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Alternative Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools in Bangladesh



The current study tried to explore the status of continuous assessment (CA) or alternative assessment in secondary schools in Bangladesh and the issues related to the implementation of CA. The researchers chose qualitative methodology for the study as it is possible to delve deep into the research problem through qualitative approach. In order to collect data, the researchers employed semi-structured interview method with four secondary teachers. The teachers were interviewed over mobile phone using a semi-structured interview schedule. The major findings of the study included-CA or alternative assessment was not implemented in schools; teachers and other stakeholders needed training for wider knowledge and skills required to implement CA; and strong monitoring and mentoring was vital for proper implementation of alternative assessment in schools. Moreover, it was revealed from the study that preservation of assessment data and documents was a challenge for the teachers. If CA or alternative assessment strategies are implemented in secondary schools of Bangladesh properly, quality of education is expected to improve.
Alternative Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools
in Bangladesh
Ranjit Podder
Md. Mizanur Rahaman Mizan
The current study tried to explore the status of continuous
assessment (CA) or alternative assessment in secondary schools in
Bangladesh and the issues related to the implementation of CA.
The researchers chose qualitative methodology for the study as it
is possible to delve deep into the research problem through
qualitative approach. In order to collect data, the researchers
employed semi-structured interview method with four secondary
teachers. The teachers were interviewed over mobile phone using
a semi-structured interview schedule. The major findings of the
study included-CA or alternative assessment was not implemented
in schools; teachers and other stakeholders needed training for
wider knowledge and skills required to implement CA; and strong
monitoring and mentoring was vital for proper implementation of
alternative assessment in schools. Moreover, it was revealed from
the study that preservation of assessment data and documents was
a challenge for the teachers. If CA or alternative assessment
strategies are implemented in secondary schools of Bangladesh
properly, quality of education is expected to improve.
Keywords: Alternative assessment, continuous assessment,
monitoring and mentoring, motivation, documentation
1. Introduction
It is believed that assessment practices have direct effect on the
classroom practices, that is, what is assessed is usually practised in the
classrooms (Brown, 2004). The Qudrat-e-Khuda Education Commission
formed after independence in 1971, put much importance to quality of
education so that humans can be turned into resources (Ministry of
Education, Bangladesh, 1974). Although the commission put emphasis on
the quality of education, assessment system remained paper and pencil
Associate Professor, Govt. Teachers’ Training College, Dhaka;
Research Student, Govt. Teachers’ Training College, Dhaka;
Education and Development Research Council (EDRC)
Dhaka, Bangladesh
The EDRC Journal of Learning and Teaching
Volume 6, Number 3, October 2020
ISSN 2411-3972
based in most cases. As a result, although there was cognitive growth of
the students, skills to use the knowledge did not develop that much.
Therefore, the question of quality education remained unanswered. In
order to get rid of the situation, the government of Bangladesh introduced
SBA (School Based Assessment) where students would find opportunity to
practise the earned theoretical knowledge. 30% marks were allotted for
internal assessment through engaging students in different activities such
as pair work, group work, project work, report writing, and so on (NCTB,
2007). The name of SBA was changed into CA (continuous assessment)
and allotted marks were brought down to 20%. SBA, CA, and alternative
assessment strategies are synonymous. As SBA was meant for all
secondary level institutions, the name SBA did not cover madras and
higher secondary colleges. For madrasahs the name should have been
MBA (Madrasah Based Assessment) and for colleges, it should have been
CBA (College Based Assessment). A common name CA was used to
cover all the secondary level institutions. CA or alternative assessment is
supposed to be useful to put the knowledge into practices providing
students skills alongside knowledge.
