF 4F J8?? 4F 9E46GHE8
CEBC8EG<8F 4G G;8 @<6EB F64?8 B@C46G G8AF<BA G8FGF BA BA8 ;B@B:8
A8BHF 4A7 G;E88 7<998E8AG ;8G8EB:8A8BHF @B78?F J8E8 6BA7H6G87 )8
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A G8E@F B9 6E46> CEBC4:4G<BA @BFG B9 G;8 6E46> 9BE@4G<BA J4F 9BHA7
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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3. Modelling, fabrication and experimental investigations of bio-
inspired armour systems
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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3.2. Manufacturing methods/techniques and experimental results
3.2.1. Additive manufacturing of bio-inspired materials/structures
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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6;<G86GHE8F J8E8 945E<64G87 <A6?H7<A: 4 6HEI87 6B@CBF<G8 FGEH6GHE8 G;4G
J4F 78I8?BC87 HF<A: ABAHA<9BE@ E4G<BA4? 54F<F FC?<A8F %,)* +;8L
4?FB 78I8?BC87 4 AH@8E<64? @B78? B9 G;8 FG4::8E87 A46E8?<>8 6B@CBF<G8
FGEH6GHE8 4A7 I4?<74G87 <G HF<A: 8KC8E<@8AGF 9EB@ G;8 ?<G8E4GHE8 G J4F
B5F8EI87 G;4G G;8 G45?8G <AG8E9468 ;47 4 @4E:<A4? 89986G BA G;8 GBH:;
A8FF 5HG E4G;8E G;8 6B;8F<I8 ?4J B9 G;8 47;8F<I8 @4G8E<4? C?4L87 4 F<:
A<9<64AG EB?8 <A 78T86G<A: 4A7 4EE8FG<A: 6E46>F
=H@4F 8G 4? 23 @4AH946GHE87 F8I8E4? FG4::8E87 A46E8?<>8 6B@
CBF<G8F J<G; 7<998E8AG C4GG8EAF 5E<6> ;BA8L6B@5 ;BHE:?4FF BFG8B@BE
C;<6 HF<A: @H?G<@4G8E<4?  CE<AG<A: +;8L 6BA7H6G87 $B78 9E46
GHE8 G8FGF GB <AI8FG<:4G8 G;8 89986GF B9 G;8 :8B@8GEL B9 G;8 G45?8GF BA G;8
<AG8E?B6><A: 58;4I<BHE B9 G;8 6B@CBF<G8F +;8L HF87 4 ;4E7 FG<V CB?L
@8E -8EB.;<G8'?HF GB E8CE8F8AG G;8 G45?8GF 4A7 FB9G EH558E?<>8 CB?L
@8E +4A:B?46>'?HF 9BE G;8 @4GE<K +;8L 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 BFG8B@BEC;<6
F4@C?8F F;BJ87 G;8 ;<:;8FG FGE8A:G;  $'4 4A7 8?BA:4G<BA GB 94<?
HE8  J;<6; F<:A<9<64AG?L BHGC8E9BE@87 G;8 BG;8E 6B@CBF<G8F 8
?B64?<F4G<BA B9 FGE8FF 4EBHA7 G;8 6E46> G<C J4F B5F8EI87 <A 4?? FC86<@8AF
8K68CG 9BE G;8 ;BHE:?4FF F;4C8 J<G; <GF 6BA64I8 :8B@8GEL +;<F J4F 4G
GE<5HG87 GB G;8 G;<A E8:<BA B9 G;8 G45?8G J;<6; <A6E84F87 FGE8FF 6BA68A
GE4G<BAF 4A7 ?87 GB 84E?L 9E46GHE8 B9 G;8F8 5?B6>F FG<V C;4F8 4<?HE8
G;EBH:; G;8 FB9G C;4F8 4F BCCBF87 GB G;8 <AG8E9468 58GJ88A G;8 FB9G 4A7
FG<V C;4F8F 78?4@<A4G<BA J4F B5F8EI87 9BE 4?? FC86<@8AF 8K68CG 9BE
G;4G J<G; ;BHE:?4FF :8B@8GEL
Conch: H 8G 4? 23 @<@<6>87 G;8 F86BA7BE78E ?4@8??4E FGEH6
GHE8 B9 4 6BA6; F;8?? 5L 78I8?BC<A: 4 F@4?? C4A8? HF<A: @H?G<@4G8E<4?
