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QueerVIEW: Protocol for a Technology-Mediated Qualitative Photo Elicitation Study With Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in Ontario, Canada



Background: The experiences of resilience and intersectionality in the lives of contemporary sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) are important to explore. SGMY face unique experiences of discrimination in both online and offline environments, yet simultaneously build community and seek support in innovative ways. SGMY who identify as transgender, trans, or gender nonconforming and have experiences with child welfare, homelessness, or immigration have been particularly understudied. A qualitative exploration that leverages technology may derive new understanding of the negotiations of risk, resilience, and identity intersections that impact the well-being of vulnerable SGMY. Objective: The objectives of the QueerVIEW study were to (1) enhance understanding of SGMY identities, both online and offline, (2) identify experiences of intersectionality among culturally, regionally, and racially diverse SGMY in Ontario, Canada, (3) explore online and offline sources of resilience for SGMY, and (4) develop and apply a virtual photo elicitation methodological approach. Methods: This is the first study to pilot a completely virtual approach to a photo elicitation investigation with youth, including data collection, recruitment, interviewing, and analysis. Recruited through social media, SGMY completed a brief screening survey, submitted 10 to 15 digital photos, and then participated in an individual semistructured interview that focused on their photos and related life experiences. Online data collection methods were employed through encrypted online file transfer and secure online interviews. Data is being analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach, with six coders participating in structured online meetings that triangulated photo, video, and textual data. Results: Data collection with 30 participants has been completed and analyses are underway. SGMY expressed appreciation for the photo elicitation and online design of the study and many reported experiencing an emotional catharsis from participating in this process. It is anticipated that results will form a model of how participants work toward integrating their online and offline experiences and identities into developing a sense of themselves as resilient. Conclusions: This protocol presents an innovative, technology-enabled qualitative study that completely digitized a popular arts-based methodology—photo elicitation—that has potential utility for contemporary research with marginalized populations. The research design and triangulated analyses can generate more nuanced conceptualizations of SGMY identities and resilience than more traditional approaches. Considerations for conducting online research may be useful for other qualitative research.
QueerVIEW:Protocol for a Technology-Mediated Qualitative Photo
Elicitation Study With Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in
Ontario, Canada
Shelley L Craig1*, PhD; Andrew D Eaton1*, MSW; Rachael Pascoe1*, MSW; Egag Egag1*, MSW; Lauren B McInroy2*,
PhD; Lin Fang1*, PhD; Ashley Austin3*, PhD; Michael P Dentato4*, PhD
1Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
2College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States
3Ellen Whiteside McDonnell School of Social Work, Barry University, Miami Shores, FL, United States
4School of Social Work, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
*all authors contributed equally
Corresponding Author:
Shelley L Craig, PhD
Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work
University of Toronto
246 Bloor St W
Toronto, ON, M5S1V4
Phone: 1 4169788847
Background: The experiences of resilience and intersectionality in the lives of contemporary sexual and gender minority youth
(SGMY) are important to explore. SGMY face unique experiences of discrimination in both online and offline environments, yet
simultaneously build community and seek support in innovative ways. SGMY who identify as transgender, trans, or gender
nonconforming and have experiences with child welfare, homelessness, or immigration have been particularly understudied. A
qualitative exploration that leverages technology may derive new understanding of the negotiations of risk, resilience, and identity
intersections that impact the well-being of vulnerable SGMY.
Objective: The objectives of the QueerVIEW study were to (1) enhance understanding of SGMY identities, both online and
offline, (2) identify experiences of intersectionality among culturally, regionally, and racially diverse SGMY in Ontario, Canada,
(3) explore online and offline sources of resilience for SGMY, and (4) develop and apply a virtual photo elicitation methodological
Methods: This is the first study to pilot a completely virtual approach to a photo elicitation investigation with youth, including
data collection, recruitment, interviewing, and analysis. Recruited through social media, SGMY completed a brief screening
survey, submitted 10 to 15 digital photos, and then participated in an individual semistructured interview that focused on their
photos and related life experiences. Online data collection methods were employed through encrypted online file transfer and
secure online interviews. Data is being analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach, with six coders participating
in structured online meetings that triangulated photo, video, and textual data.
Results: Data collection with 30 participants has been completed and analyses are underway. SGMY expressed appreciation
for the photo elicitation and online design of the study and many reported experiencing an emotional catharsis from participating
in this process. It is anticipated that results will form a model of how participants work toward integrating their online and offline
experiences and identities into developing a sense of themselves as resilient.
Conclusions: This protocol presents an innovative, technology-enabled qualitative study that completely digitized a popular
arts-based methodology—photo elicitation—that has potential utility for contemporary research with marginalized populations.
The research design and triangulated analyses can generate more nuanced conceptualizations of SGMY identities and resilience
than more traditional approaches. Considerations for conducting online research may be useful for other qualitative research.
International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/20547
JMIR Res Protoc 2020 | vol. 9 | iss. 11 | e20547 | p. 1 (page number not for citation purposes)
(JMIR Res Protoc 2020;9(11):e20547) doi: 10.2196/20547
lesbian; gay; bisexual; transgender; queer; youth; photo elicitation; photo voice; grounded theory; online research; Canada
Sexual and Gender Minority Youth (SGMY)
SGMY face unique challenges that impact their sense of self.
Their experiences of exclusion and discrimination are important
to examine to better understand the unique psychosocial and
mental health needs of SGMY and identify instances of
resistance and resilience [1]. Minority stress, which includes
the stigma of living with a sexual and/or gender minority (SGM)
identity [2], impacts the daily lives of SGMY through chronic
discrimination, such as microaggressions and name-calling [3],
and other acute events, such as physical and sexual violence
[4]. Minority stress manifests in higher rates of mental health
disorders for SGMY than for their heterosexual or cisgender
peers, which may include depression, anxiety, suicide attempts,
and posttraumatic stress disorder [5]. Alongside mental health
ramifications, SGMY may also be at risk of later developing
physical health conditions in response to their minority stress,
such as cardiovascular disease, asthma, diabetes, and other
chronic conditions [6]. The prevalence of such physical and
mental health conditions is considerably higher for those facing
multiple and intersecting vulnerabilities [5,6]. Although extant
research has quantified the challenges experienced by SGMY
generally, as well as several subpopulations [2-7], the
experiences of most SGMY cannot be understood in “identity
silos” but rather through an exploration of the complexity of
the intersections in their daily lives [7]. This qualitative research
protocol focuses on the development and implementation of
QueerVIEW, a technology-mediated photo elicitation study that
examined the intersectionality and resilience of SGMY who
also have particular marginalizing experiences. QueerVIEW
was a project developed by the Canadian Regional Network of
the International Partnership for Queer Youth Resilience
(INQYR), an international partnership of researchers working
to address the needs of SGMY and their use of information and
communication technologies (ICTs) within diverse global
contexts. QueerVIEW utilized virtual photo elicitation methods
to explore the complex and intersecting identities of SGMY
who identify as members of at least one of four priority
populations: (1) trans and gender nonconforming youth, (2)
youth who have experiences with homelessness, (3) youth with
current or past involvement in the child welfare system, and (4)
youth who are immigrants, refugees, or newcomers to Canada.
Trans or Gender Nonconforming Youth
Trans is defined as having a different gender than the gender
assigned at birth [8-11]. Gender nonconforming and gender
diverse is an identity endorsed by people whose gender
expression differs from societal expectations of masculinity or
femininity [8]. Accurate numbers of trans and gender
nonconforming (TGNC) and gender diverse youth remain
unavailable at the population level in countries such as Canada
and the United States, as national censuses have historically
asked for current gender identity via binary options (instead of
multiresponse) and have not asked for gender assigned at birth
[9]. Available prevalence data are often based on convenience
samples recruited by independent researchers [9]. According
to reports in the United States, between 0.7% and 1.8% of youth
between the ages of 13 and 17 identify as trans [10,11], while
Canadian estimates report that approximately 0.6% of the
general adult population identifies as trans [12]. A recent study
of 6309 SGMY in the United States and Canada found that
14.6% (n=924) identified as trans and 23.9% (n=1506) identified
as gender nonconforming [13].
