IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)
e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 20, Issue 5. Ver. I (May. 2018), PP 11-16
DOI: 10.9790/487X-2005011116 www.iosrjournals.org 11 | Page
Relationship between Work-Life Balance and Job
Performance of Employees
Thevanes, N 1, Mangaleswaran.T2
1(Temporary Lecturer, Department of Economics and Management, Vavuniya Campus of the University of
Jaffna, Sri Lanka)
2(Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics and Management, Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna,
Corresponding Author: Thevanes, N
Abstract: Work-life balance is an emerging contemporary issue that everyone is struggling to achieve between
the work sphere and the family sphere. Despite its importance, banks employ several work-life balance
promoting practices to enhance the employee job performance as well as organizational performance. However,
there are lacunas in empirical studies undertaken in Sri Lankan context regarding the relationship between
work-life balance and job performance. This study was conducted in order to fulfil these empirical knowledge
gaps. Hence, the objective of this study is to test the relationship between work-life balance and job
performance. In order to achieve the objectives, primary data were collected from 166 employees of selected
private banks in Batticaloa region of Sri Lanka and the structured questionnaire was administered to collect the
data. The data were analysed by using univariate and bivariate analyses. The findings of the study revealed that
work-life balance has positive and significant relationship with job performance in overall. The current study is
considered to be vital in understanding the empirical knowledge regarding the relationship between work-life
balance and job performance.
Keywords: Employee, Job performance, Work-life balance, Relationship
Date of Submission: 17-04-2018 Date of acceptance: 05-05-2018
In the current competitive business world, organizations paying a great attention on improve the
organizational sustainability to gain the competitive advantage. Fundamentally, sustainability deals with three
types of performance dimensions such as economic (financial), social and environmental performance which are
necessary for environment as well as organizations (Elkington, 1997).
In an organizational context, employees are viewed as the significant actors in determining the
sustainability of the organization (Jabbour et al. 2010; Jabbour & Santos 2008a; Jabbour & Santos 2008b; Brio,
Fernandez & Junquera 2007 ; Kim et al. 2016; Ji et al. 2012; Opatha & Arulrajah 2014; Daily & Huang 2001;
Govindarajulu & Daily 2004; Thevanes & Arulrajah 2016a; Thevanes & Arulrajah 2016b). Hence,
organizations increasingly required to focus on human resource management (HRM) to enhance the
organizational sustainability. Because, achieving organizational sustainability become unrealistic without
employee participation and commitment.
Hence, recent days, organizations continuously focus on implementing the several high performance
HR practices and strategies to improve the employee job performance such as training, performance appraisal,
compensation, career development, team working and etc. Among the HRM practices, improving work-life
balance considered as the one of the major high performance HRM practices which highly contribute to enhance
the employee performance (Hyde et al. 2013). According to Cieri et al. (2002) work-life balance is the
maintenance of a balance between responsibilities at work and at home.
In this context, several researchers argued that, improving work-life balance of employee, highly
contributes to improve the employees‟ satisfaction, commitment and engagement (Allen & Armstrong 2006;
Konrad & Mangel 2000; Peetz et al. 2003; Townsend et al. 2011; McDonald, Townsend & Wharton 2013;
Grady et al. 2008; Cegarra-Leiva, Sánchez-Vidal & Cegarra-Navarro 2012). Further, improving work-life
balance also contributes to reduce the absenteeism and turnover of employees. Work-life balance is about
creating and maintaining supportive and healthy work environments, which will enable employees to have
balance between work and personal responsibilities and thus strengthen employee loyalty and productivity. For
example, empirical findings indicate that employees who feel good and experience limited stress at work and at
home are more likely to feel satisfied with their work (Wright & Cropanzano 2000), to be committed to the
organization (Mathieu & Zajac 1990), and to engage in supportive behaviors toward the organization (Rosen et
Relationship Between Work-Life Balance And Job
DOI: 10.9790/487X-2005011116 www.iosrjournals.org 12 | Page
al. 2010). Recent days, employees seriously concern about their work-life balance before accept the job offer
beyond the salary and other fringe benefits. This becomes increasingly difficult as many qualified candidates
may be in dual-career families and need to consider their spouse or partner‟s career in making their own career
decisions (Hutchings, Lirio & Metcalfe 2012). Further, employees do not show interest in working in outside
area beyond their home town in order eliminate the work-life conflict.
Nowadays, many organizations have recognized the importance of developing a culture that supports
employees‟ attempts to balance their work and family responsibilities. Organizations strive to adopt work-life
balance practices such as flexitime, teleworking and etc to improve the employee performance. Further,
technology development also supports to change the nature of work and provided opportunities to work from
multiple locations, including the home. Work-life is the practice of providing initiatives designed to create a
more flexible, supportive work environment, enabling employees to focus on work tasks while at work. Hence,
based on the above argument it is possible to improve the employee job performance of employees through
enhance their work-life balance.