CB?L=8G  CE<AG<A: 4A7 G8FG87 G;8 CEBGBGLC8 HA78E ?BJ I8?B6<GL <@C46G
 @F HF<A: 4 7EBC GBJ8E +;8 C4A8? J4F 4FF8@5?87 9EB@ 4 ;4E7
C?4A>F 4A7 FB9G 5BA7<A: @4G8E<4? G;E88 ?4L8EF B9 EBG4G87 ?4@8??48
J<G; 5BA7<A: 4A:?8F B@C4E87 GB 4A 8DH<I4?8AG @BAB?<G;<6 C4A8?
@478 9EB@ G;8 F4@8 FG<V @4G8E<4? G;8 6BA6;?<>8 78F<:A E8F<FG87 C8E9B
E4G<BA +;8 @4<A GBH:;8A<A: @86;4A<F@ B5F8EI87 J4F 6E46> 78T86G<BA
4?BA: G;8 FB9G 47;8F<I8 5BA7F
*4?<A4F 8G 4? 23 945E<64G87 F8I8E4? CB?L8G;L?8A8 F4@C?8F HF<A: 
CE<AG<A: J<G; CB?L8G;L?8A8 GB @<@<6 G;8 FGEH6GHE8 B9 6BA6; F;8??F 4A7
G8FG87 G;8F8 HA78E <A78AG4G<BA +;8 F4@C?8F J8E8 6B@CBF87 B9 AH@8E
BHF  W  @@ 584@F 4G P P BE P 4A:?8F J;<6; J8E8 6BI8E87
5L 4 G;<A ?4L8E B9 E8F<A   +;8 ;<:;8FG <A78AG4G<BA E8F<FG4A68 J4F
B5F8EI87 9BE G;8 F4@C?8F J<G; RP C?4A> 4A:?8F
Fish scale: )H7L>; 8G 4? 23 8@C?BL87 @H?G<@4G8E<4? CB?L=8G
 CE<AG<A: GB 78I8?BC 4 CEBGBGLC8 54F87 BA G;8 FGEH6GHE8 B9 SF; F64?8
4A7 G8FG87 G;8F8 HA78E <A78AG4G<BA 4A7 G;E88CB<AG 58A7<A: -8EB.;<G8
-. J4F HF87 4F G;8 ;4E7 @4G8E<4? 4A7 +4A:B'?HF +' J4F HF87 4F
G;8 FB9G @4G8E<4? +;8L 78I8?BC87 CEBGBGLC8F J<G; 7<998E8AG <A6?<A4G<BA
4A:?8F 4A7 FG<VFB9G IB?H@8 9E46G<BAF +;8 BCG<@4? <A6?<A4G<BA 4A:?8F
Fig. 11.  'E<AG87 A46E8?<>8 C4A8?F 4 ?4G 4A7 5 6HEI87 C4A8?F J<G; ;4E7 46EL?BA<
GE<?8 5HG47<8A8 FGLE8A8 * G45?8GF 5BA787 5L CB?L?46G<6 46<7 '# 4A7 67 * G45?8GF
5BA787 5L T8K<5?8 G;8E@BC?4FG<6 CB?LHE8G;4A8 +', 23
4A7 @4G8E<4? IB?H@8 E4G<BF J8E8 B5G4<A87 <A G8E@F B9 CEBI<7<A: 5BG;
C8A8GE4G<BA E8F<FG4A68 4A7 T8K<5<?<GL G J4F ABG87 G;4G 5BG; CEBG86G<BA
4A7 T8K<5<?<GL 4E8 ;<:;?L GHA845?8 5L I4EL<A: :8B@8GE<64? C4E4@8G8EF
B9 G;8 @<6EBFGEH6GHE8 8: C?4G8 <A6?<A4G<BA 4A:?8 4A7 IB?H@8 9E46G<BA
?FB G;8F8 8KC8E<@8AGF <78AG<S87 GE478BVF 58GJ88A G;8 GLC<64??L 6BA
T<6G<A: CEBC8EG<8F 8: T8K<5<?<GL -F C8A8GE4G<BA E8F<FG4A68 4F J8?? 4F
G;8 45<?<GL GB 78F<:A G;8 @BFG CEBG86G<I8 @4G8E<4? 4E6;<G86GHE8 9BE 4 E8
DH<E87 T8K<5<?<GL +;<F @4L CEBI<78 A8J 78F<:A :H<78?<A8F 9BE 8A;4A687
T8K<5?8 4E@BHE FLFG8@F
Crustacean exoskeleton:  F<AHFB<74??L4E6;<G86G87 ;8?<6B<74? 6B@
CBF<G8 J4F 945E<64G87 5L 04E4:;< 8G 4? 23 HF<A: @H?G<@4G8E<4? 'B?L
!8G  CE<AG<A: 4A7 G8FG87 HA78E 6B@CE8FF<BA  ;4E7 @4G8E<4?
