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Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy

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... One of the most important foundations of social life (see e.g. Blau 1964, Simmel 1978, Lumann 1979, Dasgupta 1988, Giddens 1990, Putnam 1993, 2000, Seligman 1997, Sztompka 1999, Uslaner 2002, trust is undeniably 'the cornerstone for any statistical system' (European Statistical System n.d., 6.), 'an essential attribute without which the utility of even the highest quality statistics is undermined' (Holt 2008, 326-327). Indeed, being trusted is essential to fulfil the role of the main provider of facts on crucial aspects of society, economy, and environment for various stakeholders (citizens, academics, decision-makers, enterprises, etc.). ...
... The 'softcore cognitivists' (e.g. Luhmann 1979, Putnam 1993, 2000, Giddens 1990, 1991, Sztompka 1999, Möllering 2006., see Mújdricza 2019) either adopt a stance (Putnam 1993(Putnam , 2000 resembling of the Social Exchange Theory that assumes trust to emerge gradually out of pure self-interest in the course of recurring cost-benefit calculations in social exchange situations (Blau 1964) or develop a notion in which trust 'brackets' risks, trustors take a 'leap of faith', acting as if the risks were not present (Giddens 1990, 1991, Sztompka 1999, Möllering 2006. ...
... The 'softcore cognitivists' (e.g. Luhmann 1979, Putnam 1993, 2000, Giddens 1990, 1991, Sztompka 1999, Möllering 2006., see Mújdricza 2019) either adopt a stance (Putnam 1993(Putnam , 2000 resembling of the Social Exchange Theory that assumes trust to emerge gradually out of pure self-interest in the course of recurring cost-benefit calculations in social exchange situations (Blau 1964) or develop a notion in which trust 'brackets' risks, trustors take a 'leap of faith', acting as if the risks were not present (Giddens 1990, 1991, Sztompka 1999, Möllering 2006. ...
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Trust is undeniably ‘the cornerstone for any statistical system’. Namely, being trusted is essential to fulfil the role of the main provider of facts on crucial aspects of society, economy, and environment for stakeholders (citizens, academics, policy-makers, enterprises, etc). An emerging trend in academic literature, as well as national and international official statistics policies, proposes the key to building trust in official statistics is to maintain and enhance quality, among others: transparency, communication, independence, and privacy guarantees. Quality is of paramount importance and a determinant of the value of statistics. But how does it add to trust towards statistics – is it a suitable foundation for building trust in official statistics? The proposition of quality as a ‘cornerstone’ of trust is in line with the cognitive approach to trust concepts. These describe trust as a knowledge-, interest- or experience-based, learnt capacity, a rational decision or expectation assuming uncertainty, risk, and vulnerability, which is hard to build but easy to destroy. Yet this approach describes a calculative, shrewd, and potentially manipulative frame of mind – the opposite of trust. These concepts mistake trust for naïveté or reliance. Creating a naïve audience risks being manipulative, which is not the aim of official statistics. Reliance should not be conflated with trust either; it only conserves a lack of trust in the worst of cases. So, trust cannot be ‘built’ on the bases of quality or of any cognitive factor. Reliance, however, has a secondary function in supporting and preserving actual trust, i.e. trust as described by the non-cognitive approaches. This trust is ‘a pattern in the weave of life’, an innate faculty, a mostly unconscious sense of security, a tacit expectation of goodness. It is robust and highly resistant to facts and counterevidence, and usually reaches awareness when it is already harmed. Ergo, although quality cannot build trust, the lack of it may well destroy it. Quality is not a prerequisite or a basis, but still an important safeguard and support for trust. Regarding the ‘enhancement’ of trust in official statistics, non-cognitive trust literature does not offer a solution. Therefore, the paper will present a novel approach to trust based on the relationship between existential anxiety and trust. The only non-pathological means of enhancing trust is to demonstrate our genuine trust to activate the ‘virtuous circle’ of trust. The relationship thus remains non-intrusive and trust-assuming, empowers the user and facilitates their relaxing into trust. Our demonstration of trust leaves the users’ autonomy unharmed, so it cannot build trust in the strict sense, but it can increase the chance of them turning to official statistics with trust. The role of quality is to guard and support trust, which approach enables the development of a trust management framework for official statistics.
... 167). He interlinks the term social capital automatically with the concept of civic engagement and the existence of a strong civil society (Putnam, 1993(Putnam, , 1995(Putnam, , 2000Putnam & Heliwell, 1999). This is also emphasised in his definition in the year 2000 where he connects social capital with the concept of civic virtues (p. ...
... 19). However, Putnam (1993) stresses that the indicators networks and norms function as a prerequisite of trust (p. 177); trust thus appears to be an outcome of norms and networks. ...
... This argument is built upon his belief that economic activity itself is part of the social life and constitutes itself according to the norms, rules, and moral obligations of a society (p. 7). Robert Putnam (1993) comes to the conclusion that "norms and networks have 8 Authors have not yet fully agreed on what to emphasis when considering human capital. Roemer (1990) puts emphasis on new technological innovation by increasing research and development spending. ...
... Besides these approaches, Kostova (1997) introduced three theoretical dimensions of institutions: regulatory, normative and cognitive dimensions. The regulatory dimension focuses on 1981-19841989-19931994-1998-20042005-20092010-2014WDI (2019 for internet users Formal Institutions proxied by an index International Country Risk Guide's average protection against the political risk of expropriation is used to construct an index through the PCA method. Six political risk components are included in the index and government regulations and procedures required to establish new business and innovation activity. ...
... Hanifan (1916) originally introduced the social capital-informal institution as, "goodwill, fellowship, sympathy, and social intercourse among the individuals and families who make a social unit". Additionally, Putnam (1993) focused on the moral obligations and norms, social values (especially trust), and social networks required to develop mutually beneficial coordination and cooperation. Fukuyama (1995) coined the term 'social capital' that determines the people's ability to jointly work in groups and organizations to attain common goals. ...
... In this context, the modern concept of social capital is analogous to informal institutions that become popular in the 80s and 90s. For instance, Putnam (1993) identified key components of informal institutions that are moral obligations and norms, social values-especially trust, and social networks which smooth coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. Thus, informal institutions can be defined as links, shared values, and societal understanding that promote trust, cooperation, and eventually promotes innovation activities. ...
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In the current society, institutional quality is essential to innovation activity, as formal and informal institutions have a positive impact on innovation. Formal institutional quality establishes the intellectual property rights culture that lowers the transaction costs, required to stimulate the innovation process. Strengthen informal institutions inseminate mutual trust and cooperation, necessary to share the previous knowledge, which is mandatory to invent new ideas. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effect of formal and informal institutions and their indicators on innovation activities. We construct the indices to measure the quality of formal and informal institutions using data on 73 countries for the period 1981–2014. The system GMM estimation technique is used to predict the performance of formal and informal institutions on innovation activities. Besides, this study estimates the effect of each indicator of formal as well as informal institutions on innovations after controlling for FDI, human capital, trade and government size. The hypotheses of positive effects of formal and informal institutional quality is accepted. The size of the effect of different indicators of institutions are varying. The results are robust across developed and developing countries. From a policy perspective, this study suggests that more focused monitoring of institutions is required to improve their quality that ultimately effects innovation activities.
