Article

Re-Evaluating Internet Users' Information Privacy Concerns: The Case in Japan

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Abstract

To expand the understanding of privacy concerns in the digital sphere, this paper makes use of the Internet Users' Information Privacy Concerns (IUIPC) model by Malhotra et al. (2004). The lack of empirical studies conducted in East-Asian societies makes it difficult, if not impossible, to shed light on multi-cultural differences in information privacy concerns of internet users. Therefore, we collected data of more than 9,000 Japanese respondents to conduct a conceptual replication of the IUIPC model. For our research goal, we reassess the validity and reliability of the IUIPC model for Japan and compare the results with internet users' privacy concerns in the USA. Our results indicate that the second-order IUIPC construct, measured reflectively through the constructs awareness, collection, and control, is reliable and valid. Furthermore, three out of the five structural paths of the IUIPC model were confirmed for our Japanese sample. In contrast to the original study, the impact of IUIPC on trusting beliefs, as well as that of trusting beliefs on risk beliefs was negligible. Statistically significant differences in the IUIPC could only be found for the covariate gender.

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... The researchers also added perceived ubiquity as an extended factor to the IUIPC. Pape et al. [17] re-applied the IUIPC in Japan and compared the results with results from the USA [7]. The results suggested that the IUIPC was still valid and reliable. ...
... For example, if they need to provide more personal information than the doctor needs or information that seems unrelated to the disease, they will have raised their concern. These results are consistent with Malhotra et al. [7], Sipior et al. [16], and Pape et al. [17]. Furthermore, the awareness of how the healthcare organization processes their personal health information also affects the privacy concerns. ...
... Surprisingly, the degree to which participants believe in protecting personal health information from the healthcare provider positively affects the behavioral intention to share health information. In accordance with the present results, previous studies have demonstrated that trusting beliefs were found to be a predictor of the user's intention to provide information [7,16,17], a finding that supported our results. ...
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One of the most important industries that transforms into digital infrastructure is healthcare. Most healthcare organizations worldwide collect and process personal health information digitally. Personal health information is considered highly sensitive information. Hence, the increased collection of health information has raised concerns throughout society regarding potential privacy issues. Therefore, previous research paid attention to the study of privacy of health information in several contexts. In Thailand, Thai people are becoming more aware of privacy concerns than ever before. The reason is that the personal data protection act will become effective in May 2021. Hence, this study aims to understand the privacy concerns and behavioral intention to reveal Thais' personal health information. In this paper, we applied the Internet Users' Information Privacy Concerns model to the health information context. We collected data using an online questionnaire. The population consisted of Thai people who shared personal health information with the healthcare industry. The participants in this research were selected by the accidental sampling method. There were 84 participants in Thailand who were employed in the hypotheses testing using the linear regression equations. This study shows that personal health information collection and awareness directly influence personal health information privacy concerns. Furthermore, trusting belief is a factor that affects people's behavioral intention to share health information. The findings should help the healthcare industry to better understand the patients, so that they will offer their information willingly.
... That changed with a series of papers investigating reasons for the (non-)adoption of Tor [20] and JonDonym [17]. Based on the construct of internet users' information privacy concerns [42,43] Harborth and Pape found that trust beliefs in the anonymization service played a huge role for the adoption [18,19]. Further work [21] indicates that the providers' reputation, aka trust in the provider, played also a major role in the users' willingness to pay for or donate to these services. ...
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... For that purpose we used the IUIPC construct [125,159,160]. The IUIPC construct has been used in various contexts, such as internet of things [136], internet transactions [95] and mobile apps [174], but so far it had not been applied to a PET such as an anonymization service. ...
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There are several factors restricting the development of online-shopping in China, the imperfect privacy protection law and consumers' distrust are the main barriers. By using a sample of 759 Chinese students, our study examined the IUIPC instrument and analyzed the relationship between Internet users' information privacy concerns and their intention to transact online. Consistent with prior findings, the results suggest that IUIPC as a second-order factor structure instrument shows acceptable reliability and validity. The results also indicate that Internet users' trust in online companies' information practices fully moderate the relationship between their information privacy concerns and intentions to transact online. Our findings implicate that the key ways to improve the Chinese B-C commerce development are to reduce the Internet users' information privacy concern and promote their trust in Internet-management through privacy notices.
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This study examines cultural factors which may facilitate or impede the sharing of informal information in the context of face-to-face meetings in Chinese compared to Anglo-American organizations. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected through personally conducted interviews with middle level managers in a sample of Taiwanese and Australian manufacturing firms. The results suggest the importance of individual differences, individual assertiveness, and corporate culture in influencing informal information sharing in Australia; and the trade-off between collective interests, respect for hierarchical status and concern with face in Taiwan.
Article
Understanding information sharing is an important challenge to modern organizations, and is likely to be increasingly considered when IT investment decisions are made world-wide. Our research study investigated the influence of cultural factors on information sharing in China. It was postulated that social network structures such as guanxi, Confucian dynamism, and collectivism could explain the degree to which information sharing took place between people in China. It was found that guanxi, Confucian dynamism, and collectivism all had a significant influence on information sharing.
Conference Paper
We present a study that investigates American, Chinese, and Indian social networking site (SNS) users’ privacy attitudes and practices. We conducted an online survey of users of three popular SNSs in these countries. Based on 924 valid responses from the three countries, we found that generally American respondents were the most privacy concerned, followed by the Chinese and Indians. However, the US sample exhibited the lowest level of desire to restrict the visibility of their SNS information to certain people (e.g., co-workers). The Chinese respondents showed significantly higher concerns about identity issues on SNS such as fake names and impersonation.
Article