Alternative assessment or CA is assessment strategies which
usually focus on skills rather than knowledge; paper and pencil tests focus
more on knowledge of the students in a particular subject but CA or
alternative assessment tests what a student can do with the knowledge
learnt in the classroom (Podder, 2020). Only knowledge and little or no
skill is like a curse for a student because their performances are
disappointingly lower than their knowledge; and this kind of knowledge
with little or no skill is also an indicator of low quality of education. If a
student cannot relate their knowledge to real life, that cannot be called
better education. For ensuring quality in education, we need to give a
second thought to the current assessment system in schools and colleges;
change in the assessment system may change the classroom practices. It is
mentioned earlier that, unlike paper and pencil tests, alternative assessment
focuses more on ‘doing’ alongside ‘knowing’. If skills are practised and
assessed alongside knowledge, the quality of education is manifested in
the behaviours of the learners. Parents can see what their children are able
to do; society can see what the students can do with the knowledge learnt
in educational institutions. For example, if students are engaged in English
speaking practices and this skill is assessed, the students’ speaking skill
must improve and will be noticeable in their everyday communication. In
case of Mathematics, if students are engaged in measuring the areas of the
classroom, their table, benches, books, etc. alongside solving problems
given in the textbooks, students will be able to use the mathematical
knowledge in practical life. As it is observed from the above discussion
that CA or alternative assessment provide students with skills alongside
knowledge, NCTB (2012) included CA in the curriculum in order to
enhance quality of secondary education in Bangladesh.
1.1 Rationale for the Study
SBA was introduced around 15 years ago (NCTB, 2006) and it
was renamed as CA in 2012 (NCTB, 2012) in order to implement
alternative assessment strategies in all the secondary level educational
institutions. It is reported that CA is not being implemented in the schools
(Podder, 2020). As alternative assessment contribute to the achievement of
quality in education through the development of skills, the status of CA,
reasons why CA is not being implemented, and ways to implement the
strategies should be explored. This study tried to find answers to the
research questions placed below:
1.2 Research Questions
1) What is the status of CA (alternative assessment) in secondary
2) Why CA (alternative assessment) is not implemented as per
curriculum guidelines?
3) How can alternative assessment be implemented in secondary
level institutions?
1.3 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The participants of the study were previously known to the
researchers. All of them underwent CLT (Communicative Language
Teaching) or curriculum dissemination training at different times as
participants. Sometimes the participants worked with the chief researcher
as co-trainers. Therefore, the participants spoke freely and frankly because
of the trust and faith in each other.
Although the mentioned were the scopes of the study, there were
some limitations, too. The investigation was limited to only four teachers
of four secondary schools of Dhaka city. This study could not include
teachers practising in primary schools, higher secondary colleges,
madrasahs, and vocational educational institutions. However, the study
was rigorous and in-depth. Therefore, the findings of the study could be
trusted because of the honest and unbiased nature of data collection and
data analysis.
2. Literature Review
Since the independence, the education system of Bangladesh had a
policy to introduce school based assessment (SBA) and include higher
order questions in the public examinations as part of education reform
policy (ADB, 2015). Although SBA and higher order questions were in the
policy, it was not implemented immediately after policy was taken. SBA
was introduced to the curriculum in 2006 (Begum & Farooqi, 2008).
Although SBA was changed into CA (Continuous Assessment) in 2012
(NCTB, 2012) to cover all kinds of secondary level educational
institutions, the activities remained almost similar. It has been mentioned
in section one (1) above that SBA, CA, and alternative assessment are
synonymous; activities of SBA, CA and alternative assessment are alike.
In other words, alternative assessment measures practical ability more than
it measures knowledge. Janisch, Liu, and Akrof (2007) have stated that
alternative assessment refers to classroom-based, qualitative, informal, or
performance assessment; it is a way to measure students’ skill achievement
in more informal ways.
Podder (2020) maintains that there are four major types of
alternative assessment strategies which include self-assessment (keeping
records of practices, progress, and achievement); peer-assessment (keeping
classmates’ records of practices, progress, and contribution in
accomplishing a task); student portfolios (preserving students’ writing,
drawings, paintings, certificates, appreciation letter of performances in a
file or folder in the classroom); and performance assessment (student
presents an individual work, pair work, or group work; teacher and other
students of the class ask questions or provide feedback). Moreover, Al-
Mahrooqi and Denman (2008) mention commonly employed alternative
assessment strategies in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) or in ESL
(English as a Second Language) classrooms. Al-Mahrooqi and Denman
(2008) put emphasis on video-recording students’ performances as
alternative assessment strategy which, according to them, motivates the
students to perform better. The assessment strategies mentioned by Al-
Mahrooqi and Denman (2008) include portfolios, journals and diaries,
writing folders, teacher observations, peer and teacherstudent
conferences, audiovisual recordings, checklists, and self-assessments.
