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What the Experts Tell Us about South Asia Generation Z in India: Digital Natives and Makers of Change



With a population of 472 million, Generation Z in India is the largest in the world. This chapter studies the demographic breakdown of the members of Generation Z, their political and social concerns, their career aspirations, their workplace preferences, and the changing consumer attributes. The research design for this study incorporated a qualitative approach comprising of four focus group discussions (see Appendix). Members of Generation Z in India show common behaviours and preferences with their counterparts around the world. However, members of Generation Z in India have clear opinions and ideas of how youth can contribute to a developing nation like India.
Part III
What the Experts Tell Us about
South Asia
Chapter 6
Generation Z in India: Digital Natives
and Makers of Change
Shaheema Hameed and Meera Mathur
With a population of 472 million, Generation Z in India is the largest
in the world. This chapter studies the demographic breakdown of the
members of Generation Z, their political and social concerns, their career
aspirations, their workplace preferences, and the changing consumer at-
tributes. The research design for this study incorporated a qualitative ap-
proach comprising of four focus group discussions (see Appendix). Mem-
bers of Generation Z in India show common behaviours and preferences
with their counterparts around the world. However, members of Genera-
tion Z in India have clear opinions and ideas of how youth can contribute
to a developing nation like India.
Keywords: India; Generation Z; social media; human resource; marketing;
we identity
Introduction to India: the Signicance of the Young Indian
India is primarily an agrarian society with 66% of the population living in vil-
lages. The urban population consists of 34% of the entire country (Ministry of
Statistics and Programme Implementation, 2019). India is a diverse country in
relation to geography, culture, religion, and urbanisation.
India is a democratic republic where the country is governed by people rep-
resentatives chosen by the majority. As such, the diversity in relation to religion,
region, culture, and language within communities lends a challenging angle to
governance. The Republic of India is divided into 29 states and 7 union terri-
tories, spread over an area of 3.287 million square km (Wikipedia, 2019), each
with its own cultural differences. India is also known for being the birthplace of
religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. The most followed religions of India
The New Generation Z in Asia: Dynamics, Differences, Digitalization, 87–102
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88 Shaheema Hameed and Meera Mathur
are Hinduism (79.8%), Islam (14.2%), Christianity (2.3%), Sikhism (1.7%), Bud-
dhism (0.7%), Jainism (0.4%), Zoroastrianism (0.1%), and other religions (0.9%)
(Shawe, 2018). Despite the diversity and magnitude, India is a country that is both
collectivist and individualistic in nature (Hofstede, 2001). The collectivist aspect
is reected where Generation Z places a high value on social belongingness and
family values. This is evident from the prevalent practice of joint family systems
that exist within the country (Chadda, 2013). However, the predominant collec-
tivist culture of India which stresses social linkages with an emphasis on the ‘We’
identity is co-existent with a focus on individualism. The individualist aspect of
Indian society is seen as a result of its dominant religion/philosophy – Hinduism.
Followers of Hinduism believe in a cycle of death and rebirth, with the manner
of each rebirth being dependent upon how the individual lived the preceding life.
People are, therefore, individually responsible for the way they lead their lives and
the impact it will have upon their rebirth (Vishwananda, 2015). This explains the
focus on individual concentration in an otherwise collectivist Indian society. The
Generation Z in Indian society is an extension of individualistic traits.
In a country like India, where diversity is the norm, Generation Z has an
advantage, be it in terms of consumerism or workplace blending. To understand
this phenomenon, it is essential to understand the demographic breakdown of
this generation.
Various indicators that measure the youth, such as literacy level, work status,
and the age-wise population, have been disclosed by the Census of India (2011).
31% of women and 38% of men are from urban areas with 37% of women and
32% of men from the two lowest wealth quintiles (National Family Health Sur-
vey, 2009). Education is still a luxury for Indians living in rural areas though the
scenario is improving with people recognising the power and impact of educa-
tion. The census (conducted once every 10 years in India) reveals that 29% of
women (47% of urban and 20% of rural) have over 10 years of schooling while
38% of men (49% of urban and 31% of rural) have over 10 years of school-
ing. Employment is highly skewed in India with 36% of women and 67% of
men aged 15–24 being employed. India’s workforce has fewer women than it did
6 years ago: no more than 18% in rural areas are employed, compared to 25% in
2011–2012 and 14% in urban areas from 15% in 2011–2012 (Shibu & Abraham,
2019). Despite rapid economic growth, less than a quarter (23.6%) of women
aged 15 and above participated in the labour force in 2018 (compared to 78.6%
of men) (Catalyst, 2019). Across all states in India, both in rural and urban areas,
only 22% of the country’s female population are at work, compared to men. The
majority of employed women are agricultural workers; whereas there is greater
diversity in male employment. Less than two-thirds of employed women (63%)
earn cash for their work, compared with 88% of the country’s employed men.
