Article

Eficacia de una intervención en alfabetización basada en la evidencia para niños hispanoparlantes con riesgo lector de niveles socioeconómicos vulnerables

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Introducción. Las investigaciones apoyan la eficacia de las intervenciones en alfabetización basadas en la evidencia para estudiantes angloparlantes con riesgo lector, pero no queda claro si resultados similares se pueden conseguir con alumnos hispanoparlantes. Método. Investigamos el impacto de una intervención en alfabetización basada en la evidencia con una duración de 15 horas, en niños con riesgo lector de 1° y 2° año de escuela de niveles socioeconómicos (NSE) vulnerables en Uruguay, con español como lengua materna. Los estudiantes con riesgo lector fueron asignados aleatoriamente a una intervención (n = 68) suplementaria a la instrucción usual de aula o a un grupo de control (n = 57) y se compararon con otro grupo de desarrollo lector típico (n = 69) en medidas pre-post-test en conciencia fonológica, escritura, fluidez y comprensión Resultados. Aunque todos los participantes mostraron mejoras significativas en relación a su trayectoria pre-post-test, los niños con riesgo lector que participaron de la intervención experimental solamente mostraron mayores niveles de crecimiento que el grupo control en la habilidad para identificar rimas y parcialmente en comprensión lectora. Discusión y conclusiones. Los hallazgos de este estudio reflejan la necesidad de tomar en cuenta los contrastes entre los sistemas de escritura del español y el inglés, así como el perfil cognitivo de niños de NSE vulnerables en Latinoamérica a la hora de aplicar prácticas basadas en la evidencia al diseño de programas de intervención para niños con riesgo lector de niveles socioeconómicos vulnerables en países de habla hispana.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... ¿Quizás este debería tener una intensidad mayor que los otros tres componentes que proponemos en PIAM? ¿Especialmente en niños con dificultades en el aprendizaje lector? Balbi, A., von Hagen, A., Jimenez, J. E., & Cuadro, A. (2020). Eficacia de una intervención en alfabetización basada en la evidencia para niños hispanoparlantes con riesgo lector de niveles socioeconómicos vulnerables. ...
Article
Full-text available
Las habilidades de lectura inicial han sido ampliamente estudiadas, siendo las más reconocidas la conciencia fonológica (CF), el conocimiento del alfabeto (CA), la velocidad de nombrado (rapid automatic naming, RAN), la memoria fonológica (MF) y escritura de las letras. Diversos programas de intervención han buscado estimular y desarrollar estas habilidades, con efectos positivos. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo desarrollar una revisión sistemática de programas de intervención de lectura inicial realizados a estudiantes hispanohablantes. Para ello, se utilizó como enfoque y diseño la revisión sistemática de la literatura. La muestra de este estudio corresponde a 20 artículos (investigaciones empíricas) disponibles en la base de datos WoS, SCOPUS y SciELO. Los resultados indican que los programas en su mayoría (70 %) son de tipo mixto, con desarrollo de habilidades de decodificación y significado, el 70 % de los programas realizan intervención de manera colectiva (con todo el grupo del aula), mediante diversos recursos materiales, tales como cuaderno, lápices, cuentos, tablet, pizarra digital, etc. El 35 % de los programas se organizan en más de 70 sesiones. En relación con la edad, el 75 % de los estudios revisados realiza su intervención en el rango de edad de 5 a 6 años, mediante diversas actividades, dentro de las que se destacan ejercicios de CF, segmentación de sílabas, identificación de sonidos, análisis y síntesis fonémica, lectura de cuentos, búsqueda de palabras, CA a través de canciones. Las habilidades más trabajadas son la CF (80 %) y CA (65 %) seguida por el vocabulario con un 45 %. Se puede apreciar mayor impacto sobre las habilidades referidas a la decodificación, es decir, aquellos programas que desarrollan la CF junto con el CA. Algunos patrones que se destacan entre los programas es la sistematicidad, estructura y la instrucción explícita de las habilidades que buscan desarrollar.
Article
Full-text available
Word reading fluency is a key component in the process of reading. In order to understand its acquisition it is crucial to conduct longitudinal studies. The aim of this work was to describe the development of word recognition in Spanish, considering accuracy and speed, from a longitudinal perspective. A group of 31 children were followed for six years. Reading performance was assessed with a list of 72 stimuli in which lexicality, frequency and length were manipulated. Results show that initial gains in reading accuracy occurred very rapidly. However, the growth of reading speed was found to be more difficult and complex, and automatic word recognition remains low at the end of Grade 6. Low frequency, long words were the most difficult stimuli. High stability in reading speed was observed and it was a relevant indicator that differentiates between good and poor readers. The findings also highlighted the need to develop training programs with the specific aim of improving word reading fluency throughout primary education.
