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Catalogue des types de la collection de phasmes du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle de Paris (Insecta, Phasmatodea)

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The genus Pterinoxylus Serville, 1838 is redescribed and revised at the species level. It is distributed throughout most of Central America, the northern half of South America and also has one species on the Lesser Antilles. Two new species are described from Costa Rica: P. cocoense n. sp. from both sexes and the eggs and P. speciosus n. sp. from both sexes. The female of P. perarmatus (Redtenbacher, 1908) is described and illustrated for the first time, as are the eggs of the type-species P. eucnemis Serville, 1838 and P. perarmatus (Redtenbacher, 1908).
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Paraphasma Redtenbacher, 1906 is a genus of fully-winged stick insects occurring in central and northern South America. We carried out a morphology-based taxonomic revision of this genus with emphasis on the phallic organ, a structure that has been poorly explored for taxonomic purposes in Phasmatodea. Additionally, pairwise genetic distances between mitochondrial COI gene sequences were calculated for ten Paraphasma specimens representing six species. We recognize nine valid species in the genus plus one nomen dubium, Paraphasma fasciatum Gray, 1835. We redescribe Paraphasma and the species previously assigned to it, describe Paraphasma indistinctum Chiquetto-Machado sp. nov., Paraphasma sooretama Chiquetto-Machado sp. nov. and Paraphasma spinicauda Chiquetto-Machado sp. nov., and provide a key to the species in the genus. The male of Paraphasma minus Redtenbacher, 1906 is described for the first time, as well as the eggs of six species. We transfer Paraphasma amabile Redtenbacher, 1906 to Pseudophasma Kirby, 1896 (comb. nov.) and synonymize Pseudophasma xanthotaenidium Günther, 1930 under this species (syn. nov.). In addition, Phasma perspicillaris Stoll, 1813 is removed from the synonymy of Paraphasma laterale (Fabricius, 1775) and synonymized under Parastratocles xanthomela (Olivier, 1792) (syn. nov.). The examination of the phallic organ was essential for species delimitation, as most species of Paraphasma are very similar in the external morphology of both sexes. The analysis of the COI sequences supported the species delimitation, resulting in remarkably lower pairwise distances between conspecific individuals (p-distance ≤ 2.0%) than between different species (p-distance 6.9–17.5%). We hope that this paper will stimulate further studies exploring the taxonomic and phylogenetic potential of the internal male genitalia of stick insects.
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During 1989 and 1990 and early 1991 spermatophores were observed in nine species of Phasmida which were being reared in captivity: Extatosoma tiaratum (Macleay), Lonchodes jejunus, (Brunner), Haaniella saussurei Kirby, Staelonchodes Kirby sp., Centrophasma hellotis, (Brunner) Aretaon asperrimus (Redtenbacher), Anchiale maculata(Olivier) and Acrophylla wuelfingi (Redtenbacher), Lamponius guerini (Saussure). The spermatophore of Haaniella saussurei is illustrated.
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The genus Paraloxopsis Günther, 1932 was described from a single female specimen of Paraloxopsis korystes Günther, 1932. The male and egg are described for the first time, along with a redescription, and illustrations, of the female; three new Bornean localities are recorded for this species. Loxopsis tuberculata Redtenbacher, 1908 is transferred to Paraloxopsis, redescribed, and recorded from five new localities. The key features distinguishing this genus from Loxopsis Westwood, 1859 are listed. The mode of egg laying is discussed in relation to other possible related genera.
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Detailed catalogue of Stick and Leaf-Insects (Insecta: Phasmida) associated with Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, including numerous new synonyms
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The southern African species of Bactrododema Stål, 1858, Palophus Westwood, 1859 (both Diapheromeridae: Palophinae) and Bactricia Kirby, 1896 (Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae), are reviewed. Bactrododema krugeri spec. nov. is described, while Bactrododema hecticum (Lichtenstein, 1796) comb. nov. is redescribed and discussed. Bactrododema brevitarsis Stål, 1876, Bactrododema aculiferum Kirby, 1902, Bactrododema lugardi Kirby, 1902, Palophus brevicornis Redtenbacher, 1908, Palophus holubi Redtenbacher, 1908, and Palophus transvaalensis Redtenbacher, 1908, are synonymized with Bactrododema tiaratum Stål, 1858. Phibalosoma calametum Bates, 1865, Hyrtacus carinatus Kirby, 1902, and Bactricia irregularis Brunner, 1907, are synonymized with Bactricia bituberculata (Schaum, 1857) stat. rev., which takes priority over Bactricia trophinus (Westwood, 1859). The genus Palophus is regarded as a synonym of the genus Bactrododema. Palophus titan Sjöstedt, 1913 is synonymized with Bactrododema hippotaurum (Karsch, 1896) comb. nov. Palophus rothschildi Bolivar, 1922 is synonymized with Bactrododema phillipsi (Kirby, 1896) comb. nov., and Palophus brongniarti Redtenbacher, 1908 is synonymized with Bactrododema episcopalis (Kirby, 1896) comb. nov. Keys to the adults of South African species are provided, eggs of two Bactrododema species are described, and the distribution of all southern African Bactrododema species mapped.
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Six species of Pseudosermyle Caudell, 1903 occurring in Mexico are discussed. Three new species from Mexico are described and illustrated, all of which are closely related to Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907): P. chorreadero n. sp. from both sexes, P. procera n. sp. and P. claviger n. sp. from the males only. The males of P. inconguens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) and P. tolteca (Saussure, 1859) are re-described and illustrated. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are furthermore provided for both sexes and the eggs of P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907). Taxonomic problems caused by misidentifications and wrong synonymies of previous authors concerning to these six species are clarified. A lectotype is designated for Pseudosermyle incongruens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907). Ocnophila crudis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 and Dyme depressa Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 are shown to be junior synonyms of P. phalangiphora Rehn, 1907.
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Résumé – Une liste du matériel typique des phasmes de Madagascar comprenant les principales données disponibles pour chaque espèce est établie. Pachymorpha distincta Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907 est transféré dans le genre Antongilia. Antongilia quadrituberculata Chopard, 1952 est renommé Antongilia chopardi nom. nov. Anisacantha vidua Redtenbacher, 1906 est mis en synonymie avec A.difformis Redtenbacher, 1906. Un lectotype est désigné pour chacune des espèces suivantes : Antongilia distincta, Antongilia quadrituberculata, Antongilia simplex, Antongilia squamigera, Cirsia finoti, Leiophasma adusta, Leiophasma brevivalvis et Leiophasma concolor. Summary – Type material of stick-insects from Madagascar (Phasmatodea). A list of type material of stickinsects from Madagascar including main data available for each species is established. Pachymorpha distincta Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907 is transferred to the genus Antongilia. Antongilia quadrituberculata Chopard, 1952 is renamed Antongilia chopardi nom. nov. Anisacantha vidua Redtenbacher, 1906 is synonymised with A. difformis Redtenbacher, 1906. A lectotype is designated for each of the following species: Antongilia distincta, Antongilia quadrituberculata, Antongilia simplex, Antongilia squamigera, Cirsia finoti, Leiophasma adusta, Leiophasma brevivalvis and Leiophasma concolor.
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Australia has a rich diversity of phasmids – otherwise known as stick and leaf insects. Most of them are endemic, few have been studied and new species continue to be found. Stick insects are, by far, Australia’s longest insects – some of them reach up to 300 mm in body length, or more than half a metre if you include their outstretched legs. Many stick insects are very colourful, and some have quite elaborate, defensive behaviour. Increasingly they are being kept as pets. This is the first book on Australian phasmids for nearly 200 years and covers all known stick and leaf insects. It includes photographs of all species, notes on their ecology and biology as well as identification keys suitable for novices or professionals.
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The South American genus Phantasca Redtenbacher, 1906 (Phasmatodea: Diapheromeridae: Diapheromaerinae) is re-diagnosed and revised at the species level. The precedingly unknown eggs are described for the first time. The genus Pterolibethra Günther, 1940 (type species: P. heteronemia Günther, 1940) is re-synonymised, with Phantasca (syn. nov.) and consequently the two species originally contained, P. heteronemia Günther, 1940 and P. poeciloptera Günther, 1940, are transferred to Phantasca (comb. rev.). P. laeta Conle, Hennemann & Gutierréz, 2011 is not congeneric and is transferred to the genus Jeremiodes Hennemann & Conle, 2007 (Cladomorphinae: Cladomorphini; comb. nov.). Two species are removed from Bacteria Berthold, 1827 and transferred to Phantasca; these are B. quadrilobata Chopard, 1911 and B. montana Redtenbacher, 1906 (comb. nov.). Six new species are described: P. adiposa sp. nov., P. amabile sp. nov., P. femorata sp. nov., P. guianensis sp. nov., P. nigrolineata sp. nov. and P. ruboligata sp. nov. The male and egg of P. quadrilobata (Chopard, 1911) are described and illustrated for the first time. The genus now contains 13 species that are distributed throughout the northern half of South America. A key as well as detailed descriptions and illustrations are presented for all known species.
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Résumé. – Leiophasma mayottensis n. sp. est décrit ; il s’agit du premier phasme décrit de Mayotte dont il est peut-être endémique. Une clé des espèces du genre Leiophasma est fournie. Summary. – A new species of Leiophasma from Mayotte (Phasmatodea, Pygirhynchinae?). Leiophasma mayottensis n. sp. is described; it is the first phasmid described from Mayotte of which it is maybe endemic. A key to species of Leiophasma is given.
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Résumé. – Description du genre Spathomorpha n. gen. dont l’espèce type est S. adefa n. sp. et dans lequel est transféré Hyrtacus lancettifer Brancsik, 1893. Ce nouveau genre malgache a une position taxinomique incertaine. Les hypothèses de parenté les plus plausibles sont discutées. Kurzfassung. – Spathomorpha n. gen. : eine neue Gattung der Phasmatodea aus Madagaskar (Phasmatodea, Anareolatae). Die neue Gattung Spathomorpha n. gen. wird beschrieben und S. adefa n. sp. als Typusart desi¬gniert. Hyrtacus lancettifer Brancsick, 1893, wird zu Spathomorpha n. gen. gestellt. Die systematische Stellung dieser neuen, madagassischen Gattung ist fragwürdig. Denkbare Verwandtschafts-Hypothesen werden erläutert. Summary. – Spathomorpha n. gen. : a new genus of stick insect from Madagascar (Phasmatodea, Anareolatae). Two Madagascan species are included in Spathomorpha n. gen. : S. adefa n. sp. (designated the type species) and S. lancettifer (Brancsik, 1893) n. comb., transferred from the genus Hyrtacus. This new Malagasy genus has an uncertain taxonomic position. Hypothesis of relationship that seem the most plausible are discussed.