Challenges Faced by TGNC Youth
Youth identifying as TGNC face a particular set of challenges,
including feelings of invisibility, hypervisibility, and hostility
[14]. Compared with their cisgender (ie, identify with gender
assigned at birth) counterparts in the general population, TGNC
youth have a higher risk of mental health issues such as
psychological distress, self-harm, depression, and suicide, while
nonbinary youth are more likely to report self-harm, as reported
in the Canadian Community Health Survey [15]. Relatedly,
alcohol use and victimization experiences have been found to
be higher for TGNC youth than for the general youth population
[16]. TGNC youth also reported significantly poorer health
outcomes and utilization of health care services than cisgender
youth [17]. TGNC adults experienced higher odds of
discrimination, depression, and suicide attempts compared with
cisgender lesbian, gay, or bisexual individuals [18]. Similarly,
depression and anxiety were reported as occurring with higher
effect sizes for TGNC college students than for their cisgender
lesbian and gay peers [19].
Experiences of Homelessness
Approximately 40% of the 35,000 to 40,000 youth who
experience homelessness or housing instability in Canada during
an average year identify as SGMY [20]. The term
“homelessness” can encompass a range of unstable housing
situations, including unsheltered (or absolutely homeless),
emergency sheltered (those in overnight shelters or shelters
specific to family violence), provisionally accommodated
(temporary or insecure housing tenure), and at risk of being
homeless (precarious housing or financial situations that may
lead to homelessness) [21]. The most frequently cited cause of
homelessness among SGMY is identity-based family conflict
[22]. Compared with non-SGMY experiencing homelessness,
SGMY are more likely to engage in survival sex work when
homeless, engage in unsafe sex with their sex work clients, and
have higher numbers of sex work clients overall than their
cisgender heterosexual peers [23]. TGNC populations appear
to be particularly at risk, with a sample of youth (younger than
18 years) and adult trans men experiencing significant and
comorbid violence as well as physical and mental health
problems. Meanwhile, homeless trans women report higher
rates of posttraumatic stress disorder than other homeless
individuals [24].
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Engagement in Child Welfare
Research from the United States on the prevalence of SGMY
engagement in the child welfare system estimates that 15% to
34% of the approximately 350,000 individuals with a history
of foster care involvement identify as SGMY at the point of
intake [25,26]. Estimates of SGMY among the approximately
63,000 Canadian children in the child welfare system are
unavailable, with no child welfare surveys currently collecting
data on SGM identity [27] and large-scale reports not reporting
on SGMY intake incidence [28]. Systemic limitations on
collecting population-based data for Canadian child welfare
agencies have been noted elsewhere [29]. SGMY experience
higher rates of adverse childhood events than their peers [30]
and are at a greater risk of involvement in the child welfare
system, often as a result of their SGM status, as they may
experience intrafamilial abuse, conflict, and rejection due to
their identities [31]. SGMY in foster care report feeling less
satisfied with their foster care experience than non-SGMY, are
at greater risk for homelessness, and experience more placement
breakdowns, resulting in greater emotional distress [32].
Research on SGMY in the child welfare system is often limited
by small numbers of consenting participants because youth have
concerns about disclosing their identities [33]. While in foster
care, SGMY are often the victims of physical abuse, bullying,
and harassment from caregivers and other youth [34], resulting
in increased rates of posttraumatic stress and other mental health
issues [35].
Immigrants, Refugees, and Newcomers
Approximately 21.9% of the Canadian population (37.59
million) was born outside of the country [36]. SGM refugees,
immigrants, and newcomers face unique challenges and stressors
as a result of their migration and SGM status, including conflict
in one or across many of their identity facets or affiliations [37].
Newcomer SGMY, or SGM individuals with landed immigrant
status in Canada [38], are recognized as a particularly vulnerable
group by the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Protection
Act [39]. The Canadian settlement process can vary depending
on the applicant’s status and type of claim [40], contributing to
a large range of experiences for newcomers. SGMY newcomers
often have complex interactions with immigration, health care,
and employment systems, and frequently have experienced
homophobia and racism within their own communities and
families, and related to social service provision [41]. Stressors
include difficulties accessing health care and employment, and
stress associated with refugee claimant hearings. These hearings
often emphasize a claimant’s ability to disclose and demonstrate
their SGM identities, which may be unnecessarily difficult [41].
SGMY newcomers—particularly those who identify as trans
females—report experiencing significant discrimination and
bullying both in school and in their homes [42]. Many SGM
immigrants to Canada discuss feeling disconnected from both
their home culture and their Canadian culture because of their
SGM identity, although many report that their SGM identity
either becomes more important to them than their cultural
identity or is integrated to allow them to live authentically [43].
Newcomer or refugee SGMY are a particularly understudied
population, thus necessitating a greater understanding of their
experiences in the research literature.
Theoretical Approach
This study’s key theoretical framework is intersectionality,
which not only explores distinct social identities, including their
construction and intersections related to power, privilege, and
experiences of discrimination, but also serves as a dynamic lens
for investigating minority stress and resilience [43,44]. Focusing
on a single identity may obscure the significance of other
meaningful identities [45]. Intersectionality suggests that
categories of oppression (eg, race, ethnicity, gender identity,
sexuality, disability, and/or poverty) interact with and complicate
an individual’s unique context and experience, and may
contribute to a compounded experience of marginalization [46].
Although emergent qualitative research has explored the
interaction of SGM and racialized identities, there is a paucity
of literature utilizing technology and arts-based innovative
methods to understand intersectionality factors and the
experiences of marginalized SGMY [7].
Rationale for Photo Elicitation
Visual data—such as photographs, videos, art pieces, and
diagrams—have received increased interest and use in
qualitative research [47], including as a tool to deepen
conversations between participants and interviewers. Photo
elicitation is a visual data method in which photographs provided
by participants that capture relevant concepts under investigation
are inserted into, and become the focus of, the research interview
[48]. Photo elicitation offers a creative alternative to verbal-only
methods of qualitative interviewing that is particularly suited
to exploring intersectionalities. Images may evoke deeper
elements of human consciousness than words alone, resulting
in an interview process that elicits more information and evokes
different types of information [48]. The use of photos to guide
discussion and stimulate memory [48] has been demonstrated
to increase participant-led dialogue [49], and can result in
newfound insights compared with studies using more traditional
methods to explore the phenomenon of interest [50]. Photo
elicitation often results in richer data through the facilitation of
rapport building between participant and interviewer [51] and
by encouraging participants to provide a richer understanding
of their experiences—including emotions, feelings, and
ideas—rather than relying on researchers to impose their own
assumptions, frameworks, or perceptions [52]. Images can
ultimately promote a deepened dialogue and potentially
introduce new dimensions that the researcher did not previously
consider for their study [53].
Photo elicitation has been proposed as a participant-driven
research methodology that is particularly well-suited for research
among the adolescent population in general [54], and SGMY
in particular. It reduces power differentials between researcher
and participant [55], creating a “comfortable space for
discussion” [56], and involving participants in a way that does
not limit responses. Such advantages may be especially
important for data collection with marginalized groups, such as
SGMY [57]. By actively taking and selecting relevant photos
for the interview, participants maintain agency over their
participation in the research process. As a method, photo
elicitation has been described as being capable of “empowering
and emancipating participants by making their experiences
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visible” [57] and centering participant voices [58]. Photo
elicitation interviews (PEIs), similar to semistructured interviews
without visual cues, provide the researcher with an interview
guide centering on relevant areas of interest, as well as the
flexibility to allow for unexpected topics to emerge [59].
The increasing availability of ICTs has resulted in new
opportunities and enhancements to the research process through
digital data collection [60]. Qualitative interviews conducted
online have been demonstrated to overcome financial,
geographic, and physical mobility barriers for participants [61].
Online reviews [61], focus groups [62], instant messaging [63],
and qualitative analysis of public message boards [64] are all
well-documented methods for digital data collection in
qualitative research. For use with adolescents, online
interviewing may be particularly effective, given this age
group’s comfortability, familiarity, and proficiency with ICTs
[65]. Online interviewing with adolescents has demonstrated
greater rapport building than in-person interviews and
genererated similar amounts of youth self-disclosure [66].
Despite the potential for qualitative virtual PEIs for research
with youth, there are no studies that have utilized these methods
to date.
