Article

Performance, Fantasy, or Narrative: LGBTQ+ Asian American Identity through Kpop Media and Fandom

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

LGBTQ+ Asian Americans experience intersecting forms of oppression, and due to the limited research on this underserved population, it is important to understand their lived experiences and the factors that enhance and endanger their health. The absence of positive representations of LGBTQ+ Asian Americans in the media upholds stereotypes and feelings of invisibility that have harmful effects. Studying LGBTQ+ Asian Americans using Kpop media offers a new and timely way to understand these identities and outcomes of well-being. This study qualitatively explored how 16 college-aged LGBTQ+ Asian Americans identify with Kpop and reconstruct representations to protect themselves from negative influences surrounding their identities. Using grounded theory methodology, this study found that Kpop functions as a source of representation and social connection that supports LGBTQ+ Asian Americans. Findings also illustrate how LGBTQ+ Asian Americans engage in Kpop fan labor to create narratives that can mitigate the harmful effects of marginalization.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Interestingly, we did not find a statistically significant association between the MSPSS and a one-item measure of sexual identity community connectedness. Such may possibly be explained by the fact that the sample was LGBTQ+ POC who may place more importance to their racial identities or identities as LGBTQ+ POC instead of conceptualizing connection to a discrete sexual identity-based community (Ghabrial, 2017;Kuo et al., 2022;Le et al., 2022). However, an important limitation of this analysis is that we used one-item measures of these constructs rather than a pre-existing standardized, published measure with more items. ...
Article
The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) is a preexisting measure of social support. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence for scores from the MSPSS obtained from a sample of 267 LGBTQ+ POC. The CFA results and fit indices supported the original three-factor solution.
... For "pleasures of connection", common practices can be as simple as staying updated about K-pop and watching K-pop videos online (Jung & Shim, 2014), or as expensive as bulk-ordering albums to get a meet-and-greet or "fansign" pass (Sheffield, 2018). For "pleasures of appropriation", writing fanfiction is one way where the idols' images are appropriated into certain narratives (Kuo et al., 2020), while "fan-subbing" or fan translations (Cruz et al., 2019) reinterpret official content from the original Korean language into a different language and social context, either English or otherwise. Lastly, "pleasures of performance" are activities where fans can highlight their favorite (or "bias") idols' songs and dances, show off their individual skills as amateur performers, and/or simply relish their biases' performance as "reproduced" or documented by merchandise or memorabilia. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Participatory culture in the form of fandom exhibits various forms of meaning-making, value negotiation, and response patterns (Jenkins, 2018). Korean pop (hereafter K-pop) fandoms are prime examples that enable individuals to become prosumers of media (Fuchs, 2014). Despite existing literature on K-pop fandoms, there is a growing need for studies on participatory culture during the pandemic, to attain a greater understanding of adaptive fandom patterns in the online setup. This study, therefore, determines the online fan practices of Filipino K-pop fans and describes the effect of the pandemic on their fan experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 21 participants, and from which, prevailing themes and arguments were identified through inductive analysis. The study found that Filipino K-pop fans expressed their fanship through material manifestations as characterized by the buy-and-sell (BNS) culture and other communal activities on social media, most specifically Twitter. The pandemic, therefore, did not limit fan practices, but rather allowed fans to migrate, continue, and even let these activities thrive online. With this, the researchers suggest that Jenkins’ framework can be enriched not only with the emphasis of symbolic production, but also by material manifestations of fandom.