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Paraphanocles keratosqueleton was originally described by Stoll in 1788, although he did not use binominal nomenclature. The first valid publication of a name for this species, Mantis keratosqueleton, was published in Olivier 1792. Lichtenstein, presumably unaware of the work of Olivier, described Phasma cornutum Lichtenstein 1802 as an objective synonym. Stoll’s later work was edited and published posthumously in 1813, with the same species bearing the binominal Phasma bicornis Stoll 1813. The objective synonyms resulting from the work of Stoll, Lichtenstein and Olivier are discussed by Bragg 1995. The genus Paraphanocles was erected by Zompro 2001 containing the single species Mantis keratosqueleton Olivier 1792. The genus is differentiated from Phanocles Stål 1875 in the male by a dilating tergite X that is wider than tergite IX, in females by the lack of lateral lobes on tergite VI. In the same publication Zompro synonymised Bacteria bellangeri Redtenbacher 1908 , Bacteria bradypus Redtenbacher 1908 , Bacteria integra Redtenbacher 1908 and Bacteria maxwelli Redtenbacher 1908 with Pa. keratosqueleton. Prior to this Redtenbacher 1908 made Phanocles curvipes Redtenbacher, 1892 a junior synonym of Phasma bicornis Stoll 1813. Dyme mutica Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907 was subsequently synonymised with Pa. keratosqueleton by Bellanger et al. 2012 . Otte & Brock 2005 later synonymised Bacteria cyphus Westwood, 1859 under Pa. keratosqueleton. Examination of type material of the species currently synoynmised under Pa. keratosqueleton has revealed errors in prior works. In this paper we demonstrate that Dyme mutica and Bacteria integra form a distinct species from Pa. keratosqueleton and transfer them to the genus Phanocles sensu Zompro 2001. This species is believed to be endemic to Trinidad and Tobago. Bacteria maxwelli Redtenbacher 1908 has its abdominal segment X as widened as the posterior half of abdominal tergite IX in the male, excluding it from membership of Paraphanocles sensu Zompro, 2001 even though it was this author who synonymised the species. We remove B. maxwelli from synonymy under Pa. keratosquelton and transfer it to the genus Bacteria.
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A new species, Phyllium (Pulchriphyllium) shurei n. sp. is described and illustrated from Java, Indonesia. Phyllium (Pulchriphyllium) shurei n. sp. is currently only known from a male specimen, therefore only a key to known Phyllium males from Java is included. Nomenclature note are added about the name Phyllium (Pulchriphyllium) lambirense Seow-Choen, 2017.
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This paper provides a taxonomic study for the phasmid genus Parasinophasma Chen & He, 2008; reports for the first time Parasinophasma from Hong Kong, China and Vietnam; describes six new species and two new subspecies: P. bresseeli sp. n., P. constanti sp. n., P. laifanae sp. n., P. liui sp. n., P. luchunense luchunense sp. n. and subsp. n., P. luchunense xingyuei subsp. n. and P. sparsigranulatum sp. n.; proposes one new combination: Parasinophasma bouvieri (Redtenbacher, 1908) comb. n. transferred from Orthonecroscia Kirby, 1904; and gives a checklist of known species and a revised key to species. (https://jor.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=15289)
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Cet article présente la liste de 44 espèces de phasmes dont les types sont conservés dans la collection de José Pantel au Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, à Paris. Deux nouvelles synonymies sont proposées : Necroscia illaesa Redtenbacher, 1908 = Trachythorax maculicollis (Westwood, 1848) et Carausius jesuitae Brunner, 1907 = Carausius sechellensis (Bolivar, 1895).
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A new species of leaf insect is described from Thailand, Phyllium (Pulchriphyllium) maethoraniae n. sp., very close to P. (Pulchriphyllium) sinense Liu, 1990, but differs by various distinct characters such as the armature of the mesonotum, shape of the anterior legs, abdomen and abdominal apex. Like P. sinense, P. maethoraniae n. sp. is only known from the female. A table is given to distinguish between the two species.
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Different Stick-insects species of the genus Decidia Stål, 1875 are presented. A new species is described for the first time from Ecuador: Decidia macrocercata n. sp.. Currently only the male is known. An identification key for all Decidia male species is given.
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A new species of stick-insect belonging to the genus Trapezaspis Redtenbacher, 1908, from Isle of Pines (Phasmatodea, Phasmatidae). The stick-insects of the genus Trapezaspis Redtenbacher, 1908, are presented. A new species from New Caledonia is described from a female specimen collected on Isle of Pines. An identification key is given to recognize the three species of the genus: T. kaiman Redtenbacher, 1908, T.loricatus Redtenbacher, 1908, and T. pinoruminsulae n. sp.
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Type specimens of 67 taxa of Phasmida (including probable type specimens of 24 taxa) have been located in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. The species are listed alphabetically, with the number of specimens, sex and locality data.
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Type specimens of 437 Phasmida taxa have been located in the Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK, formerly BMNH), including 480 primary types of 372 taxa. Taxa with types are listed alphabetically by their specific or subspecific name, and the number of specimens, sex and locality data are given.
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The areolate Oriental family Heteropterygidae Kirby, 1893 is critically reviewed and the results of the present study contradict the arrangement suggested by Zompro (2004), but in most aspects agree with a molecular study presented by Whiting et al (2003) and a phylogenetic study presented by Bradler (2009). The family is critically discussed and new hypotheses are presented for the phylogeny and intra-familiar relationships, placing the subfamily Dataminae Rehn & Rehn, 1939 as the basalmost clade of Heteropterygidae. The subfamilies Obriminae Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 and Heteropteryginae Kirby, 1893 together represent the sister-group of Dataminae. Arguments and a tree are presented to support this hypothesis. New diagnoses and lists of genera are provided for all three subfamilies contained in Heteropterygidae, along with keys to distinguish between them. The subfamily Obriminae is critically reviewed and the distinction between the three tribes Obrimini Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, Eubulidini Zompro, 2004 and Miroceramiini Zompro, 2004 introduced by Zompro (2004) is shown to be poorly supported. While Obrimini sensu Zompro, 2004 is generally accepted (but now also contains genera that were placed in Eubulidini or Miroceramiini by Zompro (2004)), the tribes Eubulidini and Miroceramiini are not supported. A new arrangement is introduced, which is based on morphological characters neglected or overlooked by Zompro (2004) but were partly discussed by Bradler (2009). The genus Mearnsiana Rehn & Rehn, 1939 is removed from Miroceramiini and transferred to Obrimini. The genera Eubulides Stål, 1877, Heterocopus Redtenbacher, 1906, Theramenes Stål, 1875 and Stenobrimus Redtenbacher, 1906 are removed from Eubulidini and also transferred to Obrimini. Consequently, Eubulidini is synonymised with Obrimini (n. syn.). Miroceramiini is a monotypical tribe and only includes the Wallacean genus Miroceramia Günther, 1934. The new tribe Tisamenini n. trib. is established for the three basal genera Tisamenus Stål, 1875, Ilocano Rehn & Rehn, 1939 and Hoploclonia Stål, 1875 all of which were placed in Eubulidini by Zompro (2004). The latter genus differs from the other two genera by the morphology of the female genitalia, which is unique amongst the entire family. Three generic groups are recognized within Obrimini, the Obrimus-group, Stenobrimus-group and Theramenes-group. Keys are presented to distinguish between the three tribes now contained in the Obriminae, i.e. Obrimini, Tisamenini n. trib. and Miroceramiini. The genus Hennobrimus Conle, 2006 is synonymised with Mearnsiana Rehn & Rehn, 1939, based on the fact that the type-species of both genera are conspecific (n. syn.). Hennobrimus hennemanni Conle, 2006, the type-species of Hennobrimus, and Trachyaretaon manobo Lit & Eusebio, 2005 are synonymised with Mearnsiana bullosa Rehn & Rehn, 1939, the type-species of Mearnsiana (n. syn.). Theramenes dromedarius Stål, 1877 from the Philippines is removed from synonymy with the Wallacean Theramenes olivaceus (Westwood, 1859) and re-established as a valid species (rev. stat.). The subfamily Heteropteryginae Kirby, 1896 is revised at the species-level and a new diagnosis is presented. Keys to the two genera and all 16 known species are provided along with new descriptions, differential diagnoses, lists of examined material, detailed information on the known distributions, measurements and illustrations of the insects and eggs. The intra-subfamiliar and intra-generic relationships are discussed and a cladogram is presented. Heteropteryginae contains two genera: Heteropteryx Gray, 1835 (Type-species: Phasma dilatatum Parkinson, 1798) and Haaniella Kirby, 1896 (Type-species: Phasma (Heteropteryx) muelleri de Haan, 1842). The distribution of this subfamily is restricted to Sundaland with the exception of a single species that is found in Vietnam. All other species are distributed in Borneo, Sumatra, the Mentawai Islands, Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand. Heteropteryginae contains the largest and most striking members of the entire family Heteropteryginae, some of which are amongst the heaviest insects known. The subfamily is characterized by apomorphies such as the presence of wings, having a tympanal area (= stridulatory organ) in the basal portion of the alae, straight profemora, strongly shortened tarsi, lack of rough sensory- Areas on the prosternum and typically X-shaped micropylar plate of the eggs. The sister-group of Heteropteryginae is represented by the Obriminae, with which it shares a beak-like secondary ovipositor in the females and presence of a medio- Apical spine on the area apicalis. Both features are synapomorphies of Heteropteryginae + Obriminae. The genus Haaniella Kirby, 1904 contains 16 known species, five of which are newly described herein. The genus Miniopteryx Zompro, 2004 (Type-species: Haaniella parva Günther, 1944) is synonymised with Haaniella on the basis that the distinguishing feature mentioned in the original description is a character that is frequently found throughout the genus (n. syn.). The type-species H. parva Günther, 1944 is automatically retransferred to Haaniella (rev. stat.). Haaniella aculeata n. sp. from western Sumatra is described from the male. Haaniella macroptera n. sp. from Singapore and the Johor state in southern Peninsular Malaysia is described from both sexes and the eggs. Haaniella gintingi n. sp.from Central Sumatra is described from both sexes and the eggs and Haaniella kerincia n. sp. from Western Sumatra is described from the insects only, the eggs being still unknown. One new species, Haaniella gorochovi n. sp., is the only representative of the genus and subfamily Heteropteryginae known from Vietnam and both sexes as well as the eggs are described. Haaniella erringtoniae (Redtenbacher, 1906) is endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, here removed from synonymy with H. muelleri (de Haan, 1842) and re-established as a valid species (rev. stat.). The Sumatran Haaniella glaber (Redtenbacher, 1906) is removed from synonymy with H. muelleri (Haan, 1842) and re-established as a valid species (rev. stat.). Leocrates glaber Redtenbacher, 1906 and Haaniella muelleri simplex Günther, 1944 are removed from synonymy with H. muelleri (Haan, 1842) (rev. stat.) and synonymised with H. glaber. Haaniella mecheli (Redtenbacher, 1906) and H. rosenbergii (Kaup, 1871) are removed from synonymy with H. muelleri (Haan, 1842) and re-established as valid species (rev. stat.). Haaniella erringtoniae novaeguineae Günther, 1934 and Haaniella muelleri var. b. (Haan, 1842) are synonymized with H. rosenbergii (Kaup, 1871) (n. syn.). The type-species Haaniella muelleri(Haan, 1842) is shown to be a fairly rare species that is restricted to Sumatra. All subsequent records of H. muelleri from outside Sumatra and references to captive breeding of stock originating from Peninsular Malaysia in Europe relate to H. erringtoniae (Redtenbacher, 1906). The previously unknown males and eggs of H. rosenbergii (Kaup, 1871) as well as the previously unknown females and eggs of H. parva Günther, 1944 are described and illustrated for the first time. Based on morphological characters of the insects and eggs three distinct species-groups are recognized within Haaniella. The muelleri species-group contains nine species that are distributed throughout Sumatra, the Mentawei Islands, Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. These are characterized by the smooth ventral surface of the meso- And metafemora and lemon-shaped eggs which entirely lack the setae seen in the two other species-groups. The grayii species-group comprises four species, two of which are endemic in Borneo, one endemic in Sumatra and the fourth species being the only known representative of the subfamily in Vietnam. These species are characteristic for the prominent pair of spines on the abdominal tergites II-IV of males and long apically multidentate epiproct of females. The echinata species-group contains three exceptionally Bornean species, which are characterized by the long and apically pointed subgenital plate of females, which clearly projects beyond the epiproct, as well as the sub-basal lateral tooth of the anal segment of males. The muelleri species-group is sister to the remainder two species-groups. Heteropteryx Gray, 1853 is a monotypical genus and only contains the type-species H. dilatata (Parkinson, 1798), which is found throughout Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Sumatra and Northeastern Borneo. This genus differs from Haaniella by the strongly conically elevated head, which posteriorly projects over the anterior margin of the pronotum, females being bright green or yellow in colour with plain and translucent pink alae and having distinct spines on the abdominal tergites, and males having a strongly shortened mesothorax and dull pink alae. Lectotypes are designated for Haaniella parva Günther, 1944, Heteropteryx echinata Redtenbacher, 1906, Heteropteryx saussurei Redtenbacher, 1906 and Heteropteryx scabra Redtenbacher, 1906 to guarantee stability of these names. Information on the habitats, host-plants, biology, life cycle, parasitism and captive breeding of the species of Heteropteryginae is presented and a list summarising all taxonomic changes presented herein.