However, Sulaiman et al. (2019) and Al-Mahrooqi and Denman (2008)
state that alternative assessment strategies are similar to those mentioned
by Podder (2020). So far as alternative assessment strategies are
concerned, teachers can devise more strategies based on what subjects they
are teaching, contexts, and requirement.
A study reveals that South African students learnt many other
skills because of the alternative assessment practices other than knowledge
which is usually assessed in the traditional assessment system (Stears &
Gopal, 2010). Gears and Gopal (2010) further reports that those students
performed poorly in pen and paper tests although their performances were
better when alternative assessment strategies were employed. A study by
Nasri, Roslan, Sekuan, Bakar and Puteh (2010) also supports the findings
of Stears and Gopal (2010). Nasri et al. (2010) claim from a survey with
50 secondary school teachers in Brunei that alternative assessment can
promote active learning and improve self confidence among students
(95%). 80% of the respondents stated that alternative assessment was
suitable to cultivate critical and creative thinking skills; and 85% of them
stated that alternative assessment did not hamper classroom teaching and
learning; it supported learning.
Barbarics (2019) from his qualitative study in Hungary with four
teachers show that the main purpose of Hungarian teachers using
alternative assessment strategies is to exonerate students from the stressful
traditional testing, engage students in different activities, and then to
provide constructive feedback which improve quality of teaching and
learning. According Barbarics (2019), alongside reducing students’ stress,
alternative assessment strategies develop students’ creativity,
communication skills, self-regulation, real-life problem solving skills,
ICT-use skills, build knowledge-base and cooperation attitudes.
Watt (2005) claims from a study in Sydney with 60 Mathematics
teachers from 11 secondary schools that the use of a range of alternative
assessment methods helped to portray the actual knowledge and skills of
the students. Although alternative assessment practices benefit students in
skills achievement (Letina, 2014; Nasri et al., 2010; Barbarics, 2019;
Stears & Gopal, 2009; Al-Mahrooqi & Denman, 2008; Watt, 2005),
secondary level educational institutions in Bangladesh are not exploiting
the benefits of it. Ahmed, Islam, and Salahuddin (2015) claim from a study
in Bangladesh that, although classroom assessment is an essential
component in effective classroom practices, the teachers were found to
dominate the students where there was no classroom assessment strategies
Although Letina (2014) recognizes the positive aspects of
alternative assessment practices, he also identified some limitations
regarding lack of guidelines for assessment. Latina (2014) asked for some
alternative assessment guidelines or policies for better implementation of
the strategies and assessing the students. Begum and Farooqi (2008) assert
from a study in Bangladesh that teachers consider SBA as an extra burden
on them and they claimthat the class periods do not allow implementation
of SBA activities. Begum and Farooqi (2008) claim that the teachers’
opinions might be like that mentioned because most of them were not
trained in SBA. Denman and Al-Mahrooqi (2018) claim that alternative
assessment lacks objectivity and reliability while every teacher grades
students differently and many of the teachers give full marks without
proper judgment of the students’ performances. Denman and Al-Mahrooqi
(2018) further maintain that traditional assessment strategies and the
alternative assessment strategies should not be similar, alternative forms of
assessment must be practical-based. The reviewed literature shows that
although there are merits of alternative assessment strategies, there are
some weaknesses too. However, benefits overweigh the weaknesses. The
weaknesses can be minimized through providing training to the teachers,
preparing assessment guidelines, and through improved monitoring and
3. Research Methodology
The researcher employed qualitative research methodology as it is
possible to penetrate deep into the research problem through the use of
qualitative research methodology (Bogdan & Biklen, 2007).The
researchers used semi-structured interview method with purposively
selected four secondary teachers from four different secondary schools in
Dhaka city. Interviews were conducted over mobile phone with prior
permission of the interviewees; and the conversations were recorded. The
data were analysed thematically which included going through the
transcribed data again and again and coding them based on similarity of
themes (Bogdan & Biklen, 2007). The findings of the study emerged at the
time of transcribing and coding the data. Then the coded data were
categorised and put under the major themes of the research questions. All
the four famous teachers were invited to take part in the study. They were
famous because they have name and fame in their schools as well as in the
society; different organizations such as American Centre, BRAC
(Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), NCTB receive their
services as Master Trainers and as textbook writers. They happily agreed
and time was fixed for the semi-structured in-depth interviews. Among the
four teachers, three were females having teaching experiences from 15 to
20 years. The teachers were given pseudonyms such as T1, T2, T3, T4 so
that they cannot be identified from the reporting.