Article
This article adopts a transnational approach to the practice of cross-gender casting and the queer fascination with women playing Shakespeare’s male roles. It offers a case study of the South Korean film Fantasy of the Girls (Jungmin Ahn, 2018), exploring the film’s both strategic transgression of gender norms and boundary-crossing adaptation in the transnational context. Fantasy of the Girls features an all-women school theatre group staging Romeo and Juliet and joins similar cross-cast Shakespeare productions in exploring the interaction between the narrative text and the actor’s gendered embodiment, including in terms of the potent effect of gender-transgressive casting on audiences. To trace the ways in which the film uses the device of cross-cast Shakespearean performance to consider young South Korean women’s queer desires, and to examine the special geo-cultural contexts at play, I turn to a distinctive form of queer youth culture which emerged in 1990s South Korea: iban. In this cultural practice, cross-dressing functions as a crucial means of identity production, as another, albeit implicit, reference underpinning the gender-nonconforming Hanam’s performance of Romeo. The coming-of-age film offers a reflection on the connection between the iban fantasy and Shakespeare’s text, which, in turn, provides a model for identity construction, through which the queer teen girls can voice and explore desires that are otherwise inexpressible. Ultimately, Fantasy of the Girls leverages Shakespeare to foreground the unique experiences of queer teen girls in twenty-first century South Korea.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores how thinking gender and sexuality transnationally can help us make sense of “queer” media, practices and performances proliferating across East Asia and Southeast Asia through two prominent examples – South Korean popular music (K-pop) and “boys love” (BL) media. Thinking gender and sexuality transnationally is useful for making sense of the overlapping processes of queer K-pop and BL media fandom, consumption and (re)production, whether this means fans identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer or cis-heterosexual. After situating K-pop within the spread and global phenomenon of the Korean Wave and its androgynous elements, the chapter provides an overview of queer K-pop consumption and performance in Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore and the Philippines. Beyond Japan, transnational BL fan cultures are situated in specific cultural, historical and geographical contexts and need to be interpreted differently from Japanese BL fandom.
Article
In this introductory essay to the special issue “Global Queer Fandoms of Asian Media and Celebrities,” I reflect on key issues in existing scholarship and the fresh contributions and connections made by the commentary pieces. I also discuss the history of, current trends related to, and promising research directions for global queer fan studies. I show that examinations of global queer fandom require an urgent recentering of twenty-first-century Asian media and pop culture. By doing so, I propose the concept of a “globalist queer discourse,” which highlights both the norm-disrupting power of globally networked affective communities formed by gender, sexual, ethnic, and geocultural-linguistic minorities and the queer potential and problems of Asian media and celebrity industries during a drastically changing time of globalization and digitization.
Article
This entry discusses the global queerbaiting and queer fannish discourses surrounding the K-pop girl band Blackpink. I examine some key moments in the music group’s tantalization of female same-sex intimacies and its global fans’ queer reading practices. My analysis shows that while queerbaiting encourages a global queering of the female idols, the contextual specificities of contemporary global K-pop industry facilitate a particular kind of queer fantasies that simultaneously contributes to a global LGBTQ visibility and the social policing of its idols’ (hetero-)sexual innocence and desirability.
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on qualitative interview data, this study examines the cultural translation of K-pop in Canada. By focusing on Canadian youth of Asian descent, who are relatively marginalized in the dominant Canadian mediascape yet considered a main segment of K-pop fandom in Canada, the study closely examines how racial and affective affinities of K-pop are translated and negotiated by young fans. In the study, young Asian Canadian fans challenged the racial stereotyping of K-pop as the other of dominant Western pop culture by positively redefining racial meanings attached to K-pop. Meanwhile, they affectively identified with K-pop idols via the extensive use of social media, and thus internalize a particular mode of subjectivity through which individuals willingly seek the model of a self-developing, entrepreneurial self.