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The anareolate New World subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 is reviewed and keys to the six tribes currently included are presented; these are: Cladomorphini Bradley & Galil, 1977, Cladoxerini Karny, 1923, Cranidiini Günther, 1953, Pterinoxylini n. trib., Hesperophasmatini Bradley & Galil, 1977 and Haplopodini Günther, 1953 rev. stat.. New diagnoses are presented for all these tribes and possible relationships within Cladomorphinae are discusssed. Morphology of the genitalia and egg-structures indicate Cladomorphinae as presently treated to be polyphyletic. Two subordinate groups are recognized within present Cladomorphinae, which differ considerably in numerous morphological characters of the insects and eggs. The first group and here regarded as Cladomorphinae sensu stricto is formed by the mostly South American Cladomorphini + Cranidiini + Cladoxerini, while the second group is formed by the predominantly Caribbean Hesperophasmatini + Pterinoxylini n. trib. + Haplopodini. Members of the first group (= Cladomorphini sensu stricto) share the dorsally carinate basitarsus in which the two dorsal carinae are melted with another, increasingly elongated gonapophyses VIII of females which are noticeably longer than gonapophyses IX and lamellate as well as strongly displaced medioventral carina of the profemora. Cranidiini + Cladomorphini share the strongly elongated and filiform gonapophyses VIII and presence of gonoplacs in the females, specialized poculum of males and presence of a median line in the eggs. Cranidiini differs from all other tribes of Cladomorphinae by the entirely unarmed legs of both sexes, distinctly broadened and leaf-like body and prominent longitudinal keel of the mesosternum of females, prominently enlarged poculum and spinulose phallus of males as well as the conspicuous narrowing of the posteromedian gap of the internal micropylar plate of the eggs and noticeably separated median line. Cladomorphini is characteristic for the specialized vomer and poculum of males and distinct opercular structures of the eggs. Certain representatives of Cladomorphini indicate relationships to the "Phanocles-group" of Diapheromerinae: Diapheromerini, hence Cladomorphini as presently treated may be paraphyletic. The exclusively South American Cladoxerini (= Baculini n. syn.) differs from the other two tribes of Cladomorphinae sensu stricto by the distinctly serrate profemora of both sexes and conspicuously shortened antennae of females, which consist of less than 30 segments and are much shorter than the profemora in females. Genital morphology, such as the elongated gonapophyses VIII and presence of gonoplacs in females, as well as the lamellate medioventral carina of the profemora indicate close relation to Cladomorphini. Cranidiini appears to be the sister-taxon of Cladomorphini + Cladoxerini. The tribe Baculini Günther, 1953 is synonymised with Cladoxerini (n. syn.), on the basis that the type-genera of both tribes are congeneric, with Baculum Saussure, 1861 being a junior synonym of Cladoxerus St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1827 (n. syn.). The genus Tersomia Kirby, 1904 is removed from Hesperophasmatini and transferred to Cladoxerini. Wattenwylia Toledo Piza, 1938 is removed from Pachymorphinae: Gratidiini and transferred to Cladoxerini. A detailed new diagnosis is presented for Cranidiini along with a detailed differentiation and the tribe is shown to be monotypical, only containing its type-genus Cranidium Westwood, 1843. All Caribbean genera subsequently added to Cranidiini are removed and transferred to Haplopodini rev. stat.. The three tribes Hesperophasmatini + Pterinoxylini n. trib. + Haplopodini rev. stat. are closely related and might form a monophyletic clade within Cladomorphinae sensu lato. They differ from Cladomorphinae sensu stricto by the short gonapophyses VIII and reduced gonoplacs of females, unspecialized poculum of males and lack of a micropylar line in the eggs. Haplopodini Günther, 1953 is re-established (rev. stat.) and comprises almost exclusively Caribbean genera previously placed in Hesperophasmatini by Bradley & Galil (1977) or Cranidiini by Zompro, (2004). Aploploides Rehn & Hebard, 1938, Diapherodes Gray, 1835, Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 and Paracranidium Brock, 1998 were misplaced in Cranidiini and are transferred to Haplopodini. On the basis of numerous morphological characters of the insects and eggs Hesperophasmatini is removed from Pseudophasmatidae: Xerosomatinae and re-transferred to its previous position in the subfamily Cladomorphinae sensu lato. A detailed newdiagnosis of Hesperophasmatini is presented, but is only provisional since the true diversity is as yet only fractionally known. The lack of a gula distinguishes Hesperophasmatini from all other tribes. The genus Laciphorus Redtenbacher, 1908 is removed from Hesperophasmatini and transferred to Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae: Diapheromerini. The new tribe Pterinoxylini n. trib. is established to contain only the type-genus Pterinoxylus Audinet-Serville, 1838. It is closely related and perhaps the sister taxon of Hesperophasmatini, with which it shares the presence of rough sensory areas on the probasisternum and profurcasternum. It differs from Hesperophasmatini and Haplopodini by the presence of a tympanal region (= stridulatory organ) in the alae of females and the alveolar eggs, which possess peripheral opercular and polar structures. Haplopodini is likely to be the sister group of Pterinoxylini n. trib. + Hesperophasmatini. The tribe Haplopodini rev. stat. is revised at the species level and comprises eight almost exclusively Caribbean genera, four of which are newly described. All eight genera now contained in Haplopodini are described in detail, differentiated from their closest relatives and their relationships and systematic position within Haplopodini are discussed. Keys and maps showing their distributions are presented along with a discussion of the distributional patterns. Detailed descriptions, differential diagnoses, synonymic listings, illustrations, material listings and measurements are given of all 26 currently known species and subspecies of Haplopodini. Four new genera are described within Haplopodini. The monotypical Apteroplopus n. gen. (type-species: Dyme grosse-tuberculata Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) from Honduras is the only taxon of the tribe represented in Central America. It is only known from the male which differs from all other genera by being entirely apterous. Cephaloplopus n. gen. (type-species: Cephaloplopus pulchellus n. sp.) and Parhaplopus n. gen. (type-species: Haplopus cubensis Saussure, 1868) occur only on Hispaniola and Cuba. Both are closely related to Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 but in addition to having noticeably different eggs, both genera differ from Haplopus in several morphological characters. The monotypical Venupherodes n. gen. (type-species: Platycrana venustula Audinet-Serville, 1838) is endemic to Cuba, and in females being apterous resembles the second exclusively Cuban genus Aploploides Rehn & Hebard, 1938. It however differs from all other members of Haplopodini by the laterally expanded mesonotum of females, which overlaps the mesopleurae, as well as the morphology of the eggs. Two species-groups are recognized within Diapherodes Gray, 1835. The gigantea species-group comprises the species from the Lesser Antilles, which are: D. angulata (Fabricius, 1793), Diapherodes dominicae (Rehn & Hebard, 1938), D. gigantea gigantea (Gmélin, 1789), D. gigantea saintluciae n. ssp. and Diapherodes martinicensis Lelong & Langlois, 2005. The three species of the jamaicensis species-group, which are D. achalus (Rehn, 1904), D. jamaicensis (Drury, 1773) and D. laevicollis Redtenbacher, 1906, are restricted to the two Greater Antillean islands Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 is the most widely distributed genus being represented on all islands of the Greater Antilles except Jamaica, and also in the Virgin Islands, Bahamas, Florida Keys, Dry Tortugas and as far southwest as the Cayman Islands and Swan Islands. Nine new species and one new subspecies are described: Cephaloplopus alope n. sp. and Haplopus sobrinus n. sp. from Cuba, Cephaloplopus euchlorus n. sp., Cephaloplopus laetus n. sp., Cephaloplopus pulchellus n. sp., Haplopus brachypterus n. sp., Haplopus intermedius n. sp. and Parhaplopus navarroi n. sp. from Hispaniola, Haplopus woodruffi n. sp. from Cayman Brac (Cayman Islands) and Diapherodes gigantea saintluciae n. ssp. from Saint Lucia. Seven of these are described from both sexes but Cephaloplopus alope n. sp. and Haplopus sobrinus n. sp. are only known from the females and Cephaloplopus laetus n. sp. only from the males. The previously unknown males of Diapherodes angulata (Fabricius, 1793), Diapherodes laevicollis Redtenbacher, 1908, Haplopus bicuspidatus de Haan, 1842 and Parhaplopus cubensis (Saussure, 1868) as well as the previously unknown female of Parhaplopus evadne (Westwood, 1859) n. comb. are described and illustrated for the first time. Descriptions and illustrations of the eggs of eleven species are presented: Cephaloplopus euchlorus n. sp., Cephaloplopus pulchellus n. sp., Diapherodes achalus (Rehn, 1904), Diapherodes dominicae (Rehn & Hebard, 1938), Diapherodes gigantea gigantea (Gmélin, 1789), Diapherodes martinicensis Lelong & Langlois, 2005, Diapherodes jamaicensis (Drury, 1773), Haplopus bicuspidatus de Haan, 1842, Haplopus micropterus St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825, Parhaplopus navarroi n. sp. and Venupherodes venustula (Audinet-Seville, 1838) n. comb.. Type specimens of the newly described taxa are deposited in the collections of ANSP, NHMUK, IIBZ, FSCA, MCZC, MNHN and USNM. Six species are transferred to other genera (n. comb.): Bacteria grossetuberculata (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) to Apteroplopus n. gen.; Haplopus cubensis Saussure, 1868 and Haplopus evadne Westwood, 1859 to Parhaplopus n. gen.; Diapherodes venustula (Audinet-Serville, 1838) to Venupherodes n. gen.; Haplopus jamaicensis (Drury, 1773) and Haplopus achalus Rehn, 1904 to Diapherodes Gray, 1835. Mantis angulata Fabricius, 1793 and Diapherodes gigantea dominicae Rehn & Hebard, 1938 are removed from synonymy with D. gigantea (Gmélin, 1789) and shown to be valid species (n. stat.). Fifteen new synonymies are revealed amongst the species studied: Diapherodes longiscapha Redtenbacher, 1908 = Diapherodes achalus (Rehn, 1904) n. syn.; Haplopus grayi Kaup, 1871 = Diapherodes angulata (Fabricius, 1793) n. syn.; Diapherodes glabricollis Gray, 1835 = Diapherodes jamaicensis (Drury, 1773) n. syn.; Diapherodes pulverulentus Gray, 1835 = Diapherodes jamaicensis (Drury, 1773) n. syn.; Diapherodes christopheri Westwood, 1859 = Diapherodes jamaicensis (Drury, 1773) n. syn.; Haplopus murinus Redtenbacher, 1908 = Diapherodes jamaicensis (Drury, 1773) n. syn.; Haplopus bituberculatum de Haan, 1842 = Haplopus micropterus (St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825) n. syn.; Haplopus cythereus Westwood, 1859 = Haplopus micropterus (St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825) n. syn.; Haplopus ligiolus Redtenbacher, 1908 = Haplopus micropterus (St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825) n. syn.; Haplopus ligia Westwood, 1859 = Haplopus micropterus (St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825) n. syn.; Haplopus mayeri Caudell, 1905 = Haplopus scabricollis (Gray, 1835) n. syn.; Aplopus similis Rehn, 1904 = Haplopus scabricollis Gray, 1835 n. syn.; Diapherodes spinipes Gray, 1835 = Haplopus micropterus (St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825) n. syn.; Haplopus obtusus Redtenbacher, 1908 = Haplopus micropterus (St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825) n. syn. and Haplopus juvenis Redtenbacher, 1908 = Venupherodes venustula (Audinet-Serville, 1838) n. syn.. The previously presumed lost holotype of Cyprocrana microptera St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825 (= Phasma angulata Stoll, 1813), was traced in the collection of RMNH. The designation of a neotype has become necessary for Mantis angulata Fabricius, 1793 (in MNCN) and Platycrana venustula Audinet-Serville, 1838 (in MNHU). Lectotypes are designated for eight species: Diapherodes longiscapha Redtenbacher, 1908; Diapherodes scabricollis Gray, 1835; Haplopus christopheri Westwood, 1859; Haplopus cytherea Westwood, 1859; Haplopus juvenis Redtenbacher, 1908; Haplopus ligiolus Redtenbacher, 1908; Haplopus ligia Westwood, 1859 and Haplopus murinus Redtenbacher, 1908.