-8EB.;<G8'?HF J4F HF87 9BE G;8 S5E8F 4A7 4 FB9G CB?L@8E<6 @4G8E<4?
+4A:B?46>'?HF J4F HF87 9BE G;8 @4GE<K +;8 FGEH6GHE8 <F 54F87 BA 4
;8EE<A:5BA8 FGEH6GHE8 54F<64??L 4 ;8?<6B<74? 6BAS:HE4G<BA 5HG J<G; F<
AHFB<74? S5E8F )8FH?GF 9EB@ G;8 8KC8E<@8AGF F;BJ87 G;4G G;8 ;8EE<A:
5BA8 FGEH6GHE8 ;4F 58GG8E 8A8E:L 45FBECG<BA 64C45<?<G<8F G;4A G;4G B9 G;8
CHE8 ;8?<6B<7 FGEH6GHE8 +;8 6E<G<64? FGE8FF B9 G;8 ;8?<6B<74? FGEH6GHE8 J4F
B5F8EI87 GB 58 @H6; ?8FF G;4A G;4G B9 G;8 ;8EE<A:5BA8 FGEH6GHE8 +;<F
FH::8FGF G;4G G;8 ;8EE<A:5BA8 FGEH6GHE8 <F 64C45?8 B9 J<G;FG4A7<A: ?4E:8
FGE4<AF J<G;BHG F<:A<9<64AG 74@4:8 G;8E85L ?847<A: GB 4 ;<:;8E 45FBE587
8A8E:L 78AF<GL J;<6; J4F E8CBEG87 GB 58  !@ 9BE G;8 ;8?<6B<74?
FGEH6GHE8 G <F G;E88 G<@8F ?BJ8E G;4A G;4G B9 G;8 ;8EE<A:5BA8 FGEH6GHE8
 !@
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GHE8F 5L  CE<AG<A: HF<A: *GE4G4FLF )  E8F<A 4 E<:<7 GE4AF?H68AG
@4G8E<4? 4A7 6BA7H6G87 G;E88 CB<AG 58A7<A: G8FGF GB 6;4E46G8E<F8 G;8<E
9E46GHE8 58;4I<BHE G J4F B5F8EI87 G;4G J;8A 6E46>F CEBC4:4G8 4?BA:
G;8 FG46><A: 7<E86G<BA B9 S5E8 ?4L8EF @BE8 8A8E:L <F 7<FF<C4G87 9EB@ BA8
?4L8E GB G;8 A8KG <9 G;8 S5E8 7<E86G<BA 6;4A:8F F?<:;G?L 58GJ88A G;8@
$BABGBA<6 GBEF<BA4? G8FGF J8E8 4?FB 6BA7H6G87 GB 6;4E46G8E<F8 G;8 <AG8E
?4@<A4E F;84E E8F<FG4A68 B9 G;8 ;8?<6B<74? S5E8 FGEH6GHE8F +;8 S5E8 IB?