... However, different types of connections exist, as Bucura (2022) noted in a discussion of Putnam's (1993) bonding and bridging forms of social capital (stemming from Bourdieu's 1986 theory). Bucura (2022) described Putnam's bonding capital as a shared experience that is formed among those who seem similar, while bridging capital results in connections between seemingly different social groups. ...
... As mentioned, the significance of M4M was that we implemented the concept in the context of higher music education while embedding an informal learning approach into a formal context. The findings suggest that the students benefited from such an artistic laboratory (Smilde, 2006(Smilde, , 2009a, including through instances of what Putnam (1993) referred to as bonding with others and the potential for bridging with those who seem different from oneself. Experiences of unfamiliarity were important, stimulating challenges for all involved: agents with different cultural identities and previous music-related experiences negotiated the goals of the community of practice. ...
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Meet4Music (M4M) is a low-threshold community music program based at the University of Music and Performing Arts Graz, Austria, offering free participatory sessions to people from all social and cultural backgrounds, including students. The program allows attendees to experience an emerging field of music pedagogy and approach current challenges of migration and cultural diversity from an artistic perspective. The purpose of this study was to explore how students considered and reflected on their M4M experiences. Research questions included the following: (1) How did students consider the experience of making music in a heterogeneous ensemble, and what meanings might they have made from it? And, (2) What aspects of M4M may have contributed to artistic and interpersonal enrichment, and in what ways? We examined meanings developed across the various practices involved in this artistic initiative, with a specific focus on the students’ experiences. To do so, qualitative data based on their written reflections are presented, analyzed, and discussed. Findings include attributions for M4M and personal impact. Themes center on a holistic understanding of the musical community of the program and students’ reflexive and responsive attitudes. Implications include refining notions of artistic citizenship and recommendations for higher music education.
... The second is a social organization used to achieve common goals (Coleman, 1988). Putnam (1993) considered social capital as a value of mutual trust in the life of society and the state. The pillars are networks, norms, and social trust that encourage collaboration in social life for the common good (Putnam, 1993;Son & Feng, 2019). ...
... Putnam (1993) considered social capital as a value of mutual trust in the life of society and the state. The pillars are networks, norms, and social trust that encourage collaboration in social life for the common good (Putnam, 1993;Son & Feng, 2019). Putnam mentioned three fundamental reasons. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic not only causes health problems but also affects the level of social trust. Low social trust occurs in the public sphere and transforms in the digital space. This situation was then deemed necessary to rebuild social capital. This study aims to prove that there are still opportunities in times of crisis where social capital can be re-formed, depending on how social networks initiate voluntary activism on social media. This study used a quantitative approach. Data were collected from Twitter using Ncapture. The data including information on COVID-19 cases were later analysed using the Nvivo 12 Plus software. This study found that there is a possibility and opportunity that low social trust caused by the COVID-19 pandemic can still be restored in times of crisis, at least by utilizing social media as a social networking center. Social networks on Twitter slowly shape cooperative behavior and social trust, and influence collectivities in rebuilding social capital.
... Erkjenninga synest å vere at endring og utvikling ikkje kan vedtakast i regjeringskontora, men må vekse fram frå aktive sivile samfunn. Den amerikanske professoren Robert D. Putnam (1993) har gjennomført omfattande undersøkingar i Italia for å få svar på kvifor somme regionar lykkast og andre mislykkast i utviklingsarbeidet sitt. Hans forsking støttar opp om Friedmann si forsking på empowerment. ...
... Putnam konstaterer derimot at kvaliteten til styringsverket i regionane var avhengig av langvarige (eller fråver av) tradisjonar om sivilt engasjement. Valdeltaking, avislesing, medlemskap i kor og fotballklubbar var kjenneteikn ved suksessfulle regionar (Putnam, 1993). Den skiljande faktoren var graden av sivilitet. ...
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Dette er ei fagbok der eg trekker inn ei lang rekke teoriar og relevant forsking for å drøfte spørsmålet om planlegging og partnarskap verkeleg er eigna til å gi politikken den legitimiteten og handlingskrafta som er nødvendig for å fremme berekraftig utvikling. Dette er difor ei bok om kvifor samskapt berekraft er nødvendig og kva samarbeidsdriven planlegging inneber. Utgangspunktet for boka er at sjølv om vi i dag har mykje vitskapleg kunnskap som dokumenterer at kloden lir under våre fotavtrykk, så uteblir nødvendige samarbeid mellom aktørar. Politikken for berekraftig utvikling manglar såleis både handlingskapasitet og legitimitet. I boka drøftar eg i kva grad planlegging kan bidra til institusjonell kapasitetsbygging og til å gi arbeidet for berekraftig utvikling tilstrekkeleg demokratisk legitimitet. Eg konkluderer med at dette er mogleg å oppnå dersom planlegginga både lokalt, nasjonalt og globalt fungerer kompetansebyggande og bidreg til ei lokal mobilisering som stiller krav til nasjonalt og globalt nivå om å sette rammer for berekraftig utvikling i form av regelverk og insitament om kva for kollektive handlingar som krevst. Boka er skriven for studentar på masternivå og for praktikarar som søker ny og nyttig kunnskap om ulike former for statsstyring og om samarbeidsdrivne plan- og innovasjonsprosessar.
... Tindakan kolektif lazim dilakukan untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu disertai keyakinan bahwa tujuan tersebut mampu mendatangkan manfaat, serta digerakkan melalui jaringan sosial. Menurut Putnam (1993), adanya jaringan sosial memungkinkan adanya koordinasi dan komunikasi yang dapat menumbuhkan rasa saling percaya di antara sesama anggota masyarakat dan mampu memperkuat norma-norma mengenai keharusan untuk saling membantu. Jaringan sosial berperan penting dalam program PTT ini, salah satu syarat untuk menjadi petani debitur adalah harus tergabung dalam kelompok sehingga pengajuan proposal dilakukan bersama-sama. ...
... KTHR (Kelompok Tani Hutan Rakyat) merupakan jaringan sosial utama petani debitur pinjaman tunda tebang. Putnam (1993) menjelaskan bahwa jaringan sosial adalah kumpulan masyarakat yang mendukung timbulnya kerjasama di lingkungan sosialnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa alasan petani debitur bergabung dalam kelompok adalah untuk mengakses informasi baru dan bantuan dari pemerintah atau instansi lainnya, serta mengikuti program yang berbasis kelompok seperti pinjaman tunda tebang. ...
... The concept of social capital, which is widely adopted in the social sciences, indicates those kinds of social assets-from trust to obligations to norms-that are embedded within various patterns of social interaction and networking among and between individuals and groups, and can facilitate access to benefits of different kinds for those individuals and groups (Bourdieu, 1986;Burt, 2001;Coleman, 1988;Putnam, 1993). In the domain of organizational science, social capital has been adopted as a conceptual and analytical tool in order to study intra-organizational dynamics of knowledge exchange and enrichment among and between individuals and groups, at different levels of analysis. ...
... trust towards community members). Putnam (1993) defines it as consisting of trust and shared norms. Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) attribute to it a crucial motivating role for knowledge-exchange dynamics. ...