Article
Full-text available
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) young people have been increasingly represented in traditional (offline) media over the past two decades. However, research had not adequately focused on the content of contemporary representations, how such depictions impact LGBTQ young people, or how young people’s experiences are affected by the present context characterized by the rapidly increasing prevalence of new (online) media. Utilizing grounded theory with a sample (n = 19) of emerging adults (age 18–22), this study investigates: (1) messages about sexual orientation and/or gender identity LGBTQ emerging adults receive from LGBTQ representations in traditional media; (2) potential differences in the experiences of LGBTQ emerging adults with traditional media compared to new media; and (3) how consumption of these media messages impact LGBTQ emerging adults. Results indicate that while traditional media (particularly television) creates a common dialogue and validates identity, it continues to represent LGBTQ people as one-dimensional and stereotypical, ignores many LGBTQ sub-groups, limits LGBTQ young people’s perceptions of their future trajectories, and offers no opportunities for critique. In contrast, emerging new media offers new, important, and valued spaces for discussion and creativity.
Article
Full-text available
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth have the potential for considerable resilience. Positive media representations may mediate negative experiences and foster self-esteem, yet the relationship between resilience and both traditional offline and new online media remains underaddressed for this population. This grounded-theory exploration of media-based resilience-building activities by LGBTQ youth (n = 19) indicated four themes that media use enabled: coping through escapism; feeling stronger; fighting back; and finding and fostering community. Data are embedded to evidence thematic findings and incorporate participant voices. The importance of considering the media within contemporary LGBTQ youth's ecological framework to capture their resilience is considered.
Article
Full-text available
Employing performance studies and queer studies, this article explores the subversive nature of western female fandom’s consumption of male dancing bodies in Korean pop (K-pop) culture. By offering close readings of fan-made compilation videos and analysing fans’ comments on YouTube, this article analyses how K-pop male idols’ androgynous gender fluidity provides a space for queering female desire against normative white masculinity. Through video editing, fans ‘choreograph’ their desire by fetishizing K-pop male dancers’ specific body parts and movements and transform themselves from displayed objects to subjects of the gaze. Moreover, through active engagement online, fans transcend their status from spectators to performers who actively enact alternative sexualities and gender roles in a public space. K-pop male singers’ gender performativity is significant, as it challenges rigid gender binaries in western culture – homosexuality/heterosexuality, masculine/feminine body and behaviour, and masculinized gaze/feminized object – as embodiments of hybridized male femininity, which this article calls liminal masculinity.
Article
Full-text available
The transnational Korean media and its active streams to the USA have seemingly increased its potency as new ethnic media. Ethnic media can be defined in more than one way; this demands a shift in the definition, meaning, impact and role of ethnic media at the heart of increasing transnational media use by ethnic minorities and immigrants. This study examines how transnational Korean pop culture has been consumed by Asian American youth and in what ways the Korean media are serving them. All 15 undergraduate students at a public university in the Midwest volunteered for interviews and they were all females, identifying themselves as Asian Americans. According to them, the Korean media has been used along with the media from country of origin; however, the Korean content facilitates their ability to reminisce about the pan-ethnic identity as a member of the East Asian community. The mediated connection to the Korean pop culture presents concrete manifestations of not only the nation, but also the coeval territory of East Asia, which has been limited in their imagined community. Participants also prefer to watch Korean romance dramas because romantic heroes and heroines in Korean romance dramas are depicted to be charming in their roles, and for participants these fresh and positive Asian leads produce pseudo-satisfaction, enabling them to feel comfort from their perception of social marginality.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores how television exposure influences White viewers’ attitudes toward Asian-Americans. Prior research reveals that the dominant image of Asian-Americans in contemporary television is that of the “model minority.” Drawing on cultivation, social identity, and causal attribution theories, this study explores the negative outcomes of the seemingly positive Asian-American model minority stereotype. Path analyses conducted with empirical data from a survey (N = 323) revealed that as compared to light viewers, heavy viewers who internalized television stereotypes reported more stereotypical perceptions of Asian-Americans, greater internal attributions for Asian failures, and more symbolic racist beliefs about Asian-Americans. Implications for media scholars, practitioners, and policymakers are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