Information privacy has been called one of the most important ethical issues of the informa-tion age. Public opinion polls show rising levels of concern about privacy among Americans. Against this backdrop, research into issues associated with information privacy is increasing. Based on a number of preliminary studies, it has become apparent that organizational practices, individuals' perceptions of these practices, and societal responses are inextricably linked in many ways. Theories regarding these relationships are slowly emerging. Unfortunately, researchers attempting to examine such relationships through confirmatory empirical approaches may be impeded by the lack of validated instruments for measuring individuals' concerns about organizational information privacy practices. To enable future studies in the information privacy research stream, we developed and validated an instrument that identifies and measures the primary dimensions of individuals' concerns about organizational information privacy practices. The development process included examinations of privacy literature; experience surveys and focus groups; and the use of expert judges. The result was a parsimonious 15-item instrument with four sub-scales tapping into dimensions of individuals' concerns about organizational information privacy practices. The instrument was rigorously tested and validated across several heterogenous populations, providing a high degree of confidence in the scales' validity, reliability, and generalizability.
Article
Information privacy refers to the desire of individuals to control or have some influence over data about themselves. Advances in information technology have raised concerns about information privacy and its impacts, and have motivated Information Systems researchers to explore information privacy issues, including technical solutions to address these concerns. In this paper, we inform researchers about the current state of information privacy research in IS through a critical analysis of the IS literature that considers information privacy as a key construct. The review of the literature reveals that information privacy is a multilevel concept, but rarely studied as such. We also find that information privacy research has been heavily reliant on studentbased and USA-centric samples, which results in findings of limited generalizability. Information privacy research focuses on explaining and predicting theoretical contributions, with few studies in journal articles focusing on design and action contributions. We recommend that future research should consider different levels of analysis as well as multilevel effects of information privacy. We illustrate this with a multilevel framework for information privacy concerns. We call for research on information privacy to use a broader diversity of sampling populations, and for more design and action information privacy research to be published in journal articles that can result in IT artifacts for protection or control of information privacy.
Article
Existing constructs for privacy concerns and behaviors do not adequately model deviations between user attitudes and behaviors. Although a number of studies have examined supposed deviations from rationality by online users, true explanations for these behaviors may lie in factors not previously addressed in privacy concern constructs. In particular, privacy attitudes and behavioral changes over time have not been examined within the context of an empirical study. This paper presents the results of an Agile, sprint-based longitudinal study of Social Media users conducted over a two year period between April of 2009 and March of 2011. This study combined concepts drawn from Privacy Regulation Theory with the constructs of the Internet Users' Information and Privacy Concern model to create a series of online surveys that examined changes of Social Media privacy attitudes and self-reported behaviors over time. The main findings of this study are that, over a two year period between 2009 and 2011, respondents' privacy concerns and distrust of Social Media Sites increased significantly, while their disclosure of personal information and willingness to connect with new online friends decreased significantly. Further qualitative interviews of selected respondents identified these changes as emblematic of users developing ad-hoc risk mitigation strategies to address privacy threats.
Article
A major inhibitor to e-commerce stems from the reluctance consumers have to complete transactions because of concern over the use of private information divulged in online transaction processing. Because e-commerce occurs in a global environment, cultural factors are likely to have a significant impact on this concern. Building on work done in the area of culture and privacy, and also trust and privacy, we explore the three way relationship between culture, privacy and trust. Better, more appropriate, and contemporary measures of culture have recently been espoused, and a better understanding and articulation of internet users information privacy concern has been developed. We present the results of an exploratory study that builds on the work of Milberg, Gefen, and Bellman to better understand and test the effect that national culture has on trust and internet privacy.
Article
This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize over investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The findings largely support the crossvergence prospective, while also confirming the role of national culture. Implications from the findings are drawn for the convergence-divergence-crossvergence of values, as well as for the feasibility of multidomestic or global strategies for a corporate culture.© 1997 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1997) 28, 177–207
Article
This study develops a culture-contingent model of trust formation in emergent relationships by comparing how trust-warranting signs shape attributions of trustworthiness to unfamiliar trustees in collectivist versus individualist cultures. We predict and find that the effectiveness of dispositional and contextual signs varies systematically depending on trustors’ national culture. Collectivists tend to rely less on dispositional signs and more on situational signs than individualists. This difference fosters distinct trust-building pathways. Individualists bestow trust based on a trustee’s perceived ability and integrity, collectivists’ trusting choices depend to a greater extent on predictable, benevolent interactions with a potential partner. These findings suggest that, in cross-cultural encounters, signs aligned with trustors’ cultural expectations hasten trust production. Mismatched signs are impotent, even off-putting.
Cyber crime: Number of breaches and records exposed
  • J Clement
Clement, J. (2019). Cyber crime: Number of breaches and records exposed 2005-2018. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/273550/data-breaches-recorded-in-the-united-states-by-number-ofbreaches-and-records-exposed/.
JonDonym Users' Information Privacy Concerns
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Harborth, D. & Pape, S. (2018). JonDonym Users' Information Privacy Concerns. Paper presented at the 33rd IFIP International Conference on ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection, Poznan, Poland.
Nonresponse in the requirement of an Internet panel based on probability sampling
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Hoogendorn, A.W., & Daalmans, J. (2009). Nonresponse in the requirement of an Internet panel based on probability sampling. Survey Research Methods, 3(2), 59-72.
Adult education level (indicator)
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OECD. (2016). Adult education level (indicator). Retrieved from https://data.oecd.org/eduatt/adulteducation-level.htm.
Distribution of internet users in Japan as of
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Ofcom. (2015). Distribution of internet users in Japan as of August 2015, by age group and gender. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/276045/age-distribution-of-internet-users-in-japan/.