The report on the National Family Health Survey (2018) points out the glaring
areas which need drastic measures to be taken. A sizeable proportion of the youth
lacks education, even literacy. Early marriage, women burdened with childbear-
ing and rearing, a large unmet need for family planning, poor nutritional status,
and substance abuse were causes of concern. Generation Z in India is projected
to contribute at least 2% annually to the Gross Domestic Product of the nation.
Generation Z in India 89
Economic surveys reveal that the average age of India will be a youthful 29 years
in 2020. That compares to 37 years in China and the United States, 48 years in
Japan, and 45 years in Western Europe. Out of the total 520 million workforce
in India, over 80% (416 million) of the workforce is in the informal sector and
only 100 million in the formal sector. India adds only 10 million every year to the
workforce with nearly 216 million engaged in the agriculture sector, thus, becom-
ing part of the informal economy (The Economic Times, 2018a).
The Political System in India
India is a federal republic with 29 states and six union territories. The governance
is a parliamentary democracy which operates under the constitution of 1950.
There is a bicameral federal parliament: the Rajya Sabha or council of states
(upper house) and the Lok Sabha or house of the people (lower house). India
is also the world’s largest democracy. Elections to Government are held every 5
years. Paradoxically, only 6% of the leaders and ministers in the government of
India are below the age of 35 (Telpande, 2018). The reluctance of youth to enter
politics stems from various factors such as unpredictability in the political sce-
nario, a erce competition for power, and the various in-house complexities inside
political parties and other agendas (Telpande, 2017).
The government of India has proactively initiated various schemes that aim
at the development of the youth. The government aims to skill 400 million youth
by 2020 through an unprecedented program named the ‘Skill India Mission’.
Various schemes like Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY roughly
translated to Prime Minister’s Skill Development Plan) have been initiated to fur-
ther the aim of skill development, to enable a large number of young people in the
country to take up industry-relevant skills training that will help them in securing
a better livelihood (Choudhary, 2018).
Entrepreneurship is a thrust area with the government encouraging young
people to become job creators and not job seekers. NitiAayog, National Skill
Development Centers, and the Make in India schemes have been initiated keeping
this objective of entrepreneurship in focus.
Socialisation Agents: Role of Family, Peers, and Education
Family members play a major role in deciding the behaviour and the set of val-
ues that the Indian youth upholds (Sonawat, 2001). The family, in Indian soci-
ety, is an institution in itself and a typical symbol of the collectivist culture of
India from ancient times. The joint family system or an extended family has been
an important feature of Indian culture, till a blend of urbanisation and western
inuence, began to affect home and hearth. This is especially true of urban areas,
where nuclear families have become the order of the day (Naidu, 2018). Unlike
the western countries, in India, children do not leave their homes once they turn
18; rather keeping in mind the maxim ‘VasudaivaKutumbakam (the world is one
family), it is not uncommon to see joint families still living in harmonious exist-
ence. Indian values and traditions keep the family intact.
90 Shaheema Hameed and Meera Mathur
The Indian youth has always lived in a very protective environment and this
plays a major role in framing their mental makeup. Of late, the country is seeing
a slow shift from a joint family setup to a more individualistic nuclear approach
(Singh, 2012). Parents in India are vigilant and consistently monitor the activi-
ties and movements of their children with the purpose of guiding and protecting
(Kohli & Sreedhar, 2018). The nuclear family model that predominantly exists in
India nowadays results in much of the traditional role of the grandparent or aunt
being taken over by strangers, whether agency-approved nannies or care takers
at preschools. This interaction with ‘familiar strangers’ has led to a greater reli-
ance on surveillance technology. This constant vigilance and monitoring comes in
the wake of threatening exposure to dangerous games and apps on social media
platforms, which takes a toll when the Generation Z is impressionable (Deepika,
2017). This might be considered authoritative and an invasion of privacy but this
‘helicopter parenting’1 slowly fades when the child transitions into adulthood.
The focus of Indian parents of Generation Z is to prepare them for life and so
they have higher expectations of their children (Chitnis, 2015). Generation Z in
India has to face more pressure from their parents to focus on their careers, many
Indian youngsters reveal that their parents put pressure on them to focus on their
careers. Parents tend to encourage and push young people into conventional
career options as they are unaware of new-age career options, which can create
more productive lives for their children (Chakrabarty, 2019). Indian youngsters
also admit that they are often asked to give suggestions on several household dis-
cussions making them active participants in decision making (Singh, 2014). Par-
ents tend to rely on children’s decisions, especially in areas of entertainment and
digital purchases (Ali, Ravichandran, & Batra, 2013; Tinson & Nancarrow, 2015).
Peer dynamics are another factor contributing to the behavioural and per-
sonality development of Generation Z. The idea of loneliness makes the Indian
Generation Z uneasy and anxious; they want to be surrounded by people all
the time. This social anxiety could be attributed to the nuclear family setup of
modern India today where the Generation Z is subject to helicopter parenting
(Young, 2017).
