Incentivizing Survey Response: How Incentive Timing, Response Mode Choice, and Urbanicity Affect Survey Response

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Surveys and questionnaires are common tools used in construction and engineering project organization research, though there is a dearth of literature on how to best conduct surveys of issues related to these topics. In this paper, we analyzed how three factors—choice of response mode, incentive timing, and urbanicity—affect response rate, response speed, and degree of survey completion. The survey design used postal contact to solicit participation in a web survey of the general public in Oklahoma and Colorado regarding oil and gas development and hazards. We found that offering a choice of two response modes (web response or mailed paper response) had no significant effect on response rate, response speed, or the degree of survey completion compared to those only offered the web response option. We also found that the timing of a guaranteed incentive (i.e. receiving a monetary incentive in the initial contact versus in the first follow-up) did not significantly affect response rate or the degree of survey completion but did result in a faster response time. Urbanicity of a target community significantly affected all three measures: urban communities exhibited a higher response rate, quicker response speed, and a greater degree of survey completion as compared to rural households, regardless of mode choice or the timing of the incentive. Findings will help inform researchers who employ household surveys how survey design choices impact public response.

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Large disasters damage or destroy infrastructure that is then reconstructed through programmes that train community members in construction techniques that reduce future risks. Despite the number of post-disaster reconstruction programmes implemented, there is a dearth of research on education and training in post-disaster contexts. To address this gap, we applied a mixed methods approach based upon experiential learning theory (ELT) to three shelter programmes administered in Eastern Samar, Philippines following Typhoon Haiyan. First, we characterize post-disaster training programmes based on learning modes and then, compared this to the learning styles of community members. To assess learning modes of training programmes, we analysed qualitative data from interview accounts of community members and aid organizations; and, to delineate community member’s learning style preferences, we analysed quantitative data from survey questionnaires. Findings show that aid organizations administered training largely in lecture format, aligning with the reflective observation mode of ELT, but lacked diversity in formats represented in other poles of ELT. Moreover, analysis revealed that community members tended to grasp new information in accordance with the concrete experimentation mode, then preferred transforming newly acquired knowledge via the reflective observation mode. The lecture-based training predominately administered by aid organizations partially aligned with community learning preferences, but fell short in cultivating other forms of knowledge acquisition known to enhance long-term learning.
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A 12-person-sponsored research team consisting of three academic researchers and nine experienced practitioners conducted a three-year investigation into ways to enhance innovation within engineering-procurement-construction organizations. Data from the literature combined with over 150 surveys of active practitioners were used to identify and classify factors that influence an organization's ability to generate and implement new ideas that improve business performance. The salient factors were then identified and their relative impact was rated using the nominal group technique. Finally, these data were organized into a maturity model tool that was pilot tested on four active construction organizations. The results of this study can be used by construction organizations to identify and respond to their innovation-related weaknesses. The hundreds of hours of discussions of the 12-member research team and the fairly large set of empirical data collected by the team confirm the value of the existing construction innovation literature, but suggest the knowledge has not been effectively implemented within the industry.
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Unconventional oil and gas production provides a rapidly growing energy source; however, high-production states in the United States, such as Oklahoma, face sharply rising numbers of earthquakes. Subsurface pressure data required to unequivocally link earthquakes to wastewater injection are rarely accessible. Here we use seismicity and hydrogeological models to show that fluid migration from high-rate disposal wells in Oklahoma is potentially responsible for the largest swarm. Earthquake hypocenters occur within disposal formations and upper basement, between 2- and 5-kilometer depth. The modeled fluid pressure perturbation propagates throughout the same depth range and tracks earthquakes to distances of 35 kilometers, with a triggering threshold of ~0.07 megapascals. Although thousands of disposal wells operate aseismically, four of the highest-rate wells are capable of inducing 20% of 2008 to 2013 central U.S. seismicity.
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To increase the likelihood of response, many survey organizations attempt to provide sample members with a mode they are thought to prefer. Mode assignment is typically based on conventional wisdom or results from mode choice studies that presented only limited options. In this paper we draw heavily on research and theory from the mode effects and the survey participation literatures to develop a framework for understanding what characteristics should predict mode preferences. We then test these characteristics using data from two different surveys. We find that measures of familiarity with and access to a mode are the strongest predictors of mode preference and measures of safety concerns, physical abilities, and normative concerns are unexpectedly weak predictors. Our findings suggest that variables that may exist on sample frames can be used to inform the assignment of “preferred” modes to sample members.