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This article investigates patterns of knowledge exchange in hybrid communities where virtual and face-to-face links of communication are complementary. The study framework is based on social capital theory. The role of social capital dimensions and motivational factors in fostering the exchange of different forms of knowledge is investigated at an individual level. The proposed theoretical model is tested through structural equation modelling, and the analysis is carried out on a sample of over 250 individuals belonging to the community of users of the National Library of Latvia. The results confirm most of the theoretical hypotheses, but with some unexpected results– such as the relevant role of motivational factors in fostering the exchange of complex forms of knowledge– highlighting the specific nature of hybrid communities.
... The third mechanism is socialization. Children internalize their parents' attitudes and values (Borgonovi & Montt, 2012;Putnam 1993;Stolle & Hooghe, 2004). Therefore, individuals with high levels of education are more likely to have internalized high levels of trust from their parents. ...
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This paper examines between-country differences in why education promotes trust using data from 29 countries (and 146 regions) participating in the OECD’s Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). Results indicate that education is strongly associated with trust and that individuals’ literacy, income, and occupational prestige are important mediators of this association. Contrary to previous studies we do not find that country level or regional level birthplace diversity is associated with average levels of trust. However, education gradients in trust and the extent to which these are due to social stratification or cognitive mechanisms vary both at the country and regional level depending on birthplace diversity. Multilevel mediation-moderation analyses reveal that in countries and regions with greater birthplace diversity there is a greater polarization in levels of trust between individuals with different educational qualifications. This polarization is primarily due to cognitive mechanisms.
... Kapitał terytorialny to szeroki zbiór dóbr materialnych, pośrednich i niematerialnych, które są zakorzenione w danym miejscu, a zatem ograniczone co do swojej mobilności i trudno replikowalne (Camagni, 2008). Stanowi on swoisty metaczynnik rozwoju z jednej strony poszerzający katalog dotychczas identyfikowanych na gruncie analizy kształtowania warunków do endogenicznego wzrostu i rozwoju kapitałów, takich jak: kapitał ludzki (Lucas, 1988), kapitał społeczny (Putnam, 1993), kapitał materialny i kapitał finansowy (Churski, 2008), kapitał prywatny (Barro, 1991), kapitał publiczny (De Haan, Romp, 2007) czy też kapitał kulturowy i kapitał kreatywny (Stachowiak, 2017), a z drugiej strony będący ich zakorzenionym terytorialnie synergicznym i wzajemnie przenikającym się zbiorem. Stan gospodarki wskazuje na stopień konkurencyjności kapitału terytorialnego jednostki, który jest wypadkową kondycji jego składników oraz siły i charakteru relacji między nimi. ...
... Sosyal sermaye kavramının öncülerinden Putnam sosyal sermayeyi "koordine eylemleri kolaylaştırarak toplumun verimliliğini artırabilen güven, normlar ve ağlar gibi sosyal organizasyonun özelliklerini" şeklinde tanımlamaktadır (Putnam, 1993). Bourdei'ya göre sosyal sermaye doğuştan var olmamakta, gruplara katıldıkça kazanılmaktadır dolayısıyla sosyal ilişkilerde gömülü olan sosyal sermaye, tamamen bireye ait bir sermaye değildir (Coleman, 1988;Kapu, 2008). ...
... Böylece üyeler aidiyet duygusu kazanarak yalnız kalmaktan kurtulmaktadırlar (Özer, 2008). Putnam (1993) ...
Conference Paper
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Kadının toplumsal etkileşimine vurgu yapmak amacıyla gerçekleştirilen bu çalışmada, benlik saygısı ile karar verme stilleri (rasyonel, sezgisel, bağımlı, kaçınmacı ve kendiliğinden-anlık) arasındaki ilişki kadınlar tarafından kurulmuş ve yürüttüğü sosyal ve ekonomik çalışmalarla Mersin ili Yenişehir ilçesinde faaliyet gösteren sivil toplum kuruluşlarına (STK) üye olan 248 kadın üzerinde incelenmiş olup, ayrıca benlik saygısı ve karar verme stillerinin sivil toplum kuruluşuna üyelik süresi, zaman geçirme süresi ile üye olunan STK sayısı değişkenleri ile ilişkileri de araştırılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, benlik saygısı ile rasyonel karar verme stili arasında negatif yönlü; kendiliğinden-anlık karar verme stili arasında ise pozitif yönlü zayıf düzeyde; kaçınmacı karar verme stili arasında da pozitif orta düzeyli istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişkiler tespit edilmiş olup, sezgisel ve bağımlı karar verme stilleriyle anlamlı ilişkiler tespit edilememiş; sezgisel karar verme stilinin üyelik süresine; bağımlı ve kaçınmacı karar verme stillerinin üye olunan STK sayısına göre farklılıklar gösterdiği; zaman geçirme süresine bağlı olarak ise karar verme stillerinde de farklılıklar gözlemlenmemiş; benlik saygısında da üyelik ve zaman geçirme süresi ile üyelik sayısına göre farklılaşmalar bulunamamıştır
... This liberal democratic view on NGOs is very much rooted in the idea that NGOs function as a separate entity from the state and thereby contribute to the civic maxim of liberal politics (Mercer 2002 (Ramsbotham, Miall, and Woodhouse 1999;Lederach 1997). Civil society groups can build social capital which is instrumental in preventing conflicts (Putnam 1992;Burton 1990;Rotberg 1996;Varshney 2008), working in war zones (Anderson 1999), supporting negotiations (Mor 1997;Rupesinghe 1995)and endorsing reconstruction and reconciliation work (Cousens, Kumar, and Wermester 2001). ...