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A new species of Phasmatodea, Oncotophasma laetitiae n. sp. from Costa Rica, is described and illustrated in both sexes and the egg. Résumé. – Un nouveau Phasme du genre Oncotophasma du Costa Rica (Phasmatodea, Diapheromeridae, Diapheromerinae). Une nouvelle espèce de Phasmatodea du Costa Rica, Oncotophasma laetitiae n. sp., est décrite et illustrée, incluant les deux sexes et l'oeuf. Resumen. – Un nuevo fásmido del género Oncotophasma de Costa-Rica (Phasmatodea, Diapheromeridae, Diaphero merinae). Una nueva especie de Phasmatodea de Costa Rica, Oncotophasma laetitiae n. sp., es descrita e ilustrada, incluyendo ambos sexos y el huevo.
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The Australian phasmid fauna has been revised prior to publication of a field guide by the same authors. Six new genera are described: Austrosipyloidea Brock & Hasenpusch, Cornicandovia Hasenpusch & Brock, Davidrentzia Brock & Hasenpusch, Micropodacanthus Brock & Hasenpusch, Paratropidoderus Brock & Hasenpusch and Spinosipyloidea Hasenpusch & Brock. Sixteen new species from various parts of Australia are described and figured: Candovia robinsoni Brock & Hasenpusch, Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis Hasenpusch & Brock, Scionecra milledgei Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea brevicerci Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea garradungensis Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea larryi Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea lewisensis Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea rentzi Brock & Hasenpusch, Sipyloidea whitei Brock & Hasenpusch, Spinosipyloidea doddi Hasenpusch & Brock [all Necrosciinae], Pachymorpha spinosa Brock & Hasenpusch [Pachymorphinae], Davidrentzia valida Brock & Hasenpusch [Platycraninae], Micropodacanthus mouldsi Brock & Hasenpusch, Micropodacanthus sztrakai Brock & Hasenpusch, Paratropidoderus spinosus Brock & Hasenpusch and Podacanthus keyi Brock & Hasenpusch [Tropidoderinae]. A number of new combinations are proposed, new synonyms and incorrect synonymy corrected following detailed examination of type and other material: 1. (Lonchodinae): Austrocarausius Brock, 2000: Carausius macerrimus Brunner, 1907 is a new synonym of Austrocarausius nigropunctatus (Kirby, 1896). Denhama Werner, 1912: D. austrocarinata (Otte & Brock, 2005), D. longiceps (Brunner, 1907), D. striata (Sjöstedt, 1918) and D. eutrachelia (Westwood, 1859) are transferred from Hyrtacus Stål, 1875, the latter species also removed from synonymy with Hyrtacus coenosa (Gray, 1833). D. gracilis (Sjöstedt, 1918), a former Marcenia species, is also transferred. Hyrtacus Stål, 1875 (= Marcenia Sjöstedt, 1918 syn. n.): H. caurus (Tepper, 1905) comb. n. transferred from Lonchodes Gray, 1835 (three new synonyms also reported for this species: Bacillus peristhenellus Tepper, 1905, Hyrtacus cunctatrix (Sjöstedt, 1918) and Hyrtacus nigrogranulosus Sjöstedt, 1918). Marcenia frenchi (Wood-Mason, 1877) is a new synonym of Hyrtacus tuberculatus Stål, 1875. 2. (Necrosciinae): Austrosipyloidea Brock & Hasenpusch, gen. n.: A. carterus (Westwood, 1859) comb. n., transferred from Sipyloidea Brunner, 1893 (= Sipyloidea filiformis Redtenbacher, 1908 syn. n.). Candovia Stål, 1875 is removed from synonymy with Hyrtacus, along with the type species, C. coenosa. This has resulted in all former Australian species placed in Parasipyloidea Redtenbacher, 1908 being transferred to Candovia i.e. C. aberrata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n., C. annulata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n., C. granulosa (Brunner, 1907) comb. n., C. pallida (Sjöstedt, 1918), comb. n., C. spurcata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n. and C. strumosa (Redtenbacher, 1908) comb. n. In addition, C. evoneobertii (Zompro & Adis, 2001) comb. n. and C. peridromes (Westwood, 1859) comb. n. (including its new synonyms Clitarchus longipes Brunner, 1907, Bacunculus tener Brunner, 1907 and E. cercatus (Redtenbacher, 1908)) are transferred from Echetlus Stål, 1875. Cornicandovia Hasenpusch & Brock gen n.: C. australica (Redtenbacher, 1908) comb. n. Sipyloidea Brunner, 1893: S. bella (Tepper, 1905) comb. n. (new synonym S. ovabdita Rentz & John, 1987) is transferred from Necroscia Serville, 1838, S. caeca Sjöstedt, 1918 rev. stat., is removed from synonymy with Sipyloidea carterus (Westwood, 1859). Rhamphosipyloidea Redtenbacher, 1908: R. queenslandica (Sjöstedt, 1918) comb. n. is transferred from Sipyloidea, also removed from synonymy with carterus. 3. (Pachymorphinae): Pachymorpha Gray, 1835: P. pasithoe (Westwood, 1859) is a new synonym of P. simplicipes Serville, 1838. 4. (Eurycanthinae). Eurycantha Boisduval, 1835: E. sifia (Westwood, 1859) is a new synonym of E. calcarata Lucas, 1870. 5. (Phasmatinae): Vetilia Stål, 1875 is a new synonym of Acrophylla Gray, 1835, resulting in the transfer of these species to Acrophylla: A. enceladus (Gray, 1835) comb. n. and A. thoon (Stål, 1875) comb. n. Vetilia ligia Redtenbacher, 1908 is a new synonym of Acrophylla wuelfingi Redtenbacher, 1908. A. paula (Tepper, 1905) and A. aliena Redtenbacher, 1908 are new synonyms of A. nubilosa Tepper, 1905. A. caprella (Westwood, 1859) comb. n. is transferred from Ctenomorpha Gray, 1833. Anchiale Stål, 1875 (= Ctenomorphodes Karny, 1923 syn. n.), resulting in the transfer of A. briareus (Gray, 1834) comb. n. and A. tessulata (Gray, 1835) which is renamed Anchiale austrotessulata name nov., as tessulata Gray is preoccupied by Anchiale tessulata (Goeze, 1778). Austroclonistria Redtenbacher, 1908 is a new synonym of Arphax Stål, 1875, as A. serrulataa Redtenbacher, 1908) is a new synonym of Arphax dolomedes (Westwood, 1859). Ctenomorpha Gray, 1833: Paractenomorpha macrotegmus (Tepper, 1887) is confirmed as a synonym of Ctenomorpha marginipennis Gray, 1833. Hermarchus Stål, 1875: H. polynesicus Redtenbacher, 1908 is a new synonym of H. insignis (Kaup, 1871). Paronchestus Redtenbacher, 1908: P. cornutus (Tepper, 1905) comb. n. is transferred from Acrophylla Gray, 1835 and P. pasimachus (Westwood, 1859) from Onchestus Stål, 1875. 6. (Platycraninae): Megacrania batesii (Kirby, 1896) is removed from synonymy with Megacrania alpheus (Westwood, 1859). 7. (Tropidoderinae): Didymuria Kirby 1904: D. virginea Stål, 1875 is removed from synonymy with D. violescens (Leach, 1814). Lysicles Stål, 1877: L. periphanes (Westwood, 1859) comb. n. is transferred from Echetlus Stål, 1875. Tropidoderus Gray 1835: T. michaelseni Werner, 1912 is removed from synonymy with T. childrenii (Gray, 1833). 8. (Xeroderinae): Cooktownia Sjöstedt, 1918 becomes a new synonym of Xeroderus Gray, 1835, as Cooktownia plana Sjöstedt, 1918 is a new synonym of Xeroderus kirbii Gray, 1835. Lectotypes are designated for Clitarchus longipes Brunner, 1907, Sipyloidea filiformis Redtenbacher, 1908 and Vetilia ligula Redtenbacher, 1908. As a result of this work, there are now 104 Australian species (+ 1 subspecies) and in order to facilitate further research on these insects, an updated checklist is provided, also a detailed bibliography.
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Two new species and one subspecies of Pharnaciini, belonging to two different genera, are described from Vietnam: one species and subspecies of Phryganistria Stål, 1875 and one species of Phobaeticus Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907. Two species currently attributed to the genus Ramulus Saussure, 1862, Ramulus magnus (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) and R. chinensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907), are transferred to Baculonistria Hennemann & Conle, 2008 comb. nov. Phobaeticus longicornis Bi & Wang, 1998 and Phobaeticus yuexiensis Chen & He, 1993 represent the male and female of Baculonistria magnus (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) syn. nov. A lectotype is designated for Baculonistria chinensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907). The genus Baculonistria now contains three species. Nearchus bachmaensis Ta & Hoang, 2004 is transferred to Phryganistria and the new combination Phryganistria bachmaensis (Ta & Hoang, 2004) comb. nov. is proposed. The species is redescribed and the authors’ attribution corrected, the egg is described and figured for the first time. Phryganistria tamdaoensis sp. nov. is described and figured from both sexes and the egg. Females of P. tamdaoensis sp. nov. are easily recognised by the conspicuously enlarged lanceolate cerci, a character previously unknown in this tribe. The distribution range of Phryganistria heusii heusii (Hennemann & Conle, 1997) is extended to Tam Dao National Park. A new subspecies Phryganistria heusii yentuensis subsp. nov. is described from Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve from adult males and females and the eggs. Males can easily be distinguished from the nominal subspecies by their colouration. This huge subspecies represents the second longest insect recorded to date. A key to the species of the genus Phryganistria is provided. Phobaeticus trui sp. nov. is described from central Vietnam. It is the first species of Phobaeticus recorded from Vietnam. Adults of both sexes are illustrated.