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It is generally assumed that personalising mail survey covering letters increases the response to mail surveys. However, most of the studies that support this assumption were conducted in the 1970s, when personalisation was novel and relatively difficult to achieve. This paper reviews the evidence for the effect of personalisation on mail survey response and reports the results of a study of personalisation in a mail survey of the general public. The study found little or no effect of personalisation on response rate, response speed, item non-response, or social desirability bias. This suggests that personalisation may no longer be effective in mail surveys. Nevertheless, with the survey-processing technology now available it is often more difficult not to personalise survey correspondence than to personalise it. Thus, unless there is a good reason to avoid personalisation, survey researchers should use it. At worst, it will have no effect, but it might have a positive effect.
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Researchers who are interested in small towns and rural communities in the United States often find that they need to conduct their own sample surveys because many large national surveys, such as the American Community Survey, do not collect enough representative responses to make precise estimates. In collecting their own survey data, researchers face a number of challenges, such as sampling and coverage limitations. This article summarizes those challenges and tests mail and Internet methodologies for collecting data in small towns and rural communities using the U.S. Postal Service’s Delivery Sequence File as a sample frame. Findings indicate that the Delivery Sequence File can be used to sample households in rural locations by sending them invitations via postal mail to respond to either paper-and-pencil or Internet surveys. Although the mail methodology is quite successful, the results for the Internet suggest that Web surveys alone exclude potentially important segments of the population of small towns and rural communities. However, Web surveys supplemented with postal questionnaires produce results quite similar to those of mail-only surveys, representing a possible cost savings for researchers who have access to Web survey capabilities.
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A meta-analytic review examined 65 tests of the hypothesis that "country people are more helpful than city people." Results demonstrated a significantly greater nonurban helping response, with an effect size of .29. However, the effect was found to be more clearly a function of context factors than of subject factors, a finding that led to refinement of the initial hypothesis. The data indicate that helping is more likely to occur in a nonurban than an urban context. This effect was found to be robust across variations in helping requests and experimenter and subject variables. Discussion focuses on the unexpected positive relationship found between population size and helping rate in small to medium-size communities. Theoretical models of urban impact and weaknesses in our understanding of differences in rural–urban social behavior are also considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In construction, the most relevant systems used for project management (PM) and project production management (PPM) in the planning and control phases are critical path method (CPM), last planner system (LPS), and location-based techniques (LB). Studies have addressed these systems, mostly in isolated fashions. This study aims to compare and contrast their use in terms of PM and PPM and clarify industry benefits in order to eliminate potential misunderstandings about their use. A survey was administered to construction professionals in Brazil, China, Finland, and the United States. No single system addresses all needs of PM and PPM. CPM is the dominant system when considering the following characteristics: primary industry types, type of organization, size of organization, professional position within the organization, and area of work. Contributions to knowledge include that CPM is a contract requirement with perceived benefits associated with critical path analysis; LB and LPS have perceived benefits regarding continuous flow and use of resources, treatment of interferences, and improving production control. All systems were found to have a similar level of benefits for management of contracts, delay and change, and evaluation of the root causes of delays. The industry can benefit from aligning project scheduling methods with project needs. Keywords: construction scheduling; critical path method; last planner system; location-based systems
Changes in public perceptions affect infrastructure projects, policies, and revenue streams. As such, utilities should leverage these dynamic perceptions for a variety of reasons, including identifying strategic times to increase operational revenues through rate changes or billing structure, implementing capital projects or management approaches, or integrating new policies. This study focuses on assessing the temporal variations of stated willingness to pay for improved water and wastewater service of residents in 21 shrinking US cities. This classification of cities was selected due to the fiscal constraints placed on utilities because of the reduced number of customers from that which the original system was designed to serve. Furthermore, a consequence of this decline, a high proportion of low-income residents are paying high per-capita costs. Enabling this study are survey data collected in 2013 and 2016. Random-parameter Tobit regression models are used to identify geographic and sociodemographic factors influencing this stated willingness to pay. A likelihood ratio test confirmed a statistically significant shift between the surveys in the residents' stated willingness to pay. Model results reveal that between the timeframes of the deployed surveys, the influences of geographic (e.g., Michigan, Ohio) and sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, income) changed as well. Utilities may benefit from using the identified parameters to develop strategies (e.g., outreach programs, targeted education, media advertisements, inclusion in planning) to target specific groups. Similarly, using the geographic parameters may also present an opportunity to increase operational revenue due to higher willingness to pay by residents. In general, this study highlights that public perceptions should be periodically investigated to continually identify times of greater public support for various utility efforts under way.