The Education System in India
India is known for its transitional education system over the decades. The earliest
form of India’s education was the ‘Gurukul’ system where the students or disci-
ples stayed along with the ‘Guru’ or teacher and learnt everything the guru taught.
The Gurukul system was nature attuned and students learnt everything from lan-
guages, Holy Scriptures, Mathematics, and metaphysics (Kumar, 2011). The mod-
ern school education system was introduced in India when the nation was under
the colonial rule of the British. Lord Macaulay is credited for incorporating the
1Helicopter Parenting refers to the over-controlling behaviour of parents towards
their children resulting in negative repercussions on the child’s ability to decide and
deal with emotional issues.
Generation Z in India 91
modern education system in India in the 1800s. English and pure Sciences were
a few of the ‘modern’ subjects to which the education systems were conned to.
Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6–14
years is incorporated in the constitution.2 The medium of instruction in most
primary schools is the regional language and English is introduced as the second
language from grade 3 (, 2018). Public examinations are conducted
in two cycles (one examination after class 10, where the child is approximately 15
years old and the other after class 12, where the child would be approximately
17 years old) for the students to enter tertiary levels of education. Subjects
include languages (including the regional language, English, and an elective),
Mathematics, Social Sciences, Science and Technology, Art, and Physical Edu-
cation. The secondary schools are afliated with the central or the state boards
who are responsible for conducting examinations every year. The Central Board
of Secondary Education, New Delhi; the Indian School Certicate, New Delhi;
Certicate of Vocational Education, Senior Secondary Certicate (NIOS), and
Pre-University certicates are the most common boards under whose afliation
the schools belong. The tertiary education system is governed by the University
Grants Commission (UGC) and is responsible for college education offering
Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. The UGC develops higher education on an all
India level, allocates funds, and is responsible for the recognition of colleges in
India. The All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was also estab-
lished to oversee quality control of technical education. At the beginning of 2015,
the Choice-Based Credit System (CBCS) was introduced by the UGC to provide
for a more interdisciplinary and exible approach to education. Generation Z in
India leaves a great impact on the e-commerce industry. India’s youth have started
using various online learning courses to upgrade their education. They proudly
display their credentials on their resumes and LinkedIn proles. Online learning
platforms like Coursera, EDX, Alison, and other platforms recognise the Indian
market as a huge consumer base and design courses to the effect.
Basics of the Indian Generation Z
Social Media Life of India’s Generation Z
Research by Microsoft and International Data Corporation has revealed that
the giant digital transformation in India is estimated to contribute a whopping
$154 billion to India’s Gross Domestic Product (The Economic Times, 2018b).
Technology is at the forefront in all aspects of Generation Z’s lives. According
to the TCS Youth Survey (2016), which traced the digital habits of teenagers in
India, smartphones are the most used electronic gadget followed by laptops and
personal computers. While Facebook was popular, the trend among the Indian
youth today is Instagram, where self-promotion is the norm (see Appendix). Ins-
tagram users also use Facebook simultaneously (Kwarta, 2018). Privacy doesn’t
2Age 4–8: primary school in classes 1–3. Age 9–15: secondary school in classes 4–10.
Age 16–17: higher secondary school classes 11 and 12.
92 Shaheema Hameed and Meera Mathur
bother Generation Z much because the focus is more on self- promotion. Video
calls are preferred over text messages; face-to-face interaction is more appealing
to the youth.
Political Attitudes and Social Opinions
The elections in India, held every 5 years, are followed very closely by the youth
of India. The Indian Generation Z is politically conscious and well aware of the
fact that India needs a strong leader and politicians who are not corrupt. Opti-
mism about the future is reected in the satisfaction among most Indians that
the country is progressing with economic gains. However, rising concerns among
the Indian Generation Z about employment issues, India–Pakistan tensions, and
environmental effects were reected in the focus group discussions conducted by
the researchers among the Indian Generation Z.
As many as 130 million rst time voters cast their votes in the elections in May
2019. The primary concern among Indian Generation Z youth was more job crea-
tion and employment. They are willing to vote for the political party that would
solve this unemployment crisis (Beniwal & Pradhan, 2018). It has often been
noted that the Indian youth is a mix of conservatism and liberal attitudes. Gen-
eration Z in India is highly interested in politics (Nigam, 2013) and the Bharatiya
Janata Party3 (BJP) is the most preferred single party.
Women’s equality is a rising issue among Generation Z in India. The women’s
movement in India has seen a rise by engaging in confronting or reforming cus-
tomary practices like the dowry system, where the bride’s family pays a hefty sum
of money in cash or kind to the groom’s family at the time of the wedding; prefer-
ence for sons over daughters, which arises from a deep rooted patriarchal mindset;
and the triple talaq, where a Muslim husband can divorce his wife instantly by
uttering the word ‘Talaq’ thrice.