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Leptynia specimens were analyzed by karyotype analysis, mitochondrial gene sequencing and SEM of bodies and eggs. Here we describe a new species, Leptynia annaepaulae, and three subspecies of L. attenuata Pantel (L. attenuata attenuata, L. attenuata iberica, L. attenuata algarvica). The phylogeny of the genus Leptynia is congruent with a karyotype trend toward a reduction of chromosome number and the shift from the shared XX/X0 sex chromosome formula to the unusual XX/XY one. Chromosome repatterning appears to occur ahead of genetic differentiation, following a chromosome model of cladogenesis. Chromosome and genetic differentiation, in turn, appears to precede morphological distinction, thus realizing a condition of incipient species for most of the Leptynia taxa. Actually, morphological analyses revealed that, only rarely clear cut differences exist among and between taxa, while, more often, just trends in the differentiating traits occur, since the investigated characters generally suffer from some overlapping: In this study, only the 10th:9th ratio value and the subanal vomer appear to be diagnostic for L. annaepaulae against all other Leptynia taxa. As a consequence, the subanal vomer as well as cercus tooth features with egg chorion traits are not sharply diagnostic for the remaining co-generic taxa; however, comparisons are quite helpful in reducing uncertainties. A likely phylogeographic scenario for the genus supports that Leptynia ancestors spread from Northern Africa into Southern Spain where an ancestral taxon originated L. annaepaulae (2n = 40/39, XX/X0, with 2 large dibrachial pairs). Later on, a northbound colonization, should have originated L. caprai (2n = 40/39, XX/X0, all acrocentrics), from which L. montana (2n = 38, XX/X0) and L. attenuata (2n = 36, XY/XX) originated; supporting instances of chromosome repatterning have been actually observed. In this connection we like to stress that, particularly in stick insects, androgenesis has been a preferential pathway to quickly make homozygous those odd chromosome rearrangements likely responsible for low fitness in the heterozygotes.
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The tribe Phasmatini Gray, 1835 predominantly includes very striking stick insects of remarkable size, most of which are characteristic for their large and often colourful wings. The tribe represents roughly half of the Giant Stick Insects of Wal-lacea, a subregion in Eastern Indonesia comprising thousands of islands that are separated by deep water straits from the continental islands to the west (Sundaland: Borneo, Java and Sumatra) and East (New Guinea). Within Wallacea the Phas-matini are represented by four genera, namely Anchiale Stål, 1875, Eurycnema Audinet-Serville, 1838, Paracyphocrania Redtenbacher, 1908 and Phasma Lichtenstein, 1796. Currently eight distinct species are known to occur in the Wallacea. Two of these are newly described in the present paper, this is Anchiale buruense sp. n. and Paracyphocrania major sp. n.. Keys are provided for the distinction of the Phasmatini taxa of Wallacea and information on the overall distribution of the four genera is presented, which reveals a derivation of the tribe from the Australian region. The tribe Phasmatini itself is briefly characterized and discussed. Brief characterizations of the four genera are provided along with complete lists of the species currently contained. Anchiale Stål, 1875 is represented in the Wallacea by two species. A. maculata (Olivier, 1792) is widely distributed throughout Wallacea except for Sulawesi and shows considerable intraspecific variability. Both sexes and the eggs are illustrated and the eggs formally described for the first time. The synonymies of A. maculata are clarified. A. stolli Sharp, 1898 and A. confusa Sharp, 1898 from New Britain and the Solomon Islands are shown to be errorneous synonyms of A. maculata and are here re-established as valid species (stat. rev.). A. caesarea Redtenbacher, 1908 is removed from the genus Acrophylla Gray, 1835 and transferred to Anchiale (comb. n.). The new species A. buruense sp. n.from the island of Buru (Maluku Islands) is described and illustrated based on both sexes and the egg. Eurycnema Audinet-Serville, 1838 has two species within the boundaries of Wallacea. E. nigrospinosa Redtenbacher, 1908 is only known from the Kei Islands in the southeastern portion of Wallacea and otherwise found on New Guinea. Both sexes and the eggs are illustrated. E. versirubra Audinet-Serville, 1838 is found on some of the Lesser Sunda Islands and otherwise distributed throughout Java, Sumatra and SE-Borneo. The records from Java, Sumatra and southeast Borneo are estimated to be artificial. Females of this species are dimorph and occur in two distinct colour morphs, which differ by the distinct colouration of the undersides of the tegmina and alae. E. versirubra colour morph versirubra has two forms, the insects either being bright green or dull yellow with the ventral surfaces of the tegmina and alae bright red. E. versiru-bra colour morph versifasciata, has the ventral surfaces of the tegmina and alae yellow, the insects themselves being pale bluish green to turquoise in colour. Only the bright green form appears to be natural with the other colour-forms caused by parthenogenetic reproduction in captivity. Both sexes, the eggs and the two aforementioned colour-morphs are illustrated. Paracyphocrania Redtenbacher, 1908 contains two known species and is endemic to Sulawesi and the nearby island of Peleng. The new species Paracyphocrania major sp. n.from Peleng is described and illustrated based on the female and egg. The male remains as yet unknown. The previously unknown male of P. lativentris Redtenbacher, 1908 is described for the first time. Both sexes and the eggs are illustrated. Vasilissa tecticollis Redtenbacher, 1908 is shown to have been misinterpreted previously, here removed from Paracyphocrania and shown to be a synonym of the Australian Tropi-doderus rhodomus McCoy, 1882 (syn. n.). Hence, the type-locality of V. tecticollis originally given as "Philippines" is definitely wrong, which proves the tribe Phasmatini is not represented in the Philippines at all. Phasma Lichtenstein, 1796 is represented in Wallacea with two distinct species and has one further species on New Guinea. A key is provided to distinguish between the three known species of Phasma. Ph. gigas (Linnaeus, 1758) is widely distributed throughout Wallacea and found on almost all major islands, although the historic records from Sulawesi deserve evaluation. Ph. gigas is most certainly not present on New Guinea, with all New Guinean records actually referring to Ph. reinwardtii (de Haan, 1842). Ph. gigas exhibits remarkable intraspecific variability in the colouration and certain morphological features of the insects, with several of these variations appearing to be peculiar to certain localities and islands. The range of variation as well as both sexes and the eggs are illustrated. Papuanoidea straleni Werner, 1930 from New Guinea has erroneously been synonymised with Ph. gigas and is here shown to be a synonym of Ph. reinwardtii (de Haan, 1842) (syn. n.). The second Wallacean representative of the genus, Ph. marosense Hennemann, 1998, is endemic to Sulawesi. The previously unknown male is described for the first time and both sexes and the eggs are illustrated. Holotypes of the two newly described species, Anchiale buruense sp. n. and Paracyphocrania major sp. n., are deposited in the State Zoological Collections Munich, Germany (ZSMC).
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Une liste des Phasmatodea de Trinidad a pu être établie à la suite d'une mission d'inventaire réalisée en 2010. Elle montre que cette île abrite au moins sept espèces appartenant à cet ordre. Deux nouvelles espèces sont décrites, dont une d'un nouveau genre : Apteroxylus chaguaramalensis n. gen., n. sp., et Clonistria caputaurata n. sp. La femelle de Caribbiopheromera trinitatis est redécrite et illustrée suite à la découverte de nouvelles formes. Les adultes et l'oeuf de Paraphanocles keratosqueleton sont redécrits suite à la découverte de variations intraspécifiques, et une nouvelle synonymie est établie avec Bacteria mutica. Quelques informations sur la biologie sont données et des clés d'identification des adultes des deux sexes et des oeufs sont proposées. Abstract. – Contribution to the inventory and biology of the Phasmatodea of Trinidad. A list of the Phasmatodea of Trinidad has been established following an inventory made in 2010. This island houses at least seven species of this order. Two new species are described, one of them belongs to a new genus: Apteroxylus chaguaramalensis n. gen., n. sp., and Clonistria caputaurata n. sp. The female of Caribbiopheromera trinitatis is redescribed and illustrated after the discovery of new forms. Adults and egg of Paraphanocles keratosqueleton are redescribed after the discovery of intraspecific variations, and a new synonymy is established with Bacteria mutica. Some information about biology is given and identification keys for adults of both sexes and eggs are proposed.
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Résumé. – Une liste des Phasmatodea de Tobago a pu être établie pour la première fois à la suite d'une mission d'inventaire réalisée en 2008. Elle montre que cette île abrite au moins sept espèces appartenant à cet ordre et dont une est nouvelle : Bostra tobagoensis n. sp. La femelle et l'oeuf de Caribbiopheromera trinitatis (Werner) et Brizoides amabilis (Redtenbacher), ainsi que le mâle et l'oeuf de Metriophasma pallidum (Chopard), sont décrits et illustrés pour la première fois. Quelques informations sur la biologie sont données et des clés d'identification des adultes des deux sexes et des oeufs sont proposées. Abstract. – Inventory of Phasmatodea of Tobago. The first list of the Phasmatodea of Tobago is established, following an inventory made in 2008. This island houses at least seven species of this order, among them one is new: Bostra tobagoensis n. sp. Female and egg of Caribbiopheromera trinitatis (Werner) and Brizoides amabilis (Redtenbacher), and male and egg of Metriophasma pallidum (Chopard), are described and illustrated for the first time. Some information about biology is given and identification keys for adults of both sex and eggs are proposed. Keywords. – Phasmatodea, Neotropical region, Tobago, taxonomy, new species, new record, identification key, biology, host plants. _________________ Située sur le plateau continental au large du Venezuela, Tobago, de même que Trinidad, est une île qualifiée de continentale du fait qu'elle a été reliée au continent sud-américain durant son histoire géologique. Nous y avons réalisé un inventaire des Phasmatodea pour deux principales raisons : d'une part, aucune donnée concernant cet ordre à Tobago n'existait à ce jour et, d'autre part, nous voulions chercher à estimer dans quelle mesure son peuplement était commun avec celui de l'Amérique du Sud. Les prospections in situ ont été réalisées par les auteurs en octobre et novembre 2008 sur une période de 15 jours. Sept espèces y ont été trouvées. Les mesures des spécimens adultes sont données avec une précision de ± 0,5 mm et celles des oeufs de ± 0,1 mm. Le système de classification utilisé est celui de ZOMPRO (2001, 2004).
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Résumé. – Le genre Monandroptera est révisé et ne comprend plus qu'une seule espèce valide : M. acanthomera ; le genre Rhaphiderus également, avec deux espèces valides : R. scabrosus et R. spinigerus. Une nouvelle espèce du genre Heterophasma est décrite. Summary. – Revision of the tribe Monandropterini, including the description of a new species of Heterophasma from Réunion island (Phasmatodea, Tropidoderinae). The genus Monandroptera is reviewed and comprises only one valid species anymore : M. acanthomera ; the genus Rhaphiderus also, with two valid species: R. scabrosus and R. spinigerus. A new species of the genus Heterophasma is described. Mots clés. – Phasmatodea, Tropidoderinae, Monandropterini, Heterophasma, Monandroptera, Rhaphiderus, H. multispinosum n. sp., synonymies, clés d'identification, Réunion, Maurice, Madagascar, Comores. Monandroptera acanthomera (Burmeister, 1838) = M. inuncans Audinet-Serville, 1838 = M. undulata Westwood, 1843, n. syn. = M. parallela Westwood, 1859, n. syn. = M. jumnos Westwood, 1859, n. syn. = M. olivacea Redtenbacher, 1908, n. syn. = M. scolopendra Redtenbacher, 1908, n. syn. Rhaphiderus scabrosus (Percheron, 1829) = R. dumerilii Gray, 1835, n. syn. = R. alliaceus Stål, 1875, n. syn.