In 2015, 28 European countries cumulatively received over two million applications for asylum, almost three times more than in the previous year. This resulted in pre-existing accommodation facilities reaching capacity and requiring the provision of urban emergency accommodations in unconventional buildings. To meet this housing need, ad hoc task forces across multiple disciplines formed to mitigate the extreme uncertainty of providing infrastructure services in a short period of time. The involvement of water and wastewater utilities in this technical project was explored through employee perspectives from two German water and wastewater utilities using qualitative analysis techniques. Ethnographic interviews were iteratively coded for excerpts legitimizing the interviewee’s involvement in providing water or wastewater services for emergency accommodations. Results show three emergent themes from utility employees: the necessity of improvisation during the design process, confidence in the situational response by individuals and the utility, and the necessity for improved coordination with other actors in the synthetic organization. In addition, this work provides a theoretical framework for the technical application of organizational legitimacy theory in the circumstances of extreme contextual uncertainty. Practical implications of this work suggest utility monitoring of emergency accommodations for improved design and better protocols for coordinating with other actors.
The Eagle Ford and Bakken shale oil plays in the United States (US) have experienced dramatic production increases since 2010, with implications for their communities in Texas and North Dakota (and to a lesser extent, Montana). In both cases, production increased from insignificant or low levels to about a quarter of US production each over five years, largely due to prices and the availability of modern horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques. This comparative case study of the Eagle Ford and Bakken regions focuses on the effects of these rapid changes on communities. Overall, this work finds that dynamics associated with strained infrastructure followed patterns similar to those seen in other modern US boom regions. Bakken participants perceived impacts as more severe than Eagle Ford participants, potentially due to greater isolation and limitations associated with extreme winter conditions. In both regions, anticipation of a bust affected behavior in a manner not commonly observed in regions where prior boom/bust cycles do not exist in living memory. Both Bakken and Eagle Ford participants described an idealized future where long-term shale-related prosperity could stabilize their communities, despite an understanding that this was an unlikely outcome.
This paper investigates the severity of pothole problems, conducts a critical assessment of current maintenance practices, and identifies resources available for pothole repair based on the results from a questionnaire survey of six provincial transportation agencies in Canada. The survey outcomes indicated a greater percentage of moderate to highly severe potholes in the study area. Freeze-thaw cycles were identified as the most influential factor in pothole formation. A large portion of pothole repair operations are conducted in the summer period. The frequently used patching materials were conventional cold mix, hot-mixed asphalt, Quality Pavement Repair, and Innovative Asphalt Repair. The throw-and-go method is commonly used for pothole repair operations in all seasons. The durability of a winter-repaired patch is significantly less than that of summer. Raveling, edge disintegration, and cracking are the most concerning distresses of patch failure, which could be a result of inadequate stability, adhesion, cohesion, and stripping potential of patching materials.
Water and sanitation utilities across Europe have recently been challenged to provide services to asylum seekers and refugees fleeing complex humanitarian disasters. We explore public perceptions regarding how secondary disaster impacts – or, mass migration into an undamaged area – has impacted the utilities. We show that the hosting population is typically willing to provide water and sanitation services to displaced persons for a set period of time, even if the displaced persons are unable to pay (water and sanitation as human rights). However, as time passes, displaced persons are eventually expected to pay for access (water and sanitation as infrastructure services). Drawing from statistical modeling of survey data from German residents, we find the average length of time for this transition in 2016 Germany was 2.9 years. The data also show statistically significant demographic and locational attributes that influence this timeframe, indicating the normative length of the transition from a right to a service is contextually dependent. Regardless, this is a significant period of time that the public expects utilities to provide services to unexpected displaced persons. To be able to meet this kind of demand, utilities, engineers, and policy makers must consider the potential for displaced populations in their regular, long-range utility planning.