H@8 E4G<B B9 G;8 C?4<A ;8?<6B<74? FC86<@8AF J4F  J;<6; J4F ?BJ8E
G;4A G;8 S5E8 IB?H@8 E4G<BF B9  <A G;8 FC86<@8AF G;4G J8E8 E8<A
9BE687 J<G; ;8?<68F 4A7 E<A:F +;8E89BE8 G;8 ;<:;8E C84> ?B47 <A G;8
C?4<A ;8?<64? FC86<@8AF J4F 4GGE<5HG87 GB G;8 ;<:;8E @4GE<K 6BAG8AG
Bone: ;4M?4A 8G 4? 23 945E<64G87 4 5BA8?<>8 68??H?4E FGEH6GHE8
<: 4 HF<A: 8KGEHF<BA54F87 AL?BA  CE<AG<A: +;8L 9BHA7 G;4G
G;8 5BA8?<>8 FGEH6GHE8 8K;<5<GF FHC8E<BE 8A8E:L 45FBECG<BA BI8E GE47<
G<BA4? 68??H?4E FGEH6GHE8F <A6?H7<A: ;8K4:BA4? 4A7 E88AGE4AG 4HK8G<6F
<: 5 4A7 6 J;<6; ;4I8 588A FGH7<87 8KG8AF<I8?L <A G;8 ?<G8E4GHE8
23 +;<F 58;4I<BHE J4F 4GGE<5HG87 GB G;8 HA<9BE@ CEB:E8FF<I8
Fig. 12.  'E<AG87 68??H?4E FGEH6GHE8F 4 BA8?<>8 J<G; ;L5E<7 6BA64I8 4A7 6BAI8K 68??F
5 8K4:BA4? 4A7 6 E88AGE4AG 4HK8G<6 7 '8E9BE@4A68 B9 G;8F8 68??H?4E FB?<7F HA78E HA<
4K<4? 6B@CE8FF<BA 23
A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
5H6>?<A: 4A7 6B??4CF8 B9 G;8 ;L5E<7 68??F J;<6; CEBI<787 FG45<?<GL GB G;8
FGEH6GHE8 4A7 78?4L87 G;8 BAF8G B9 78AF<S64G<BA <: 7 $<@<6><A:
G;8 CBEBHF 68??F B9 G;8 5BA8?<>8 FGEH6GHE8 @4L ?847 GB <AGE<64G8 5B7L 4E
@BHE C4A8?F J<G; FHC8E<BE 74@4:8 @<G<:4G<BA 6;4E46G8E<FG<6F
L 8@C?BL<A: CBJ78E54F87  CE<AG<A: )BB;4A<F94;4A< 8G 4?
23 @4AH946GHE87 4 FGEH6GHE8 G;4G @<@<6F G;8 @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F
B9 6BEG<64? 5BA8 9BE 5<B@87<64? 4CC?<64G<BAF  @<KGHE8 B9 *E+ CBJ
78E 4?H@<A<H@ BK<78 CBJ78E M<E6BA<4 54??F 4A7 8G;4AB? J4F GE84G87 <A
4 FLFG8@4G<6 CEB68FF GB 6E84G8 4 @<K B9 B5G4<A87 C4EG<6?8F B9 J;<6; 
J8E8 F@4??8E G;4A  μ@ +;8 5<A78E 9BE  CE<AG<A: J4F @478 9EB@
G;<F CBJ78E J<G; J4G8E 4A7 477<G<BA4? 4:8AGF GB @4<AG4<A G;8 ;B@B
:8A8BHF 4A7 I<F6B8?4FG<6 E8FCBAF8 +;8L CEB7H687 4A7 FGH7<87 G;8 58
;4I<BHE B9 :?4FF68E4@<6 F6499B?7F 9BE 6BEG<64? 5BA8 HA78E 6B@CE8FF<BA
6L6?<6 6B@CE8FF<I8 ?B47<A: 4A7 58A7<A: +;8  CE<AG87 F4@C?8F J<G; 4
;8K4:BA4? 4E6;<G86GHE8 F;BJ87 4 6B@CE8FF<I8 FGE8A:G; J<G;<A G;8 E4A:8
B9 6BEG<64? 5BA8 4F J8?? 4F ;<:; 94G<:H8 E8F<FG4A68 94<?HE8 E8?<45<?<GL 4A7
4 ;<:; 58A7<A: FGE8A:G;
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23 GB @4AH946GHE8 F4@C?8F J<G; 7<998E8AG ?4L8E BE<8AG4G<BAF J;<6;
@<@<6 G;8 @86;4A<64? 58;4I<BHE B9 6BEG<64? 5BA8 +;8 @4G8E<4?F HF87
J8E8 4@BEC;BHF 64?6<H@ CB?LC;BFC;4G8 '' CBJ78E +;8 CHECBF8 B9
G;<F FGH7L J4F GB 78G8E@<A8 G;8 45<?<GL B9 G;8 5<B@<@8G<6 FGEH6GHE8 GB
E8C?468 ;H@4A 5BA8 5L ?<A><A: <GF @86;4A<64? CEBC8EG<8F GB <GF FGEH6