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Abstract. Review of Anisacanthidae, stick insects family endemic to Madagascar (Phasmatodea: Bacilloidea). Malagasy family Anisacanthidae is subdivided into three groups: Anisacanthinae, Leiophasmatinae n. subfam. and Xerantherinae n. subfam. The Anisacanthinae include Anisacantha Redtenbacher 1906, Paranisacantha n. gen., Parectatosoma Wood-Mason 1879, Somacantha n. gen. The Leiophasmatinae include Leiophasma Uvarov 1940 and probably Amphiphasma n. gen. The Xerantherinae include Archantherix n. gen., Cenantherix n. gen., Parorobia Chopard 1952 and Xerantherix Brancsik 1893. Pseudoleosthenes Redtenbacher 1906 is transferred to the family Damasippoididae. Résumé. La famille malgache des Anisacanthidae se subdivise en trois groupes : Anisacanthinae, Leiophasmatinae n. subfam. et Xerantherinae n. subfam. Les Anisacanthinae comprennent Anisacantha Redtenbacher 1906, Paranisacantha n. gen., Parectatosoma Wood-Mason 1879, Somacantha n. gen. Les Leiophasmatinae comprennent Leiophasma Uvarov 1940 et probablement Amphiphasma n. gen. Les Xerantherinae incluent Archantherix n. gen., Cenantherix n. gen., Parorobia Chopard 1952 et Xerantherix Brancsik 1893. Pseudoleosthenes Redtenbacher 1906 est considéré comme un membre de la famille des Damasippoididae. Keywords: Phasmatodea, Anisacanthidae, new subfamilies, new genera, Madagascar.
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Studies of Neotropical Phasmatodea XII: Pseudophasma lakini sp. n. - a new stick insect from eastern Ecuador (Phasmatodea: Pseudophasmatidae: Pseudophasmatinae) Pseudophasma lakini sp. n., a remarkable new phasmid from the eastern Andean slopes of Ecuador (Province Napo) is described and illustrated (both sexes and eggs). The original specimens were collected by Curtis Lakin (U. K.) in 2008, after whom it is named. The new species differs from all other known representatives of Pseudophasma Kirby, 1896 by the distinctly lobed meso- and metafemora and the shape of the tegmina. The holotype is deposited in the State Zoological Collections Munich, Germany (ZSMC), and the paratypes in MNHN, BMNH and in the private collections of the authors (coll. OC and coll. FH).
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A review of the genera Spinohirasea Zompro, 2001 and Andropromachus Carl, 1913 is provided. Spinohirasea Zompro, 2001 has erroneously been synonymised with Spiniphasma Chen & He, 2000. The latter genus is shown to be a junior synonym of Andropromachus Carl, 1913 (syn. nov.) and consequently Spinohirasea Zompro is re-established as a valid genus (stat. rev.). Spinohirasea crassithorax Zompro, 2001 is a junior synonym of Menexenus bengalensis Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907 (syn. nov.), hence M. bengalensis Brunner von Wattenwyl is transferred to Spinohirasea Zompro, 2001 (comb. nov.). The eggs of Spinohirasea bengalensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl) are described and illustrated for the first time. Illustrations and measurements of the female and male of S. bengalensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl) are provided, along with notes on the origin of the culture-stock PSG 272, captive breeding, alternative food plants and biology. Menexenus modificatus Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907 was erroneously synonymised with Neohirasea maerens (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) and is here shown to represent a synonym of Promachus (?) bicolor Kirby, 1904 (syn. nov.). Lectotypes are designated for Andropromachus bicolor (Kirby, 1904) and Menexenus modificatus Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907.
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The family Phasmatidae Gray, 1835 is reviewed and the subfamily Phasmatinae shown to be polyphyletic. Based on features of the exosceleton of the insects, egg-morphology and copulation habits a new arrangement of Phasmatidae is proposed. The monophyly of Lanceocercata Bradler, 2001 is confirmed but this name shown to be a synonym of Phasmatidae, hence Lanceocercata is here referred to as Phasmatidae sensu stricto. Six subfamilies belong in Phasmatidae sensu stricto all of which share several common and supposedly apomorphic characters: Phasmatinae, Tropidoderinae, Extatosomatinae (stat. nov.), Xeroderinae, Pachymorphinae and “Platycraninae”. The other two subfamilies contained in Phasmatidae sensu Bradley & Galil, 1977 (Eurycanthinae and Cladomorphinae) are not cosely related and here regarded as subfamilies of Phasmatidae sensu lato. The subfamily Phasmatinae sensu Bradley & Galil, 1977 is shown to be polyphyletic. The two tribes Pharnaciini and Clitumnini (= Baculini Günther, 1953) are removed from Phasmatinae and shown to be closely related to each other. They are transferred to the here established subfamily Clitumninae, a subordinate clade of Phasmatidae sensu lato. The subfamily Lonchodinae is closely related to Clitumninae, hence removed from Diapheromeridae and transferred to Phasmatidae sensu lato. The tribes Achriopterini and Stephanacridini (formerly in Phasmatinae) are shown to be not closely related to either Phasmatinae sensu stricto, Clitumninae or Lonchodinae, and provisionally must be treated as tribes of Phasmatidae sensu lato (incerte sedis). A re-arrangement of Phasmatidae sensu stricto is proposed along with determinating keys to all subfamilies and their tribes. The subfamilies Phasmatinae, Tropidoderinae and Extatosomatinae stat. nov. are re-described and discussed in detail. Full lists of genera are provided for each tribe. Only three of seven tribes formerly in Phasmatinae remain in the subfamily, this is Phasmatini, Acanthomimini and Acanthoxylini. The subfamily Tropidoderinae contains three tribes: Tropidoderini, Monandropterini and Gigantophasmatini trib. nov. The tribe Extatosomatini Clark-Sellick, 1997 is removed from Tropidoderinae and raised to subfamily level (Extatosomatinae stat. nov.). Several genera are transferred to other tribes or subfamilies. Didymuria Kirby, 1904 is removed from Tropidoderini, since it differs by having a closed internal micropylar plate in the eggs (open in all Tropidoderini). It here remains as a genus incerte sedis of Tropidoderinae and its systematic position clearly deserves further clarification. Gigantophasma Sharp, 1898 from the Loyalty Islands is removed from Pharnaciini, and becomes the type genus of the tribe Gigantophasmatini trib. nov.. Anophelepis Westwood, 1859 is removed from “Platycraninae” and shown to belong in Phasmatinae: Acanthomimini. The two Australian genera Arphax Stål, 1875, and Vasilissa Kirby, 1896 are removed from Acanthoxylini and provisionally transferred to Acanthomimini, but their position remains as yet debatable. Echetlus Stål, 1875 is misplaced in “Platycraninae” and shown to be a likely member of Phasmatinae. The two Brazilian species Echetlus evoneobertii Zompro & Adis, 2001 and Echetlus fulgens Zompro, 2004b are obviously misplaced and belong in the New World Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae: Diapheromerini. The subfamily Pachymorphinae is briefly discussed and considered polyphyletic. Three genera of Pachymorphinae: Gratidiini Bragg, 1995 (Parapachymorpha Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 and Cnipsomorpha Hennemann et al., 2008) are transferred to Clitumninae: Medaurini trib. nov. The genus Gongylopus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 is transferred from Pachymorphinae: Gratidiini to Clitumninae: Clitumnini. The subfamily Xeroderinae is briefly discussed and shown likely to be polyphyletic, due to it contains two fundamentally different types of genitalia in the males. Only the genera Xeroderus Gray, 1835 and perhaps Epicharmus Stål, 1875 clearly belong in Phasmatidae sensu stricto. Both, the Pachymorphinae and Xeroderinae certainly deserve more detailed investigation to clarify their systematic positions with confirmation. Two generic groups are recognized within Clitumnini (subfamily Clitumninae). Due to differing by genital features and egg-morphology Medaura Stål, 1875 and Medauroidea Zompro, 2000 are removed from Clitumnini and transferred to the newly described Medaurini trib. nov.. The new tribe furthermore contains two genera formerly included in Pachymorphinae: Gratidiini and transferred here, Cnipsomorpha Hennemann et al., 2008 and Parapachymorpha Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893. Phryganistria Stål, 1875 is removed from Clitumnini and transferred to Pharnaciini. Nesiophasma Günther, 1934 is shown to belong in the tribe Stephanacridini. The Australasian subfamily Lonchodinae Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 has formerly been included in Diapheromeridae Zompro, 2001 (= Heteronemiidae by Bradley & Galil, 1977). However, numerous features of the genitalia and egg morphology show close relation to the Oriental subfamily Clitumninae instead. Thus, Lonchodinae is here transferred to the family Phasmatidae (sensu lato). Within Lonchodinae the new tribe Neohiraseini trib. nov. is recognized and contains the five genera formerly placed in the “Neohirasea-complex” of that subfamily, namely Andropromachus Carl, 1913, Neohirasea Rehn, 1904, Pseudocentema Chen, He & Li, 2002, Qiongphasma Chen, He & Li, 2002 and Spinohirasea Zompro, 2001. It differs from all other Lonchodinae (= tribe Lonchodini) by the well developed vomer of males and the lack of a capitulum in the eggs. The genus Cladomimus Carl, 1915 was previously misplaced in Clitumninae: Pharnaciini and is here transferred to Lonchodinae: Lonchodini. It appears to be close to the Australian Hyrtacus Stål, 1875. Leprocaulinus Uvarov, 1940 and Phenacocephalus Werner, 1930 are removed from the subfamily Necrosciinae and transferred to Lonchodinae: Lonchodini. Extensive research on the genera which belong to the tribe Pharnaciini Günther, 1953 and taking features of the genital exosceleton and egg-morphology into account, has shown this tribe to be polyphyletic. Based on such features two generic groups are easily recognized within Pharnaciini sensu Günther, 1953. Males of the first group have a longitudinally split anal segment, which consists of two separate, more or less elongate semi-tergites and forms a clasping apparatus, the vomer is strongly reduced or lacking, the profemora have a prominent, lamellate medioventral carina which is strongly displaced towards the anteroventral carina and the eggs have an open internal micropylar plate with a clear median line. Only the genera falling into this group remain in Pharnaciini. Males of the second group in contrast have an anal segment which is not split, but possess a clearly visible, well sclerotised, triangular or hook-like external vomer, an indistinct medioventral carina on the profemora and eggs with a closed internal micropylar plate. Most of the genera which fall into the second group are here transferred to the tribe Stephanacridini Günther, 1953, this is Diagoras Stål, 1877b, Eucarcharus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, Phasmotaenia Návas, 1907 and Sadyattes Stål, 1875. A detailed discussion of the differences between Pharnaciini and Stephanacridini is provided along with distinguishing keys, illustrations and maps showing the distinct geographic distributions. The five genera that belong in Pharnaciini are: Baculonistria gen. nov., Pharnacia Stål, 1877a, Phobaeticus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (= Baculolonga Hennemann & Conle, 1997a, = Lobophasma Günther, 1934b syn. nov. , = Nearchus Redtenbacher, 1908 syn. nov. ), Tirachoidea Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 stat. rev. and Phryganistria Stål, 1875. Pharnacia annulata Redtenbacher, 1908 and Pharnacia enganensis Redtenbacher, 1908 were misplaced in Pharnacia Stål, 1877 (tribe Pharnaciini) and are transferred to the genus Sadyattes Stål, 1875 (tribe Stephanacridini, comb. nov.). Phobaeticus kuehni Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 is removed from Phobaeticus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (Phasmatinae: Pharnaciini) and shown to belong in Nesiophasma Günther, 1934c (tribe Stephanacridini, comb. nov.). Phobaeticus incertus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (= Nearchus grubaueri Redtenbacher, 1908 syn. nov.) is unlikely to belong in Pharnaciini and here only retained in the original genus Phobaeticus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 with doubt, it may belong in Nesiophasma Günther, 1934c (tribe Stephanacridini). Based on a total of almost 700 examined specimens, the Oriental tribe Pharnaciini Günther, 1953 is revised at the species level. The new genus Baculonistria gen. nov. (Type species Baculonistria alba (Chen & He, 1990) comb. nov.), is described to contain three species from Central and Eastern China. Tirachoidea Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 was erroneously synonymised