Social network research has shown that knowledge sharing connections facilitate access to valuable resources. However, little is known about which knowledge sharing connections save knowledge seekers the most time on their daily tasks. To address this gap, this research analyses knowledge sharing connections that provide time savings, measured as the time individuals saved on daily tasks as a result of receiving knowledge from other employees. The research evaluates time savings based on the strength of connection, the network distance between the seeker and provider and the provider’s centrality in the network. To conduct this study, the research team analysed a data-set of 10,849 knowledge sharing dyads reported through a survey administered in one department in a large construction and engineering organization. Data were analysed using social network analysis and multiple regression quadratic assignment procedure. Results showed that stronger connections were assessed as more beneficial for time savings, especially when the connections were with central actors who had higher closeness centrality scores. Knowledge seekers also had a higher assessment of time savings when they were closer (in terms of network distance) to the knowledge provider. These results show that knowledge network reach and strong knowledge connections are essential for achieving everyday work efficiency. Furthermore, the results add to theories of strong and weak connections by showing that strong ties are favourable for achieving time savings in the context of construction and engineering organizations.
Background: It is important that response rates to postal surveys are as high as possible to ensure that the results are representative and to maximise statistical power. Previous research has suggested that any personalisation of approach helps to improve the response rate. This experiment tested whether personalising questionnaires by hand signing the covering letter improved the response rate compared with a non-personalised group where the investigator's signature on the covering letter was scanned into the document and printed.Methods: Randomised controlled trial. Questionnaires about surgical techniques of caesarean section were mailed to 3,799 Members and Fellows of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists resident in the UK. Individuals were randomly allocated to receive a covering letter with either a computer printed signature or a hand written signature. Two reminders were sent to non-respondents. The outcome measures were the proportion of questionnaires returned and their time to return.Results: The response rate was 79.1% (1506/1905) in the hand-signed group and 78.4% (1484/ 1894) in the scanned and printed signature group. There was no detectable difference between the groups in response rate or time taken to respond.Conclusion: No advantage was detected to hand signing the covering letter accompanying a postal questionnaire to health professionals.
On 1 June 2014 (03:35 UTC), an Mw 3.2 earthquake occurred in Weld County, Colorado, a historically aseismic area of the Denver-Julesburg basin. Weld County is a prominent area of oil and gas development, including many high-rate class II wastewater injection wells. In the days following the earthquake, the University of Colorado, with support from the U.S. Geological Survey and Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology-Portable Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere, rapidly deployed six seismic stations to characterize the seismicity associated with the 1 June earthquake (the Greeley sequence) and to investigate its possible connection to wastewater disposal. The spatial and temporal proximity of earthquakes to a high-rate wastewater disposal well strongly suggests these earthquakes were induced. Scientific communication between the university, state agencies, and the energy industry led to rapid mitigation strategies to reduce the occurrence of further earthquakes. Mitigation efforts included implementing a temporary moratorium on injection at the well, cementing the bottom portion of the disposal well to minimize hydrologic connectivity between the disposal formation and the underlying crystalline basement, and subsequently allowing injection to resume at lower rates. Following the resumption of wastewater disposal, microseismicity was closely monitored for both increases in earthquake rate and magnitude. Following mitigation efforts, between 13 August 2014 and 29 December 2015, no earthquakes larger than M 1.5 occurred near the Greeley sequence. This study demonstrates that a detailed and rapid characterization of a seismic sequence in space and time relative to disposal, combined with collaboration and communication between scientists, regulators, and industry, can lead to objective and actionable mitigation efforts that potentially reduced the rate of earthquakes and the possible generation of larger earthquakes.
Conference Paper
Reclaimed water programs treat wastewater to remove hazardous compounds, pathogens, and organic matter and provide reclaimed water for non-potable applications. Reusing water may significantly reduce demands on freshwater resources and provide sustainable water management strategies. Though guidelines for reclaimed water are highly regulated, public acceptability has historically hindered the implementation of successful reclaimed water systems. The public generally opposes the use of reclaimed water due to the “yuck factor”, which is the instinctive disgust associated with the idea of recycling sewage and the fear that exposure to reclaimed water is unsafe. Public acceptability has been shown to vary significantly for diverse reclaimed water applications, and support for reclaimed water applications may vary based on the level of contact that consumers have with the recycled water. Opposition towards using reclaimed water in personal residences may be a major barrier in distributing reclaimed water to residential consumers, and the adoption of reclaimed water technologies by consumers can affect network performance and potable water savings. This paper reports the results of an extensive survey that was conducted to evaluate the potential acceptability of reclaimed water use. A total of 2800 respondents across the U.S. participated in the survey, and survey results demonstrate the types of reclaimed water applications that are most acceptable. In addition, climate, economic, and demographic factors affect the perceived acceptability of reclaimed water. Results and conclusions of the survey can provide insight for implementing successful reclaimed water programs.