GHE4? 984GHE8F +;8 4HG;BEF @478 SI8 6L?<A7E<64? F4@C?8F  @@ 7<4@
8G8E  @@ ;8<:;G J<G; 7<998E8AG 6BA68AGE<6 S5E8 BE<8AG4G<BAF A4@8?L
P P P P 4A7 P +;8 E8FH?GF F;BJ87 4 F<:A<9<64AG 6BEE8?4
G<BA 58GJ88A G;8 ?4L8E BE<8AG4G<BA 4A7 G;8 6B@CE8FF<I8 FGE8A:G; B9 G;8
G8FG87 F4@C?8F +;8 P F4@C?8F ;47 G;8 ;<:;8FG 6B@CE8FF<I8 FGE8A:G;
 $'4 J;<?8 G;8 P ?4L8E BE<8AG4G<BA E8FH?G87 <A G;8 ?BJ8FG 6B@
CE8FF<I8 FGE8A:G; A4@8?L  $'4 &A G;8 BG;8E ;4A7 G;8 P F4@
C?8F ;47 G;8 ?BJ8FG CBEBF<GL  6B@C4E87 GB G;8 F4@C?8F
J;<6; ;47 G;8 ;<:;8FG CBEBF<GL 
.8<5@4AA 8G 4? 23 945E<64G87 BC8A CBEBHF 5BA8?<>8 F6499B?7F
HF<A: CBJ78E54F87  CE<AG<A: G<G4A<H@ CBJ78E +<?-  E478 
 @B78? J4F 78I8?BC87 HF<A:  FB9GJ4E8 4A7 GE4AF98EE87 GB  CE<AG
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8?86GE<64? 7<F6;4E:8 @46;<A8 J4F 8@C?BL87 GB E8@BI8 G;8 FHCCBEG FGEH6
GHE8F L?<A7E<64? F4@C?8F J<G; 4 F<M8 B9  @@ <A 7<4@8G8E 4A7  @@ <A
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+;8 F4@C?8F J8E8 E8@4E>45?L @4AH946GHE87 4G @BE8 G;4A  466H
E46L 9EB@ G;8  @B78? A G8E@F B9 @86;4A<64? C8E9BE@4A68 G;8 E8
CBEG87 8?4FG<6 @B7H?HF B9 G;8 F6499B?7F J4F J<G;<A G;8 E4A:8 B9 ;H@4A
6BEG<64? 5BA8
3.2.2. Composite fabrication
Conch: 4F4 8G 4? 23 78I8?BC87 4 CE8CE8: 64E5BA S5E8 E8<A
9BE687 6B@CBF<G8 C4A8? G;4G @<@<6F G;8 @46EB ?4L8EF B9 G;8 6BA6; F;8??
4A7 <AI8FG<:4G87 <GF C8E9BE@4A68 HA78E G;E88CB<AG 58A7<A: +;EBH:;
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6E46>F 8@4A4G<A: 9EB@ G;8 G8AF<?8 MBA8 <AA8E ?4L8E J8E8 78T86G87 4G
4EBHA7  4A:?8F G;EBH:; G;8 @<77?8 @46EB ?4L8E 85BA7<A: 4A7 9E<6
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5?8 6E46> CEBC4:4G<BA G;8E85L CE8F8EI<A: G;8 <AG8:E<GL B9 G;8 FGEH6GHE8
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5BA S5E88CBKL CE8CE8: 6B@CBF<G8 54F87 BA G;8 ;8?<6B<74? S5E8 4EE4A:8
@8AG B9 G;8 6EHFG4684A 8KBF>8?8GBA GB 4FF8FF <GF C8E9BE@4A68 HA78E ;<:;
8A8E:L <@C46G 7EBC J8<:;G J<G; 4 7<4@8G8E B9  @@  ! 4A7 FH5
F8DH8AG 6B@CE8FF<BA49G8E<@C46G  @@@<A 23 +;8L FG46>87
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C?8F 466BE7<A: GB G;8 @4AH946GHE8EF FC86<S64G<BAF +JB 6BAGEB? F4@
C?8F J8E8 945E<64G87 9BE 6B@C4E<FBA A4@8?L HA<7<E86G<BA4? 4?? C?<8F
BE<8AG87 <A G;8  7<E86G<BA 4A7 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 
BE<8AG4G<BAF J<G; G;8 ?4LHC FL@@8GE<6 45BHG G;8
@<7C?4A8 +;8 ;8?<6B<74? ?4@<A4G8F ;47 EBG4G<BA 4A:?8F B9
4A7  9G8E 4FF8FF<A: G;8 74@4:8 <A G;8 C4A8? HF<A: H?