In this scenario, many researchers found out that there are interactions between family life and work
life and have conducted number of researches on work-family balance in the recent past (Clarke 2001; Clarke,
Koch & Hill 2004; Grady et al. 2008; Naithani 2010; Brauchli, Bauer & Hammig 2011; Cegarra-Leiva,
Sánchez-Vidal & Cegarra-Navarro 2012; McDonald, Townsend & Wharton 2013; Goyal & Babel 2015).
However, there is only little research that has been focused on the relationship between work-life balance and
job performance. But there is a gap in the empirical knowledge in relationship between work-life balance and
job performance of bank employees in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lankan context, banking industry is the one of the key
contributors to enhance economic activities of the country. Achieving work-life balance in the fast pace of
banking system and creating a balance between professional and personal life is a challenge for an individual
(Sivatte et al.2015). Further, one Sri Lankan study conducted by Akuratiyagamage and Opatha (2004) on the
grievances of the managers in the banking sector found that hours of work caused high level of grievances
among them. In this context, there is a need to study the relationship between work-life balance of employees
and job performance.
Considering above evidences, the researcher of this study would like to conduct a research in order to
fulfil the empirical knowledge gaps in connection with the relationship between work-life balance and job
performance. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the relationship between work-life balance and
employee job performance among the bank employees in Sri Lanka.
This article is structured as follows. The next section presents the review of the relevant literature about
work-life balance, and employee job performance and proposes the hypotheses; the third section provides the
methodology of this study. Lastly, we present the findings and discussion of the study and finally, it ends up
with the conclusion
II. Literature Review
Organizations should focus on improving the organizational performance to gain the competitive
advantage. People factor plays an energetic role in improving and sustaining the organization‟s performance. In
this context, Arulrajah and Opatha, (2012) argued that an organization‟s performance directly depends on the
individuals it employs. Because, employees of organization is considered as the major stakeholders in
determine the performance of organization. Hence, organizations are increasingly required to focus on
improving the job performance of employees to enhance the organization performance.
Given the present situation the organizations have to find out ways and techniques to improve the job
performance of employees. In this sense, many researchers have generally agreed on the important role of work-
life in improving the job performance of employee (Naithani 2010; Gomez et al. 2010; Kim 2014; Karatepe
2013). Further, Naithani (2010) stated that work-life balance of an individual employee when viewed
collectively for the total workforce of an organization results into a colossal impact on the qualitative and
quantitative organizational performance. Several researchers revealed that work-life balance in the workplace
has become a more important issue as it tends to exhibit positive results such as low turnover, work engagement,
organizational citizenship behavior, in-role performance, increased employee productivity, job satisfaction, and
organizational commitment (Konrad & Mangel 2000; Lambert 2000; Nawab & Iqbal 2013; Wang & Walumbwa
2007) which turns lead to enhance the job performance of employee. Hence, organizations should give more
priority to enhance the work-life balance of employees to enrich the employee job performance.
Wheatly (2012) indicate that, work-life balance of employee providing the win-win outcomes from
both employer and employees. Further, Grady et al. (2008) argued that, work-life balance is vital for
individuals‟ wellbeing, organizations‟ performance and a functioning society. In addition to that, Naithani
(2010) has stated that organization which neglects issues related to employee work-life balance will end up with
lower employee productivity and in turn will find it more difficult to improve the employee job performance.
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DOI: 10.9790/487X-2005011116 www.iosrjournals.org 13 | Page
As noted above, work-life balance play a pivotal role in determine the job performance of employees.
In this context, many researchers have found that work life balance has a positive relationship to work
performance (Naithani 2010; Gomez et al. 2010; Cegarra-Leiva, Sánchez-Vidal & Cegarra-Navarro 2012;
Aslam 2015). In general, work-life balance promoting HRM practices such as telecommuting, job sharing,
flexitime and etc. lead to improve the employee performance by eliminating the work-life conflict. Thus, work
life balance leads to improve the job performance by improving the employee loyalty, satisfaction, commitment,
organizational citizenship behavior and productivity as well as reducing employee turnover and absenteeism.
According to the above literature, this review establishes that work-life has a positive relationship with
Therefore, this review proposes a hypothesis:
Hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between work-life balance and job performance
Hence, based on the review, this paper proposes a conceptual model that shows the relationship between work-
life balance and job performance (see Fig. 1).
Source: Developed for this study purpose
III. Material And Methods
Sampling and Data Collection
The empirical data for the current study were collected from selected private banks in Batticaloa
district. The total population for the study was 210 employees of selected private banks in Batticaloa. Out of
these, 166 employees were selected as sample to conduct this research by using disproportionate stratified
sampling method, because to assure representation of employees belonging to different grades in the selected
banks. This study depends on primary data. The data of this study were collected from the respondents
through structured questionnaire. In order to ensure the content validity of the scale used, it is advised to largely
adapt the items for each construct from prior researches (Luarn & Lin 2005). Therefore, 25 survey items for
each constructs in the questionnaire were adapted from prior researches. The questionnaire contained questions
relating to work-life balance and job performance.