Comparability of data across modes is an important issue in survey research. In this paper we discuss item non-response to attitudinal questions in telephone and web surveys. We present results from a survey experiment conducted in Italy and in Spain that compares different presentations of response options in an online setting with a benchmark telephone survey. In line with earlier studies we find that (A), the share of non substantial answers in the online survey depends on how the response option is presented. Comparing different presentations in an online survey to the standard approach of telephone surveys using propensity score matching, we find that (B), the share and pattern of non substantial answers, is most similar across the two modes in the online survey when the it is captured in an instruction on each screen for the online survey. Our findings are of particular relevance for the design of multiple mode or mix-mode surveys of attitudinal questions using online and telephone modes.
Previous surveys on document management (DM) have focused on certain aspects such as the adoption of electronic methods by construction firms and the important features of electronic document management systems. This study presents the results of a survey of practitioners on various aspects of DM, including document storage, classification, search, and transmittal. The survey aims to identify practices that are implemented in large firms in the industry and the opinions of practitioners regarding such practices. Statistical models were used to map the relations between DM practices, characteristics of firms, and opinions of practitioners. The results indicate elaborate interactions between the different components, in which traditional and advanced methods are used simultaneously. The metadata approach for organizing documents is dominant; however, the use of text content is also common, especially for document search and retrieval. The results are considered to be a snapshot to benchmark the development of practices and opinions over time. They serve researchers and developers by identifying deficiencies in current practices and highlighting important issues from the perspective of industry practitioners. They serve practitioners by offering a picture of how other top industry firms operate when managing construction project documents.
Construction workers' attitudes and behaviors are one of the most important factors of a construction project's performance. As the attention paid to the impact of social influences and norms on worker behavior grows, agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) emerges as a research tool for studying workers' group behavior. With ABMS, researchers can uncover the underlying process of group behavior emerging from individuals' interactions in an organization. However, validating agent-based simulation with real data is the greatest challenge in using ABMS for organizational behavior research. With this background in mind, the objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for creating an empirically supported agent-based model for studying workers' behavior influenced by social norms. The proposed methodology suggests that empirical data collected by a questionnaire can be used for ABMS in three steps: (1) testing the agent behavior rules used in an agent-based model (i.e., testing the modeling assumptions), (2) demonstrating the model behavior's qualitative agreement with real workers' behavior (i.e., testing the simulation results against real data in a qualitative manner), and (3) creating a specific agent-based model with the model parameters that correspond to a specific empirical case. A specific agent-based model created in this way can then be seen as a scenario generator that corresponds to a specific reality and can be used to answer what if questions. Therefore, the model can be used to develop policies/interventions to improve workers' behavior in a given situation. The proposed methodology is illustrated by a study on construction workers' absenteeism that was conducted by the authors. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge of workforce management in construction; the proposed methodology provides a means of simulating workers' group behavior and developing policies/interventions to improve worker behavior at the group level in construction.
Over the past decades, numerous research efforts have been undertaken concerning the allocation of construction risks. Although the research currently available provides many valuable insights into the issue, industry participants remain concerned over risk associated with construction contracting. Based on this problem, a research product was developed to aid contracting parties in identifying, assessing, and allocating each construction risk. After a three-phase survey methodology for data collection, three worksheets were developed to identify construction risks with high potential for conflict and to aid in assessing and allocating these risks to the appropriate parties. To complement the model worksheets, three tools were developed: flowcharts, to help determine which party should carry each particular risk; legal research; and risk allocation principles, to help select appropriate contract language to address the identified risks. This paper discusses (1)the risk assessment and allocation model, including its accompanying tools, followed by a legal research discussion that will help parties to better understand construction contracts; and (2)the legal terms that often cause misallocation of risk with severe consequences.