The use of technology-enabled photo elicitation methods may
be particularly relevant for SGMY, who frequently use such
technologies to develop their identities, access resources, and
engage in online SGM communities [67]. SGMY also use ICTs
to foster their coping skills and resilience [44]. As a result of
widespread use and availability of ICTs, which permit easy
collection and sharing of visual information (eg, smartphone
cameras), youth are constantly engaged in recording their lives
and experiences through photographs and videos. Virtual photo
elicitation may offer the opportunity to advance insight into the
intersectionality of SGMY’s lived experiences through the use
of participant-recorded real-world data. As such, the
QueerVIEW study used PEIs to explore the identity and
resilience of SGMY experiencing compounded marginalization
or vulnerability within the context of their online and offline
The research aims of QueerVIEW were to (1) enhance
understanding of SGMY identities, both online and offline, (2)
better understand experiences of intersectionality among
culturally, regionally, and racially diverse SGMY in Ontario,
Canada, (3) explore SGMY’s online and offline sources and
processes of resilience, and (4) develop and apply a virtual photo
elicitation methodological approach.
QueerVIEW utilized a constructivist grounded theory framework
in a virtual photo elicitation study to explore the intersectional
identity experiences of SGMY in Ontario, Canada.
Constructivist grounded theory concerns the construction of
events, processes, and outcomes in order to study inequality by
moving between theorizing and data collection. Constructivist
grounded theory applies a critical lens and locates the research
process within social, historic, and environmental conditions
[68]. This form of inquiry involves co-constructing meaning
through the development of emerging questions through the
interactive engagement of the researchers with participants by
posing critical questions from the inception of the project
through the final analysis. For instance, in the case of
QueerVIEW, this involved determining a new theme discussed
by the participants, and choosing to pursue new questions in
future interviews about that subject matter. In this way,
constructivist grounded theory results in a deeper level of
theorizing and unveiling of new critiques when compared with
other qualitative methods [68]. Photo elicitation may be an ideal
modality for constructivist grounded theory, as this method of
interviewing can dismantle power differentials between
participants and researchers while engaging participants in
conversations far beyond the limitations of the interview guide
[56]. Institutional review board approval was received from the
University of Toronto’s Health Science Research Ethics Board
(Protocol #37041), which included a waiver of parental consent
for participants younger than 18 years of age due to the
possibility that participants’ parents were not aware of their
SGMY identities and that knowledge could pose a risk to
Participant Recruitment and Sampling
Participant inclusion criteria for this study included the
following: (1) aged between 14 and 29 years, (2) self-identifying
as an SGM, (3) residing in Ontario, Canada, (4) able to capture
and submit photos, (5) able to speak and understand English
sufficiently to participate in the interview, and (6) able to
participate in an online interview. To clarify criterion 2,
participants were eligible if they self-identified as a gender
minority (ie, not cisgender) and/or a sexual minority (ie, not
heterosexual). These inclusion criteria were determined by the
research coordinator and participants themselves using
participants’ responses to the screening survey (for criteria 1,
2, and 3) and through interaction with participants for the photo
submission and interview scheduling (for criteria 4, 5, and 6).
The four groups identified above—TGNC individuals, those
with experiences with homelessness, those engaged in the child
welfare system, and immigrants, refugees, and newcomers to
Canada—were explicitly mentioned as priority populations in
the recruitment flyer and screening survey. The age range was
purposeful, given that heightened awareness of identity issues
often occurs during the developmental periods of adolescence
and early adulthood [68,69].
QueerVIEW recruited SGMY through a purposive and
venue-based sampling approach. Purposive sampling recruited
participants with a flyer, which was shared through the INQYR
Canadian Regional Network, and distributed through paid
Facebook and Instagram advertisements and via Twitter.
Venue-based sampling was conducted concurrently with
agencies in Ontario that serve SGMY communities and/or
specialize in practice with TGNC youth, as well as youth
experiencing homelessness, youth involved in the child welfare
system, and newcomers to Canada. Additionally, universities
located in Ontario, SGM-specific student clubs, and religious
centers were also contacted for distribution of the flyer.
The recruitment flyer (Multimedia Appendix 1) directed
potential participants to a QueerVIEW project page on the
INQYR website [70], which included additional details about
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the study, animated consent videos that described the study’s
purpose and process in an accessible way, and a link to the
screening survey [71]. Further, a live action video of the
interviewers was posted on the website and distributed on social
media to make participants aware of the interviewers and study,
to support self-efficacy, and to reduce anxiety.
Due to the age of the participants in this study, as well as to the
multiple times of engagement, informed consent was collected
twice: (1) prior to a screening survey hosted by Qualtrics’online
survey software [72], and (2) prior to the interview. In the
screening survey, consent information was provided in writing
as well as in a specific animated video that used the written
form as a script. Participants had the option to either read or
watch the informed consent information [73] and, through the
use of skip logic, were required to acknowledge they heard or
read, understood, and agreed to participation before progressing
through the online screener survey. The consent information
was scanned for eighth grade readability [74] to ensure
understandability and accessibility for all participants. It has
been found that consent videos encourage more participants to
carefully consider the implications of participation and increase
their knowledge of their rights as participants [75]. At the end
of the interviews, participants were asked if they would be
interested in having their photos publicly displayed in an online
gallery. If interested, participants verbally consented, and
indicated which photos they did and did not want to be
displayed. A separate consent form (Multimedia Appendix 2)
will be emailed to participants closer to the gallery launch date
(projected for fall 2020).
Data Collection
Stage 1: Online Screening Survey
A brief online screening survey asked potential participants for
their age, gender identity, sexual orientation, preferred pronouns,
Canadian city and province of residence, current housing
situation, and contact information, along with questions about
their membership in the four priority subgroups (eg, “have you
ever experienced homelessness or any form of housing
instability, like couch-surfing, living in a shelter/hotel, or
Stage 2: Participant Selection
The research team monitored the screening survey and met
regularly to select participants who initially identified as
members of multiple priority subgroups for interviews.
Participants who identified with two or more subgroups were
initially invited to interviews in order of screener survey
completion, with SGMY with at least one priority group
identification invited next. Selected participants were contacted
by a research assistant through email or text (depending on their
stated preference) with an invitation to participate in the study,
and this continued until theoretical saturation was achieved.
Stage 3: Photo Selection and Submission
Individuals who agreed to participate were provided with
instructions for taking, selecting, and submitting between 10
and 15 photos before the interview (Multimedia Appendix 3).
These instructions asked participants to take and/or gather
photos that represent the following areas: (1) who you are—how
you see yourself in your online and offline lives, (2) how others
see you in your online and offline lives, (3) what makes it hard
for you to be who you are and what challenges do you face
when trying to be yourself, and (4) what helps you be who you
are and what gives you strength in the face of challenges. These
areas were constructed by the research team (comprised of
researchers, students, and people from the priority populations)
based on their previous intersectionality research and emerging
SGMY experiences to directly link the photo submission process
to the research aims identified above. Participants were then
instructed to upload their photographs via WeTransfer [76], an
encrypted computer-file transfer service, before their interview.
Stage 4: Online Interviews
Two graduate research assistants trained in qualitative
interviewing for photo elicitation studies conducted 90- to
120-minute online interviews using Zoom video conferencing.
The research team used a Zoom Pro account, which provided
up to 24 hours of meeting time, administrative feature controls
including recording and screen sharing, customized personal
meeting IDs, and a waiting room function. All of these functions
were used during the interviews. Virtual interviews were
recorded using Zoom’s record feature and participants were
requested to keep their device’s camera on during the interview
to collect both audio and video data. If participants required an
in-person interview, these were also recorded via Zoom,
directing the laptop’s camera and microphone toward the
interviewer and participant during the meeting. Interviewers
toggled between speaker view on Zoom and screen sharing to
display the photographs provided by participants.
At the beginning of the interview, participants were provided
with a general overview of the study and support with any
technology-related questions. A semistructured interview guide
(Multimedia Appendix 4) was carefully designed to capture
participants’experiences of intersectionality. Questions intended
to uncover the personal meaning of minority stress and resilience
in light of participants’intersectional social identities [45], such
as perceptions of their online and offline lives and how they
navigate adversity. During the interviews, SGMY were asked
to describe their photos, and the photos were used as prompts
whereby interviewers asked for participants to elaborate at times
or clarify statements. Participants referred to the photos when
describing themselves, their challenges, and their strengths.
When needed, the interviewers gently redirected participants’
sharing back to the photos provided by asking more in-depth
questions about their emotions, senses, and recollections of their
experiences (eg, “When you look at this photograph, how did
you feel when it was taken? How do you feel now?”).