Members of Generation Z as Consumers
Consumers Changing Attitudes
The Indian Z Generation consumers are techno savvy and believe in experiencing
the present with a collaborative mindset. They are conscious about their lifestyle
and their social image. This is reected in their digital connectivity and their par-
ticipation in environmental safety. They believe and work towards sustainability;
triggering marketers to consider their changing attributes minutely and develop
products and services conforming to their expectations. The Generation Z market
in India is a huge consumer base; companies need to focus on strong brand build-
ing and quality with innovation. The consumer behaviour of Generation Z can be
understood using analytics and neuromarketing. This generation can be tapped
3BJP is the country’s largest political party in terms of representation in the national
parliament and state assemblies and is the world’s largest party in terms of primary
Generation Z in India 93
for communication and referral with the support of digital and social media mar-
keting. Positive customer satisfaction can be expected by experiential marketing.
These marketing tools will be helpful in understanding the Indian Generation Z
consumers and generate returns for rms, society, and the country.
The Indian Generation Z has not seen a world without devices and uses them
in all spans of life whether it be education, health, knowledge, or entertainment.
In India, 71% of the members of Generation Z browse the Internet through their
mobiles; 68% of them shop online for clothes, gadgets, fashion accessories, elec-
tronic items, and footwear (, 2019). The per capita income has risen
substantially over the years giving rise to higher purchase power parity among
Generation Z in India (Roy, 2018). Affordability has increased and the young
generation does not need to think twice on whether they can afford products or
not. The Indian Generation Z is highly aware of carbon footprints, sustainability,
and environmental degradation. Generation Z in India is careful of their carbon
footprints. The average young Indian leaves a per capita per capita emissions just
one-quarter of the poorest 50% of those from the United States (Nason, 2019).
Most companies in India make it a point to highlight their Corporate Social
Responsibility initiatives to attract the Indian Generation Z consumer. Take
the example of Tata, a company which is highly preferred by Generation Z in
India. Tata highlights the Vasundhara (environmental) aspect of their CSR which
highly motivates Generation Z to work for Tata. Many educational institutions
and universities in India have student-run environmental groups that focus on
plantations and sanitation (Panwar, 2018).
Generation Z at Work: Career Aspirations, Anchors, and
Attitudes in India
Organisational Dynamics and Diversity
With each generation of workers entering the workforce, changes are inevitable
due to the respective unique demographic characteristics of every generation. The
Indian workforce has three distinct characteristics: (a) it is a young workforce;
(b) the skills base of this workforce remains underdeveloped; and (c) most jobs
are being created in the informal economy (Saran & Saran, 2018).
India, with its massive population of 1.33 billion (Govt. of India, Ministry
of Home Affairs, 2011), as per the latest census conducted in 2011, contributes
to the world economy with its youngest workforce, Generation Z, who is cur-
rently being groomed in various educational institutes across India or has just
entered the workforce recently. India, in 2020, has the world’s largest Genera-
tion Z cohort with 256 million of young people from this generation. It has
the highest share of the youngest workforce behind the Philippines and reects
the young and growing population of Generation Z workers in India. Employ-
ees belonging to Generation Z bring a whole new perspective to the workforce
as far as diversity is concerned. The Indian Generation Z believes in equality
in the workplace leading to many companies incorporating inclusive programs
to attract young female talent. Bringing gender parity to the workforce would
94 Shaheema Hameed and Meera Mathur
increase India’s GDP by 27%, as per IMF estimates. In addition, values and
approaches towards environmental issues are a key area that the corporate
needs to focus on as the average young Indian employee is projected to be more
positive towards organisations that prioritise environmental and social issues.
Employment and women’s safety are the biggest concerns of young Indians
(Padmanabhan, 2019). When asked to nominate the most important issue that
India is facing, 18% said jobs and unemployment, 12% said economic inequal-
ity, and 9% said corruption (Economic Times, 2018).
According to a study among 500 students and 200 teachers across India in
2017 (Towbridge, 2016), 95% of the students and 91% of teachers see creativity
as the driver for careers among Generation Z in India. Ninety per cent of the
teachers believed that Generation Z in India would be working in careers that
are currently non-existent (Bawa, 2017). The Indian Generation Z is expected to
reform all the conventions and change orthodox ways of working. Young people
have different expectations about their career paths and expect their employer
to help them achieve them. They are interested in expanding their academic
qualications while working, having start-ups and still having enough time to
pursue their passions. They have higher expectations from their employers and
the organisation which they plan to serve. They are quick in making decisions
and are hyperactive in nature. They prefer straight forward conversations and
an open work environment. There’s no stigma associated with failure and the Z
Generation Indian is practical but risk-averse (Meghani, 2018). Despite the fact
that globally, young Indian workers of Generation Z are projected to bring about
a marked change in organisations, the scenario requires further scrutiny in India.