with Pharnacia Stål, 1877 and is here re-established as a valid genus (stat. rev.). All five genera are re-diagnosed and differentiated, their systematic position within Pharnaciini discussed, and complete synonymic and species-listings as well as distribution maps and determination keys to the insects and eggs are provided. Detailed descriptions, diagnoses, synonymic listings, illustrations, material listings, distribution maps and measurements are provided for all 40 valid species. The type material of a further two species appears to be lost. Seven new species are described: Pharnacia borneensis spec. nov. from Borneo; Pharnacia palawanica spec. nov. from Palawan, Phobaeticus mucrospinosus spec. nov. from Sumatra, Phobaeticus palawanensis spec. nov. from Palawan, Tirachoidea herberti spec. nov. from Borneo, Tirachoidea siamensis spec. nov. from Thailand and S-Vietnam and Phobaeticus chani Bragg spec. nov. from Borneo. Phobaeticus chani Bragg spec. nov. is the world’s longest known insect with a maximum body length of 357 mm and an overall length of 567 mm in the female. Twelve new synonymies were discovered: Bactridium grande Rehn, 1920 = Phobaeticus serratipes (Gray, 1835) syn. nov.; Pharnacia rigida Redtenbacher, 1908 = Phobaeticus sumatranus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, syn. nov.; Clitumnus irregularis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 = Phibalosoma tirachus Westwood, 1859, syn. nov.; Pharnacia magdiwang Lit & Eusebio, 2008 = Pharnacia ponderosa Stål, 1877 syn. nov.; Pharnacia spectabilis Redtenbacher, 1908 = Phibalosoma hypharpax Westwood, 1859, syn. nov.; Pharnacia semilunaris Redtenbacher, 1908 = Eucarcharus inversus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, syn. nov.; Pharnacia chiniensis Seow-Choen, 1998c = Pharnacia biceps Redtenbacher, 1908, syn. nov.; Nearchus grubaueri Redtenbacher, 1908 = Phobaeticus incertus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, syn. nov.; Phibalosoma maximum Bates, 1865 = Cladoxerus serratipes Gray, 1835, syn. nov.; Phobaeticus lambirica Seow-Choen, 1998a = Eucarcharus rex Günther, 1928, syn. nov.; Phobaeticus sichuanensis Cai & Liu, 1993 = Baculum album Chen & He, 1990, syn. nov. and Phobaeticus beccarianus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 is shown to represent the previously unknown female of Phobaeticus sobrinus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (syn. nov.) Lectotypes are designated for: Nearchus redtenbacheri Dohrn, 1910, Pharnacia biceps Redtenbacher, 1908, Pharnacia ingens Redtenbacher, 1908, Pharnacia heros Redtenbacher, 1908, Phibalosoma westwoodi Wood-Mason, 1875, Phobaeticus sinetyi Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, and Phobaeticus sumatranus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907. A neotype is designated for Nearchus maximus Redtenbacher, 1908 and Phobaeticus magnus nom. nov. introduced as a replacement name for Nearchus maximus Redtenbacher, which is a junior homonym of Phibalosoma maximum Bates, 1865. The previously unknown males of Pharnacia heros Redtenbacher, 1908, Phobaeticus ingens (Redtenbacher, 1908), Tirachoidea jianfenglingensis (Bi, 1994), Pharnacia sumatrana (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907), Phryganistria fruhstorferi (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) and Tirachoidea westwoodii (Wood-Mason, 1875) as well as the females of Pharnacia ponderosa Stål, 1877a and Pharnacia tirachus (Westwood, 1859) are described and illustrated for the first time. A brief description on the basis of colour photos of the so far unknown male of Pharnacia kalag Zompro, 2005 are presented. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are provided for the eggs of 24 species. The eggs of the following 18 species are described and illustrated for the first time: Pharnacia borneensis spec. nov., Pharnacia palawanica spec. nov., Pharnacia ponderosa Stål, 1877a, Pharnacia sumatrana (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907), Pharnacia tirachus (Westwood, 1859), Phobaeticus hypharpax (Westwood, 1859), Phobaeticus chani Bragg spec. nov., Phobaeticus incertus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, Phobaeticus magnus nom. nov., Phobaeticus philippinicus (Hennemann & Conle, 1997a), Phobaeticus sinetyi Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, Phryganistria grandis Rehn, 1906, Phryganistria virgea (Westwood, 1848), Tirachoidea biceps (Redtenbacher, 1908), Tirachoidea herberti spec. nov., Tirachoidea jianfenglingensis (Bi, 1994) and Tirachoidea siamensis spec. nov.. Several species were originally placed in or subsequently transferred into wrong genera by various authors. Consequently, numerous taxa are here transferred or re-transferred to other genera, which results in 22 new or revised combinations or status of genera and species (comb. nov. / stat. rev. / stat. nov.). A list of the taxonomic changes made in this revision is provided in the summary (see 9.2), which in all lists 70 nomenclatural changes.
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The subfamily Lonchodinae is a large but still rather poorly studied group of Old World Phasmatodea. The collections of the authors include numerous species of Lonchodinae from the Philippine Islands of Samar, Mindoro, Panay, Babuyan and Luzon, some of which are here studied in detail. Two new genera and eleven new species are described. Keys to the genera and a checklist of Philiippine Lonchodinae are presented which lists 28 described species in nine distinct genera. The genus Mithrenes Stål, 1877 is re-described and distinguished from related genera. Two new species are described based on both sexes and the eggs: Mithrenes mindorensis sp. n. from Mindoro and Mithrenes panayensis sp. n. from Panay. A lectotype is designated for Mithrenes asperulus Stål, 1877. The paralectotype of Lonchodes systropedon Westwood, 1859 is conspecific with Mithrenes whiteheadi (Kirby, 1896) and Lonchodes nodulosus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 is the opposite sex and a junior synonym as is Dixippus bilobatus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (syn. n.). A lectotype is designated for Dixippus bilobatus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 and descriptions are provided for both sexes. Keys are presented to distinguish between the four described species in the genus. The new species Lonchodes philippinicus sp. n. from Panay is described and illustrated based on bothsexes and the eggs. As currently treated the genus Lonchodes Gray, 1835 is shown to be polyphyletic. A critical discussion of the genus is presented, which briefly summarizes the generic units or specific groups recognized within the genus. Species subsequently attributed to Lonchodes Gray are here transferred to the genera Lonchodiodes gen. n., Mnesilochus Stål, 1877 and Hermagoras Stål, 1875. A list of species which belong in Lonchodes (sensu stricto) is provided. The new genus Lonchodiodes gen. n. (type-species: Lonchodiodes samarensis sp. n.) and five new species are described and illustrated. Four species are known from both sexes and the eggs: Lonchodiodes atrovirens sp. n. and Lonchodiodes grandis sp. n. from Panay, Lonchodiodes samarensis sp. n. from Samar and Lonchodiodes babuyanensis sp. n. from the Babuyan Islands. Lonchodiodes eurycanthoides sp. n. from Mindoro is described from the male and female alone. Three species are transferred from Lonchodes Gray, 1835 to Lonchodiodes gen. n.: Lonchodes putingmantsa Zompro, 2003 comb. n., Lonchodes tagalicus Stål, 1877 comb. n. and Lonchodes trollius Westwood, 1859 comb. n.. The female and egg of L. trollius (Westwood, 1859) are described and illustrated for the first time and a re-description is provided of the male. Keys are presented to distinguish between the eight known species in the genus. A list of species is presented for Periphetes Stål, 1877. One new species, Periphetes quezonicus sp. n., is described from Luzon based on the female and male. A detailed description and illustrations of the egg of Periphetes forcipatus (Bates, 1865) from Sulawesi are provided. Dixippus furcatus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 and Periphetes duivenbodei elongatus Günther, 1938 from Sulawesi and Periphetes sangirensis Dohrn, 1910 from Sangihe Island shown to be junior synonyms of P. forcipatus (Bates) (syn. n.). Lectotypes are designated for Lonchodes analis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 and Lonchodes forcipatus Bates, 1865. The new genus Matutumetes gen. n. is described for two new species from Mindanao, both of which are known from the male and female: M. amoenus sp. n. and M. mindanaensis sp. n.. This new genus is well characterized by the strikingly prominent praeopercular organ of females. The eggs of Matutumetes gen. n. remain unknown. Mnesilochus Stål, 1877 is re-established (stat. rev.), re-described and distinguished from related genera. A list is presented of the 13 species currently included, 11 of which are here transferred from either Lonchodes Gray, 1835 (sensu lato) or Phenacephorus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (new combinations). The female and egg of Mnesilochus headulus Stål, 1877 are described and illustrated for the first time and a re-description is provided of the male. Prisomera tuberculatum Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 is synonymised with Mnesilochus mindanaense (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) syn. n.. Prisomera modestissimum Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 was synonymised with Mnesilochus modestus (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) in error and is shown to be a synonym of Paraprisomera coronata (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) n. syn.. The type-locality “S.O. Borneo” is shown to be wrong, the specimens most certainly originating from Sri Lanka. A review is presented of the genus Manduria Stål, 1877, along with a re-description and brief notes on its systematic position. A key is provided to distinguish the females. The female paralectotype of Lonchodes systropedon Westwood, 1859 in BMNH is shown to be a specimen of M. bilobatus (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907). Holotypes of most new taxa are deposited in the State Zoological Collection Munich, Germany (ZSMC), paratypes in various public and private collections.
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The Malagasyan and Comorian tribe Achriopterini Bradley & Galil, 1977 is revised on species level. A new diagnosis of the tribe and keys to distinguish the included genera are provided. A discussion and biogeography show Achriopterini Bradley & Galil, 1977 to be closely related to the Papuan tribe Stephanacridini Bradley & Galil, 1977 and furthermore, to show affinity to the Neotropical genus Pterinoxylus Audinet-Serville, 1838. The new genus Glawiana gen. nov. is established for Glawiana glawi sp. nov. from Southern Madagascar, which is designated as the type-species. The new genus differs from Achrioptera Coquerel, 1861 by: the smaller size and stouter body; relatively shorter mesothorax; strongly globose and bi-lobed head and presence of prominent lobes on the dorsal carina of the meso- and metatibiae. The type-species Glawiana glawi sp. nov. is known from a unique female only. A complete revision of the genus Achrioptera Coquerel, 1861 (Type-species: Achrioptera fallax Coquerel, 1861) is provided alongside a new diagnosis of the insects and eggs and determinating keys to the species. Redescriptions, measurements, synonymic listings, a literature review and illustrations are provided for all known species and maps show the known records of all taxa. The genus Hovaspectrum Rehn, 1940 (Type-species: Hovaspectrum lobipes Rehn, 1940) is found to represent a synonym of Achrioptera Coquerel, 1861 (syn. nov.). Two new species and a new subspecies of Achrioptera Coquerel, 1861 from Madagascar are described: Achrioptera gracilis sp. nov. from the female and Achrioptera magnifica sp. nov. and Achrioptera punctipes cliquennoisi ssp. nov. from both sexes and the eggs. Achrioptera composita Carl, 1913 and Achrioptera intermedia Redtenbacher, 1908 are synonymised with Achrioptera punctipes (Audinet-Serville, 1838) (syn. nov.). The eggs of Achrioptera punctipes (Audinet-Seville, 1838) are redescribed and illustrated, those of A. fallax Coquerel, 1861 and Achrioptera magnifica sp. nov. are described and illustrated for the first time. The egg of A. punctipes cliquennoisi ssp. nov. is shortly characterized. The newly discovered females of Achrioptera fallax Coquerel, 1861 and Achrioptera impennis Redtenbacher, 1908 and the still unknown adult male of Achrioptera impennis Redtenbacher, 1908 (so far only been known from a penultimate instar nymph) are described and illustrated for the first time. A lectotype is designated for Achrioptera pygmaea Redtenbacher, 1908.