Data Analysis
Data were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory
approach using NVivo 12 software by QSR International
[68,77]. Constructivist grounded theory situates the researcher
as co-constructing experiences and meaning so that the
researcher’s reactions, interpretations, and descriptions of the
interviews are captured in the analytic process [77]. Six
independent coders analyzed and integrated three types of data
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from each participant—10-15 photos, video recordings of Zoom
interviews, and textual transcripts of Zoom interviews—by
importing the data into a single NVivo case and assigning codes
based on the photos (which were discussed as part of the
interview), interview content, and participant behaviours and
affect (eg, facial expression, tone, etc) during the interview
[78,79]. This triangulated approach of analysts conducting
side-by-side coding of participant photos, nonverbal input from
videos, and textual transcripts is one created by the authors to
analyze technology-mediated research [80]. This analysis
involved organizing the three data sources into initial and
focused codes (primarily gerunds) that were combined in a
single NVivo file to derive visuals (eg, data maps) for axial
coding of the in-depth experiences of participants.
Six independent coders were assigned photos, videos, and
transcripts to code simultaneously, with the spoken words as
well as vocal intonations and body language of participants
being coded as nodes and memos in NVivo [81]. The coding
team is comprised of graduate research assistants who are
ethnically diverse and predominantly identify as SGMY.
Line-by-line coding was used to generate codes from the
descriptions of the participants about their identities, technology
use, and resilience through their selected images, transcripts,
and interviews. Data were triangulated to capture multiple
processes occurring simultaneously, such as themes discerned
from the content of participants’ sharing and process changes
such as verbal tone, body language, or displays of affect (eg,
crying or laughing), as well as participants’ interactions with
their environments (such as awareness of their parents in the
house, internet disruptions, or introductions of pets). Annotations
were used to describe processes occurring in the research process
(such as interview interruptions, or instances when transcript
content and nonverbal communication were discordant).
Line-by-line open coding of the 30 interviews has been
completed, each fully coded twice by two independent coders.
Axial coding is underway to confirm codes against emerging
themes and develop a model that explains intersectional
conceptions of resilience and identity. A data map has been
created using Mindmeister software (MeisterLabs GmbH) and
is being edited by the coding team. To enhance trustworthiness
in independent coders, research assistants were trained to utilize
grounded theory, employ the “constant comparison” method,
and maintain an audit trail. Further, the principal investigator
hosted monthly meetings to discuss coding progress [82].
Presentation of Findings
Once analysis is complete, member checking will be conducted
whereby participants will be invited to a virtual group meeting
to discuss the analysis and how it converges and/or diverges
with their individual participation. A draft of this analysis in
the form of a written report and a visual will be distributed in
advance of this meeting; for participants who cannot attend
member checking in the virtual group, they will have the option
of emailing a written response to the analysis. Once the results
are finalized, study findings will be disseminated to relevant
research and practice communities. The results will be presented
at local, national, and international social work, qualitative
research, and SGM-specific academic conferences and
symposia, and submitted for publication in peer-reviewed
journals. A summary of the results will be made available on
the INQYR website, with infographics, diagrams, and
descriptions shared on social media with links to the website.
The results will also be detailed in funder reports.
As participants provided specific consent and interest in the
research team publishing their photos, the QueerVIEW project
will culminate in the creation of an online photo gallery. With
participants’consent, voiceovers or text descriptors will describe
the images, with a future goal of turning the online gallery into
an interactive game interface. Images will have blurred
identifiable information, will not feature faces, and will be
protected to the greatest extent possible (such as excluding the
ability to save image files and barring access from online search
engines, such as Google Images). Participants will have access
to the online gallery to view their images. An online gallery
reception will be hosted for all participants, research team,
INQYR partnership members, and interested community
members to attend.
Data collection has been completed with a total of 30 interviews.
Major emerging themes center on the process of deliberate yet
differential approaches to identity formation among SGMY
using online and offline mediums. Early results are promising,
with virtual photo elicitation serving as a useful tool to deepen
the interview process and provide a glimpse into the lives of
SGMY participants. Participants took extensive time to consider,
select, and submit their photos. SGMY reported caring about
their photo selection and the study process because they wanted
to select the best photos to represent themselves and because
of their potential vulnerability in sharing personal photos.
Recruitment Process
The research team noted that the recruitment stage of this study
took longer than anticipated at 7 months in length (September
2019 to April 2020), although this is comparable to offline
photo-based research [83,84]. However, the COVID-19 global
pandemic resulted in an increase in participants finalizing their
photo selections and scheduling interviews. The recruitment
process was adjusted and streamlined by the research team, with
a gentle time limit conveyed to participants, in order to decrease
the amount of time between recruitment and interview to
facilitate the research process. Among the four highly
marginalized priority populations identified above, participants
who were immigrants, refugees, or newcomers to Canada and
those with child welfare experiences were particularly
challenging to recruit. Targeted recruitment strategies with
specialized agencies were needed to increase participation in
this regard. Future qualitative photo elicitation undertaken by
the research team will likely focus on recruiting participants
with one or two priority experiences.
Interview Process
The online interview process was very successful, with the
research team observing that rapport was built more rapidly
online than during in-person interviews of a similar nature,
JMIR Res Protoc 2020 | vol. 9 | iss. 11 | e20547 | p. 6 (page number not for citation purposes)
which corroborates extant literature [83], perhaps as a result of
familiarity with online platforms and the comfort with online
sharing for SGMY [47]. Participants expressed a sense of
emotional catharsis at interview completion, with many stating
that they felt better after the interviews and many developing a
deeper understanding of their experiences or patterns of
behaviour, which aligns with extant photovoice and photo
elicitation research [83-86]. Such expressions of catharsis will
be explored in the analysis and reported in the context of existing
literature on the photo elicitation method’s potential for
therapeutic benefit.
Protocol limitations include the entry criteria of English
comprehension and ability to participate in an online interview.
While this study prioritized immigrants, refugees, and
newcomers to Canada, the study team only had resources
available for recruitment and data collection in English.
Additional resources for translation services for recruitment,
screening, photo submission, and interviewing could have
mitigated this language barrier. As this study also prioritized
SGMY with experiences of homelessness, access to a device
(eg, smartphone) and a private space for the interview could
have also been a barrier. Since this study recruited across the
Canadian province of Ontario (a large land mass) during the
COVID-19 pandemic, and with limited resources, travel for
in-person interviews and the provision of devices were not
possible. Partnering with community organizations in
recruitment may have mitigated the access barrier to some
extent, before the COVID-19 pandemic shuttered in-person
services, as participants could potentially have used
organizational resources to participate in the study.
QueerVIEW is an innovative study that leverages technology
and visual arts-based research in a virtual photo elicitation
method that advances a creative investigation examining
resilience among SGMY. This protocol describes the successful
implementation of a completely virtual research study that
integrates digital photography with online recruitment, PEIs,
data collection, and analysis to deepen exploration of SGMY
experiences. The application of this protocol has determined
that (1) youth take extroaordinary care in selecting photos, which
should be accommodated in recruitment strategies and study
timelines, (2) online PEIs can result in increased engagement
and sharing by SGMY participants, and (3) technology-enabled
PEI studies can contribute to a sense of catharsis for youth
participants. The target populations of this study have been
chosen based on their experiences of resilience, and the methods
offer a means to facilitate their empowerment by fully
immersing the research team in their experiences. It is through
these methods, which privilege SGMY participant voices about
their experiences and accessibility, that the researchers will be
able to produce results that portray a robust picture of SGMY
intersectional experiences.
Dr Craig is the Canada Research Chair in Sexual and Gender Minority Youth. This project is funded by Partnership and Connection
Grants from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC Grants #895-2018-1000 and
#611-2019-0024), the John R Evans Leaders Fund of the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI Grant #37651), and an International
Doctoral Cluster Grant from the University of Toronto. Mr Eaton is supported by a salary award from the Ontario HIV Treatment
Network. Ms Pascoe and Mr Egag are supported by graduate fellowships from SSHRC.
Conflicts of Interest
None declared.
Multimedia Appendix 1
QueerVIEW flyer.
[PDF File (Adobe PDF File), 575 KB-Multimedia Appendix 1]
Multimedia Appendix 2
QueerVIEW online gallery consent form.
[DOCX File , 99 KB-Multimedia Appendix 2]
Multimedia Appendix 3
Photo instructions.
[DOCX File , 99 KB-Multimedia Appendix 3]
Multimedia Appendix 4
Interview questionnaire.