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this study was to develop standardised tests that assess some of the most important spelling skills for children in primary school: sound-letter mappings (non-lexical spelling) and word spelling accuracy (lexical spelling). We present normative comparison data for children in Grades 1–7 as well as measures of validity and reliability for both tests. Another aim of this study was to assess the relative prevalence of spelling difficulties that only affect one skill selectively (only lexical or only non-lexical spelling) or both. We found that throughout Grades 1–7, children were as likely to have selective as they were to have mixed difficulties. This underscores the importance of measuring lexical and non-lexical skills separately. The tests presented in this paper provide teachers and clinicians with the necessary tools to do exactly that.
Article
Full-text available
Background Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy.Methods This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children identified by research criteria as being at risk of dyslexia (n = 56), and their school-identified peers (n = 89). An Experimental group received two 9-week blocks of daily intervention delivered by trained teaching assistants; the Control group received 9 weeks of typical classroom instruction, followed by 9 weeks of intervention.ResultsFollowing mixed effects regression models and path analyses, small-to-moderate effects were shown on letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and taught vocabulary. However, these were fragile and short lived, and there was no reliable effect on the primary outcome of word-level reading.Conclusions This new intervention was theoretically motivated and based on previous successful interventions, yet failed to show reliable effects on language and literacy measures following a rigorous evaluation. We suggest that the intervention may have been too short to yield improvements in oral language; and that literacy instruction in and beyond the classroom may have weakened training effects. We argue that reporting of null results makes an important contribution in terms of raising standards both of trial reporting and educational practice.
Article
Full-text available
The present report presents outcome results from a randomized controlled effect study on extended Aggression Replacement Training (ART). In a pre-post design, a 30-hour ART intervention was found to significantly reduce behavioral problems and increase social skills. The control group did not demonstrate comparable changes, but still indicated improvement. Such control-group improvement may be caused by improper treatment and control group implementation (diffusion of treatment) and/or 'secondary' diffusion caused by participants in the treatment group affecting control group subjects by demonstrating changed behavior. Both mechanisms were explored, and it is concluded that the improvement observed in the control group was due to such 'secondary diffusion'. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
In the present study we examined the impact of a comprehensive literacy instruction model called Collaborative Language and Literacy Instruction Project (CLLIP) on language and literacy achievement over the course of a year by Spanish-speaking children in Chile. Participants included kindergartners (N = 312) from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds and first-grade students (N = 305) from high SES families. The CLLIP model targeted phonological awareness, alphabetics and phonics, fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension and writing, and included coaching and sustained follow-up as key elements for teacher professional development. The results showed promise for the CLLIP model in the Chilean context. Kindergartners in CLLIP classrooms had faster growth rates in letter naming, word reading, vocabulary, and phonemic segmentation fluency than those in control classrooms, and had higher scores at the end of the year in phonemic segmentation fluency, letter naming, and word reading. In addition, kindergartners from high SES families had faster growth rates than kindergartners from low SES families in letter naming and word reading. Effect sizes ranged from small (d = .18 in word reading) to fairly large (d = .70 in letter-naming fluency). First-grade students in CLLIP classrooms had faster growth rates than students in control classrooms in vocabulary, nonword reading fluency, word reading, and reading comprehension. Effect sizes were small in vocabulary, nonword reading fluency, and reading comprehension (.23 ≤ d ≤ .28) and medium in word reading (d = .50). These results suggest that the present multicomponent literacy instructional model had a positive impact on Chilean children's literacy acquisition.
