Research Proposal

Small Nations Cybercrime Law: The Guyana Case

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Abstract

This paper presents a case of misalignment of national cybercrime laws as part of the overall cybersecurity strategy and international cooperation. Several articles in the Guyana Cyber Crime Bill opens the laws to misinterpretation and subjectivity. The language in the Bill subjects to ethical missteps that have the possibility of being misused. These missteps describe the values of individualism versus collectivism, high versus low power distance, and high versus low uncertainty avoidance.

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A computer and a network are all that is needed for any criminal activity of cybercrime. A vigorous cybercrime legislation has, therefore, become a necessity in today's digital age. Many nation-states take great measures to draft the inclusive laws regarding this legislation. The government of Pakistan is also working hard to amend the present laws which pursue to make sure the regulation with regards to the cyber security. Digital technology has many advantages but also has a dark side. Unfortunately, its dark side is paid much heed to which does not sit well with any code of ethics. The existence of Islam in the cyber world has created an opportunity for dialogue besides forming a new method of learning for mental and physical health The Electronic Transactions Ordinance ETO 2002 in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan forbade the illegitimate and unauthorized accessibility towards the information. It preceded the declaration of Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act PECA 2016. The Act lays down the laws for cyber-terrorist crimes which are conducted with the intent of committing terrorism. The penalty for this offense is based on the 14-year term of custody or a charge of Rs 5 million, which makes up to US $47,450. Understanding the Islamic perspective in this regard can be helpful for the betterment of the lives. Islam strictly forbids a spread of fake news through news sourcing which has increasingly become rampant in today's cyber world which can lead towards malprctices. Thus, this research aims at sharing all the contemporary challenges with regards to the cybercrimes and possible solutions in the light of constitution in Pakistan.
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Purpose: As cyber-attacks continue to grow, organisations adopting the internet-of-things (IoT) have continued to react to security concerns that threaten their businesses within the current highly competitive environment. Many recorded industrial cyber-attacks have successfully beaten technical security solutions by exploiting human-factor vulnerabilities related to security knowledge and skills and manipulating human elements into inadvertently conveying access to critical industrial assets. Knowledge and skill capabilities contribute to human analytical proficiencies for enhanced cybersecurity readiness. Thus, a human-factored security endeavour is required to investigate the capabilities of the human constituents (workforce) to appropriately recognise and respond to cyber intrusion events within the industrial control system (ICS) environment. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative approach (statistical analysis) is adopted to provide an approach to quantify the potential cybersecurity capability aptitudes of industrial human actors, identify the least security-capable workforce in the operational domain with the greatest susceptibility likelihood to cyber-attacks (i.e. weakest link) and guide the enhancement of security assurance. To support these objectives, a Human-factored Cyber Security Capability Evaluation approach is presented using conceptual analysis techniques. Findings: Using a test scenario, the approach demonstrates the capacity to proffer an efficient evaluation of workforce security knowledge and skills capabilities and the identification of weakest link in the workforce. Practical implications: The approach can enable organisations to gain better workforce security perspectives like security-consciousness, alertness and response aptitudes, thus guiding organisations into adopting strategic means of appropriating security remediation outlines, scopes and resources without undue wastes or redundancies. Originality/value: This paper demonstrates originality by providing a framework and computational approach for characterising and quantify human-factor security capabilities based on security knowledge and security skills. It also supports the identification of potential security weakest links amongst an evaluated industrial workforce (human agents), some key security susceptibility areas and relevant control interventions. The model and validation results demonstrate the application of action research. This paper demonstrates originality by illustrating how action research can be applied within socio-technical dimensions to solve recurrent and dynamic problems related to industrial environment cyber security improvement. It provides value by demonstrating how theoretical security knowledge (awareness) and practical security skills can help resolve cyber security response and control uncertainties within industrial organisations.
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Many developed countries are placing resources to combat the growing threats in cyberspace, and emerging nations are no different. Since 2016, the Dominican Republic is undergoing massive changes within the current government to prioritize cybersecurity through laws, policies, and doctrine. This initiative is causing politicians, industry, and even government entities such as the national police to start the journey to begin to fully understand what are the issues in cybersecurity as they apply to the nation. It is essential that the security challenges and problems identified are addressed through a process of discovery while mitigating risks. This paper is to present those challenges and offer solutions that can be used to achieve an acceptable level of cyber risk.
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In this paper we argue for a human-in-the-loop approach to the study of situation awareness in computer defence analysis (CDA). The cognitive phenomenon of situation awareness (SA) has received significant attention in cybersecurity/CDA research. Yet little of this work has attended to the cognitive aspects of situation awareness in the CDA context; instead, the human operator has been treated as an abstraction within the larger human-technology system. A more human-centric approach that seeks to understand the socio-cognitive work of human operators as they perform CDA will yield greater insights into the design of tools and interfaces for CDA. As support for this argument, we present our own work employing the Living Lab Framework through which we ground our experimental findings in contextual knowledge of real-world practice.
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Purpose This paper aims to identify and appropriately respond to any socio-technical gaps within organisational information and cybersecurity practices. This culminates in the equal emphasis of both the social, technical and environmental factors affecting security practices. Design/methodology/approach The socio-technical systems theory was used to develop a conceptual process model for analysing organisational practices in terms of their social, technical and environmental influence. The conceptual process model was then applied to specifically analyse some selected information and cybersecurity frameworks. The outcome of this exercise culminated in the design of a socio-technical systems cybersecurity framework that can be applied to any new or existing information and cybersecurity solutions in the organisation. A framework parameter to help continuously monitor the mutual alignment of the social, technical and environmental dimensions of the socio-technical systems cybersecurity framework was also introduced. Findings The results indicate a positive application of the socio-technical systems theory to the information and cybersecurity domain. In particular, the application of the conceptual process model is able to successfully categorise the selected information and cybersecurity practices into either social, technical or environmental practices. However, the validation of the socio-technical systems cybersecurity framework requires time and continuous monitoring in a real-life environment. Practical implications This research is beneficial to chief security officers, risk managers, information technology managers, security professionals and academics. They will gain more knowledge and understanding about the need to highlight the equal importance of both the social, technical and environmental dimensions of information and cybersecurity. Further, the less emphasised dimension is posited to open an equal but mutual security vulnerability gap as the more emphasised dimension. Both dimensions must, therefore, equally and jointly be emphasised for optimal security performance in the organisation. Originality/value The application of socio-technical systems theory to the information and cybersecurity domain has not received much attention. In this regard, the research adds value to the information and cybersecurity studies where too much emphasis is placed on security software and hardware capabilities.
Conference Paper
The paper describes the implementation of a cyber-security information sharing framework using a real world case study based on providers of critical national infrastructure, specifically air traffic management systems. The paper describes how disparate organisations deal with the unexpected through collaborative cyber situational awareness techniques. Results from the proof of concept demonstration are described, including the effect of using networks, distributed computing techniques and a trust framework to improve interpretation of cyber threats. The conclusions from the demonstration will be presented in light of UK government policy which identified cyber security as a Tier One risk to national security and the benefits or otherwise of adopting a collaborative approach to the problem.
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A succession of doctrines for enhancing cybersecurity has been advocated in the past, including prevention, risk management, and deterrence through accountability. None has proved effective. Proposals that are now being made view cybersecurity as a public good and adopt mechanisms inspired by those used for public health. This essay discusses the failings of previous doctrines and surveys the landscape of cybersecurity through the lens that a new doctrine, public cybersecurity, provides.
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