White privilege constructs whiteness as normative and central to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) identities and is reproduced through social norms, media representations, and daily interactions. We aimed to enhance understanding of the processes by which white privilege was experienced among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women of color in Toronto, Canada. We conducted two focus groups with LBQ women of color, one with participants who self-identified as masculine of center (n = 8) and the second with participants who identified as feminine of center (n = 8). Findings indicate that LBQ women of color experience intersectional stigma (e.g., homophobia, racism, sexism) on a daily basis. Participant narratives revealed that white privilege shaped the representations of women of color in a particular way that promoted their exclusion from white LBQ spaces and broader society. By representing queerness as white, LBQ women of color were rendered invisible in both queer and racialized communities. LBQ women of color were further marginalized by constructions of "real" women as passive, feminine and white, and conversely perceptions of women of color as aggressive, emotional, and hypersexualized. These representations inform spatialized practices and social interactions through constructing racialized communities as discriminatory and "backwards" while maintaining the invisibility of white privilege and racism in LBQ spaces.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the author presents an overview of the qualitative research approach termed grounded theory (B. G. Glaser, 1978, 1992; B. G. Glaser & A. L. Strauss, 1967; A. L. Strauss, 1987; A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1990, 1998). The author first locates the method conceptually and paradigmatically (paradigms) and then outlines the procedures for implementing it and judging its quality (praxis). The author follows with a discussion of selected issues that arise in using the approach (problems) and concludes by noting the appropriateness of grounded theory for counseling psychology research (promise). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The current investigation examined the influence of the media on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) identity using both survey and in-depth interview approaches. In Study 1, 126 GLB survey respondents (11 unreported) in Texas indicated that the media influenced their self-realization, coming out, and current identities by providing role models and inspiration. In Study 2, 15 interviewees (6 women and 9 men) revealed that media role models serve as sources of pride, inspiration, and comfort. Our findings suggest that increasing the availability of GLB role models in the media may positively influence GLB identity.
Article
Full-text available
In this article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals. The author offers a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress--explaining that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes mental health problems. The model describes stress processes, including the experience of prejudice events, expectations of rejection, hiding and concealing, internalized homophobia, and ameliorative coping processes. This conceptual framework is the basis for the review of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications.
Article
In contemporary South Korea, many cultural studies practitioners would agree that Hanryu-related phenomena have (accidentally) brought about important issues surrounding the role of transnational cultural traffics and border crossings embodied through cultural forms and images to the forefront of public concerns and agendas. This can be considered an enabling opportunity for those who take (transnational) cultural politics seriously and people who want to utilize Hanryu as a new opportunity for constructively engaging with translocal and transnational forms of popular cultures shared through Inter- Asian channels (Kim and Yang 2005; Lee 2005).
Article
South Korean masculinities have enjoyed dramatically greater influence in recent years in many realms of pan-Asian popular culture, which travels freely in part because of its hybrid trans-nationalistic appeal. This book investigates transcultural consumption of three iconic figures - the middle-aged Japanese female fandom of actor Bae Yong-Joon, the Western online cult fandom of the thriller film Oldboy, and the Singaporean fandom of the pop-star Rain. Through these three specific but hybrid contexts, the author develops the concepts of soft masculinity, as well as global and postmodern variants of masculine cultural impacts. In the concluding chapter, the author also discusses recently emerging versatile masculinity within the transcultural pop production paradigm represented by K-pop idol boy bands. © 2011 by the Hong Kong University Press, HKU. All rights reserved.
Article
Studies of real-person fan fiction (RPF) often focus on how RPF exploits the flexibility of celebrity identity. Yet social media have introduced an unprecedented level of proximity between fan fiction communities and their subjects. This article focuses on “bandom,” a fan fiction genre focused on American rock bands like My Chemical Romance. Bandom thrived on the constant contact of social media, but some participants became troubled by their subjects' behavior, particularly some musicians' acts of theatrical homoeroticism termed “stage gay.” Such controversies, coupled with the constant online presence of bandom's subjects, threatened to overwhelm the flexibility that RPF often requires.