Article
Full-text available
A quantitative meta-analysis evaluating the effects of phonemic awareness (PA) instruction on learning to read and spell was conducted by the National Reading Panel. There were 52 studies published in peer-reviewed journals, and these contributed 96 cases comparing the outcomes of treatment and control groups. Analysis of effect sizes revealed that the impact of PA instruction on helping children acquire PA was large and statistically significant (d = 0.86). PA instruction exerted a moderate, statistically significant impact oil reading (d = 0.53) and spelling (d = 0.59). Not only word reading but also reading comprehension benefited. PA instruction impacted reading under all the conditions examined although effect sizes were larger under some conditions. PA instruction helped various types of children: normally developing readers as well as at-risk and disabled readers: preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders: low socioeconomic status children as well as mid-high SES. PA instruction improved reading, but it did not improve spelling in disabled readers. PA instruction was more effective when it was taught with letters than without letters. when one or two PA skills were taught than Multiple PA skills, when children were taught in small groups than individually or in classrooms. and when instruction lasted between 5 and 18 hours rather than longer, Classroom teachers were effective in Leaching PA to their Students. Effect sizes were larger for Studies using more rigorous experimental designs, with rigor assessments drawn from Troia ( 1999), In Sum, PA instruction was found to make a statistically significant contribution to reading acquisition.
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and verbal memory span are reliable correlates of learning to read in English. However, the extent to which these different predictors have the same relative importance in different languages remains uncertain. In this article, we present the results from a 10-month longitudinal study that began just before or soon after the start of formal literacy instruction in four languages (English, Spanish, Slovak, and Czech). Longitudinal path analyses showed that phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and RAN (but not verbal memory span) measured at the onset of literacy instruction were reliable predictors, with similar relative importance, of later reading and spelling skills across the four languages. These data support the suggestion that in all alphabetic orthographies, phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and RAN may tap cognitive processes that are important for learning to read.
Article
Full-text available
Four classroom teachers provided instruction to improve the inferential comprehension of 40 good and poor 4th-grade readers, as determined by scores on the Stanford Achievement Test. The experimental treatment consisted of 3 parts: (a) making students aware of the importance of drawing inferences between new information and existing knowledge structures; (b) getting students to discuss, prior to reading, something they had done that was similar to the events in the text and to hypothesize what would happen in the text; and (c) providing students with many inferential questions to discuss after reading the selection. Results show that poor readers benefited significantly from the instruction, but good readers did not. This differential effect was attributed to the dissimilar aptitudes of good and poor readers and the dissimilar instructional methods that are used with good and poor readers in schools. Conclusions focus on the positive prospect of modeling successful instructional procedures on theoretical, basic research. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Full-text available
En este trabajo describimos cuatro programas de instrucción dirigidos a la recuperación de las dificultades en el aprendizaje de la lectura. Estos programas comparten el mismo marco explicativo: los problemas de los niños con dificultades tienen una naturaleza psicolinguistica (fonología) ; y, consecuentemente, el mismo fin: ampliar la capacidad para operar de forma consciente sobre los segmentos fonologicos del lenguaje.
Book
Presents cutting-edge, evidence-based interventions for dealing with specific difficulties of reading comprehension in children aged 7-11. An in-depth introduction to the 'poor comprehender profile', which describes children who despite being fluent readers have difficulty extracting meaning from text. Sets out a range of practical interventions for improving reading skills in this group - along with comprehensive guidance on assessment and monitoring, and insightful accounts of professionals' experience in delivering the techniques described. Includes an overview of psychological theories of reading comprehension, evaluating their practical applicability.
Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children upon school entry, and we examine critical aspects of children's developmental contexts in LA. We then review local research on the level and determinants of three readiness skills of preschoolers in LA. Few studies allow comparisons between LA and other regions, but some results suggest that the oral language of children in LA before school entry is lower than in developed countries. These entry-level differences do not seem large enough to explain the poor educational results obtained by children in LA. We conclude regarding research needed to explain educational results and to inform educational policies.