All constructs were measured with multiple items developed and tested in previous studies. Each item
was measured on a five point Likert-type scale anchored by „strongly disagree‟ and „strongly agree‟ response
options. The researchers used an instrument adapted from past review works of Banu and Duraipandiyan (2014).
This instrument can be used to measure work-life balance in an organization that consists of eleven question
items in five Point Likert-scales. This instrument had a Cronbach‟s alpha of 0.89 which is higher than 0.70.
Hence, this instrument had a good reliability. To measure the job performance, fourteen question items were
used from past research works of Koopmans et al. (2011). The instrument had a good degree of reliability with a
Cronbach‟s alpha of 0.87.
IV. Result Of The Study
Profile of the Respondents
In the survey, the gender distribution of the respondents is 57.2 percent males and 42.8 percent females.
In terms of job position of the respondents, 12.7 % of them were managers, 15.7 % of them were assistant
managers, 33.1 % of them were banking assistants, and 10.8 % of them were banking trainees. The results
revealed that the respondents are young, with 49.4 percent between 18 and 28 years. In terms of educational
background of the respondents, 75.9% of them were A/L qualified, 21.3% of them were graduates and 2.8% of
them were postgraduates. In terms of the civil status of the respondents, 54.2 of them were single and 42.8 were
married. The results also revealed that 34.9 percent respondents have the work experience below 5 years, 41.6
percent of the respondents have work experience between 6 and 10 years and 23.5 percent of the respondents
have the experience above 11 years.
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Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the variables (Jahangir &
Begum, 2008). According to Sekaran (2000), the correlation coefficient value (r) range from 0.10 to 0.29 is
considered weak, from 0.30 to 0.49 is considered medium and from 0.50 to 1.0 is considered strong. However,
according to Field (2005), correlation coefficient should not go beyond 0.8 to avoid multi-collinearity. The
correlation matrix shows that multi-collinearity does not threaten the validity of the data. Table 1 present the
correlations and descriptive statistics for all variables tested in the study. The descriptive statistics of the study
suggest that there are high levels of work-life balance exist among the bank employees. The results also imply
that job performance of bank employees is in high level with mean scores from 3.77 to 4.15 of 5. Correlation
analysis explained that work-life balance has a strong positive correlation with job performance.
Table 1. Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Matrix
Notes: N=166, ****. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Source: Survey data
The results of the analyses indicate that a significant and positive relationship exists between work-life
balance and job performance. This result provides a support to the hypothesis of the study. The results of the
current study suggest that, organizations need to enhance the work-life balance of the employees to improve
their job performance. Work-life balance plays a vital role in determine the job performance of employees by
enhancing their job satisfaction, commitment, engagement, organizational citizenship behavior and productivity.
In addition to that work-life balance considered as the crucial element to reduce the work related stress of
employee which in turns lead to improve the job performance of employee. In general, organizations implement
the effective work-life balance promoting practices such as telecommuting, job sharing, flexitime, part time
work, shift work, employee assistance programmes, on-site child care facility, leave progarmmes, and
compressed work weeks to improve the job performance. Beyond that, organizations should focus more on
creating, identifying, implementing the effective work-life balance promoting practices to improve and
sustaining the employee as well as organization performance.
Further, Thevanes and Arulrajah (2017) argued that, work-life balance promoting practices contributes
to enhance the organizational sustainability by improving the economic, social and environmental
performance of organization. In addition to that, Senthilnathan and Arulrajah (2014) stated that, improving the
organizations‟ employees work-life balance is directly contributes to improve the social performance of
organization. In this regard, recently organizations start up to recruit and select appropriate people who are
closest to the workplace or organization to eliminate the work-life conflict of employees. For the employees
who work in the home town, the work-life conflict is much less than the others whose work site is far away from
home (Thevanes & Arulrajah, 2017). Further, an employee can work around the clock to improve the
productivity. Most of the employees who work in the out stations usually feel homesick and don‟t show any
interest in their works. Hence, this suggested that organizations take necessary steps to up-lift the work-life
balance of employees in order t o improve job performance of employees. This finding consistent with previous
studies which suggested work-life balance contributes to enhance the job performance (Kim 2014; Aslam 2015;
Naithani 2010; Gomez et al. 2010; Cegarra-Leiva, Sánchez-Vidal & Cegarra-Navarro 2012).
Collecting empirical data from banking industry in Sri Lanka, one of the rapidly developing economics
in the world, researcher tests the relationship between work-life balance and job performance. According to the
empirical findings from this study, work-life balance, as an important element of HRM, does influence
employees‟ performance. Other conditions being equal, the better the work-life balance in a given firm, leads to
improve the job performance of employees. This study is important because the Sri Lanka has, in recent years,
adopted a range of work-life policies. Empirical findings should help practitioners to understand the how their
employees‟ work-life balance influences on job performance.
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