GE4FBA<6 F64AF G;8L 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 @87<H@ 4A:?8 6B@CBF<G8 
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4 CEB@<A8AG 4@BHAG B9 78?4@<A4G<BA J4F B5F8EI87 <A G;8 F@4?? 4A:?8
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6B@C4E87 GB 4 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 2 3 F4@C?8 23 5<B<A
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49G8E <@C46G J;<6; F;BJ87 4 ?BJ8E 78:E88 B9 <AG8EA4? 74@4:8 ;<:;8E
78?4@<A4G<BA 4A7 ?4E:8E FCE847 B9 <@C46G 74@4:8 6B@C4E87 GB 6EBFFC?L
4A7 DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 F4@C?8F 23 64E5BA S5E8E8F<A 6B@CBF<G8 HA78E
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?BA:87 E8F<7H4? ?B47 6B@C4E87 GB DH4F<<FBGEBC<6 4A7 6EBFFC?L F4@C?8F
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FCBA7<A: 6EBFFC?L F4@C?8 23
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CBF<G8 J4F <AFC<E87 5L 5BA8 23 A G;<F 64F8 G;EBH:;G;<6>A8FF E8
<A9BE68@8AG J4F CEBI<787 5L FG4C?<A: G;8 ?4@<A4G8F J<G; FG4<A?8FF FG88?
FG4C?8F G J4F 9BHA7 G;4G G;8 FC86<@8A J<G; 4 ;8?<6B<74? FG46><A: F8
DH8A68 ;4F 58GG8E 785BA7<A: E8F<FG4A68 4A7 <@CEBI87 74@4:8 GB?8E4A68
6B@C4E87 GB GE47<G<BA4? ?4@<A4G87 6B@CBF<G8F ,A78E G8AF<BA G;8 ;8?<
6B<74? 4E6;<G86GHE8 F;BJ87 ;<:;8E 8A8E:L 45FBECG<BA 7H8 GB ?<@<GF BA G;8
78I8?BC@8AG B9 GE4AFI8EF8 6E46>F ,A78E C?4G8 58A7<A: G;8 ;8?<6B<74?
FC86<@8A F;BJ87 G;8 ;<:;8FG ?B47 4A7 8A8E:L 45FBECG<BA +;8 <@C46G
G8FG F;BJ87 G;8 ;<:;8FG C8A8GE4G<BA E8F<FG4A68 +;<F 58;4I<BHE J4F 4G
GE<5HG87 GB G;8 7<998E8AG S5E8 BE<8AG4G<BAF J;<6; CE8I8AG 6BAG<AHBHF
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S5E8 7<E86G<BAF
3.2.3. Other manufacturing of bio-inspired materials/structures
Nacre: %4E7H66< 8G 4? 23 GBB> <AFC<E4G<BA 9EB@ A46E8F G45?8G
FGEH6GHE8 4A7 HF87 4 ?4F8E 6HGG8E GB 8A:E4I8 7BI8G4<? C4GG8EAF <AGB 64E
5BAS5E88CBKL 6B@CBF<G8 ?4@<A4G8F CE<BE GB ?4LHC 4A7 6HE<A: J;<6;
G;8L G8FG87 HA78E G;E88CB<AG 58A7<A: +;8 @8G;B7 CEB7H687 G45?8GF
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CE<A6<C?8F ;4I8 588A 8@C?BL87 GB <@CEBI8 G;8 C8E9BE@4A68 B9 ?4@<A4G87
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:?8 87:8 ABG6;87 G8AF<?8 :?4FF FC86<@8A J<G; =<:F4J?<>8 T4JF 54F87 BA
G;8 6E46> 78T86G<BA @86;4A<F@F B5F8EI87 <A A46E8 +;8 T4JF J8E8 @4
6;<A87 4;847 B9 G;8 6E46> G<C +;8L FH5F8DH8AG?L <AS?GE4G87 G;8 T4JF
J<G; CB?LHE8G;4A8 J;<6; 78@BAFGE4G87 ;<:;8E GBH:;A8FF 6B@C4E87 GB
@BAB?<G;<6 8A:E4I87 :?4FF B@C4E87 GB E8:H?4E :?4FF G;8 A46E8?<>8
:?4FF J4F B5F8EI87 GB 58  G<@8F GBH:;8E +;8 G86;A<DH8 <F 4CC?<645?8
GB 54??<FG<6 4E@BHE FLFG8@F 4F <G @4L 58 8@C?BL87 GB GBH:;8A 5E<GG?8 68
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% @46;<A<A: GB 78I8?BC 4 A46E8?<>8 CEBGBGLC8 54F87 BA G;8 7BI8
G4<? :8B@8GEL B9 G;8 G45?8GF +;8L 4FF8FF87 G;8 89S646L B9 G;8 G45?8G
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A4@8?L 46EL?<6 :?4FF J4F HF87 GB @4AH946GHE8 G;8 5E<GG?8 G45?8GF +;8L
<AF8EG87 5B?GF G;EBH:; G;8 G;<6>A8FF GB :8A8E4G8 G;8 GE4AFI8EF8 <AG8E?B6>