Article
In the international spread of popular culture from Korea since the late 1990s, known popularly as the "Korean Wave," television dramas have won the hearts of fans and paved the way for rising interest in Korean popular music throughout Pacic Asia and in Asian communities around the world. Indeed, Korean popular music has been spread-ing rapidly; but, as argued in this article, the reasons have relatively little to do with aesthetic and cultural values that could be identied as typically Korean. After provid-ing a theoretical framework for understanding transnational ows and hybridity, this piece looks specically at the Korean television drama Winter Sonata and the music, pub-lic personas, and career trajectories of BoA and Rain (Bi 비), ultimately questioning the cultural validity of the concept of the Korean Wave. The Korean Wave: Transnational Flows & Hybridity Regarding the international spread of Korean popular culture over the last ten years, known popularly as the "Korean Wave" (hallyu 한류 in Korean), TV dramas have dominated both popular and scholarly discourse, which view Asian "family-friendly" values as the main reason for the success of the shows. As many Korean TV dramas have won the hearts of fans in China, Taiwan, Japan, Southeast Asia, and overseas Asian communities worldwide, prominent cultural scholars like Koichi Iwabuchi and Chua Beng Huat began to analyze the penetration of Korean TV dramas into Asian markets and dened the process as newly "emerging intra-Asian popular cultural ows under globalizing forces" (Iwabuchi 2002, 16). At the same time, Korean popular music has also been spreading rapidly, on a scale scarcely imaginable only a decade ago. However, the reasons behind this new craze have very little to do with traditional Asian family values or uniquely Korean musical elements; instead, interest in Korean popular music seems to be due to its increasingly transnational and hybrid aspects. Today, the issues of transnational cultural ows and cultural mixture (that is, hybridity) are important discourse elements practically everywhere, ac-tively discussed and debated in almost every country around the globe.
Article
This article is an attempt to expand the descriptive characteristics of the Cross model by discussing a theory of psychological Nigrescence that hypothesizes the changes in racial identity that a Black person can experience at various points in the life-cycle process. In this discussion, I will attempt to describe how various stages of racial identity are manifest at three periods of life: late adolescence/early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. I will conclude with a discussion of the implications for counseling Blacks who display varying degrees of racial identity attitudes.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the psychological distress of 144 Asian American lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) persons. When examined concomitantly, these minority stress variables accounted for approximately one third of the variance in psychological distress scores. Results indicate that heterosexism in communities of color, race-related dating and relationship problems in the LGBTQ community, internalized heterosexism, and outness to world were the only significant and unique predictors of Asian American LGBTQ persons’ psychological distress. In addition, no support was found for the moderating or mediating roles of outness in the internalized heterosexism-distress link.
Article
To the uninitiated outsider, media fandom as it's currently practiced online in blog spaces such as LiveJournal makes little sense: strange jargon with unclear acronyms and lots of punctuation sits next to YouTube or Imeem video embeddings. Perhaps a post announces part 18 of a long piece of fan fiction. In the comments someone has left the writer a gift: a manipulated image of her two favorite characters cleverly sized so she can upload it into the blog software interface and immediately start putting it up next to her name as an avatar to represent her. Someone else writes a short fic in response and hotlinks to it: "Come over here and look!" she invites. A third person uses the story as a pretext to write a detailed episode review to illustrate the show's shortcomings. To engage is to click, read, comment, write, make up a song and sing it; to hotlink, to create a video, to be invited to move on, to come over here or go over there—to become part of a larger metatext, the off-putting jargon and the unspoken rules meaning that only this group of that people can negotiate the terrain. Within this circle of community—and in media fandom, women overwhelmingly make up this community1—learning how to engage is part of the initiation, the us versus them, the fan versus the nonfan. The metatext thus created has something to say, sometimes critical things, about the media source, but for those of us who engage in it, it has even more to say about ourselves. This exchange in the fan community is made up of three elements related to the gift: to give, to receive, and to reciprocate.2 The tension and negotiation between the three result in fan creation of social