This is because the ‘skills gap’ between academia and corporate is a very real hur-
dle that needs to be crossed. According to a study by the Varkey Foundation on
Generation Z across the world in 2017, only 10% of the Indian Generation Z was
interested in pay compared to 37% of the respondents of the study, who wanted
to develop their skills.
The Start-up Culture
Young Generation Z Indians would prefer their own start-ups and ventures rather
than being bound to a job that imposes strict working hours (Patel, 2017). This
could be due to the fact that the urban youth in India remains pessimistic about
job prospects, with 65% of Generation Z stating that it is extremely difcult to
land a job (LiveMint, 2018b). They picture a venture where they are not bound
down by authoritative norms and are masters of their domain. This reiterates the
aversion of the Indian Generation Z to being led by others. This presents a chal-
lenge to companies who will have to train and develop strategies to attract and
retain this particular set of employees. Despite the technology overload in the
hands of the youngsters, this generation more than any other will suffer from the
growing gap between the highly skilled and the unskilled. The technical skill gap
is huge, but the non-technical skill gap is even more pervasive.
Managing the Indian Generation Z requires a huge remedial effort on
broad transferable skills such as work habits, interpersonal communication,
Generation Z in India 95
and critical thinking and a huge investment in remedial technical training. A
research study at Harvard states that 60% of Indian Generation Z students in
top colleges between the age group of 18 and 21 stated that they don’t feel ready
for a job (Raina, 2016).
Attracting Generation Z: Suggestions and Strategies
Approaches in Marketing
Attracting Indian Generation Z to buy a product requires more strategic thinking
and a plan of action rather than mere advertising. With the massive Z Genera-
tion population of India, marketers have a never before opportunity of tapping
into the demographic. Generation Z in India is a socially conscious generation.
Meaningful advertisements that bring out social issues such as Surf Excel deter-
gent (promoting religious harmony), All-out (#standbytoughmoms), Myntra
Fashion (Bold is Beautiful), and Vogue India (Boys don’t cry) are examples of
products that have captured the market due to advertising with social messages
in them (Sharma, 2016). The Indian Generation Z needs to feel that they are
creating a social impact when they purchase products (King, 2018). The Indian
brand FabIndia, which sells handmade products, furniture, essential oils, and
craft items, are an example to this. Rural artisans in India stand to gain with the
expansion and growth plan of FabIndia. Each customer feels that he/she is mak-
ing a difference in the lives of the rural worker. Since this is an important factor
for a Generation Z consumer, companies are likely to capture a higher market
share if their consumers feel that they are making a social impact.
The environmental concern among Generation Z in India has led to a rise in
Collaborative consumption that was non-existent before. The ‘sharing economy’,
which may be due to a collectivist culture in India, is a huge market for collabora-
tive consumption. Companies such as OLX4 (used goods buy and sell platforms),
ZoomCar5 and UBER6 (Car rentals), AirBnB7 (home stays), and the Lending-
Club8 (where people borrow money from each other instead of banks) are exam-
ples of the rise of collaborative consumption in India. (Zain, 2016).
The Indian Generation Z looks for novelty in any product they consume, be it
food (novel toppings at Pizza Hut), holidays (women only tours, adventure tour-
ism), or the shows they watch, marketers would likely garner bigger shares of the
Generation Z market if they innovate their products constantly. Take for exam-
ple, in the 2016 Olympics, when badminton shuttler P. V. Sindhu of India and
wrestler Sakshi Malik of India won medals, Pizza Hut advertised by giving free
pizzas to girls whose names were ‘Sindhu’ or ‘Sakshi’ (Challapalli, 2018).
96 Shaheema Hameed and Meera Mathur
The FMCG marketers in India are appealing to the Indian Generation Z’s
pride in their heritage and tradition (Chauhan, 2018). Companies like Hamdard,9
whose trademark product is RoohAfza10 (a summer drink made with traditional
ingredients), are now seeking to revamp this traditional brand to the Generation
Z by appealing to the youngsters with its history. So is the case with AMUL11
(India’s largest milk co-operative) whose advertising campaign shows their range
of products catering to the Generation Z and making them aware through vari-
ous media about the positive social impact they are making. The Indian members
of Generation Z love their lineage and heritage and companies are designing mar-
keting strategies revolving around this.
Approaches in Human Resource Management
The process of recruitment and selection itself has undergone changes since the
Indian Generation Z uses diverse methods of job hunting. Traditional public sec-
tor companies in the Automobile and Information Technology sectors such as
Tata Steel and Mahindra and Mahindra are changing their image in a bid to
attract Generation Z. Attracting and retaining workers from Generation Z is a
daunting task; nevertheless, certain strategies could be the key to hold on to them
and reap organisational benets.
The Indian Generation Z is one that is used to the ‘instant’ culture, where
information and opinion are instantly and openly expressed. In an organisa-
tional setting that places emphasis on mentoring, managers giving feedback and
looking out for the Z Generation are more likely to retain them for much longer
(Singh, 2017).