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A complete taxonomic catalogue of the Stick and Leaf-insects (Phasmatodea) recorded or described from the mainland China (excluding Taiwan) is presented. 241 valid species are listed, which are currently attributed to 50 genera, 5 families and 7 subfamilies. Genera and species are listed alphabetically. All available type-data is provided based mainly on literary sources for species described by Chinese workers from 1986 to 2006, including documented depository of type-specimens. The catalogue therefore also provides complete lists of the type-material of Phasmatodea housed in the following Chinese institutions: Administration of Baishuijiang Natural Reserve (ABNR), Beijing Forestry University, Beijing (BFU), China Agricultural University, Beijing (CAU), Geological Museum of China, Beijing (GMC), Inca Science Ltd., Chongqing (INCA), Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (IZCAS), Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin (NKU), Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Shaanxi (NWSUAF), Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an (SNU), Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), Shanghai Institute of Entomology, Academia Sinica, Shanghai (SIES), Tianjin Natural History Museum, Tianjin (TJNHM), Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, Hangzhou (ZJMNH). The known distribution of each species, in means of provinces is provided as well. 14 species are shown to have been recorded from China in error, several of these based on misidentifications. The “Phasmatodea-like” fossil taxa described from the the Late Jurassic Yixian Formation of North Hebei and West Liaoning are listed in a separate section. Two new generic synonyms are recognized: Arthminotus Bi, 1995 synonymised with Lopaphus Westwood, 1859 (n. syn.) and Dianphasma Chen & He, 1997 synonymised with Parasosibia Redtenbacher, 1908 (n. syn.). The genus Linocerus Gray, 1835 (Type-species: Linocerus gracilis Gray, 1835) was erroneously synonymised with the mediterranean Bacillus St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825 and is here re-established in Phasmatidae: Pachymorphinae: Gratidiini (rev. stat.). Relationship to Clonaria Stål, 1875 (= Gratidia Stål, 1875, = Paraclonaria Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893), Sceptrophasma Brock & Seow-Choen, 2000 and Macellina Uvarov, 1940 is obvious. 13 species are transferred to other genera (new combinations): Asceles dilatatus Chen & He, 2004 and Asceles quadriguttatus Chen & He, 1996 to Pachyscia Redtenbacher, 1908, Arthminotus sinensis Bi, 1995 to Lopaphus Westwood, 1859, Baculum dolichocercatum Bi & Wang, 1998a and Baculum politum Chen & He, 1997 to Medauroidea Zompro, 1999, Dixippus bilippus Chen & He, 1999, Dixippus hainanensis Chen & He, 2002, Dixippus nigroantennatus Chen & He, 2002, Dixippus parvus Chen & He, 2002 and Entoria bobaiensis Chen, 1986 to Lonchodes Gray, 1835, Sipyloidea obvius Chen & He, 1995 to Sinophasma Günther, 1940, and Gratidia bituberculata Redtenbacher, 1889 and Leptynia xinganensis Chen & He, 1993 to Sceptrophasma Brock & Seow-Choen, 2002. Acrophylla sichuanensis Chen & He, 2001 remains of unknown generic assignment, but is shown to be not a member of the Australian genus Acrophylla Gray, 1835. Furthermore, as Baculum Saussure, 1861 is a neotropical genus and most Old World species previously attributed this genus are now listed in Ramulus Saussure, 1861, all Chinese species described in this genus are consequently transferred to Ramulus Saussure. Other changes of specific placements are based on published literature and concern to the following three synonymies not recognized by Chinese workers: Abrosoma Redtenbacher, 1906 (= Prosceles Uvarov, 1940), Necroscia Audinet-Serville, 1838 (= Aruanoidea Redtenbacher, 1908), Lopaphus Westwood, 1859 (= Paramyronides Redtenbacher, 1908). Megalophasma Bi, 1995 is transferred from Necrosciinae to Lonchodinae. Four lectotypes are designated and three new specific synonyms revealed. A lectotype is designated for Rhamphophasma modestus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, the type-species of Rhamphophasma Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, in order to fix this genus and species. The male paralectotype is shown to be a male of Parapachymorpha nigra Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, the type-species of Parapachymorpha Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893. Clitumnus porrectus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 is synonymised with Bacillus ? artemis Westwood, 1859 with a lectotype designated for the former (n. syn.). A lectotype is designated for Oxyartes lamellatus Kirby, 1904. Paracentema stephanus Redtenbacher, 1908 is shown to have been erroneously synonymised with Neohirasea japonica (de Haan, 1842) and here synonymised with Neohirasea maerens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) (n. syn.). In order to fix the new synonymy a lectotype is designated for Paracentema stephanus Redtenbacher, 1908. Finally, a biogeographic analysis of the Chinese phasmid fauna is presented. This includes brief background information on the topography and biogeography of China along with maps showing the seven zoogeographical subregions currently recognized as well as the 4 municipalities, 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 2 special administrative regions of China. A summary of the taxonomic compilation of the fauna is provided and its relationships with neighbouring regions, of both the Palearctic and Oriental realms, are discussed. A study is presented on the distribution of the taxa and species densities of each province / autonomous region.
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The three tribes of Heteropteryginae Kirby, 1896 occurring in Borneo are nocturnal, and ground dwelling species, easily found in both primary and secondary rainforest. The subfamily is reviewed, with keys and redescriptions of all Bornean species; one new species of a predominantly Bornean genus is described from the Philippines. Lectotypes have been selected for a number of species. The eggs of 17 species are described and illustrated. Distribution maps are given for all species. Many of the species have been collected by the author and reared in the United Kingdom; some observations on their natural history and behaviour are included. In the tribe Heteropterygini the synonymy has been re-examined with a revision to the status of several taxa. The five syntypes of Haaniella grayii (Westwood) were found to belong to two different species. In the tribe Datamini new terms are introduced for the spines and tubercules. A new genus, Spinodares, is described with S. jenningsi spec. nov. as the type species. All recorded Bornean specimens of Dares Stål, 1875 have been re-examined and the synonymy revised. Seven new species of Dares are described, six from Borneo: D. kinabaluensis, D. mjobergi, D. multispinosus, D. murudensis, D. navangensis, D. planissimus, and one from Palawan: D. philippinensis; this is the only record of the tribe Datamini from the Philippines. Acanthoderus otys Westwood, 1859 has previously been placed in the genus Dares Stål, 1875, it is found to belong in Datames Stål, 1875 with Pylaemenes infans Redtenbacher, 1906 as a new junior synonym; the female is described for the first time from a specimen in the Nationaal Natuurhistorische Museum, Leiden (RMNH). Two new species of Datames are described, one with three subspecies: D. muluensis, D. borneensis borneensis, D. b. sepilokensis and D. b. waterstradti. Of the twelve new taxa described eight are represented in the RMNH collection.
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http://phasmida.speciesfile.org The Phasmida Species File (PSF) is a taxonomic database of the world's Phasmida (stick and leaf insects, known as walking sticks and walking leaves in the U.S.). There is full synonymic and taxonomic information for 3,350 valid species and 5,300 taxonomic names, 37,500 citations to 3,178 references, over 7,600 specimen records and 16,800 images of 75% of valid species, with more being added to on a regular basis. Another future aim of this database is to provide high quality images of living phasmids in the wild. The PSF is annually in fed into the catalogue of life (Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands).
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Recently, the Iberian stick insect genus Pijnackeria has been erected by splitting Leptynia Pantel on the basis of several distinguishing features. In addition to Pijnackeria hispanica, the tetraploid all-female type species, molecular, karyological and SEM investigations led to the recognition of four bisexual and one triploid unisexual new species. Bisexuals' karyotypes (2n = 37/38) differ for minute traits and the haploid set is repeated, with few differences, three or four times in the polyploids that appeared to be of hybrid origin. Diagnostic morphological traits were found among body size parameters, antennal articles, male cerci, ovipositor valve and egg chorionic features. All species commonly feed on the broom Sarothamnus scoparius, but habitat disturbance appeared to induce food plant shifts. Moreover, trends from bisexuality to unisexuality through spanandry, probably related to habitat disruption, have been witnessed. The diploid species (Pijnackeria lucianae, Pijnackeria barbarae, Pijnackeria lelongi and Pijnackeria originis) have small ranges, while the polyploid hybrids (Pijnackeria masettii and P. hispanica) spread through Spain and Southern France, featuring a clear geographic parthenogenesis scenario, by colonizing wide areas and likely displacing their ancestors, or even leading them to extinction. Cyclic climatic changes and natural or anthropic habitat fragmentation may have been also of relevance in shaping present-day distribution.
Article
The tribe Anisomorphini sensu Bradley & Galil, 1977 (family Pseudophasmatidae, subfamily Pseudophasmatinae) including the genera Paranisomorpha Redtenbacher, 1906, Autolyca Stål, 1875, Decidia Stål, 1875, Monticomorpha, gen. nov., Peruphasma, gen. nov., Atratomorpha, gen. nov., Columbiophasma, gen. nov., Pseudolcyphides Karny, 1923, Anisomorpha Gray, 1835, Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906, Alloeophasma Redtenbacher, 1906, and Neophasma Redtenbacher, 1906, is revised, based upon examination of the type material. Redescriptions of all known species belonging to this tribe are provided. Four new genera and seven new species and subspecies are described and illustrated: Monticomorpha , gen. nov. , Peruphasma, gen. nov , Atratomorpha, gen. nov., Columbiophasma, gen. nov., Autolyca herculeana, spec. nov., Autolyca punctata, spec. nov., Monticomorpha marshallae, spec. nov , Monticomorpha bispinosa, spec. nov., Peruphasma anakena, spec. nov. , Peruphasma nigra, spec. nov., and Neophasma rugosa flavolineata, subspec. nov.. Still unknown sexes and eggs of several species are described and illustrated for the first time. Several names of species and genera are synonymised, many species are transferred on to other genera. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: Paranisomorpha insignis Redtenbacher, 1906, Autolyca pallidicornis Stål, 1875, Bacteria bogotensis Goudot, 1843, Monticomorpha roulinii (Goudot, 1843), Peruphasma pentlandi (Redtenbacher, 1906), P. unicolor (Redtenbacher, 1906), Columbiophasma quindensis (Goudot, 1843), Anisomorpha paromalus Westwood, 1859, Malacomorpha jamaicana (Redtenbacher, 1906), Alloeophasma poeyi (Saussure, 1868), Neophasma scabriusculum Redtenbacher, 1906, N. granulosum Redtenbacher, 1906, N. peruanum Redtenbacher, 1906, N. subapterum Redtenbacher, 1906, N. dentata (Stål, 1875), N. boliviana (Redtenbacher, 1906), N. fasciata (Redtenbacher, 1906), N. rugosa (Redtenbacher, 1906), and Anisomorpha lurida Redtenbacher, 1906. A type-species is designated for Alloeophasma Redtenbacher, 1906. A diagnosis of the tribe, keys to the genera of Anisomorphini as well as information on the basic systematic background, and a discussion of the taxa and their geographic distribution is provided at the end of the paper.