[DOCX File , 20 KB-Multimedia Appendix 4]
JMIR Res Protoc 2020 | vol. 9 | iss. 11 | e20547 | p. 7 (page number not for citation purposes)
Multimedia Appendix 5
Peer review reports.
[PDF File (Adobe PDF File), 438 KB-Multimedia Appendix 5]
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ICTs: information and communication technologies
INQYR: International Partnership for Queer Youth Resistance
PEI: photo elicitation interview
SGM: sexual and gender minority
SGMY: sexual and gender minority youth
TGNC: trans and gender nonconforming
Edited by G Eysenbach; submitted 07.08.20; peer-reviewed by S Donnelly, C Escobar-Viera, N Mohammad Gholi Mezerji; comments
to author 29.09.20; revised version received 08.10.20; accepted 20.10.20; published 05.11.20
Please cite as:
Craig SL, Eaton AD, Pascoe R, Egag E, McInroy LB, Fang L, Austin A, Dentato MP
QueerVIEW: Protocol for a Technology-Mediated Qualitative Photo Elicitation Study With Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in
Ontario, Canada
JMIR Res Protoc 2020;9(11):e20547
doi: 10.2196/20547
©Shelley L Craig, Andrew D Eaton, Rachael Pascoe, Egag Egag, Lauren B McInroy, Lin Fang, Ashley Austin, Michael P Dentato.
Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (, 05.11.2020. This is an open-access article
distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR
Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
JMIR Res Protoc 2020 | vol. 9 | iss. 11 | e20547 | p. 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
... That became especially clear in the COVID-19 pandemic when "more of our 'real lives' (including both our work and social engagements) are happening virtually" (Howlett, 2021, p. 9). These new windows to participants' lives help researchers explore the intersections of their identities, which can be meaningful (Craig et al., 2020). ...
... Many times, researchers' personal lives and spaces are also exposed, implying they need now to think more carefully about how they want to be seen (Howlett, 2021). Additionally, technology increases participants' control over when and how researchers access the "field" (Howlett, 2021, p. 8) and over what they (participants) want to disclose (Craig et al., 2020). It is easier (and more socially acceptable) not answering a call than skipping an in-person interview. ...
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Objective in this paper, we problematize how online methods were reduced to mere adaptations from previous data collection techniques, and then discuss how some of the idiosyncratic properties of the online scope may drive the development of future, paradigmatic, online qualitative methods. Proposition we identified five clues for the paradigmatic development of online qualitative methods: (1) the new socialities allowed by online interactions; (2) the processes involved in asserting identities and selves online; (3) the increasing difficulty in distinguishing what is private and what is public online, and what does privacy mean in this context; (4) the increase of participants’ agency in online qualitative research; and (5) the declining distinction between offline and online social phenomena. Conclusion by using ontological and epistemological assumptions that do not consider the specificities of online experiences, and by focusing excessively on adapting known methods to the new settings, we researchers are bound to conceive the online experience and operate in it using offline categories. This way, we might be missing the opportunity to develop native, paradigmatic, online qualitative methods that, ultimately, would allow for a better understanding of the phenomena we investigate. Keywords: qualitative methods; online research; data collection; data analysis; methods development
... For the objective of this study, only visual arts (architecture, ceramics, comics, design, drawing, fashion, painting, photography, and sculpture) were investigated. After the literature review, ten critical aspects were set out for assessment of the quality of participation in visual arts: 1) satisfaction of the recipient when participating (Guo et al., 2020;Quattrini et al., 2020;Zollo et al., 2021), 2) participation pleasure by the recipient (Dunne-Howrie, 2020), 3) participation engagement by the recipient (Dube & İnce, 2019;Quattrini et al., 2020;Wu et al., 2017), 4) possibility of experiencing a state of catharsis by the recipient (Craig et al., 2020;Lee, 2011), 5) contact of the recipient with the artwork itself (Habelsberger & Bhansing, 2021), 6) contact of the recipient with the performer (Wu et al., 2017), 7) participation comfort of the recipient (Guidry, 2014), 8) shaping-the-aesthetical-experience possibilities of the recipient (Jackson, 2017;Park & Lim, 2015), 9) own motivation to participate of the recipient (Hobbs & Tuzel, 2017;Pianzola et al., 2021), 10) participation ease for the recipient (Dunne-Howrie, 2020; Fancourt et al., 2020). ...
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The virtualisation of the aesthetic experience influences the scope of artistry and creativity of the visual artwork and the quality of participation in visual arts. Due to variances in perception qualities between individuals belonging to particular generations, this report aims to assess the impact of the participation form (in-real or digital) in the aesthetic situation by the recipients from certain generations. The quality of participation in visual arts was assessed using ten criteria. Qualitative data exploration based on a worldwide sample from 22 countries (n = 87) shows that the participation form in visual arts determines participation quality level in the aesthetic situation by generations otherwise. Significant determinants exist among generations in participation in visual arts and between particular forms of participation. This report did not look for the reasons for these differences; only additional comparative qualitative research can try to reveal them. The research results should acquire the interest of: 1) Visual arts creators looking for the optimal way of distributing artworks among recipients from different generations; 2) Visual arts managers and marketers for a multi-layered understanding of generation-diversified visual arts recipients’ perspectives and their preferences about participation in visual arts in-real or digitally; 3) Visual arts recipients to assess their opinion about the modes of participation in visual arts with the preferences of other recipients belonging to certain generations.
... 1. satisfaction (Guo et al., 2020;Quattrini et al., 2020;Zollo et al., 2021), 2. pleasure (Dunne-Howrie, 2020), 3. engagement Quattrini et al., 2020;Wu et al., 2017), 4. the possibility of experiencing catharsis (Craig et al., 2020;Lee, 2011;Phillips, 2000), 5. contact with the artwork itself , 6. contact with the creator himself , 7. the comfort of participation (Guidry, 2014), 8. possibilities of shaping the aesthetic experience (Jackson, 2017;Park & Lim, 2015), 9. own motivation to participate (Hobbs & Tuzel, 2017;Pianzola et al., 2021), 10. easiness of participation Fancourt et al., 2020). ...
... Charest et al [2] reported that LGBTQ+ participants relied more on educational websites and news outlets for health information than on traditional health classes. LGBTQ+ and other young people may benefit from technological health interventions such as mobile information tools to access sexual health information [17,18], smoking cessation support [19], peer support [20], and photoelicitation methods to expand the understanding of LGBTQ+ identities [21]. ...
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Background: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ+) young people (aged 15 to 25 years) face unique health challenges and often lack resources to adequately address their health information needs related to gender and sexuality. Beyond information access issues, LGBTQ+ young people may need information resources to be designed and organized differently compared with their cisgender and heterosexual peers and, because of identity exploration, may have different information needs related to gender and sexuality than older people. Objective: The objective of our study was to work with a community partner to develop an inclusive and comprehensive new website to address LGBTQ+ young people’s health information needs. To design this resource website using a community-engaged approach, our objective required working with and incorporating content and design recommendations from young LGBTQ+ participants. Methods: We conducted interviews (n=17) and participatory design sessions (n=11; total individual participants: n=25) with LGBTQ+ young people to understand their health information needs and elicit design recommendations for the new website. We involved our community partner in all aspects of the research and design process. Results: We present participants’ desired resources, health topics, and technical website features that can facilitate information seeking for LGBTQ+ young people exploring their sexuality and gender and looking for health resources. We describe how filters can allow people to find information related to intersecting marginalized identities and how dark mode can be a privacy measure to avoid unwanted identity disclosure. We reflect on our design process and situate the website development in previous critical reflections on participatory research with marginalized communities. We suggest recommendations for future LGBTQ+ health websites based on our research and design experiences and final website design, which can enable LGBTQ+ young people to access information, find the right information, and navigate identity disclosure concerns. These design recommendations include filters, a reduced number of links, conscientious choice of graphics, dark mode, and resources tailored to intersecting identities. Conclusions: Meaningful collaboration with community partners throughout the design process is vital for developing technological resources that meet community needs. We argue for community partner leadership rather than just involvement in community-based research endeavors at the intersection of human-computer interaction and health.