The Indian Generation Z wants a workplace that is ‘fun’ to work in. There
is an overall environment of optimism and growth despite concerns of employ-
ment. The social and environmental agenda of organisations will come to the
forefront and hyper-specialisation and need for autonomy will make portfolio
careers more a norm than an aberration (Alaganandan, 2019).
Generation Z in India is on the cusp of bringing change to the world economy
with their very presence. The start-up culture, strong opinions, and actions on
current events and environmental concerns are common key points in the Indian
Generation Z. The outlook of Generation Z in India is optimistic, positive,
techno-savvy, and adaptable. Drawing from a rich culture and history, the Gen-
eration Z of India has the power and ability to bring positive additions to the
world economy.
Generation Z in India 97
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100 Shaheema Hameed and Meera Mathur
Appendix A: Focus Group Discussion
Research Method Qualitative
Research Objective 1. Assess the behavioral competencies of
Generation Z
2. What makes the Indian Generation Z
different from their counterparts?
Universe of the study Generation Z; MBA/PGDM graduates born in
or after 1995
Period of study conducted July 2019-December 2019
Composition of the focus
4 groups of 5 Members each (Members assigned
numbers to maintain condentiality)
Gender composition in
each group
Male 12
Female 8
Religious composition of
the subjects
Hindu 16
Muslim 3
Christian/Other 1
Educational Qualication High School 0
Graduate 13
Post Graduate 7
Family Structure Joint 2
Nuclear 18
Generation Z in India 101
Appendix B: Selected Analysis Used for
the Study
Topic Quotes
“I love sharing my pictures and Insta provides
me the best platform to do that. I share my
sketches and creative work on Insta and I have a
lot of followers. This encourages me to work on
developing my skills better. I cannot imagine a
life without their mobile phones. From shopping
to studies, from food to communication; it is
technology that keeps us on the right track
Akansha Yadav; M2 Group 3
I was a hardcore Facebook user but I nd
the double taps on Insta much more fun. Also
WhatsApp, Snapchat and Facetime are the best
means to socialize.
Nisha Raghav; M1 Group 1
Employment is our biggest worry in today’s
times. We receive education but are unsure how
applicable it will be in the real world.”
Devrat Choudhary, 22, M3 Group 4
I feel that environmental concerns are
paramount. We feel responsible for doing our bit
to preserve the environment…even if it means
planting one tree
Twinkle Jain, 21, M4 Group 2
Denitely Women’s safety is a concern in India.
The laws should be made stricter with criminals
Drishti Singh, 18, M1 Group 3
“I feel an advantage in today’s times. No doubt
it’s the technology. This gives me the ability to
multi-task across devices
Aditi Agarwal, 20, M4 Group 4
102 Shaheema Hameed and Meera Mathur
Topic Quotes
“I am eager to work…I’m looking forward to it;
I’d like to work for a company that gives me the
freedom to learn and grow…Corporate settings
such as Google seems attractive to me. I like the
open workspaces and fun atmosphere it has…”
Celestee Singh, 18, M4 Group 4
“I want to be my own boss after sometime…
maybe develop something that’s protable and
sustainable, my own company, for starters”
Mayank Jain, 22, M3 Group 2
... It is the first of a kind generation consumer born in a digital world and engages themselves to live online (Bernstein 2015;Puiu 2016). The Generation Z population in India is vibrant in their opinions and continuously innovate in their thought processes to boost developing nation like India (Hameed and Mathur 2020). The prime reason for having continuous innovation in their thought process is that they are the first digital naïve generation of India and the only constant thing in their lives is change. ...
Online gaming has become a recent leisure time activity in India, especially among the younger generation. Hence, more and more youngsters, specifically Generation Z are engaged in this virtual gaming world. In response to this scenario, our paper analyzes the role of generation Z customers’ engagement in increasing online game sales. We found that satisfaction from the game, game personalization, and social interaction increases customer engagement, thereby increasing the sale of online games. A research model was developed, and the results were tested using 266 valid questionnaires. The results from the conceptual model testing suggests that the construct of engagement is significant in influencing the purchase decisions of Generation Z customers.
... In India there is a need for extensive research on the financial well-being of Indian Gen Z students, as India constitutes the largest population of Gen Z, with 472 million (Hameed & Mathur, 2020). The study explores the direct and indirect impact of the four factors, viz. ...