4. Findings of the Study
The findings of the study included-CA is not implemented in
schools (4.1); teachers and other stakeholders need training (4.2); and
strong monitoring and mentoring is vital (4.3). The findings have been
presented below:
4.1 Implementation of CA in schools
Although CA was introduced in the curriculum of 2012 (NCTB,
2012) and SBA was introduced in 2007, the implementation of CA is
reported to be poor in schools (Podder, 2020). The teachers in the study
also expressed that CA was not implemented in schools. T1 asserted that
they did not conduct CA in their schools; instead they held some other
tests in the name of Model Test and Preparation Test. NCTB (2012)
approved only two examinations a year, half-yearly and year final. She
I have training in CA and I am interested in implementing CA or
alternative assessment strategies in my school but I have to be
much busy with preparing the tests, invigilating in the preparation
and model tests, examining the scripts, preparing the result sheets,
and so on. Moreover, two other examinations are there as per the
curriculum guidelines. So many examinations and marking so
many scripts is a barrier on the way to implementing the
alternative assessment strategies.
Other teachers, too, provided similar opinions. Their interviews
showed that in none of the four schools, CA or alternative assessment
strategies were practised although all of them agreed that alternative
assessment strategies had power to provide students with practical
knowledge and skills. T4 was an assistant head teacher of a school. He
used to teach Maths and science subjects. He maintained:
We do not conduct CA (or alternative assessment) in our school as
it is not mandatory for us. SESIP (Secondary Education Sector
Investment Program) provided us with a diary where we are
supposed to plan the lessons and get the lesson plans approved by
the head teacher or assistant head teacher. Most teachers do not
use the diary for planning the lessons and we fill in the blank
pages of the diary before the education officers come for visits.
Other two teacher participants, T2 and T3, also confessed that they
also did not organize any CA in their schools. They asserted that they were
not asked to do the alternative assessment by the school authority or by
any other authority which indicated that there was no pressure from
anyone to practise the alternative assessment strategies in schools.
The above data show that the schools do not implement CA or
alternative assessment as they do not consider it important; and no
authority, local or central, asks them to do CA compulsorily. Although
around 40% of the teachers are trained, they do not conduct CA. As was
reported by Begum and Farooqi (2008), the participating teachers of the
current study also consider CA or alternative assessment as burden for
them. However, Nasri et al. (2010) have alleged that alternative
assessment seem to be burden to those teachers who do not have proper
training in CA or alternative assessment.
4.2 Teachers and Stakeholders Awareness in CA
The four participants claim in the interviews that around 40% of
their colleagues had training in CA or alternative assessment and these40%
teachers were not conversant with different assessment strategies. T3
I have received curriculum dissemination training organized by
NCTB where I came across CA or alternative assessment
strategies. Moreover, I received Master Trainer training in CA but
many of my colleagues are not trained. Only around 40% or 50%
of my colleagues have received training in CA but most of them
are not confident in implementing it.
T4 had training and he was also aware of the benefits of CA.
However, he and his school did not implement alternative assessment
strategies. He maintained:
I used to know the CA/alternative assessment strategies but
because of lack of practices, I forgot many of the strategies. As the
school authority or any other authority does not seriously want us
to implement CA, we do not go for extra work. Moreover, around
60% teachers are not trained in CA or alternative assessment.
T4 further asserted that other stakeholders such as students,
parents, and education officers needed to be provided with training or at
least they should be sensitized with the desired changes in the curriculum
so that everyone concerned supported the implementation. T1 and T3 also
provided similar data that they and their schools did not organize any CA.
However, they (T1 & T3) confessed that they put fake marks against the
roll numbers of the students without organizing CA for 20% marks. T1
We do not have to conduct CA in our school but we add 20%
marks in each subject to determine the final results of the students.
We give these fake marks so that we can show the higher authority
that we conduct CA in case they come to visit our school. To start
CA or alternative assessment practices in full swing, proper
training is needed for those who have little or no idea of CA.