... Due to its ability to engage and empower participants to critically reflect on and make sense of the self, photoelicitation is increasingly used as an inclusive strategy in research on sensitive issues (Rose, 2016;Wagner, 2011) exploring sexuality (Craig et al., 2020;Joy & Numer, 2017;Nguyen et al., 2018), sex work (Smith, 2015) and youth identities in post-conflict areas (Leonard & McKnight, 2014). In Craig et al.'s (2021) constructivist grounded approach to examining resilience among sexual and gender minority youth, photo-elicitation strengthened the voice of youths and increased accessibility to diverse participants. ...
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In its classical form, ballroom dancing constitutes heterosexual dance couples enacting conservative forms of masculinity and femininity. A normative focus, both in scholarship and in practice, on the classical form in competitive ballroom dancing (also known as Dancesport) excludes the lived narratives of LGBT + dancers practicing the sport outside of the mainstream. Equality Dancesport is one such example, with dancers performing in diverse partnership typologies and adopting less gender-segregated dance roles and movements. Drawing on the photo-elicitation exercise, embedded within in-depth interviews, conducted as part of a broader ethnographic study on the equality Dancesport scene in the United Kingdom, I demonstrate how the strategy informed a ground-up emergence of a queer theoretical framework for understanding masculinities and femininities across the sex, gender and sexuality categorical divides. Four key opportunities afforded by photo elicitation are identified, namely (1) invoking new queer knowledge which blurs the binary divide in how concepts of masculinities and femininities are investigated in existing dance scholarship, (2) facilitating the development of more egalitarian researcher/participant relationships , (3) enabling affective, detailed and fluid narrations of lived experiences of dancing, and (4) positioning interviewees as dance spectators and inspiring reflections on the community. The paper concludes with three recommendations for negotiating the pitfalls of using a photo elicitation technique in dance studies. First, researchers need to recognise the limits of inclusivity offered by photo elicitation and practice sensitivity towards participants. Second, integrating photographs with other visual methods such as videos can enable researchers to leverage the strengths of different visual tools to inspire talk about broader topics. Third, before using the method, researchers need to develop mental strength for coping with negative talk, to achieve more holistic understanding of participants' sentiments and motivations and as a duty of accountability towards them.
... Założeniem było, że jakość uczestnictwa odbiorców w każdym rodzaju sztuki powinna być analizowana przy użyciu kryteriów zrozumiałych dla odbiorców, ale także kryteriów mających jednoczesne zastosowanie do każdego rodzaju sztuki. Dlatego po dokonaniu przeglądu literatury wyznaczono w tym celu dziesięć czynników, takich jak: 1. satysfakcja (Guo et al., 2020;Jarrier & Bourgeon-Renault, 2019;Quattrini et al., 2020;Zollo et al., 2021); 2. przyjemność (Dunne-Howrie, 2020); 3. zaangażowanie (Dube & İnce, 2019;Quattrini et al., 2020;Sosnowska, 2015; Y. Wu et al., 2017); 4. możliwość doświadczenia katharsis (Craig et al., 2020;Lee, 2011;Phillips, 2000); 5. kontakt z samym dziełem (Habelsberger & Bhansing, 2021); 6. kontakt z samym wykonawcą (Y. Wu et al., 2017); 7. komfort uczestnictwa (Guidry, 2014); 8. możliwość kształtowania doświadczenia estetycznego (Jackson, 2017;Park & Lim, 2015); 9. własna motywacja do uczestnictwa (Hobbs & Tuzel, 2017;Pianzola et al., 2021); 10. łatwość uczestnictwa (Dunne-Howrie, 2020;Fancourt et al., 2020). ...
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Natura i kultura to dwa komponenty konstytuujące pojęcie ludzkości w sposób nierozerwalny. Ponieważ natura, czyli świat dzikich mocy oraz kultura, czyli świat ludzkich wytworów, nieustannie ewoluują, wzajemnie się katalizują i dopełniają, niemożliwe jest określenie linii jednoznacznie oddzielającej od siebie te dwa obszary. Zarządzanie, przynależne do świata kultury, pomaga porządkować i organizować środowisko człowieka (naturę i kulturę). Z kolei również przynależna do świata kultury sztuka pomaga uwalniać emocje (katharsis), dynamizuje życie wewnętrzne człowieka oraz inspiruje (Tatarkiewicz, 2015, pp. 24, 380). Owa porządkująca funkcja zarządzania i twórcza funkcja sztuki determinują potocznie postrzeganą przeciwstawność obu dziedzin. Dopiero zagłębienie się w istotę zarządzania i w istotę twórczości artystycznej pozwala odkryć wiele wspólnych źródeł tych dwóch obszarów – choćby kreatywność. Życie, oparte na powtarzaniu i kopiowaniu, byłoby monotonne i skostniałe, gdyby nie czynnik kreatywności będący przedmiotem pożądania zarówno menedżerów jak i twórców sztuki. Na tej podstawie można stwierdzić, że pozornie przeciwstawne dziedziny zarządzania i sztuki mogą się dopełniać i inspirować. Zarządzanie nieustannie ewoluuje: od XIX-wiecznego podejścia inżynierskiego charakteryzującego się traktowaniem rzeczywistości organizacyjnej jako systemu bezdusznych elementów, które należało uporządkować na wzór niezacinającej się maszyny (metafora organizacji jako maszyny), przez XX-wieczną menedżerską efektywność w realizowaniu celów ekonomicznych, która jest transpozycją podejścia inżynierskiego, ale z dominacją czynnika rynkowego, aż po rozwijające się w ostatnich dziesięcioleciach zarządzanie humanistyczne. Nurt zarządzania humanistycznego, będący dominującym podejściem teoretycznym niniejszej pracy, ukierunkowany jest na tworzenie trwałego dobrobytu człowieka (Kociatkiewicz & Kostera, 2013). Z kolei ów trwały dobrobyt człowieka w duchu humanizmu polega przede wszystkim na: 1) bezwarunkowym poszanowaniu godności, indywidualności i ochrony przed wyzyskiem każdej istoty ludzkiej; 2) refleksji etycznej odnoszącej się do wartości uniwersalnej, jaką jest dobro, będącej integralną częścią decyzji biznesowych oraz 3) implementacji tej refleksji etycznej do realnego postępowania organizacji w duchu godzenia intencji z działaniami. Te trzy wymiary zarządzania humanistycznego promują rozwój człowieka poprzez działalność gospodarczą sprzyjającą życiu i stanowiącą wartość dodaną dla całego społeczeństwa (Melé, 2016). Analizując powyższą ewolucję istoty zarządzania można powiedzieć, że w naukach o zarządzaniu dopiero niedawno zrozumiano, że życie ma głębszą wartość, a techniczne porządkowanie i optyka rynkowa powinny być traktowane jako metody osiągania celów przez organizacje, a nie cele same w sobie. Naturalną zatem konsekwencją będzie mariaż zarządzania humanistycznego z estetyką, która – skupiona na wartościach uniwersalnych prawdy i piękna oraz sztuce kumulującej najbardziej abstrakcyjnie zaawansowane wytwory ludzkości – stanowi kwintesencję i emanację człowieczeństwa.
... Keeping this in mind, after the literature review, ten aspects were set for this purpose: 1) satisfaction from the participation (Guo et al., 2020;Jarrier & Bourgeon-Renault, 2019;Quattrini et al., 2020;Zollo, Rialti, Marrucci, & Ciappei, 2021), 2) pleasure of the participation (Dunne-Howrie, 2020), 3) participation engagement (Dube & İnce, 2019;Quattrini et al., 2020;Sosnowska, 2015;Y. Wu, Zhang, Bryan-Kinns, & Barthet, 2017), 4) the possibility of experiencing catharsis (Craig et al., 2020;Lee, 2011;Phillips, 2000), 5) contact with the artwork itself (Habelsberger & Bhansing, 2021), 6) contact with the performer (Y. Wu et al., 2017), 7) comfort of participation (Guidry, 2014), 8) possibilities for shaping the aesthetic experience (Jackson, 2017;Park & Lim, 2015), 9) receiver's own motivation to participate (Hobbs & Tuzel, 2017;Pianzola, Taccu, & Viviani, 2021), and 10) ease of participation (Dunne-Howrie, 2020; Fancourt, Baxter, & Lorencatto, 2020). ...