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This paper explores the origin and evolution of LGBT NGOs in Sri Lanka. Unlike their counterparts in India and Nepal, the understanding of the institutionalized landscape of sexual and gender justice movement in Sri Lanka has seldom been studied, despite it being one of the earliest movements in South Asia. The study asks 'what is the origin and evolution of sexual and gender justice work in Sri Lanka? What are the key characteristics of the trajectory of LGBT NGOs in Sri Lanka and its implications?' Using a conceptual framework informed by 'radicalism' the study exposes the paradoxical relationship between 'radical' goals and 'non-radical' means of LGBT NGOs during different political transitions since 1995. This is not an exhaustive investigation of LGBT NGOs. Rather, it is a mapping exercise of imperfect but indicative key characteristics of LGBT NGOs in Sri Lanka. The paradoxical relationship also highlights the limits of radicalism due to the normative burden in understanding a movement encountering a volatile political landscape. ixCIs ma ;h /äl,a o@ iy /äl,a fkdfõ o@" Y% S ,xldfõ LGBT rdcH fkdjk ixúOdkj, wdrïNh iy mßKduh .fõIKh ls Íu ;Hd.rdcd jrodia fuu ,s ms h YS % ,xldfõ iußis iudc ^ia ;S % $mq reI iu ,s x.s l" oa ù-,s x.s l iy ixl% dka ;s ,s x.s l& (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual , "Trans-sexual"-LGBT) rdcH fkdjk ixúOdkj, wdrïNh iy mßKduh .fõYKh lrhs ' bka Èhdfõ iy fka md,fha Tjq ka f.a i.hka fuka fkdj" YS % ,xldfõ ,s x.s l iy ia ;S % mq reI iudcNdù idOdrK;a jh ms <s n| jHdmdrfha wdh;ks l miq ;,h ms <s n| wjfnda Oh ol= Kq wdis hdfõ mer‚u jHdmdrhla jk kuq ;a ta ms <s n|j wOHhkh lr we;a f;a l,d;= rls ks ' YS % ,xldfõ ,s x.s l iy ia ;S % mq reI iudcNdù idOdrOElrKfha wdrïNh iy mßKduh ms <s n|j iy YS % ,xldfõ iußis iudc rdcH fkdjk ixúOdk j, .uka m:fhys m% Odk ,CIK iy we`.jq ï ms <s n|j ,s ms fhka m% Ya k lrhs ' "/äl,a a jdoh" úis ka y÷ka jd fok ,o ixl,a mS h rduq jla Ndú;d lrñka 1995 is g úúO foa Ymd,k ixl% dka ;s iuhka ;= < iußis iudc rdcH fkdjk ixúOdkj, "/äl,a " b,la lhka iy "/äl,a fkdjk" udOHhka w;r mria mr úfrda ë iïnka O;djhka wOHhkfhka fy,s fõ' fuh iußis iudc rdcH fkdjk ixúOdkj, mßmQ ¾K ióCIKhla fkdjk w;r" th YS % ,xldfõ mj;s k iußis iudc rdcH fkdjk ixúOdkj, m% Odk ,CIK is ;s hï .; ls Ífï wNHdihls ' wia :djr foa Ymd,k miq ;,hka g uq yq K fok jHdmdrhla wjfnda Olr .ekS fï idudkH ÿIa lr;djh ks idu mria mr úfrda ë iïnka O;djhka f.a "/äl,a jd §" iS udjka bia u;= lrfohs '
... The greater the amount of informal social interactions and participation in associative activities, the lower the incentives and frequency of free-riding. Social capital fosters solidarity, cooperation, civic engagement, and responsibility, and can even produce, as a positive externality, economic growth and political stability (Putnam 1993). ...
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Extensive research on the determinants of people's subjective wellbeing has shed light on factors that influence quality of life and that traditional welfare measures tend to neglect. Particularly important among these appear to be the relational, interpersonal aspects of human existence, and both intrinsic and extrinsic benefits of participating in different types of social networks and associative activities. This field of analysis, however, is not devoid of challenges. These include: the wide variety of social proxies adopted in the literature, which has often led to mixed results; and the almost exclusive use of cross-sectional data, which makes it impossible to control for individual unobserved characteristics that could significantly affect both wellbeing levels, and the quality of one's social and relational context. In this study, we address both of these issues by examining the association between subjective wellbeing, and a rich set of 17 social capital indicators reflecting the following dimensions: personal relationships, social network support, civic engagement, and trust and cooperative norms. Moreover, we use longitudinal data, and control for time-constant sources of heterogeneity among respondents, such as personality traits and predispositions. Our results suggest a consistent relationship between wellbeing and all four dimensions of social capital examined. Furthermore, we find evidence of important gender differences in the way social and relational factors affect overall life satisfaction.
... High trusting communities can be supportive of a democratic environment because 'the culture of trust encourages tolerance" (Sztompka 1997: 10). In line with the social capital literature (Putnam 1993(Putnam , 2000 that highlights the potential of associations to foster generalized trust, we expect that: ...
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The rise of far-right movements has accelerated in the last decade as the effects of financial crisis, intersectional social injustice and the COVID pandemics which has led to a disillusionment with politics and fostered the rise of populist actors and claims. Post-communist Central and Eastern Europe has seen radical movements and populist parties gain considerable ground by drawing on nativist and ethnic claims to call for a return to an imagined past, free present and utopian future. In Romania, populist parties have been able to capitalize on a sense of social injustice, national conservative discourse, while also playing on historically negative feelings towards ethnic minorities. These patterns have been observed through the rise of AUR (The Alliance for the Union of Romanians) party which has established a foothold over the past two years. The aims of the article are to examine the evolution of AUR and the reaction of the Roma community towards it, and to analyse the ways in which the representatives of the Roma community are polarized towards the discourse of AUR. The findings of the article show that pre-existing prejudices, long-lasting injustice and newly build conspiracies can be a powerful force that not only targets marginalized communities, but also challenges the mainstream representatives of the party. The reaction of the Roma community is trifold, partly being absorbed by the populist movement, partly reacting against the divisive message expressed by AUR, partly approving the violent discourse of AUR. The second part of article consists in the organization and the interpretation of the main results of a qualitative inquiry we conducted in October-November 2021. During the inquiry, we interviewed online 20 leaders of “Roma NGOs” (non-governmental organizations specialized in the defence of the human, social, economic, political and/ or cultural rights of the Romanian Roma ethnics). The selection of the respondents was based on the principle of reasonable balance in terms of gender, age, location and education as reported to the average Roma civically and politically active citizens. To each participant, we applied a semi-structured interview. For the analysis of the responses, we used the inductive thematic analysis described by Warren and Karner (2014). As a result of this inquiry, we synthesized three main arguments of the Roma NGO militants with regard to the AUR’s emergence’s consequences over the future of the Roma communities.
... Putnam (2000) also suggests that social capital highlights the norms of trustworthiness to achieve socially efficient results. The evidence further shows that societies with higher social capital demonstrate higher trust for their collaborations and achieve higher economic growth (Putnam, 1993). Scrivens and Smith (2013) further suggest that social capital encompasses personal and social networking, civic engagement, trust and cooperative norms. ...
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Purpose This study examines the influence of access to finance and social capital on the improvement of the corporate performance of non-listed firms of Southeast Asian countries. Furthermore, this paper also explores the mediating role of firms' access to finance between the association of social capital and the improvement of corporate performance. Design/methodology/approach This study utilizes the Bank Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey from 2015 to 2017. Specifically, the survey was administered by the World Bank. Data were analyzed using structural modeling in Smart-PLS. Findings The findings show that firms' access to finance and social capital significantly influences the improvement of corporate performance. Additionally, the study’s analysis further reports the mediating role of firms' access to finance between the association of social capital and the improvement of corporate performance. Practical implications This study has implications for governments, regulators and policymakers for enhancing access to finance and social capital, and improving corporate performance. Originality/value This paper establishes the importance of firms' access to finance and social capital for improving firms' overall performance in the broader context of Southeast Asia.
... From a political and democratic perspective (Rokkan, 1987;Rueschmeyer et al., 1998), systematic inequality among members and those active in CSOs may contribute to a democratic deficit where certain groups, voices, and interests are less represented and fought for by CSOs. From a social integration perspective, CSOs are considered central arenas for building community, trust, and social networks, facilitating integration in local communities (Putnam, 1993(Putnam, , 2000Warren, 2000). The absence of certain types of individuals and groups in CSOs could indicate a lack of social integration. ...