Article
A synthesis of the extant research on extensive early reading interventions for students with reading difficulties and disabilities is provided. Findings from 18 studies published between 1995 and 2005 revealed positive outcomes for students participating in extensive interventions. Results indicated higher effects for studies providing intervention to students in the smallest group sizes as well as providing intervention early (grades K-1). No differences in overall outcomes were revealed between studies implementing highly standardized interventions or interventions with less standardized implementation. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Article
There is strong empirical evidence on the universal development of phonological awareness from large to small units. However, comparatively little research has been conducted to determine whether the predictive weight of these units differs according to the language in which the child is learning to read. While rhyme is a unit that carries significant predictive power in English, there is little evidence of its relevance in Spanish. The purpose of the present study is to determine the predictive weight of consonant rhyme on reading accuracy, reading speed and reading comprehension from kindergarten to first grade. Ninety-four Chilean Spanish-speaking non-reader kindergarten children (49 girls and 45 boys) from low SES were tested. The results indicated that consonant rhyme has no predictive power on any of the reading skills measured. The transparency of Spanish and the main reading strategies used by children in this language are analysed as explanatory elements of the results found.ResumenExiste contundente evidencia empírica sobre patrón de desarrollo universal de la conciencia fonológica desde unidades grandes a las pequeñas. Sin embargo, comparativamente menos investigación se ha realizado para determinar si el peso predictivo de estas unidades difiere según la lengua en la cual el niño está aprendiendo a leer. Mientras la rima es una unidad con un significativo poder predictivo en inglés, existe poca evidencia de su relevancia en español. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar el peso predictivo de la rima consonante en la lectura de palabras, no palabras, velocidad y comprensión lectora desde kinder a primer año básico. Noventa y cuatro niños de kinder no lectores Hispanoparlantes Chilenos de NSE bajo fueron testeados (49 niñas y 45 niños). Los resultados indican que no existe poder predictivo de la rima consonante sobre ninguna de las habilidades lectoras medidas. La transparencia del español y las principales estrategias de lectura utilizadas por los niños en esta lengua son analizadas como elementos explicativos de los resultados encontrados.
Article
This study reviews some of the most relevant cognitive skills related to literacy acquisition in Spanish. Beyond the well-known influence of phonological segmental skills, it highlights the growing importance of other cognitive skills needed for acquisition, whether explicit or implicit in nature, to which too little attention has been devoted, including suprasegmental or prosodic skills, morphological skills and the implicit learning of linguistic regularities. It appears that all these skills constitute relevant factors that should be taken into account in order to understand typical as well as atypical literacy development.
Article
The current study unites multiple theories (i.e., the orthographic depth hypothesis and linguistic grain size theory, the simple view of reading, and the common underlying proficiency model) to explore differences in how 113 fourth-grade Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) approached reading in their native language of Spanish, which is transparent, compared to their second language of English, which is more opaque. Contributions of different linguistic grain sizes (i.e., small grains assessed via phonological decoding and large grains assessed via morphological awareness), mediators (i.e., word reading, listening comprehension, and oral vocabulary), and transfer were explored. The results suggest that morphological awareness and phonological decoding contributed to reading comprehension in Spanish whereas only morphological awareness contributed to reading comprehension in English. For mediators, listening comprehension played a larger role than word reading in supporting reading comprehension in Spanish and English, but oral vocabulary only contributed in Spanish. No significant role of cross-language transfer was found. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed.
Article
We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
The aim of this five-year longitudinal study was to examine whether 13 Greek precocious readers' performance on a variety of reading, spelling, and phonological-awareness tasks from kindergarten through the fourth grade was different from that of 12 Greek nonprecocious readers and, if there were differences between the two groups' performances, whether these differences remained stable over the students' five years of primary school education. In addition, this study investigated whether precocious readers' literacy development followed the same path as that of the majority of children. It was hypothesized that because of the shallowness of Greek orthography, precocious readers would have an advantage in reading, spelling, and phonological-awareness tasks in the initial grades but that this advantage would diminish by the fourth grade. The data analyses showed that precocious readers' advantage in reading comprehension and spelling remained stable until second grade, although their advantage in reading fluency was maintained up to the fourth grade. The precocious readers' performance on phonological-awareness tasks was superior to that of the comparison group in kindergarten; however, by the end of first grade, both groups of children achieved similar scores on almost all phonological tasks. It would seem that due to the nature of the Greek language, these Greek-speaking children acquired an explicit awareness of the language's phonological structure early in their school careers. The results also showed that the literacy development of both groups of children followed the same path; however, the precocious readers moved along this path more rapidly than their nonprecocious counterparts.
Book
As this publication is a full book, it cannot be freely shared. If you wold like to purchase a copy, you can do so at https://www.guilford.com/books/Bringing-Words-to-Life/Beck-McKeown-Kucan/9781462508167
Article
In this study, predictors of reading and spelling difficulties among children learning more transparent (Norwegian/Swedish) and less transparent (English) orthographies were examined longitudinally from preschool through Grade 2 using parallel versions of tests. A series of logistic regression analysis indicated three main findings. First, phonological awareness as a predictor of reading difficulties in the Scandinavian sample was time-limited to Grade 1, but remained as a significant predictor in the English-speaking sample. Second, phonological awareness predicted spelling difficulties similarly across orthographies. Third, preschool and kindergarten RAN was a significant predictor of reading and spelling difficulties at both Grades 1 and 2 across orthographies. The authors conclude that phonological awareness diminishes as a predictor of reading difficulties in transparent orthographies after the first years of schooling, that RAN is a better long-term predictor of reading difficulties, and that phonological awareness is associated with spelling difficulties similarly in transparent and opaque orthographies.