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Purpose From a management point of view, the digitalization of the aesthetic experience may be considered in the context of the growth or loss of the potential of artistry and creativity in response to the form of participation in arts. Because of gender differences in perception qualities, this paper aims to evaluate the influence of the participation form (in-person or delivered digitally) in the aesthetic situation by gender-differentiated receivers on artistry and creativity change. The COVID-19 pandemic created additional need for this analysis. Design/methodology/approach The quality of participation by men and women in art types (musical, performing, literary, audio-visual, visual) was assessed using the same ten criteria. Qualitative data analysis was based on an international sample (38 countries, n = 221). Findings The form of participation in the arts determines the level of participation quality in the aesthetic situation for male and female receivers differently. There are significant gender differences in participation in particular types of art and gender differences between particular forms of participation in art types. Practical implications The results should gain the interest of the following groups: 1) Art creators looking for the optimal means of distribution of artworks among gender-differentiated receivers; 2) Art managers and marketers for deeper understanding of gender-differentiated art receivers’ perspectives and their preferences about their form of participation form in the arts; 3) Art receivers to compare their opinions about how best to participate in the arts with the preferences of art receivers of a different gender. Originality/value This study is the first research to assess the quality differences in the process of receiving the aesthetic situation regarding the form of participation in the arts.
... After the literature review, ten aspects were set for the participation quality in each type of art assessment: 1) satisfaction from the participation (Guo et al., 2020;Quattrini et al., 2020;Zollo et al., 2021), 2) participation pleasure (Dunne-Howrie, 2020), 3) participation engagement (Dube & İnce, 2019;Quattrini et al., 2020;Y. Wu et al., 2017), 4) catharsis-experiencing possibility (Craig et al., 2020;Lee, 2011), 5) contact with the artwork itself (Habelsberger & Bhansing, 2021), 6) contact with the performer itself (Y. Wu et al., 2017), 7) participation comfort (Guidry, 2014), 8) shaping-the-aesthetical-experience possibilities (Jackson, 2017;Park & Lim, 2015), 9) own motivation to participate (Hobbs & Tuzel, 2017;Pianzola et al., 2021), 10) participation easiness (Dunne-Howrie, 2020; Fancourt et al., 2020). ...
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The digitalisation of the aesthetic experience affects the level of artistry and creativity transfer by the artwork and the quality of participation in the arts. Due to cultural differences between Poles other countries’ citizens in perception qualities, this study assesses the effect of the participation form (in-real or digital) in the aesthetic situation by receivers on artistry and creativity potential. The quality of participation in five arts types (musical, performing, literary, audio-visual, visual) was assessed using ten criteria. Data analysis, based on a worldwide sample (38 countries, n = 221). The participation form in arts determines participation quality in the aesthetic situation differently by Polish and non-Polish receivers. Furthermore, there are noteworthy cultural variances among Polish and non-Polish art receivers of particular types of arts and particular forms of participation in arts. The study outcomes may interest: art creators looking for the optimal way of delivering artworks among receivers from Poland and other countries; art managers and marketers for deeper understanding of Polish art receivers’ viewpoints and their preferences about participation in arts in-real or digitally; art receivers to compare their judgement about the participation ways in arts with the preferences of Polish art receivers. The first attempt in the literature assessing the quality of the participation in the aesthetic situation regarding the form of participation between Polish and non-Polish societies.
... Post-dissertation, the findings will be disseminated as three articles in the topics: core concepts of wellbeing, promotive and corrosive factors of wellbeing, and recommendations across professions. As this study was adapted to online methods, I will be writing a methodological paper on virtual PhotoVoice adaptation, which has only been reported in one previous article (see Craig et al., 2020). Other article topics include: (1) nonbinary gender identity and expression and attached meaning, (2) gender dysphoria and euphoria, (3) sexuality and relationships, and (4) nonbinary individual perspectives on engaging in the study. ...
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Traditionally, gender has been viewed through an essentialist lens with fixed biology-based traits or polarized gender norms between women and men. As awareness of gender diversity grows, increasingly more people identify as nonbinary – or not exclusively a man or woman. Despite a growing literature on the experiences of binary transgender individuals, little has been explored regarding experiences unique to nonbinary individuals. The research that does include nonbinary individuals focuses primarily on adverse risks and outcomes. As such, a dearth of empirical research exists to understand the unique experiences of nonbinary people and how they relate to wellbeing. A qualitative participatory action study using PhotoVoice was conducted virtually to address the identified gaps in the literature on nonbinary individuals concerning gendered experiences and wellbeing. Prevailing theories of wellbeing informed the study along with minority stress theory and the resilience literature to account for environmental factors of oppression and individual and community resilience. A sample of 17 nonbinary adults in the Midwestern United States was recruited using convenience sampling and participated in online group discussions and individual interviews. The findings were reported in sections corresponding with the three study aims: 1) Explore core dimensions of wellbeing as defined by nonbinary individuals, 2) Identify promotive and corrosive factors of that wellbeing, and 3) Provide recommendations to bolster nonbinary wellbeing. The findings provided a thorough description of how nonbinary individuals perceive their wellbeing concerning their gender and as part of a marginalized population. Thematic analysis identified nine wellbeing themes for how participants conceptualized their wellbeing (e.g., Exploring gender identity and expression, Being connected to community, etc.), seven themes of promotive and corrosive factors of wellbeing (e.g., Positive, accurate, and nuanced representation, Coping skills to manage minority stressors, etc.), and three themes of recommendations (e.g., personal, interpersonal, and professional) with eighteen strategies to bolster wellbeing among nonbinary individuals and communities. The significance of the findings to social work was discussed, including practice application and advocacy. This study contributes to PhotoVoice methodology, wellbeing literature, and trans literature.
... QueerVIEW was a digital photo elicitation study utilizing constructivist grounded theory that was conducted in the province of Ontario, Canada from August 2019 to April 2020. QueerVIEW's study protocol, including data collection tools, has been published elsewhere (Craig et al., 2020b). The study was approved by the University of Toronto's Health Science Research Ethics Board (Protocol #37041). ...
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Purpose: Sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) experience unique challenges related to identity and disclosure, and cope in vibrant ways. Qualitative research has not yet fulsomely explored the risk, resilience, and identity intersections that impact vulnerable SGMY wellbeing. Methods: This digital photo-elicitation study (QueerView) recruited thirty SGMY (aged 14-29) from priority populations that had one or more of the following experiences: trans and gender diverse, homelessness, child welfare, and immigration. From submission of fifteen photos representing resilience and a semi-structured interview via web conferencing, constructivist grounded theory was utilized for multimodal analysis of photos, interview video, and interview transcript. Triangulation, an audit trail, and member checking were employed to support trustworthiness. Results: A visual model emerged showing how participants work towards an integrative self, with themes of reflecting and knowing, discrimination and intersectional challenges, connecting, performing, curating, coping, (re)defining and (re)creating, growing and being. Sub-themes of the impact of family dynamic and values, mental health and trauma, and the cathartic benefit from advocacy and leadership offered insight. Participant images were captured in a digital gallery. Conclusions: QueerView animates the complex lives of multiply marginalized SGMY and their intersectional strengths and challenges while demonstrating the utility of a digital multimodal approach.
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Gender and sexual identity exploration (GSIE) consists of engaging in activities that allow an individual to discover their values, preferences, and boundaries related to gender and sexuality. Photovoice is a participatory research method that incorporates an intrapersonal, interpersonal, communal, and political approach to engaging with a given topic. The purpose of this article is to use existing research to illustrate how using photovoice method for GSIE does involve individuals in exploring gender and sexual identity from multiple levels of social interaction (micro, mezzo, and macro). This approach to GSIE fosters a dynamic, de-stigmatizing, and advocacy-oriented engagement with GSIE. We use examples from photovoice studies to illustrate how photovoice method uses a multilevel approach to GSIE and the positive implications of this practice. The article ends with practice and research recommendations for employing photovoice to support GSIE.