The above data show that most of the teachers are not aware of the
CA strategies and their benefits. If the teachers are provided with training
and motivation, teachers may be aware of the benefits and how to apply
CA. Alongside providing training to the teachers on the use of the
alternative assessment strategies, there should be sessions on how to assess
(or mark) students’ performances in CA. The researchers believe that, in
addition to teacher training for better implementation (Nasri et al., 2010),
there should be arrangements for disseminating the alternative assessment
ideas among students, guardians, and education officers because when all
the stakeholders are aware of the possible changes in assessment, schools
can easily implement alternative assessment strategies without obstacles
created by anybody concerned.
4.3 Mentoring in Alternative Assessment
It was observed from the interview data and from literature that
CA or alternative assessment was not in practices in schools as there was
no monitoring to check if the curriculum guidelines regarding CA was
being implemented or not. The interviewees claimed that they were not
under compulsion to implement the CA strategies; neither the institutional
heads nor anyone from higher authority visited schools to see the
implementation of CA. T1 asserted:
Although I am aware of the CA strategies and the curriculum
guidelines regarding CA implementation, I do not do that as no
one practises CA or there is no instruction regarding the
implementation of CA from the institution heads. The institution
heads are much busy with Preparation Tests and Model tests.
T4 is an assistant head teacher and he has to teach in some classes.
As an administrator, he firmly claimed that if not supervised by higher
authority, teachers would never engage in CA implementation. T4
In order to implement CA or alternative assessment strategies, the
higher authority with sound knowledge of CA should come to visit
the schools, check what the teachers are doing, mentor them so
that the teachers feel empowered to implement the CA strategies.
T2 and T3 also asked for monitoring, mentoring, and motivational
measures so that teachers feel encouraged to implement CA. According to
them, through mentoring, the teachers can make their ideas clear through
holding talks with the mentors. T3 asserted,“Although I have training, I
need some more supports from experts during implementation so that my
weak areas can be strengthened through talking with them”. T2 put added
emphasis on the motivational activities. She asserted:
My experiences show that most of the teachers are not motivated
to work hard and sincerely for the students. They just want to do
the routine work; they do not want to try new ideas; they love to
do things traditionally. For that reason, motivational activities
need to be taken from the school authority or from the higher
The four participating teachers informed that some schools started
to implement CA at the beginning but they faced problem regarding
preserving the data and the assessment documents. One of the four
teachers, T4, disclosed that he did not find the results of the class tests and
assessment documents when the school authority asked for the 20% marks
in Mathematics. Then he had to provide fake marks in order to avoid
hassle and dishonor from the colleagues and the head teacher. Another
teacher T2stated:
Our school began to implement CA in around 2014 and 2015, but
it did not work because of the negligence of the teachers including
the head teacher. The school authority did not tell us how to
assess students continuously and how/where to preserve the
assessment data and documents. I did not have any secured space
in the common room to preserve the necessary documents.
T1 disclosed that she preserved the documents and the result
sheets in her drawer but was facing difficulties as all students of a class
were not assessed together; students were assessed on different days in a
small number. However, T3 informed that she noted down the data against
the roll numbers of the students in the attendance register. T3 claims that,
there was also a problem. As there was not enough space in the attendance
register, after some days, she could not understand what the data is meant
for. She stated:
Although I write the marks or grades of the students in the
students’ attendance register, I cannot write details about the
marks or grades; why I awarded that marks or grades; what was
the assessment on, etc. As a result, I forget what that marks or
grades mean, why I gave it, etc.
NCTB (2012) introduced CA in the curriculum and provided
training to many teachers to implement CA in schools. However, the
schools were not implementing the curriculum guidelines regarding CA
mainly because there was no monitoring and mentoring from any
organizations. Alongside monitoring and mentoring, there should be
motivational activities as Tan (2012) claims that traditional teachers do not
have any appetite for alternative assessment but teachers with progressive
ideas and high motivation level can move forward with alternative
assessment plans. Preserving the assessment data and analyzing them
properly is important for taking further actions. Unless the data can be
preserved systematically so that they can be retrieved immediately when
necessary, it is difficult for teachers to give the final or average marks or
grades to the students’ performances. However, a separate register one full
page dedicated for each student can solve the mentioned data preservation
issues. Additionally, it is known from BEDU (Bangladesh Examination
Development Unit) sources that they have prepared software aiming to
solve the data preservation problems of the school teachers (Podder, 2020).