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The current pandemic situation in the global economy has urged the need to revolutionize the financial services industry with a keen eye on consumers’ financial needs for sound financial decisions, which is necessary for financial well-being. The purpose of the study is to assess the financial well-being of Indian Gen Z students in relation to financial literacy, financial fragility, financial behavior, and financial technology. In addition, the study also tries to determine how Gen Z students’ financial well-being is influenced by other factors such as gender, age, parental education, employment status, and monthly income in India. The study uses the scientific data analysis approach, Partial Least Squares-SEM model to estimate, predict, and assess the hypotheses. A sample of 271 University students from India was surveyed using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Questions were incorporated to understand the effect of financial literacy, technology, fragility, behavior, demographic and parental characteristics on financial well-being. The results indicate that financial behavior is positively related to financial well-being, while financial fragility is negatively associated. However, financial literacy and financial technology do not significantly affect financial well-being. The results also show that financial well-being is significantly influenced by gender, parental education, employment status, and monthly income change. Understanding Indian Gen Z student financial well-being will expand the students’ understanding of the importance of financial literacy for well-planned financial behavior and informed decisions, hence high levels of financial well-being. Government and financial institutions can more effectively identify gaps and deficiencies in student financial well-being.
... The common objectives between promoting a healthy environment and acceptance of smart technology has augmented the interest in studies related to technology acceptance (Toft et al., 2014). Interestingly, with approximately 472 million Gen Z individuals in India, they formed the largest proportion of the young population segment in the world (Hameed and Mathur, 2020). In recent years, the practice of unhealthy behaviours like consumption of junk food, improper sleep cycles, lack of regular exercise regimes and sedentary lifestyles had led to health and fitness-related problems among Gen Z individuals (Manson et al., 2004;Sousa et al., 2014). ...
Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify the major factors influencing the adoption of health-care wearables in generation Z (Gen Z) customers in India. A conceptual framework using push pull and mooring (PPM) adoption theory was developed. Design/methodology/approach Data was collected from 208 Gen Z customers based on 5 constructs related to the adoption of health-care wearables. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling was used to analyse the responses. The mediation paths were analysed using bootstrapping method and examination of the standardized direct and indirect effects in the model. Findings The study results indicated that the antecedent factors consisted of push (real-time health information availability), pull (normative environment) and mooring (decision self-efficacy) factors. The mooring factor (MOOR) was related to the push factor but not the pull factor. The MOOR, in turn, was related to the switching intention of Gen Z customers for health wearables adoption. Research limitations/implications The research study extended the literature related to the PPM theory in the context of the adoption of health wearables among Gen Z customers in India. Practical implications The study outcome would enable managers working in health wearable organizations to understand consumer behaviour towards health wearables. Social implications The use of health wearables among Gen Z individuals would lead to future generations adopting a healthy lifestyle resulting in an effective workforce and better economy. Originality/value This was one of the few studies which have explored the PPM theory to explore the factors for the adoption of health wearables among Gen Z customers in India.
Consumers get innumerable product options, making it crucial to study their selection among brands v/s new brands. The study explores how in a post covid world, the online purchase behavior of Generation Z female consumers is impacted for new-brand beauty products. Using qualitative methods, the authors explored the online purchase behavior of Generation Z females for the purchase of beauty products in emerging economies and how blockchain technology (BCT) can play a crucial role in influencing consumer decision-making. Five focus group discussions were conducted. The study’s findings reveal four key themes – “It's too hard to be an innovator,” “Online stigma,” “New brand reservations,” and “BCT and new brands purchase decisions.” The authors portray that generation Z consumers don’t feel competent enough to buy new brands online without extrinsic motivation. They do not entirely trust the information marketers provide them in the current form. They are expected to buy new brands online if the authenticity of the complete product details can be verified using blockchain mechanisms.
Social media platforms have come a long way from being spaces for just informal interactions between friends and family. Today, these platforms provide numerous ways for people to express their ideas, views and opinions. In this article, we look at one such medium of expression that gained widespread popularity on Instagram during the 2020 pandemic. Popularly known as ‘fairy comments’, these are comments with a very typical syntactic structure used on social media platforms. The syntactic structure involves several emoticons in the middle of a sentence rather than the end. The aim is to define what a fairy comment is and understand the characteristics responsible for its popularity among the youth. We conducted in-depth interviews with 17 Gen Z participants who are active users of Instagram and fairy comment makers tractioning high engagement on their comments. Besides, a rhetorical criticism of high engagement comments on posts of an Indian political leader helped develop an anatomy of a fairy comment. Based on the findings, we propose that Gen Z’s inclination for using fairy comments in the online public sphere is contingent on two characteristics intrinsic to the nature of a fairy comment. First, the potential for creative expression that fairy comments provide, and second, the potential of fairy comments to tread on borders of offense but not harm as they steer clear of abuse or suggested violence in the online space. A collateral outcome of making fairy comments is a coalition between the youth on matters of public interest. These characteristics indicate that fairy comments constitute a medium of trolling under the ‘kudos trolling’ category used by the youth as an instrument of expression in the online space.