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FGE4<AF B9 45BHG  J;<6; <F CEB@<A8AG?L ;<:;8E G;4A G;4G B9 '$$
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H946GHE8 4 SF;F64?8 ?<>8 F8:@8AG87 C?4G8 GB <AI8FG<:4G8 <GF 58;4I<BHE
HA78E CHA6GHE8 A887?8 J<G; 4 G<C E47<HF B9 7E<I8A 4G  @@
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G;EBH:; 4 ?8AF GB 78I8?BC ;BBC FGE8FF8F 4G G;8 G4E:8G87 ?B64G<BA B9 G;8
:?4FF C?4G8 G;8E85L :8A8E4G<A: ;BBC FGE8FF8F G;4G ?847 GB E47<4? 6E46>F
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C?4687 BA 4 FB9G 8?4FGB@8E<6 CB?LHE8G;4A8 FH5FGE4G8 4A7 FH5=86G87 GB
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9468 B9 G;8 C?4G8 G;8 F<M8 B9 G;8 C?4G8 4A7 G;8 FG<VA8FF B9 G;8 FH5FGE4G8
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J;<6; ?<@<G87 G;8 B66HEE8A68 B9 GE4AFI8EF8 6E46>F 7H8 GB 5E<7:<A:
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78I8?BC87 HF<A: G;8 9B??BJ<A: G86;A<DH8F BG CE8FF 4FF<FG87 F?<C 64FG<A:
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4. Conclusions
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A. Ghazlan et al. Composites Part B xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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Declaration of competing interest
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... A single hard phase, metakaolinbased geopolymer, is studied while varying the soft phase to form different bioinspired geopolymer composites. A variety of soft phases exist in natural materials (see Refs. [57,58] for a review) as well as in existing composites (see Refs. [59,60] for a review). These soft phases play an important role in enhancing the mechanical behavior of these composites as they serve as media for the various toughening mechanisms. ...
Geopolymer cement is a promising alternative to ordinary Portland cement as it offers comparable mechanical properties and greater durability with lower carbon emissions. Despite its advantages, the brittleness of geopolymer hinders its application as a structural material. In this work, a bioinspired brick-and-mortar structure is explored as a design paradigm to overcome this brittleness and to further augment geopolymer mechanical performance. To this end, composites were prepared with geopolymer as the brick phase and 3D-printed polymers as the mortar phase, with focus on the influence of the mortar phase stiffness. Bending and fracture results reveal strong and tough geopolymer composites can be achieved through a bioinspired brick-and-mortar structure. The geopolymer based composites showed up to 830 times greater toughness with simultaneous gains of 48% in strength compared to the bulk geopolymer. This composite exceeds bending strength and toughness of both its constituents. Stiffer soft phases generate tougher composites compared to more compliant soft phases. Various toughening mechanisms, including brick interlocking, crack bridging and crack deflection, triggered by the bioinspired design, were revealed through Digital Image Correlation, indentation, and microscopy.