relationships that are constructed voluntarily on the basis of a shared interest—perhaps a media source like a TV show or, perhaps, fandom itself. Fan communities as they are currently comprised, require exchanges of gifts: you do not pay to read fan fiction or watch a fan-made music vid. They are offered for free (although circulation may be restricted and you have to know where to obtain them), yet within a web of context that specifies an appropriate mode of "payment." At the heart of this anticommercial requirement of fan works is fans' fear that they will be sued by producers of content for copyright violation. The general understanding is that if no money is exchanged, the copyright owners have no reason to sue because they retain exclusive rights to make money from their property.3 The notion of the gift is thus central to fan economy as it currently stands, although, as Abigail De Kosnik argues in her essay in this issue, it may be time for the community to consider creating an alternative model that will permit women to profit. Fans insist on a gift economy, not a commercial one, but it goes beyond self-protective attempts to fly under the radar of large corporations, their lawyers, and their cease-and-desist letters. Online media fandom is a gift culture in the symbolic realm in which fan gift exchange is performed in complex, even exclusionary symbolic ways that create a stable nexus of giving, receiving, and reciprocity that results in a community occupied with theorizing its own genderedness. The gifts that fans exchange, which Rachael Sabotini describes as "the centerpiece of fandom,"4 require skill and effort to make. They may be artworks, as in vids (described in more detail in the contributions to this issue by Francesca Coppa and Alexis Lothian), podcasts, fan fiction, or manipulated images. But they may also be narrative analysis, known as meta, of the primary source or of a fan artwork. They may be fan fiction archives, bulletin board forums, screen-capture galleries, fandom-specific wikis, or other aggregates of information. But the items exchanged have no value outside their fannish context. In fact, it is likely that they do not literally exist; fandom's move to the Internet means that the items exchanged are hyperreal and capable of being endlessly replicated. Erika...
Article
Studies of gender, science fiction television, and fan culture have often asserted that female fans resist patriarchy by negotiating cultural texts through such practices as fan fiction and interactive deliberation. This analysis holds that specific motivation and context must be considered to advance such a claim, especially in light of undercurrents of misogyny contributing to such phenomena as "slash" fan fiction authored by women and dealing with romances between male heroes. This study assesses the practices of fans, relevant text, and production factors in the context of particular, gender-related issues surrounding the series Farscape and Stargate SG-1, and finds that activities often thought to be emancipatory can, in fact, reproduce hegemony, and that fans sometimes appropriate resistive rhetoric in defense of hegemonic proclivities.
Article
Most racial-ethnic stereotypes about Asian Americans are constructed, activated, and perpetuated by the media, but very few empirical studies have ever investigated the extent to which people accept the media stereotypes about Asians. This study applied cultivation theory to examine whether people's perceptions of Asian Americans are consistent with media stereotypes and whether the media activated racial-ethnic stereotypes affect people's interaction behaviors with Asians. Results demonstrate that people's perceptions and judgments about Asian Americans are largely aligned with the media representations, and these stereotypes impact people's intent to interact with Asians. Four specific findings were obtained. First, among racial-ethnic groups in the U.S., Asians are perceived as most likely to achieve academic success; second, Asians are most likely to be perceived as nerds; third, Asians are perceived as most likely to be left out; and last, people are least likely to initiate friendship with Asians and Hispanics.
Article
This article explores a regionally specific phenomenon and logic of transnational popular cultural flow as an example to illustrate the complexity involved in the cultural hybridization thesis and the implications that it has for the debate on the globalization of culture. This article argues that the Korean wave is an indication of new global, as well as local, transformations in the cultural and the economic arena. This phenomenon especially signifies a regionalization of transnational cultural flows as it entails Asian countries’ increasing acceptance of cultural production and consumption from neighboring countries that share similar historical and cultural backgrounds, rather than from politically and economically powerful others. The article further argues that the Korean wave is a sign of how a country considered ‘in-between’ (or sub-periphery) can find a niche and reposition itself as a cultural mediator in the midst of global cultural transformation.