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Studies on Generations have gained momentum in recent times as businesses realize that each generation has different approaches towards work and workplaces. The classification of generations is only a theoretical attempt to classify people of a particular behavioral similarities and differences but generational studies is essential for understanding workplace traits and the multi-faceted approaches people take towards corporate issues on an individual and organizational perspective. This research paper seeks to study the relevant aspects of this latest entry into the workforce with especial focus on what makes them a critical value addition to the workforce. Despite the fact that Z Generation employees are projected to bring about a marked change in organizations, the very term 'disruption' needs an operational definition in this context. Disruption is often relegated only to technological advances and innovation. The research methodology incorporates Focus Group discussions and a survey instrument (Structured questionnaire) to fulfill objective 1 and 2. The study was done in a time frame of 2.5 years with a sample of 350 drawn from Southern Rajasthan. SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 21.0 were used to test hypotheses. Descriptive and Inferential statistics have been used to arrive at the findings and conclusions of this research study. Findings from the study substantiated the literature review showing that Z Generation employees are entrepreneurial, learning-driven and altruistic in addition to being brand conscious about their workplaces. Certain change strategies have been suggested towards the end of the research paper, both for the corporate bodies as well as for the Z Generation employees.
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Indian society is collectivistic and promotes social cohesion and interdependence. The traditional Indian joint family, which follows the same principles of collectivism, has proved itself to be an excellent resource for the care of the mentally ill. However, the society is changing with one of the most significant alterations being the disintegration of the joint family and the rise of nuclear and extended family system. Although even in today's changed scenario, the family forms a resource for mental health that the country cannot neglect, yet utilization of family in management of mental disorders is minimal. Family focused psychotherapeutic interventions might be the right tool for greater involvement of families in management of their mentally ill and it may pave the path for a deeper community focused treatment in mental disorders. This paper elaborates the features of Indian family systems in the light of the Asian collectivistic culture that are pertinent in psychotherapy. Authors evaluate the scope and effectiveness of family focused psychotherapy for mental disorders in India, and debate the issues and concerns faced in the practice of family therapy in India.
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Literature on family studies in India has grown to a large extent in the last two decades, although such studies are scattered. This article presents socio-demographic data on families in India aiming to provide bases for analyzing research, particularly in the area of family development. Indian families are classified as patrilineal and matrilineal according to the lineage or descent by father or mother. The family structure is conceptualized as the configuration of role, power, and status and relationships in the family which depends upon the families socio-economic background, family pattern, and extent of urbanization. Marriage practices are emphasized covering subjects such as marriage patterns, selection of marriage partner, age at marriage, age at consummation of marriage, marriage rituals, financial exchanges and divorce. In spite of urbanization and industrialization in the contemporary Indian society, the family institution continues to play a central role in the lives of people.
The changing composition of the family, changes in gender role orientation and individual differences in marketing or shopping 'savvy' seem likely to affect the degree of influence of different family members in various stages of a purchase. This paper describes the key planning and exploratory stages of a collaborative academic-practitioner project designed to identify the determinants of a child's relative influence within a family in relation to purchase decisions. Specifically, the paper describes the planning and exploratory stages involved in construct definitions, choice of measures (ready-made or purpose-built) and their screening and development in consultation with a sample of adults and children and a team of practitioners, academics and teachers.
The main purpose of my research on Gen Z is to look after the changing behavior of children, students and scholars are of globalscenerio. I accept the fact that Gen Z is very active, motivated, goal oriented, extraordinary, competent, researcher, observer etc. They are fully awakened by the social responsibilities towards society, knowledge of laws, rules and regulation, they are extremely technology savvy, smart minded, challenging, adventurous, active decision maker, leadership skill and talented. They are smart in tricks and more enthusiasm to carry out the relative and difficult tasks. Still the area of wariness in front of each and every parents, teacher, mentors, counselor that what should be the atmosphere one should give generation Z, so that they can grap the values, ethics, listeners, proactive, customs, observers and derivative principles. So, my study is all about that what will be the attitude, behavior of upcoming CEO's , managers and entrepreneurs and citizens of our country , are we generating the principles and environment so that they can get the good surrounding , an healthy and safe scenario.
The existing literature has shown that children have an influence in family purchase decisions and recognized different influence strategies children use to influence their parents. The present study is based on survey approach and intends to understand children’s choice of influence strategies and the impact of various demographic factors. A sample of 180 children in Delhi was studied by using structured questionnaire from June 2011 to March 2012. The findings of the study reveal that children basically use four major types of influence strategies in family purchases and the choice of a particular influence strategy depends on children, parent and family characteristics.
The Second Edition of this classic work, first published in 1981 and an international bestseller, explores the differences in thinking and social action that exist among members of more than 50 modern nations. Geert Hofstede argues that people carry "mental programs" which are developed in the family in early childhood and reinforced in schools and organizations, and that these programs contain components of national culture. They are expressed most clearly in the different values that predominate among people from different countries. Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Cultures Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism versus collectivism; masculinity versus femininity; and long term versus short-term orientation. --Publisher.
Indian workplace of 2022: Are organizations ready for the future
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