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Introduction In previous studies, it is estimated that sexual minorities (eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) individuals) are overrepresented in the child welfare system. However, the numbers are unclear, and there are limited studies in this field. No systematic review of LGBTQ issues across a broader context (ie, youth, foster parents and service providers) of child welfare services exists. The overall objective of this scoping review is to systematically scope the existing research on LGBTQ issues in the context of child welfare services, including policy, practice, service providers and users’ perspectives. Methods and analysis The scoping review framework outlined by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) based on previous work by Arksey and O’Malley and Levac and colleagues will guide this review. In addition, the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation will be used throughout the process. We will search electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Idunn) and grey literature sources to identify studies that are appropriate for inclusion in this review. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria based on the ‘Population–Concept–Context’ framework, two researchers will independently screen titles, abstracts and full-text articles considered for inclusion. Any qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method study of LGBTQ issues in the child welfare context will be described and synthesised using a thematic synthesis approach. Ethics and dissemination A scoping review is a secondary analysis of published literature and does not require ethics approval. This scoping review is meant to provide an overview of the existing literature, aiming to expand policy-makers’ and practitioners’ knowledge of LGBTQ issues in a child welfare context and identify research gaps that can be used as a basis for further research. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication, a conference presentation and a presentation to the key stakeholders. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:
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Transgender youths (those whose gender identity* does not align with their sex†) experience disparities in violence victimization, substance use, suicide risk, and sexual risk compared with their cisgender peers (those whose gender identity does align with their sex) (1-3). Yet few large-scale assessments of these disparities among high school students exist. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is conducted biennially among local, state, and nationally representative samples of U.S. high school students in grades 9-12. In 2017, 10 states (Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin) and nine large urban school districts (Boston, Broward County, Cleveland, Detroit, District of Columbia, Los Angeles, New York City, San Diego, San Francisco) piloted a measure of transgender identity. Using pooled data from these 19 sites, the prevalence of transgender identity was assessed, and relationships between transgender identity and violence victimization, substance use, suicide risk, and sexual risk behaviors were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with cisgender males and cisgender females, transgender students were more likely to report violence victimization, substance use, and suicide risk, and, although more likely to report some sexual risk behaviors, were also more likely to be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These findings indicate a need for intervention efforts to improve health outcomes among transgender youths.
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Empirical findings indicate that sexual and gender minorities report notably poorer outcomes on measures of mental health when compared with cisgender/heterosexual individuals. Although several studies have examined these issues, few have taken the time to examine differences between cisgender/heterosexual and specific lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer identities. This is especially important as an increasing number of new gender and sexual identities emerge, yet limitations in statistical power often preclude such analyses. Thus, the following study addressed this gap by examining data from a large sample of college students from the national Health Minds Study (n = 43,632). Results indicated that college students with transgender and gender nonconforming identities reported significantly higher rates of depression and anxiety symptoms compared with students with cisgender identities, with large effect sizes. Disparities were also significant across sexual minority participants, with the smallest effect sizes being between heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals, and the largest effect sizes between heterosexual and pansexual participants for depression, and heterosexual and demisexual participants for anxiety. We also found evidence of an interaction of gender and sexual identity impacting mental health such that those with minority statuses in both identity groups had significantly worse outcomes compared to those with only one minority identity. Our results indicate that individuals in the emerging sexual and gender minority categories (pansexual, demisexual, asexual, queer, questioning, and transgender/gender nonconforming) report significantly higher rates of depression and anxiety when compared with cisgender/heterosexual individuals, and even significantly more than those who identify as gay/lesbian. Implications for mental health providers and researchers are discussed.
Background Trauma, specifically adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), predicts significant health and mental health disparities, yet there is a paucity of research with LGBTQ + youth. Objective This study explored ACE prevalence in a large sample of LGBTQ+ youth; examined ACE patterns within and across subgroups; and compared results with the general population. Participants and setting Participant (n = 3,508) ages ranged between 14–18 (x̄ = 16.02) and represented a range of sexual orientations: pansexual (33.9 %), bisexual (26.6 %), and queer (16.2 %), and gender identities: female (39.9 %), non-conforming (38 %), male (14.9 %), and transgender (16.6 %). Methods An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGBTQ+ youth ages 14–18 that self-identified as LGBTQ+ and resided in the US or Canada. Descriptive statistics generated the prevalence of ACEs, and ANOVAs and post-hoc tests were run for comparisons. Results Participants reported multiple ACEs (M = 3.14, SD = 2.44) with emotional neglect (58 %), emotional abuse (56 %), and living with a family member with mental illness (51 %) as the most prevalent. Notably, 43 % of participants experienced 4+ ACEs, considered to be a high level of trauma exposure. Compared to national samples, LGBTQ + youth demonstrated unique patterns of ACEs and were higher in 9 of 10 categories. Significantly high (all p < .001) ACEs were found in pansexual (t = 7.67), transgender and gender non-conforming (t = 5.19), American-Indian (t = 6.42), Latinx (t = 2.83) and rural youth (F = 12.12) while those with highly educated parents (F = 83.30, p < .001), lived with a parent (t = 6.02), and in Canada (t = 6.14) reported fewer ACEs. Conclusion LGBTQ+ youth experience significant childhood trauma with potential impact on their mental health. This study identifies implications for trauma-informed practice and research.
Accurate estimates of the number and proportion of transgender and gender nonconforming people in a population are necessary for developing data-based policy and for planning and funding of health care delivery and research. The wide range of estimates reported in the literature is attributable primarily to differences in definitions. Other sources of variability include diverse cultural and geographic settings and important secular trends. The transgender and gender nonconforming population is undergoing rapid changes in size and demographic characteristics. More accurate and precise estimates will be available when population censuses collect data on sex assigned at birth and gender identity.
There is a growing international literature on the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. One of the biggest limitations for researchers in this field continues to be the dearth of population-based surveys that include questions on sexual orientation, gender identity, and high-quality demographic, health, social, political, or economic variables. This research note provides an overview of the current LGBT data landscape in Canada. We start with some of the challenges for researchers studying the LGBT community, including issues of sample size, measurement, response bias, and concealment. Next, we provide an overview of Canadian surveys that include questions on sexual orientation and/or gender identity, including the strengths and weaknesses of each. We end with a brief discussion on newly available administrative data and provide recommendations for researchers and policymakers moving forward. © 2019 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth are suggested to be overrepresented in unstable housing and foster care. In the current study, we assess whether LGBTQ youth are overrepresented in unstable housing and foster care and examine disparities in school functioning, substance use, and mental health for LGBTQ youth versus heterosexual youth in unstable housing and foster care. METHODS: A total of 895 218 students (10–18 years old) completed the cross-sectional California Healthy Kids Survey from 2013 to 2015. Surveys were administered in 2641 middle and high schools throughout California. Primary outcome measures included school functioning (eg, school climate, absenteeism), substance use, and mental health. RESULTS: More youth living in foster care (30.4%) and unstable housing (25.3%) self-identified as LGBTQ than youth in a nationally representative sample (11.2%). Compared with heterosexual youth and youth in stable housing, LGBTQ youth in unstable housing reported poorer school functioning (Bs = −0.10 to 0.40), higher substance use (Bs = 0.26–0.28), and poorer mental health (odds ratios = 0.73–0.80). LGBTQ youth in foster care reported more fights in school (B = 0.16), victimization (B = 0.10), and mental health problems (odds ratios = 0.82–0.73) compared with LGBTQ youth in stable housing and heterosexual youth in foster care. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities for LGBTQ youth are exacerbated when they live in foster care or unstable housing. This points to a need for protections for LGBTQ youth in care and care that is affirming of their sexual orientation and gender identity.
In the current study, we used a grounded theory methodology to understand the acculturation process of LGBT immigrants in Canada. Results revealed two parallel themes: Cultural Identity Development and Sexual and Gender Identity Development. Heterosexism and cissexism in the culture of origin was a central phenomenon in the development of the cultural, sexual, and gender aspects of LGBT immigrant identity. Moreover, LGBT immigrants’ culture of origin and Canadian culture influenced their sexual and gender identity development before and after immigration. Results suggest that many LGBT immigrants assume a Western orientation as a coping response to heterosexism and cissexism in their culture of origin, even before immigration occurs. The current study identified the perceived challenges and advantages that LGBT immigrants experience during the acculturation process as well as various acculturation outcomes. We discuss clinical implications and future research directions in light of the results.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the population of sexual minority or LGB (lesbian, gay and bisexual) children and youth involved with the child welfare system, and to compare their health, mental health, placement and permanency outcomes to those of non-LGB youth. Data were drawn from the Second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-II), a nationally representative sample of children who were referred to child welfare due to a report of abuse or neglect over a fifteen month period. This sample included youth ages eleven and older who self-identified their sexual orientation (n = 1095). Results indicate that approximately 15.5% of all system involved youth identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual, and that lesbian and bisexual females, and LGB youth of color are both overrepresented within child welfare systems. Although no substantive difference in risk factors, permanency and placement were found between LGB and Non-LGB youth, LGB youth were significantly more likely to meet the criteria for adverse mental health outcomes. Implications for child welfare practice and policy are presented, along with recommendations for future research in this area.