Teachers would be able to input data just after assessment and they can
retrieve them any time they require.
5. Conclusion
The findings of the study showed that most of the secondary
schools do not implement CA; teachers and other stakeholders such as
students, parents, education officers require training; monitoring and
mentoring is a vital issue emerged from the study. Only training may not
be enough, alternative assessment must be made mandatory for better
implementation (Podder, 2020) of CA in schools. If the alternative
assessment or CA strategies are implemented in secondary level
educational institutions, the quality of education is expected to improve.
Therefore, the education authority should take necessary actions for better
implementation of CA or alternative assessment in secondary level
educational institutions.
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Full-text available
Abstract Assessment of student achievement is one of the key components of teaching. Beside traditional forms of assessment, which are most common in teaching practice, recently alternative assessment is becoming more popular and frequent in educational discourse. Alternative assessment provides more comprehensive insight into students’ achievements and gives authentic information about their knowledge, abilities, skills, attitudes, and competences which are developed during the teaching process. In the school subject Science and Social Studies this kind of assessment is applicable in various situations and different contexts. This paper discusses the application of different types of assessment methods in teaching. For this purpose, the results of the empirical research are presented. The main research objective was determining the application of traditional and alternative assessments during Science and Social Studies classes. The survey was conducted among primary school teachers in Zagreb and Zagreb County to detect assessment methods which are frequently or very rarely used in Science and Social Studies teaching. The results obtained allow for an analytical review of the current situation in the teaching practice of respondents. Based on the results of this study, we recommend an improvement of the assessment process in teaching practice, its reconceptualization and usage directed towards the evaluation of students’ competences. The conclusions also provide recommendations for effective implementation of different types of assessment in teaching Science and Social Studies. Key words: alternative assessment; school subject Science and Social studies; students; teachers; traditional assessment.
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Recent reforms to education systems around the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have resulted in the increased use of alternative forms of assessment across a number of subjects, including EFL/ESL. This is certainly the case in Oman, where alternative assessment assumes an important role in both the country’s Basic Education schools and in English language foundation programs at the tertiary level. However, despite their growing importance, as of yet very few studies have examined how these forms of assessment are implemented and the challenges associated with them in an Omani context. For these reasons, the current exploratory study examined attitudes toward, and practices of, alternative assessment in an English language foundation program in Oman’s Sultan Qaboos University (SQU). In order to do this, 10 English language instructors on SQU’s Language Centre (now the Centre for Preparatory Studies) foundation program were administered a questionnaire featuring 13 open-ended questions. Results indicate that participants hold mostly positive attitudes toward alternative assessment though express a number of concerns related to cheating/copying, time requirements, and subjective marking practices. Implications of these findings for alternative assessment within the Omani and MENA context are discussed.
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“Alternative assessment” is an increasingly common and popular discourse in education. The potential benefit of alternative assessment practices is premised on significant changes in assessment practices. However, assessment practices embody power relations between institutions, teachers and students, and these power relationships determine the possibility and the extent of actual changes in assessment practices. Labelling a practice as “alternative assessment does not guarantee meaningful departure from existing practice. Recent research has warned that assessment practices in education cannot be presumed to empower students in ways that enhance their learning. This is partly due to a tendency to speak of power in assessment in undefined terms. Hence, it would be useful to identify the types of power present in assessment practices and the contexts which give rise to them. This paper seeks to examine power in the context of different ways that alternative assessment is practiced and understood by teachers. Research on teachers’ conceptions of alternative assessment is presented, and each of the conceptions is then analysed for insights into teachers’ meanings and practices of power. In particular, instances of sovereign, epistemological and disciplinary power in alternative assessment are identified to illuminate new ways of understanding and using alternative assessment.
Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the boot camp program. The use of structured and specific prompts elicited appropriate content for the different sections of their psychology research report. They also appreciated the distraction-free environment created during through the boot camp protocols. These findings have implications for more effective instruction and skill development in the writing of psychology research reports.
Alternative Assessment. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching
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