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In this paper, I adopt Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical and methodological framework to investigate patterns of inequality in volunteering fields and practices in Norway. Multiple correspondence analyses of national survey data indicate a hierarchically structured social space in Norway according to total volume of capital, while the positioning of different volunteer fields and practices seems to be more egalitarian with regard to capital possession, with some exceptions. This resonates well with established notions of the Norwegian civil society model as social democratic and egalitarian. Based on the discussions and findings, and considering growing social, cultural, and economic differences in many societies, I argue for a new volunteering research agenda better tailored for investigating social inequalities and differentiation in volunteering in different societal contexts, providing a new vantage point for understanding and explaining such inequalities.
... Social capital can be defined as social resources evolving accessible social networks or social structures that are characterized by mutual trust, which facilitate access to various instrumental or expressive returns that can benefit the individual and the collective (Putnam 1993;Rostila 2011). The role of social capital on oral health conditions has been investigated. ...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the theoretical pathways by which social capital can influence dental caries and oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children over time. This 10-y prospective cohort started in 2010 with a sample of 639 preschoolers aged 1 to 5 y from the southern Brazil. Community and individual social capital were assessed at baseline through the presence of formal institutions in the neighborhood and social networks, respectively. In the 10-y follow-up, the individual social capital was evaluated by social trust and social networks. Dental caries was measured by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), and the short version of the Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) was used to assess OHRQoL. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral (frequency of toothbrushing and use of dental services), and psychosocial (sense of coherence) characteristics were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the associations between variables over time. About 429 children were reassessed at 10-y follow-up (67.1% cohort retention rate). High community social capital at baseline directly predicted lower occurrence of dental caries and better OHRQoL after 10 y. Social capital at community level also indirectly predicted lower occurrence of dental caries through sense of coherence, frequency of toothbrushing, and use of dental services. Individual social capital at follow-up was indirectly linked to OHRQoL via the psychosocial pathway (sense of coherence). Community-level social capital was associated with dental caries and OHRQoL over time. The relationship between individual social capital and oral health was mediated through the psychosocial pathway.
... Scholarship on political trust-or the evaluation of the trustworthiness of the governance system including both individual and aggregate levels of authority structures such as institutions, bureaucracies, or nations (Levi and Stoker, 2000)-offers insights into the linkages between trust water governance. Scholars of political trust generally concur that the level of trust held is positively correlated with good governance-or the effectiveness and legitimacy of governance institutions (Draude et al., 2018;Levi, 1998;Putnam, 1992). Levi and others (2009) highlight three elements that contribute to the trustworthiness of governments: (1) Leadership motivations or the institutional constraints on the behavior of political leaders which are enforced by law and power external to the leader (e.g. ...
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Assumptions of trust in water systems are widespread in higher-income countries, often linked to expectations of “modern water.” The current literature on water and trust also tends to reinforce a technoscientific approach, emphasizing the importance of aligning water user perceptions with expert assessments. Although such approaches can be useful to document instances of distrust, they often fail to explain why patterns differ over time, and across contexts and populations. Addressing these shortcomings, we offer a relational approach focused on the trustworthiness of hydro-social systems to contextualize water-trust dynamics in relation to broader practices and contexts. In doing so, we investigate three high-profile water crises in North America where examples of distrust are prevalent: Flint, Michigan; Kashechewan First Nation; and the Navajo Nation. Through our theoretical and empirical examination, we offer insights on these dynamics and find that distrust may at times be a warranted and understandable response to experiences of water insecurity and injustice. We examine the interconnected experiences of marginality and inequity, ontological and epistemological injustice, unequal governance and politics, and histories of water insecurity and harm as potential contributors to untrustworthiness in hydro-social systems. We close with recommendations for future directions to better understand water-trust dynamics and address water insecurity.
... In that sense, compliance is not a mere product of punishment cost but also depends on the perceived legitimacy of the policy objectives. Scholars have studied the importance of consent and compliance in the context of tax evasion [4,5], conscription [6], organ donation [7] and voter turnout [8]. Social distancing is a case in point to study the interplay of public and private actions, as the effectiveness of public health guidance crucially depends on the timely cooperation of citizens given the limited coercive power of governments. ...
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We study changes in social distancing and government policy in response to local outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using aggregated county-level data from approximately 20 million smartphones in the United States, we show that social distancing behaviors have responded to local outbreaks: a 1% increase in new cases (deaths) is associated with a 3% (11%) increase in social distancing intensity. Responsiveness is reinforced by the presence of public measures restricting movements, but remains significant in their absence. Responsiveness is higher in high-income, more educated, or Democrat-leaning counties, and in counties with low health insurance coverage. By contrast, social capital and vulnerability to infection are strongly associated with more social distancing but not with more responsiveness. Our results point to the importance of politics, trust and reciprocity for compliance with social distancing, while material constraints are more critical for being responsive to new risks such as the emergence of variants.
... High trusting communities can be supportive of a democratic environment because 'the culture of trust encourages tolerance" (Sztompka 1997: 10). In line with the social capital literature (Putnam 1993(Putnam , 2000 that highlights the potential of associations to foster generalized trust, we expect that: ...
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We explore the impact of volunteering on civic attitudes in Romania by using a double comparative perspective. Firstly, volunteering in Romania is compared across time, between 2000 and 2018, based on a series of national and international surveys, such as WVS and EVS. Secondly, volunteering in Romania in 2018 is compared to other 9 Southeast European cases: Albania, Bulgaria, the six republics of the former Yugoslavia, and Kosovo. These surveys, based on representative samples of youth (ages 14-29), allow us to evaluate the impact that engagement in different types of associations has on democratic support, tolerance, generalized trust, political interest and participation. Our analyses indicate a growing level of volunteering among the Romanian youth, both in relative and absolute terms, between 2000 and 2018. At the same time, we found no significant effects of volunteering on generalized trust, tolerance and two measures of support for democratic regimes across three age categories (14-17, 18-24, 25-29), with two notable exceptions: there is a positive effect on generalized trust among the 25-29 years old, and positive effects on tolerance among 14-17 years old. Moreover, volunteering has a positive impact on political participation and political interest. Taken together, these results suggest that youth civic engagement plays a positive role in democratic development in Romania.
... Liberal theories of civil society, which dominated the literature through the 1980s, 1990s, and early aughts and helped to spur the proliferation of NGOs around the world, frame NGOs as part and parcel of civil society and a liberal democratic state. Dating back to the writing of Alexis de Tocqueville, NGOs have been narrated as schools of democracy in which citizens learn and practice habits of civic engagement and develop social capital, or the norms of trust and reciprocity that provide currency for democratic governance (Almond & Verba, 1963;Brinkerhoff & Wetterberg, 2016;de Tocqueville, 1835;Fukuyama, 2001;Putnam, 1993Putnam, , 2000. NGOs also represent citizens' interests to the state, amplifying citizens' voices in policy arenas and serving as watchdogs over the government. ...
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Managerialist logic has become dominant in development policy and practice. However, in recent years, the Dutch government is seeking to adopt social transformation approaches to development interventions. The implementation of social transformation ideas takes place in an environment dominated by managerialism. However, our understanding of how the logic of social transformation and managerialism collide or come into conflict and the pathways through which the managerialist principles dominate the social transformation principles is limited. Drawing on qualitative data from the Strategic Partnerships (SP) and Accountability Fund (AF) policy instruments for civil society organisations in Kenya, we find that in practice, the social transformation principles underpinning the SP and AF ‘vaporise’ or get lost during implementation due to the wider aid system within which they are embedded. We highlight the implications of the broader aid system on attempts by donor agencies to shift from managerialism towards a social transformation perspective on development.