Article
The research presented in this paper set out to explore the cultural context of youth suicide and more specifically any connections between sexual identity and self-destructive behaviour, in the light of international evidence about the disproportionate risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) young people. The empirical basis for the paper is qualitative research that was carried out in the North West of England and South Wales. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with a total of 69 young people, with a purposive sample to reflect diversity of sexual identity, social class and regional and rural-urban location. The paper presents a thematic analysis of the data specifically relating to the experiences of LGBT young people. A range of strategies that LGBT young people employ in the face of distress are described. These are categorised as resilience, ambivalence and self-destructive behaviour (including self-harm and suicide). The potential implications for health and social care of these strategies include the need for ecological approaches and for sexual cultural competence in practitioners, as well as prioritisation of LGBT risk within suicide prevention policies.
Article
The concept of mechanisms that protect people against the psychological risks associated with adversity is discussed in relation to four main processes: 1) reduction of risk impact, 2) reduction of negative chain reactions, 3) establishment and maintenance of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and 4) opening up of opportunities. The mechanisms operating at key turning points in people's lives must be given special attention.
Article
This study examined the effect of nonstereotyped, same-sex role models on the self-esteem of children in Grade Three. There were 346 subjects: 315 white Australian, 15 Asian, 3 Aboriginal, 2 African, 5 Middle Eastern, and 6 European. Five groups were formed from these 346 children. Four of the groups were exposed to 12 nongender-role stereotyped stories over 4 weeks that varied from each other according to the sex of the story reader and the sex of the main character. The fifth group was a control group that was used to calculate stability and reliability. A self-concept measure was administered in a pre- and posttest format to all children. A three-way analysis of variance and subsequent analyses revealed that both girls' and boys' self-esteem increased more with same-sex role models than with the other-sex role models. In addition, girls responded better to a male role model than boys did with a female role model. The sex of the reader was irrelevant in all cases. It is concluded that since same-sex characters in storybooks can positively affect children's self-esteem, it is important for both girls and boys to have equal access to strong same-sex characters.
Article
This paper provides a commentary regarding the quantitative content analyses of gender roles in media published in the two special issues of Sex Roles (Rudy et al. 2010a, 2011). A few themes and some overarching lessons emerge from the wide variety of data presented. First, it is clear that women are under-represented across a range of media and settings. Second, when women are portrayed, it is often in a circumscribed and negative manner. Women are often sexualized—typically by showing them in scanty or provocative clothing. Women are also subordinated in various ways, as indicated by their facial expressions, body positions, and other factors. Finally, they are shown in traditionally feminine (i.e., stereotyped) roles. Women are portrayed as nonprofessionals, homemakers, wives or parents, and sexual gatekeepers. Although the studies generally support these conclusions, some interesting moderating factors are identified, such as race. It is suggested that next steps involve the development of theory and a body of empirical evidence regarding the effects of exposure to under-representation of women. Data concerning the effects of exposure to sexualized or stereotypical portrayals on young audiences is also lacking. Finally, content analyses of new media, including those created and distributed by users, are recommended as a next step. It is concluded that, while increasing the representation of women in media may be valuable, it is also critical that the manner in which they are portrayed be simultaneously considered to avoid increasing negative or stereotypical depictions that may be particularly harmful to viewers. KeywordsMedia effects–Content analysis–Gender roles–Sex
Article
Much has been written about how gender, sexuality, and race are socially constructed. However, less common have been examinations of how these categories are constructed for, and influence, those who inhabit the margins of multiple categories. In this paper, I explore the various ways that gay Asian men have been portrayed in Western, particularly American, narratives and media images. Rather than simply experiencing oppression for being gay and again for being Asian, I argue that gay Asian men have experienced a unique set of social dilemmas because they are gay AND Asian. As such, I explore media images and popular narratives that have gendered Asian men in general and gay Asian men in particular to create a contextual basis for gay Asian male identity development. In doing so, I argue that much more than simply prescribing a gendered role for gay Asian men to “perform,” these constructions may have detrimental affects for gay Asian men’s sense of self-esteem, mental well-being, and physical health.