... There are several criteria for grouping the design solutions for stab-resistant armors [3], including -base materials used for manufacturing the protective armor: -their structure, especially for composite (as monoblock component, as fibers arranged in yarns and fabrics with different architecture, but dense and with no loose spaces between yarns), -their shape as layers (here including knitting, woven fabrics with metallic fibers, polymeric and natural fibers [4][5][6], glass fibers [7], but also stratified sheets), monoblock plates or animal-mimicked shaped [8] (like scales, turtle tiles, egg-shell [9] etc.), -the technology involved (from laminates, fabrics to printing fabrication). Base materials could be metallic alloys, having the disadvantage of high specific weight, inflexibility, polymeric materials as plates or woven fabrics, the last having the advantage of light weight and flexibility and ceramic materials, usually used to faced combined threats as blades and bullets. ...
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This paper presents preliminary results and discussion on two aramid fabrics in order to establish their stab resistance when used as panels with different numbers of layers. Twaron fabrics SRM509 and CT736CMP, were arranged in 16 and 20 layers and in a combination of them (10 layers SRM509 and 10 layers CT736CMP). Samples of 130 mm x 130 mm were cut from the fabrics, weighed and measured for thickness. All tests were done for an impact energy of 24 J (the resulting impact velocity being 3 m/s). The blade had the geometry recommended in the standard Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor NIJ Standard-0115.00 as P1. The conclusion of this analysis is that the better behavior to stab is obtained for panels that have higher gradients in time, for all four characteristics here discussed: force, displacement, absorbed energy and velocity. When using hybrid panels, the results could intermediate those of the components, this solution could be recommended for reasons as price, weight.
... Complicated damage mechanisms of these helicoidal structures such as fibre breakage, matrix cracking, fibre/matrix interface debonding and delamination have been also observed [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. Changes in the ply orientation are known to affect the toughness and strength of composites by altering their damage mechanisms and related propagation [7]. ...
The design of impact-resistant composite laminates could be inspired by a biologically helicoidal architecture where a series of thin unidirectional fibre laminas are stacked one by one, with the orientation of each fibre layer rotating sequentially by a near-constant angle. The results of low-velocity/face-on impact show that the excessive diffusion of damage inside the helicoidal configurations poses a potential threat to the structural integrity of size-limited laminates, even though the fibre failure is suppressed (which tends to occur in the Cross-Ply controls, resulting in lower contact force). Here, we propose a cross-helicoidal design strategy for the fabrication of high-performance helicoidal composites with variable rotation angles. By adjusting the relative position of the oriented fibre sheets, this cross-helicoidal architecture changes the out-of-plane stiffness of the original helicoidal configuration, resulting in a rather different impact response. Both experimental data and numerical simulations confirm that the introduction of this cross-helicoidal design significantly improved the impact resistance of laminates, with larger impact peak forces and much smaller projected damage area.
... Across the long periods of evolution, natural creatures have developed and optimised structures with porous, grading, stochastic and hierarchical features to achieve superior functionalities (Ghazlan et al. 2021;Tran et al. 2017). These functionalities, which include lightweight, high-strength, impact resistance and energy absorption capacity, can help creatures to survive under harsh environmental conditions. ...
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This paper presents a novel multiscale explicit topology optimisation approach for concurrently optimizing the structure at the macro level and the bio-mimicking porous infillings at the micro level. Solid bar components with cross-section control at the macro level and sphere components at the micro level are constructed as the minimal control units to replace the manipulation of material distribution at each grid. The overlapping, moving and morphing of bar components provide the ability to generate flexible structural shapes at the macro level. Using the inspiration of the turtle shell (carapace), the sphere components are designed to move, overlap, and resize inside the bar to sufficiently mimic both the regular and irregular porous features. Classical beam designs, lattice structure designs and unit cell designs are illustrated as numerical examples to demonstrate the functionalities and correctness of the proposed method. As a result, the stochastic pores distribution and porosity control can be validated. The abilities of optimising lattice structure at truss-level and single unit cell level are demonstrated. Moreover, the samples are fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) technology and then scanned with the X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technique to further examine the manufacturability.