... Para el diseño, despliegue -y potencial expansión cuando aplique-de estas iniciativas resulta, pues, clave el Capital Social de los agentes implicados. Como Capital Social se entiende el conjunto de características de las organizaciones sociales que facilitan la coordinación y cooperación para el beneficio mutuo de los miembros y de la sociedad en conjunto (BOURDIEU, 1986;COLEMAN, 1988;PUTNAM, 1993). Estas características incluyen las redes de relaciones sociales preexistentes y las que se van construyendo sobre el proceso, la reciprocidad, las normas y la confianza (BOWLES y GINTIS, 2002) -que si se utilizan de forma positiva promueven la acción colectiva para mejorar el desarrollo. ...
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Algunas características específicas del sector forestal conllevan retos para articular la demanda y provisión de servicios ecosistémicos. Principalmente debido a la gran fragmentación de la propiedad, pero también a las prácticas dispersas de recolección de frutos silvestres, o las externalidades de adyacencia derivadas de los trabajos silvícolas. La dificultad para alcanzar una masa crítica en los diferentes subsectores a menudo implica problemas de eficiencia en la cadena de valor y en la implementación de medidas políticas. Esta situación puede modificarse aplicando enfoques colaborativos, p.ej. agrupaciones, cooperativas, empresas sociales, integración empresarial. Tales modelos de negocio se basan en el capital social principalmente de las áreas rurales en las que operan, y apenas hay estudios al respecto en el sector forestal. Sin embargo, su expansión constituye un nicho prometedor de estrategias sostenibles. Enmarcado en las teorías de Innovación Social, este estudio explora mecanismos de componente colaborativo en el sector forestal en España. A través de entrevistas en profundidad y encuestas, se ha recopilado datos sobre iniciativas en el ámbito de los productos madereros y no madereros, así como de la prevención de incendios. El análisis comparativo resalta sus modos de gobernanza, logros, aspectos de capital social, factores facilitadores, y necesidades políticas asociadas.
... Ved å knyte prosess-og resultatevaluering til både dei institusjonelle, strategiske, taktiske og operative nivåa i planlegginga, kan ein skape laerande prosessar. (Putnam, 1993). Forsking viser også at mobilisering kan starte med einskildpersonar og byggast opp til sterke politiske krefter, men slike rørsler kan etter kvart miste sin eksistensgrunn fordi dei har makta å sette sine kampsaker på den politiske dagsordenen og gjort dei ønskte løysingane til ein del av produksjonen i det etablerte styringsverket. ...
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Dette er ei praktisk retta fagbok om korleis kommunar kan involvere aktørar i demokratiske planprosessar som gir auka handlingskapasitet og legitimitet til plan- og utviklingsarbeid, og om korleis planlegging og innovasjon kan integrerast i kommunal styring og leiing. Boka gir ei innføring i samarbeidsdriven planlegging og er skriven for studentar og andre interesserte. Boka har eit vedlegg med Handbok for kommuneplanlegging etter dugnadsmetoden.
... According to Putnam (1993), different features of social organisation, e.g. network, trust, and norms can enhance the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions. ...
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For many, corporate social responsibility in the context of microfinance means acting ethically and sustainably and in the best interests of clients within financial intermediation activities. This study goes beyond this type of obligation to examine social benefits (e.g., death benefits) provided by a microfinance institution in addition to microcredit, known as a "credit plus" business model. Access to these social benefits is likely to be of great benefit to the vulnerable poor and the temptation to be eligible for access, especially in the context of multiple memberships and borrowings from other financial institutions that generate social capital and dissemination of information about the social benefits, is likely to be strong. Using the OLS regression model this study examines whether members of a microfinance institution who are concurrently members of at least one other such institution disproportionately access the social benefits offered by the microfinance institution besides access to microcredit. This study finds a significant association between the uptake of incremental social benefits for only members of the institution offering these benefits and not those with borrowings from other microfinance institutions. The contribution of this study lies in its analysis of a substantial, non-identifiable client-level sample from which branch-level aggregates and statistics are computed. This aggregation is partly a matter of necessity in that although clients can be uniquely identified in the dataset, the loan officers and branch managers who deal with the clients cannot.
... e. social relations that increase the ability of an actor to advance her or his interests) (Siisiainen, 2000: 2). Compared with Putnam's (1993) conceptualisation of social capital that has three components including moral obligations and norms, social values and social networks, the focus is on the social struggles of individuals in a field, from the Bourdieuan perspective. In other words, social capital becomes a resource in the social and economic struggles that are carried out in different social arenas or fields (Siisiainen, 2000). ...
Thesis
p> This thesis examines the process of nascent entrepreneurship from a learning perspective. The overall aim of this research is to generate insights into nascent entrepreneurs’ learning and managing experiences by exploring their perspectives in relation to the enterprise culture and education discourses in the UK . Embedded in a social constructionist paradigm, a process-relational stance is taken to entrepreneurship, which recognises the dynamic and emergent processes through which business opportunities are realized and constructed in the context of social interactions with numerous stakeholders. The social constructionist position, in which this research is grounded, calls for the need to understand human experiences in their socio-cultural context, with an acknowledgement of human agency and active perceptual constructions of people in a society. Nascent entrepreneurs’ biographies, motivations and capitals that they hold are examined at the micro-individual level, combined with meso-level considerations including social processes of business venturing. The research also analyses how these micro-individual and meso-relational processes relate to macro-field forces of enterprise culture, moving beyond an individual or team understanding of nascent entrepreneurship. This research is premised on an empirical investigation of three cases of the business venturing process. The first case pertains to the formation of a creative venture (i.e. brand communications agency, which uniquely includes in-house production of advertising vehicles with marketing strategy business) by a team of five nascent entrepreneurs, who set up the company outside the local university’s incubator centre while they were students in different areas of Arts, Design and Technology at the local university. The second case account is about a solo entrepreneur’s business venturing story, which is characterised by a venturing process supported by the local university’s incubator centre. The final venturing case represents a slightly different account in the sense that it is about a business venturing process led by a nascent corporate entrepreneur in collaboration with and support from the parent company, which acted as an incubator. </p
... The community provides important social security for its poorest members in a situation where a government-funded welfare system is largely absent or vastly insufficient and where formal institutions for conflict management are weak or lacking (Rodrik, 1999;Woolcock and Narayan, 2000). It is relevant to note here that the importance of social belonging, and the related social obligation to share resources in the presented case, contrasts with how reciprocal relations are usually defined and conceptualised in contexts of the global North, where these are assumed to emerge from voluntary associations (e.g., Robert et al., 1993). Instead, as visualised through the concepts of Ubuntu and Umona, expectations of sharing accumulated wealth with others and ensuring equal resource distribution among community members were a strong norm in the communities studied (see also Koens and Thomas, 2016;Ramose, 2014). ...