Article
In this critique of current reading research and practice, the author contends that the extreme ambiguity of English spelling-sound correspondence has confined reading science to an insular, Anglocentric research agenda addressing theoretical and applied issues with limited relevance for a universal science of reading. The unique problems posed by this "outlier" orthography, the author argues, have focused disproportionate attention on oral reading accuracy at the expense of silent reading, meaning access, and fluency, and have significantly distorted theorizing with regard to many issues-including phonological awareness, early reading instruction, the architecture of stage models of reading development, the definition and remediation of reading disability, and the role of lexical-semantic and supralexical information in word recognition. The dominant theoretical paradigm in contemporary (word) reading research--the Coltheart/Baron dual-route model (see, e.g., J. Baron, 1977; M. Coltheart, 1978) and, in large measure, its connectionist rivals--arose largely in response to English spelling-sound obtuseness. The model accounts for a range of English-language findings, but it is ill-equipped to serve the interests of a universal science of reading chiefly because it overlooks a fundamental unfamiliar-to-familiar/novice-to-expert dualism applicable to all words and readers in all orthographies.
Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences
  • J Cohen
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.) New York: Academic Press.
An examination of sustaining effects in Descubriendo la Lectura programs. Literacy, Teaching and Learning
  • K Escamilla
  • M Loera
  • O Ruiz
  • Y Rodríguez
Escamilla, K., Loera, M., Ruiz, O., y Rodríguez, Y. (1998). An examination of sustaining effects in Descubriendo la Lectura programs. Literacy, Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 59.
Indice de Nivel Socioeconómocio
  • Ine
INE (2012) Indice de Nivel Socioeconómocio. [Index of Socio-economic Status]. Retrieved from http://www.gruporadar.com.uy/01/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Informe-Nuevo-INSE-2011.pdf
Validación Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven Escala coloreada, en escolares de la ciudad de Chillán
  • Jara Quezada
  • N Troncoso San Martín
Jara Quezada, N. y Troncoso San Martín, J. (2014). Validación Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven Escala coloreada, en escolares de la ciudad de Chillán. [Validation of the Test of Progressive Matrices -Coloured Scale in primary school students of Chillán].
Elaboración de material audiovisual para la mejora de la docencia práctica de asignaturas relacionadas con el lenguaje escrito (PID 11-01) [Design of audiovisual materials to improve teaching of subjects related to written language
  • G Jiménez-Fernández
  • F Serrano
  • S Defior
Jiménez-Fernández, G.; Serrano, F. y Defior, S. (2014). Elaboración de material audiovisual para la mejora de la docencia práctica de asignaturas relacionadas con el lenguaje escrito (PID 11-01) [Design of audiovisual materials to improve teaching of subjects related to written language (PID 11-01)].
Teaching struggling readers who are native Spanish speakers: what do we know?
  • P G Mathes
  • S D Pollard-Durodola
  • E Cárdenas-Hagan
  • S Linan-Thompson
  • S Vaughn
Mathes, P. G., Pollard-Durodola, S. D., Cárdenas-Hagan, E., Linan-Thompson, S., y Vaughn, S. (2007). Teaching struggling readers who are native Spanish speakers: what do we know? Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38(3), 260-271. doi: 10.1044/0161-1461(2007/027)
Cuaderno de Matrices, Escala Coloreada. Series A, Ab y B
  • J C Raven
Raven, J.C. (1993). Test de Matrices Progresivas. Cuaderno de Matrices, Escala Coloreada. Series A, Ab y B. [Test of Progressive Matrices -Coloured Scale. Series A, Ab and B].
Overview and technical supplement
  • F A Schrank
  • K S Mcgrew
  • M L Ruef
  • C G Alvarado
  • A F Muñoz-Sandoval
  • R W Woodcock
Schrank, F. A., McGrew, K. S., Ruef, M. L., Alvarado, C. G., Muñoz-Sandoval, A. F., y Woodcock, R. W. (2005). Overview and technical supplement (Batería III Woodcock-Muñoz Assessment Service Bulletin No. 1). Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside Publishing.