Article
The trauma of sexual assault is heightened for many women by the interlocking experience of societal traumas such as racism, sexism, and poverty. The mental health effects of sexual assault are mediated by race and ethnicity. The investigators explore the experiences of African American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American female survivors of sexual assault. The sociohistorical context of intergenerational trauma in the lives of ethnic minorities is a part of the context for the contemporary experience of sexualized violence. Racial and ethnic dynamics related to sexual assault prevalence, mental health effects, and disclosure are examined. Literature related to cultural beliefs, community attitudes, and perceived social support in relation to sexualized violence are also reviewed. Finally, practice, research, and policy implications are discussed.
Enterprising women: Television fandom and the creation of popular myth
  • C Bacon-Smith
Bacon-Smith, C. (1992). Enterprising women: Television fandom and the creation of popular myth. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
The dynamics of racial representation in the K-pop fan productions
  • S J Choi
Choi, S. J. (2014). The dynamics of racial representation in the K-pop fan productions. World Congress of Korean Studies. Manoa: University of Hawai'i.
Showtime: Pop culture's impact on society's view of the LGBTQ population
  • H Comer
  • J D Bower
  • N Sparkman
Comer, H., Bower, J. D., & Sparkman, N. (2015, October 22-26). Showtime: Pop culture's impact on society's view of the LGBTQ population. Paper presented at the Conference Proceedings 2014 NOHS National Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2014.
The practice of everyday life (S. Rendall, trans.)
  • M De Certeau
de Certeau, M. (1984). The practice of everyday life (S. Rendall, trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Queer and unusual space: White supremacy in slash fanfiction (Doctoral dissertation, MA dissertation). Queen's University, Canada
  • A Fazekas
Fazekas, A. (2014). Queer and unusual space: White supremacy in slash fanfiction (Doctoral dissertation, MA dissertation). Queen's University, Canada. Retrieved from http://hdl.han dle.net/1974/12609
Why are there no male Asian anchormen on
  • B Fong-Torres
Fong-Torres, B. (1995). Why are there no male Asian anchormen on TV? In M. Kimmel & M. A. Messner (Eds.), Men's lives (3rd ed., pp. 256-260). New York: Macmillan Publishing.
Creating a safe space for queer teens
  • A U Guevarra
Guevarra, A. U. (2015, February). Creating a safe space for queer teens?: Some initial findings on queer teens in K-pop cover groups and fan community. Ateneo Korean Studies Conference Proceedings, 1, 102-119.
People's history and socialist theory
  • S Hall
Hall, S. (1981). Notes on deconstructing "the popular." In R. Samuel (Ed.), People's history and socialist theory (pp. 227-240). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
BTS’ new music video breaks YouTube record for most views in 24 hours
  • J Hollingsworth
  • S Jeong
Hollingsworth, J., & Jeong, S. (2019, April 17). BTS' new music video breaks YouTube record for most views in 24 hours. CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2019/04/17/asia/ korea-bts-youtube-intl/index.html
Between hybridity and hegemony in K-Pop's global popularity: A case of girls' generation's American debut
  • G Kim
Kim, G. (2017). Between hybridity and hegemony in K-Pop's global popularity: A case of girls' generation's American debut. International Journal of Communication, 11(2017), 2367-2386.
And then they boned: An analysis of fanfiction and its influence on sexual development (Unpublished master's thesis)
  • L Mixer
Mixer, L. (2018). And then they boned: An analysis of fanfiction and its influence on sexual development (Unpublished master's thesis). Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.