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Recent decades have seen a growing market for pork in Uganda. The government and donors have promoted pig rearing as a potential route out of poverty for poor smallholders. The idea is that upscaling and commercialisation of smallholder pig production can be a successful way out of poverty. Drawing on the concepts of trust and social traps, this article describes how pig production fails as a pathway out of poverty in post-conflict communities in northern Uganda due to tensions created by the focus on individual wealth creation. Results from ethnographic fieldwork reveal that there is a strong moral obligation in the studied communities for individuals who fare better to contribute to the community and share their wealth. Social tensions remaining from the period of conflict are stoked by the focus on individual wealth creation in pig production, resulting in acts of harming, stealing and killing other people's pigs. Locally these acts are said to be caused by “jealousy”, which for many smallholders is a more significant problem than disease in pig production. The findings suggest that poverty reduction measures would be more successful if they focused on distributed approaches aimed at raising the general level of welfare in communities and supporting the collective rather than the individual.
... Given the literature on political participation and citizen participation (Oliver, 2000;Putnam, 1993Putnam, , 2000Verba & Nie, 1987;Verba et al., 1993), few empirical studies have examined participation systematically in the administrative process. They tend to focus on a specific engagement purpose or functional area such as budgeting (Ebdon, 2000(Ebdon, , 2002Franklin & Carberry-George, 1999), performance measurement (E. ...
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The ultimate goal to building a New Rural Development (NRD) (similar to Saemaul Undong Movement in Korea) is to sustainably improve the material and spiritual life of the people. Our study investigates how citizen participation may influence effectiveness of the NRD program and citizen satisfaction in implementing the NRD in Nha Be District in the period of 2016-2020. Our work adopts a questionnaire-based survey designed to gather data from 780 participants using random cluster sampling technique. Our findings reveal that citizen participation significantly affects citizen satisfaction via the mediating role of the NRD program effectiveness but not directly between citizen participation and citizen satisfaction. Finally, our study offers theoretical contributions and policy implications for decision makers and NRD program managers.
... Trust is a "willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular action important to the trustor, irrespective of the ability to monitor or control that other party" or a "willingness to take the risk" (Mayer, Davis, and Schoorman 1995). Hence, media trust could have an impact on the individuals' attitudes and behaviour, such as civic engagement (Putnam 1993). In Skipworth's view (2011), media trust could positively reinforce the effect of the dissemination of a certain message. ...
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COVID-19, as a major public health crisis, has triggered nationalism to different degrees all around the world. This study utilises an online survey to explore the relationships between media use, media trust, and nationalism in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that the level of nationalism was still considerably high in China at the time of the pandemic and that the role of the media in nation-state building enterprises remains significant. It becomes more pervasive after the news media's adoption of digitalisation. Our study argues that contemporary China's expression of nationalism is socially constructed by media and rooted in its Chinese Confucian culture. Meanwhile, the Chinese government is increasingly designing the news media and manages social media. It has already successfully constructed a sense of nationalism to facilitate its own interests in response to the national crisis. This has led nationalism being embodied in the media's constructed social reality.
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Conducting sports conferences at high levels will bring great gains to the host community. The most important part of hosting is economic issues. The purpose of this study is to, explaining the effectiveness model of great Sports conferences, the role of mediation social and cultural development on the economic development of the host city. The research method was descriptive and correlational and the statistical community of the research have formed, all the organizers of the sporting events in the Maku Free Zone. Based on simple random sampling method, 100 people were selected as the statistical sample. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire whose formal and content validity was reviewed and approved by a group of experts. The results of testing the hypotheses can be showed, by SMART-PLS software and using the t-test and path coefficients (B). Findings of the research showed; detected of the factors (development of community-hosted sport, tourism development, cultural and social development), the cultural and social factor with coefficient of influence 0.56 and tourism with a coefficient of influence of 20/0, respectively, had the greatest and least impact on the economic development of the host city. Therefore, it is suggested that the management of major sports in the country should pay attention to tourism, since the host society will benefit both economically and touristy attraction of tourists, as well as in the field of cultural relations with other countries.
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Background Health inequality, including physical and mental health inequality, is an important issue. What role social capital plays in mental health inequality is still ambiguous, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between social capital and mental health inequality in China. Method Both family-level and community-/village-level social capitals are included in our analysis. Data is mainly extracted from the China Family Panel Studies in 2018, and lagged term of social capital in CFPS 2016 was used to link with other variables in 2018. Depressive symptoms and subjective well-being are set as indicators of mental health. A series of OLS regression models were conducted to estimate the effects of social capital on mental health and mental health inequality. Results Higher levels of social capital and income are related to a lower level of depressive symptoms and a higher level of subjective well-being. The positive coefficient of interaction term of family-level social capital and income level in the urban area indicates that the inhibiting effect of social capital on depressive symptoms is pro-poor. The negative coefficient of interaction term of village-level social capital and income level in the rural area suggests that the promoting effect of social capital on subjective well-being is pro-poor, too. Conclusion The results show that severe mental health inequality exists in China; family-level social capital can buffer depressive symptom inequality, and village-level social capital can buffer SWB inequality. Although the amount of social capital of the poor is less than the rich, the poor can better use social capital to improve their mental health. Our study advocates enhancing social participation and communication for the poor to reduce mental health inequality.
Article
This article examines enterprise activities developed by internally displaced religious minorities (IDRM) and the role that social capital plays in supporting such activities. In particular, the article examines how social capital is linked to microenterprise development and the economic survival/revival of internally displaced religious minorities in Pakistan and why the link between entrepreneurship and social capital is critical for contexts with absent or poorly designed enterprise development policies. A three‐staged, sequential research design was adopted, which comprised the analysis of secondary data on IDRM, a face‐to‐face survey of entrepreneurs and interviews in two selected study sites. The evidence shows how the role of social capital in supporting entrepreneurial activities is determined by socioeconomic inequalities as well as the characteristics of the formal enterprise support infrastructure, that is, where formal institutions are weak, social capital is the main source of entrepreneurial support, with different types of social capital networks delivering different outcomes.
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ABSTRACT Objective (study question): what the Innovative models are, to manage and finance long term care at community level in LMIC, to compensate for the increasingly lacking resources and funding from the central state. Data sources/study setting (w/ hospital/institution setting anonymized): primary data collection at an Action Research setting Study design: Research Brief based on a Case study Data collection/extraction methods: - Desk review of white and grey literature of the existing situation. Desk research analysis on the local health resources - Resource Asset Evaluation of the Health Tourism SPA of each pilot area. RoI estimation. Projection to human resource needs to cover a sample of 30.000 elderly population. - Action research method finalization: qualitative and quantitative data collection and content analysis Principal findings: a model to reform Turkey’s LTC system with an innovative methodology based on new models of care management, organization, and financing, to ensure sustainability of results in reforming the country’s LTC for the elderly Conclusions: Community and municipal authorities should ensure sustainability of LTC reform, through innovative financing, impact investment, social enterprising and Teal management organizations to increase care effectiveness, prevent chronicity and further promote prevention through e-health establishment at local level.