This paper reports the results of an experiment to determine the effects of questionnaire format, reminder format, and followup format on both response rate and response speed in a mail survey. Complete responses were received from 2212 of a sample of 2638 part-time university students, a rate of 83.8%. Mean response time was 16.09 days. Results indicated that: (1) typeset questionnaires were more effective than photocopied question-naires in terms of both response rate and speed; (2) the use of reminder postcards signifi-cantly increased both rate and speed; (3) there was no advantage in hand-addressed reminders over computer-produced labels; and (4) sending a replacement questionnaire as opposed to only a followup letter did not significantly increase response rate, but follow-up format interacted with questionnaire format in influencing response speed.
Professional technical expertise is no longer the main standard by which employers evaluate college graduates. ‘Soft skills’, such as emotional intelligence (EI also referred to as EQ), are viewed as effective ways to distinguish potential high-performance workers. It is posited that high performing students will also exhibit more proficiency at these ‘soft skills’ than students with more modest academic success. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to correlate EI with the academic performance of civil engineering students. A student's grade point ratio (GPR) is the criterion used in this research to measure academic performance. The hypothesis is that students with high GPRs will score better on measures of EI than other students. Literature reviews found that there is a growing area of research into EI and its relationship with job performance, specifically through the research presented in Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ [Goleman, D. (1995) Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ, Bantam Publishing, London. ISBN 0553375067]. There is a paucity of research, however, linking EI with academic performance in engineering students. There is also little information on the degree to which engineering students have been exposed to the concept of EI or received any training in EI. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between EI and academic performance and examine the potential difference in EI with respect to demographic and experiential characteristics. This research assumed the following principles: (1) there is a relationship between GPR and EI, (2) the relationship can be measured and (3) the participants in this research have anonymity and are guaranteed that their responses are not part of their individual academic evaluations, increasing the respondents' ability to answer honestly. Through surveys of 141 civil engineering and construction management students from Clemson University and The Citadel, it is suggested that EI increases along with increases in GPR. EI then peaks for the 2.51–3.0 GPR student group. After that, EI decreases as GPR continues to increase. A positive connection was identified between the amount of work experience and higher EI scores. Based on the results of this analysis, this paper proposes increased emphasis on co-op and extracurricular programmes to help students develop their EI skills.
This article reports the results of an experiment in obtaining physician response to a mailed questionnaire. Each physician was eligible for a payment of $20. A randomly selected half received the payment with their initial questionnaire and cover letter; half were told they would receive their payment after they completed and returned the questionnaire. The same mail and telephone followup procedures were used for both groups. Overall, prepayment had significant positive effects on response rates. This paper examines these effects in terms of response rates for various specialties, field efficiencies, cost, and representativeness of the sample.
Reported increases in nonresponse rates to sample surveys have not been systematically documented to date. Data from the National Election Studies and the Surveys of Consumer Attitudes, two well-known continuing studies conducted by the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan, permit the assessment of long-term trends for the two major components of nonresponse, refusals and other noninterviews, by urban subgroups using time series regression techniques. The analyses clearly demonstrate that there have been substantial increases in total nonresponse due primarily to increases in the percentages of respondents who refuse to be interviewed, and that these trends are related to the level of urbanization.
Historically, achieving a high response rate on physician surveys has been a challenging task. Given such concerns, understanding research strategies that facilitate adequate response rates is important. Primary care physician responses to a mail survey on smoking cessation are summarized by physician specialty and timing of incentive. A stratified random-sample design, stratified by patient populations-adults, adolescents, and pregnant women-was used. The sampling frame included New Jersey internists, general practitioners, family physicians, pediatricians, and obstetrician-gynecologists. A total of 2100 physicians, 700 physicians from each patient strata, were sampled and mailed a smoking-cessation survey in summer 2002. The sample was randomized by incentive timing: Half received the incentive (i.e., 25 dollars gift card) with the first survey mailing, and half received the incentive on receipt of their completed survey. The promised-incentive group achieved a significantly lower response rate (56%) compared with the up-front-incentive group (71.5%). Response rates by medical specialty varied overall and within incentive groups. The difference between the incentive groups was greatest among obstetrician-gynecologists (i.e., 20.2 percentage points) and was least among pediatricians (i.e., 5.8 percentage points). Physician response rates to mail surveys are greatly improved, especially among certain medical specialties, by using up-front incentives.
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The twilight of Landline interviewing: survey data quality tends to be at least as good when all interviewing is done with cellphones
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Impact of neighborhood Walkability on trip generation and trip Chaining: case of Los Angeles
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Improving response to web and Mixed-Mode surveys
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