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This thesis identifies and understands how some cities have greater success in helping immigrants and ethnic communities become part of the urban community, while others have less success. Its objective is to propose a people-centred neighbourhood planning approach to assist immigrants and ethnic groups to better become part of the urban community. This thesis describes and interprets the complex response of neoliberal society to immigrants and ethnic minorities. It uses the experience of selected German cities as a case study. The thesis draws on critical theory and uses a mixed methods approach to examine local projects that include migrants and immigrants in urban planning. It takes a social constructionist perspective to explore polyrational urban perspectives. The research includes a range of relevant insights from recent approaches in planning theory towards more flexibility, diversity and inclusion. It refers to Foucault's understanding of power relations and governmentality as well as Gunderson and Hollings' social-ecological systems concept as part of resilience theory. The research describes the social implications of urban segregation of ethnic groups due to hegemonic neoliberal planning regimes in general and specifically as applied in Germany. It highlights the influence of German national identity on planning policies and the conflict of claiming rights and freedoms for Germans while denying them to non-Germans. The intensifying German integration debate indicates a society in transition from a folk nation to a diverse society. Findings include the observation the case study projects' struggle between the social ambition of local initiatives and the structural neglect of national planning policies and funding, knowing that strengthening local engagement is needed to promote successful urban diversity in a diversifying world. In response to this, a multilevel planning model is developed and tested against the case study projects. It consists of a nomocratic national level, a teleocratic municipal level and a newly introduced people-centred neighbourhood level. This level is finally sketched up in an attempt to develop a local adaptive and people-centred planning approach to better answer the polyrational realities of increasingly diverse neighbourhoods.
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This study attempts operational definition in terms of government capacity which has been discussed only in conceptual perspectives, and develops measurement index and verifies the validity. Through this process, this study also verifies the effect of government capacity on citizen’s qualify of life, and mediating effect of government performance across 77 developing countries. The regression analysis showed that citizen’s quality of life is in a positive relationship with government capacity, and government performance in economy, welfare, environment and ICT area has mediating effect between two variables. This study implies that high government capacity enables government to provide high quality of public service and satisfy citizen’ needs as the performance, then increases citizen’s quality of life.
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Die aktuelle eParticipation-Forschung wird nicht müde, die Chancen zu betonen, die gerade in der durch Social Media möglich werdenden direkten Interaktion zwischen politischen Entscheidern und Bürgern liegen, um sinkenden Wahlbeteiligungen und einer wahrgenommenen Entfremdung der Politik von den Problemen der Bürger zu begegnen. Interessant ist dabei allerdings, dass genau dieses kommunikative Miteinander, das Social Media ja gerade auszeichnet, im Kontext der eParticipation-Forschung bisher keine adäquate Berücksichtigung findet. Sowohl empirisch als auch theoretisch weist sie in diesem Kontext erhebliche Leerstellen auf, die zum einen auf ihre starke normative Prägung zurückzuführen sind, zum anderen aber auch daraus resultieren, dass die eParticipation-Forschung bisweilen so tut, als hätte es vor ihrem Entstehen das Thema der politischen Partizipation nicht gegeben. Die vorliegende Studie macht den Vorschlag, diese Defizite mithilfe der funktionalen Perspektive der Luhmann¿schen Systemtheorie zu adressieren und zeigt am Beispiel der alltäglichen Interaktionen zwischen Abgeordneten des Deutschen Bundestages und Bürgern auf Twitter die Tragfähigkeit dieses Ansatzes auf.
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This study investigates the role of political consensus in accelerating economic reforms and finds a significant negative effect of political consensus on the speed of reform votes in the parliament in Tunisia. We analyze the number of days until a reform bill was adopted in parliament to identify the causal effect of the consensus on accelerating reforms. Using an endogenous treatment effect model and an original database of reforms between 2012 and 2019 in Tunisia, we compare economic and social reforms with political reforms before and after the consensus. We find that political consensus is more likely to delay economic and social reforms than political reforms. This effect is driven mainly by informal mechanisms created by consensus and political instability that prevailed after the agreement. The findings indicate that consensus had a subversive effect on democratic institutions in Tunisia by creating informal processes that reduced public oversight, transparency, and law enforcement. Gazdar, Kaouthar, Rihab Grassa, and M. Kabir Hassan. 2021. “The Development of Islamic Finance in Tunisia after the Arab Spring: Does Political Islam Matter?” Politics & Policy 49(3): 682–707. https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12408. Khodair, Amany Ahmed, Mostafa E. AboElsoud, and Mahmoud Khalifa. 2019. “The Role of Regional Media in Shaping Political Awareness of Youth: Evidence from Egypt.” Politics & Policy 47(6): 1095–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12335. Sarquís, David J. 2012. “Democratization after the Arab Spring: The Case of Egypt's Political Transition.” Politics & Policy 40(5): 871–903. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747‐1346.2012.00381.x. Este estudio investiga el papel del consenso político en la aceleración de las reformas económicas y encontró un efecto negativo significativo del consenso político en la velocidad de los votos de reforma en el parlamento de Túnez. Analizamos el número de días hasta que se aprobó un proyecto de reforma en el parlamento para identificar el efecto causal del consenso sobre la aceleración de las reformas. Usando un modelo de efecto de tratamiento endógeno y una base de datos original de reformas entre 2012 y 2019 en Túnez, comparamos las reformas económicas y sociales con las reformas políticas antes y después del consenso. Descubrimos que es más probable que el consenso político retrase las reformas económicas y sociales que las reformas políticas. Este efecto es impulsado principalmente por mecanismos informales creados por el consenso y la inestabilidad política que prevaleció después del acuerdo. Los hallazgos indicaron que el consenso tuvo un efecto subversivo en las instituciones democráticas en Túnez al crear procesos informales que redujeron la supervisión pública, la transparencia y la aplicación de la ley. 本研究调查了政治共识在加速经济改革一事中的作用,发现政治共识对突尼斯议会改革投票进度产生显著的负面效应。我们分析了议会通过改革法案所需的天数,以识别共识对加速改革产生的因果效应。通过使用内生处理效应模型和突尼斯2012年至2019年改革的原始数据库,我们比较了共识前后的经济社会改革与政治改革。我们发现,政治共识更有可能推迟经济和社会改革,而不是政治改革。这种效应主要由共识和协议通过后普遍存在的政治不稳定性所造成的非正式机制所驱动。研究结果表明,政治共识通过创建减少公共监督、透明度和执法的非正式程序,对突尼斯的民主制度产生了颠覆性影响。
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Formal social citizenship is limited in how it enables us to think about informal social citizenship and informal welfare. This informal perspective is important in all contexts where access to social rights is negotiated through local and transnational spaces, and where the state is a relatively minor player. By drawing on work on moral economy (Scott, 1976) and informal welfare (Gough and Wood, 2006) the article aims to propose a new theoretical model to understand the nature and social practice of both informal citizenship and welfare. This model departs from a western-centric understanding of nation-state-based citizenship and national welfare states, adopting instead the perspective that informal social citizenship and welfare have existed independently of the nation state as long as there have been human communities. Formal citizenship together with formal welfare rights represent just one particular crystalli-zation of such informal practice. Our proposed model highlights the interdependent (rather than evolutionary) relationship between formal welfare at national level and informal welfare practices at local and transnational levels.
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